Group Title: Quincy AREC research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; 83-4
Title: Management of insects attacking peanuts in 1983
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074374/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of insects attacking peanuts in 1983
Series Title: Quincy AREC research report
Physical Description: 7, 12 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and D.W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074374
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85775342

Full Text




" AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
P Quincy, Florida

'i r AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Marianna, Florida

Quincy AREC Research Report NF 83-4

Management of Insects Attacking Peanuts in 1983

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
D. W. Gorbet, Associate Agronomist, Marianna


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Five baits, 2 mycotoxin (MK-936), and 8 chemical foliar spray treatments
were field tested on Florunner peanuts for insect control, phytotoxicity, and
effect on crop performance. In a second experiment, certain breeding lines
and varieties were studied to determine if any tolerance to insect attack could
be detected. In a third experiment, 3 F3 crosses and the 2 parent lines were
compared to determine if insect tolerance from one of the parents had been
transferred to the F3 crosses, and to increase the seed source from the F3
crosses. A fourth experiment was conducted to study the effects of broadcast
parathion granular treatments with and without irrigation and irrigation versus
no irrigation on infestations of the lesser cornstalk borer on Florunner peanuts.

The Orthene bait treatments were broadcast over the foliage on the dates
of spray treatments. All sprays were applied with a boom-type CO2-pressurized
hand sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 nozzles per row. The sprayer was
calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray per acre at 26 p.s.i. at
normal walking speed. The parathion granular treatments i r cornstalk
borer experiment were broadcast over the foli g i rgpi t %(ig af er planting
and continuing on a bi-weekly schedule there tdrl. iga!trn was ap lied 7
times at 1 inch of water per acre in the lesser cornstalk borer experi ent, when
soil moisture reached 60 c.b. of tension, JL. .6 iQ03

The dates treatment applications were ma r il Mi jn fMidjg in Tables
1 through 4. The baits and foliar sprays wer e tall ''"' ieded for
thrips and Lepidoptera larvae control. Parathion granules and irrigation water
were applied in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on dates listed in footnotes
in Tables 11 and 12. One spray application of Lannate, 0.45 lb. Allacre, was
applied on September 19 for velvetbean caterpillar control in the lesser cornstalk
borer experiment.

Treatments listed in Table 1 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized
blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were 30 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 2 center rows constituted the experimental plot, and the 1 row on
either side acted as buffers between plots. Alleys between blocks of plots were
10 feet wide. Treatments listed in Tables 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 were
replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot in Tables 3, 6, 7, 8,
9, and 10 was 2 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot centers.
The 2 rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers between plots
within blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Each plot in
Tables 11 and 12 was 5 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 3 center rows constituted the experimental plot, with the right-





-2-


hand 2 rows serving for foliage insect counts and yield determinations, and the
left-hand 1 row serving for lesser cornstalk borer counts during the growing
season. The 1 row on either side of the 3 center rows acted as buffers between
plots. All alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. The experimental
areas were located in the northwest portion of the farm adjacent to the south
boundary of David Teem's herbicide experiment at the Agricultural Research
Center in Marianna, Florida.

All cultural practices in preparing the experimental areas for planting were
performed in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer
(450 poundslacre of 3-9-18 plus minor elements) applied on March 23. Herbicides;
Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 2.33 pints/acre were applied on all experimental areas
on April 21, and Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 6 quarts/acre were applied on the
bait and spray experimental areas on May 9. The insect tolerance, parental lines
and F3 crosses, and lesser cornstalk borer experimental areas were treated with
Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 6 quarts/acre on May 31. Foliar disease control
sprays were applied to all experimental areas as follows: Bravo, 2.125 pints +
Sulphur, 1 quart on June 23, Bravo, 2.125 pints on July 6, 20, August 4, and
16; Bravo, 2.5 pints + Sulphur, 1 quart + Comite, 1 quart on August 30; and
Bravo, 2.5 pints/acre on September 14 and 29; with the last spray being applied
only on the insect tolerance, parental lines and F3 crosses, and lesser cornstalk
borer experimental areas. The bait and spray experiments were planted on April
29, harvested on September 16, and picked on September 22. The insect toler-
ance, parental lines and F3 crosses, and lesser cornstalk borer experiments were
planted on May 26, harvested on October 17, and picked on October 21.

Tobacco thrips counts in the bait and spray, insect tolerance, and parental
lines and F3 crosses experiments were made from natural infestations by counting
the number of adult and immature thrips collected in 25 cc. bottles from 10 ter-
minal foliage buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning in the bait and spray
experiment on May 16 and ending on June 20, and beginning in the insect toler-
ance experiment on June 9 and ending on June 30. In the parental lines and F3
crosses experiment, the thrips counts were made from 5 terminal foliage buds per
plot taken weekly beginning on June 9 and ending on June 30. Counts were made
in the laboratory after the thrips had been washed from the buds with alcohol
and collected on 9 cm. filter paper in a Btichner funnel under vacuum. A binoc-
ular microscope with 15X magnification was used to make the counts. Ratings of
foliage damaged by thrips were made on the same dates that thrips were counted.
The rating system used was based on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being no damage
and 10 being 100 percent of the foliage showing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, velvet-
bean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding Lepidoptera
larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the number of live larvae
in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals. Owing to the drought conditions
that prevailed during July and August, Lepidoptera larval populations in the bait
and spray experiment never reached the economic threshold level of 4 to 5 larvae
per foot of row. Therefore, no data relative to control efficacy of the chemical
treatments were recorded. Larval counts were made weekly beginning on September
13 and ending on October 4 in the insect tolerance experiment, and September 5
to October 3 in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment. In the parental lines
and F3 crosses experiment, larvae on 6 plants per plot were counted weekly be-
ginning on September 13 and ending on October 4. Foliage-feeding-larval damage
ratings were made in the insect tolerance experiment on September 27 ,and October
4, in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on September 19 and October 3, and
in the parental lines and F3 crosses experiment on September 27 and October 4.





- 3-


The rating system was the same as that for thrips damage.

Lesser cornstalk borer larval web counts were made by counting the number
of visible webs clinging to the plants or pods per foot of row at various times in
the insect tolerance experiment beginning on August 23 and ending on October 4,
and August 29 to October 3 in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment. In the
parental lines and F3 crosses experiment, webs on 6 plants per plot were counted
at various times beginning on August 23 and ending on October 4. The web
counts were excluded from the Lepidoptera foliage feeding larvae counts. At har-
vest, the percent of infested lesser cornstalk borer plants was determined on
September 16 in the bait and spray experiment and on October 17 in the insect
tolerance, parental lines and F3 crosses, and lesser cornstalk borer experiments.
Ten plants per plot were examined and damage to pegs, pods, or stems was noted
as a damaged plant, and the percent infested plants was calculated by the number
of damaged plants multiplied by 10.

A leafhopper foliage damage rating similar to the thrips damage rating was
made in all experiments except the bait and spray experiment on August 16.
Plants in the bait and spray were severely wilted, and no rating could be made.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried peanuts
picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the parental lines and
F3 crosses experiment. In the lesser cornstalk borer experiment, a nine-square-
foot area of each plot was sampled for pods remaining in the soil immediately after
picking, which was included in yield figures for the experiment. No crop value
was calculated for the 4 experiments. p

Visual phytotoxicity ratings in the bait and spray experiment were begun on
May 16 and continued at weekly intervals until August 29. Plots were rated ac-
cording to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were based on the
following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting
2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting
3 = Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis

An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the bait and
spray phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all
means analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the duration of the experiments from
April 29 to October 21 were as follows:

May June July August September October
4 0.27 1 0.13 1 0.06 1 0.02 1 1.16 4 0.14
8 0.03 5 0.75 4 0.01 2 0.80 2 0.04 11 0.05
11 0.16 7 0.46 5 0.01 3 0.96 3 4.93 12 0.20
12 0.06 8 0.89 6 0.22 6 0.06 4 0.17 13 2.50
16 1.02 13 0.03 21 0.04 8 0.08 5 0.07 14 0.02


Rainfall data continued:





- 4-


May June July August September October
17 0.28 20 0.55 22 0.36 9 0.03 6 0.16 18 0.43
23 0.05 21 0.21 27 0.49 10 0.03 13 1.44 Total 3.34
24 0.40 22 0.49 Total 1.19 12 0.04 14 0.03
Total 2.27 24 0.19 22 0.14 19 0.01
25 T 27 0.12 20 0.16
27 T 29 0.23 21 0.80
28 0.06 31 0.02 Total 8.97
29 1.21 Total 2.53
30 0.69
Total 5.66

T = Trace
Grand Total = 23.96 inches

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tobacco thrips populations in early season were slightly larger than they
were in 1982, but population and damage curves followed the same pattern as
has been observed during the past 8 years. Foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae
began infesting the plants at approximately the same time as in 1982, but popu-
lations never reached economic threshold levels (4 to 5 larvae per foot of row)
in the bait and spray experiment at any time during the crop season owing to
a wet cool April, and a dry May, July; and August. The economic threshold
level was reached in the insect tolerance and parental lines and F3 crosses ex-
periments on September 13, and in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on
September 12. The primary foliage feeding Lepidoptera species were corn ear-
worm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, and velvetbean caterpillar.
Velvetbean caterpillar infestations began appearing about a month later than in
1982, and were more numerous than any other Lepidoptera species. Potato leaf-
hopper became a problem during August, and was attracted to turgid plants,
particularly those in the insect tolerance, parental lines and F3 crosses, and
lesser cornstalk borer experiments. The leafhopper was almost nonexistent in the
bait and spray experiment due to the wilted condition of the plants. Lesser corn-
stalk borer populations in all experiments at harvest were larger than in 1982
owing to the extremely dry conditions during July and August. The rainfall
in the 1982 experimental period was 11.49 inches above that for 1981, but in 1983
rainfall was 4.98 inches below that in 1982, and 7.48 inches above that in 1981.
Although there was more rainfall in 1983 than in 1981, the extended dry spell,
particularly in July, caused yields to be smaller than in 1981 and 1982. The dry
spell in 1983 lasted for two consecutive months, July and August, whereas in 1981
it occurred primarily in mid-July and mid-August with adequate rainfall occurring
between the dry spells.

The thrips count on May 23 in the bait and spray experiment indicated that
all treatments except Lannate spray at 0.58, MK-936 sprays at 0.009 and 0.018,
and Orthene baits (CC-12327 and CC-13063) at 0.5 and 1.0 pound Allacre gave
significant control. A heavy rainfall, 1.02 inches, on May 15 did not cause an
appreciable reduction in population on the untreated check on May 16. On May 30,
the thrips foliage damage indices showed that all treatments except Lannate spray
at 0.58, Orthene baits (CC-12327 and CC-13063) at 0.5 and 1.0, MK-936 sprays
at 0.009 and 0.018, and Pounce spray at 0.15 pound Al/acre significantly re-
duced foliage injury. FCR-1272 spray at 0.038, FMC-54800 sprays at 0.038 and
0.057, Orthene spray at 0.91, and Orthene bait (CC-12331) at 1.0 pound Al/acre
provided the best protection from foliage injury on May 30. The best protection
from foliage injury for the entire experimental period was provided by FMC-54800




- 5-


spray at 0.057 and Orthene bait (CC-12331) at 1.0 pound Al/acre. All the syn-
thetic pyrethroids; Ammo, FCR-1272, and Pounce, with the exception of FMC-
54800, showed a definite weakness for thrips control. (See Table 2.) Yield re-
sponse to the treatments indicated for the 8th year in succession that thrips had
no economic influence on the crop. (See Table 3.)

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer and the effect on yield are presented
in Table 3. The lesser cornstalk infestation was not as large as anticipated, but
was larger than in 1982. Examination of the pods and vines immediately after
digging on September 16 indicated that all treatments except MK-936 sprays at
0.009 and 0.018 pound Al/acre provided significant control. None of the treat-
ments had any significant effect on yield. The yield data definitely indicated
that the plants responded adversely to the drought conditions during July and
August, more so than any other factor.

No foliage phytotoxicity was observed on any of the treated plants. (See
Table 4.) The yield data also indicated no below ground phytotoxicity. (See
Table 3.)

Thrips populations in the insect tolerance experiment peaked on June 16,
with several lines showing significant tolerance to thrips attack. The thrips
foliage damage indices did not necessarily coincide with the thrips counts, but
there were several lines that had significantly less damage than either Florunner
or Valencia on June 16. By June 30, there was no significant difference between
any of the lines with respect to foliage damage indices. The data indicated that
small numbers of thrips do not lead to less damage and vice versa as might be
expected. The phenomenon may be related to a physiological factor in the plant
that may trigger feeding, or the lack of the factor may repell feeding. (See
Table 5.) The effects of thrips on yield of the various lines was obscured by
varietal differences, and it is doubtful that the differences in yield among lines
was attributable to thrips damage. The proceeding deduction was drawn from
the fact that 73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B had a large thrips foliage damage index, but
produced the second largest yield of all the experimental lines. (See Tables 5
and 7.) Several lines were significantly better than Valencia for tolerance to
foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae on September 20, but when foliage damage in-
dices were taken on September 27 and October 4, none of the lines were statis-
tically different from Valencia or each other. Lines; such as, 72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-
b3-B, which had shown tolerance to Lepidoptera larval feeding in past experi-
ments, lost that tolerance in the 1983 experiment. Usually the most numerous
Lepidoptera species has been the velvetbean caterpillar in the insect tolerance
experiment over the past four years. A peak infestation occurred generally
during one week from mid-August to mid-September. In 1983, the peak infest-
ation occurred on September 20, but large numbers of larvae infested the plants
until October 4, which may explain why tolerance to the insect was lost. Appar-
ently, population pressure does affect the expression of insect tolerance in plants
in some instances. (See Table 6.) Yield varied with the particular lines, and no
conclusion could be drawn with respect to the effects of foliage feeding Lepidoptera
larvae on yield. (See Table 7.) Potato leafhopper foliage damage indices indicated
NC-10247 and NC-15745 were significantly more tolerant than either Florunner or
Valencia, but yield variations were probably related to genetic factors of the var-
ious lines. (See Table 7.) Counting the number of lesser cornstalk bbrer webs
per foot of row was a good indicator of the presence of the insect under drought
conditions, but when rains came, as during the week proceeding the count on
September 6, the webs were destroyed and activity could not be effectively moni-
tored. The count of damage on vines and pods at digging on October 17 indicated




- 6-


several lines were significantly more tolerant than Valencia. The effect of the
lesser cornstalk borer on yield was a nonsignificant (P = 0.05) negative cor-
relation (-0.172) between yield and percent lesser cornstalk borer infested plants.
(See Table 7.)

On June 16, in the parental lines and F3 crosses experiment, one of the
parental lines (519) had significantly more thrips per terminal bud than the other
lines, and significantly more foliage damage on June 23. By June 30, only 72 X
41A (a parental line) and 80 X 6B (an F3 cross) showed significantly less foliage
damage than the other lines. (See Table 8.) The thrips population in 1982, at
its peak, was about 10 times less than in 1983, and 519 had significantly fewer
thrips per bud in 1982 than the other lines. Apparently, under the larger popu-
lation pressure of 1983, 519 was not as tolerant as the other lines. In screening
for insect tolerance under natural conditions, it appears that population pressure
can confound the results compared on a year-to-year basis. Apparently, insect
tolerance results averaged over a period of years would be more credible than re-
sults taken for individual years. None of the lines showed any significant differ-
ences in tolerance to foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae nor to foliage damage from
the larvae. (See Table 9.) Here again, population pressure was large and con-
tinuous over a period of weeks as observed in the insect tolerance experiment.
There seems to be no doubt that large populations can overwhelm any insect tol-
erance property that a particular breeding line or variety possesses. Parental
line 519 had significantly less foliage damage from the potato leafhopper than any
of the other lines on August 16. (See Table 10.) Counts of the number of lesser
cornstalk borer webs per six plants showed no significant differences between par-
ental lines and F3 crosses, and the presence of webs also was affected by rainfall
as was the case in the insect tolerance experiment. However, counts of the dam-
age to vines and pods at digging on October 17 indicated that 80 X 6B was sig-
nificantly more tolerant than any of the other lines. The infestation on October
17 was about three times as large as in 1982, and tolerance indications were some-
what different. In 1982, 80 X 6A-BK2 was significantly more tolerant than 80 X
6B, but under large population pressure the tolerance was reversed in 1983. Again
the size of. the population appeared to influence the expression of tolerance in the
plants. (See Table 10.)

On September 19, when foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae numbers exceeded
15 per foot of row in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment, there was a signifi-
cant reduction in number where parathion granules had been applied regardless of
the irrigation treatment. The significance of the parathion granule treatments was
evident in the larval foliage damage indices taken on September 19 and October 3.
Even though drought conditions prevailed during July and August, irrigation had
no significant effect on the efficacy of the parathion treatments. Nonsignificant
(P = 0.05) negative correlations (-0.326 and -0.463) between number of larvae,
foliage damage indices, and yield indicated that the foliage feeding Lepidoptera had
no effect on yield. (See Table 11.) Potato leafhopper foliage damage indices on
August 16 indicated a significant relationship between irrigation and leafhopper
damage. Where parathion was applied in the absence of irrigation, the leafhopper
control was significantly more effective than where parathion treatment accompanied
irrigation. In the presence of irrigation alone, the leafhopper was attracted to the
plants, and significant foliage damage resulted. There was a nonsignificant (P =
0.05) positive correlation (+0.451) between leafhopper damage and yield. (See
Table 11.) The parathion and irrigation treatments significantly controlled the
number of lesser cornstalk borer webs per foot of row. Rainfall again in late
August and mid-September destroyed the webs making borer monitoring difficult.
(See Table 12.) The lesser cornstalk borer infestation at digging on October 17





-7-


was about twice as large as in 1982, and a significant reduction in percent of
plants infested occurred in plots irrigated, irrigated plus parathion, and not
irrigated plus parathion. Even with the large lesser cornstalk borer infestation
during the experimental period, control of the borer with parathion did not pro-
duce a significant increase in yield. Irrigation appeared to be the limiting factor
on yield, and produced a significant negative response in the insect. A nonsig-
nificant (P = 0.05) negative correlation (-0.583) between percent lesser cornstalk
borer infested plants and yield indicated that the borer had no effect on yield.
(See Table 12.)








AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1. Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Florunner Peanuts. ARC,
Marianna 1983.

Lbs. or Gals. Lbs. Al
abNo per Acre per per Acre per
Treatment Applications Application Application
Orthene, 2.5% B(CC-12327) 2 20.0 0.5
Orthene, 2.5% B(CC-12327) 2 40.0 1.0
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 2 10.0 0.5
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 2 20.0 1.0
Orthene, 2.5% B(CC-13063) 2 40.0 1.0
Orthene, 0.45% S(75% SP) 2 24.1 0.91
Lannate, 0.29% S(1.8 Ibs./gal. L) 2 23.7 0.58
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 22.8 0.017
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.1 0.038
MK-936, 0.005% S(0.15 lb./gal. EC) 2 24.1 0.009
MK-936, 0.01% S(0.15 lb./gal. EC) 2 23.3 0.018
FMC-54800, 0.02% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.0 0.038
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.0 0.057
Pounce, 0.075% S(3.2 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 26.1 0.15
Ammo, 0.032% S(2.5 Ibs./gal. EC) 2 25.7 0.059
Check (Untreated) ----


B = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, L = Liquid Concentrate, S = Spray, and
Crop was planted on 4/29, harvested on 9/16, and picked on 9/22/83.
CBaits and sprays applied on 5/17 and 6/22/83.


SP = Soluble Powder.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2. Effects of Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Thrips Control and Damage on Florunner Peanuts.
ARC, Marianna 1983.

Treatment and c,d
Lbs. Al per Acre Mean Number Thrips per Budbd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage' ndices
per Applicationa 5/16e 5/23 5/30 6/6 6/13 6/20 5/16e 5/23 5/30 6/6 6/13 6/20
Orthene, 2.5% B, 0.5(CC-12327)3.1a 28.8def 7.5bcd 2.7ab 7.0bcde 2.6a 0.0 7.3e 9.0de 7.0efg 6.7cde 6.0bcde
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-12327) 2.7a 22.2cde 4.1abc 2.1a 5.0abc 3.0a 0.0 6.0de 8.0d 6.7def 5.7bcd 5.0ab
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331) 3.0a 20.2cd 3.6ab 3.7ab 5.9abcde 3.5a 0.0 5.3cd 6.7c 6.0cde 5.7bcd 6.0bcde
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331) 3.0a 16.7bc 2.9a 2.5ab 5.8abcde 3.0a 0.0 3.7ab 4.7b 3.3a 3.3a 3.7a
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-13063) 4.5a 28.9def 10.9defg 2.0a 5.4abcd 2.4a 0.0 8,7f 9.3de 8.0fghi 6.7cde 4.7ab
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.91 3.5a 7.4ab 4.5abc 5.2bc 8.5de 2.0a 0.0 2.3a 4.3ab 4.7abc 4.7b 5.3bc
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.58 3.9a 30.9ef 12.2efg 2.9ab 7.6cde 2.6a 0.0 5.0bcd 8.7de 8.0fghi 7.7e 7.0def
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.017 4.4a 10.1ab 14.7g 7.3cd 9.0e 3.7a 0.0 4.3bc 6.7c 7.3efgh 7.7e 7.7f
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.038 4.2a 6.2a 8.8de 8.1d 6.8bcde 3.4a 0.0 3.7ab 4.0abc 5.0bc 7.0de 7.0def
MK-936, 0.005% S, 0.009 3.1a 40.6g 13.4fg 2.9ab 4. lab 1.9a 0.0 7.3e 9.3de 8.7hi 7.7e 5.7bcd
MK-936, 0.01% S, 0.018 4.7a 29.6def 10.8defg 3.6ab 7.3bcde 2.2a 0.0 6.3de 9.0de 8.3ghi 7.7e 6.7cdef
FMC-54800, 0.02% S, 0.038 3.5a 7.2ab 8.0cd 8.6de 7.7cde 2.9a 0.0 4.3bc 4.7b 5.3bcd 7.7e 7.0def
FMC-54800, 0.03% S, 0.057 3.5a 4.0a 7,9cd 6.9cd 6.5bcde 3.3a 0.0 2.7a 3.0a 4.0ab 5.3bc 5.7bcd
Pounce, 0.075% S, 0.15 3.7a 23.5ode 20.0h 7.5cd 5.8abcde 3.1a 0.0 7.3e 8.7de 8.7hi 8.0e 8.0f
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.059 3.3a 8.lab 10.2def 11.0e 8.6de 3.6a 0.0 4.3bc 6.7c 7.3efgh 8.0e 7.3ef
Check (Untreated) 4.5a 35.1fg 21.5h 1.7a 3.1a 2.1a 0.0 8.7f 10.Oe 9.0i 8.0e 6.0bcde

% Adults 38 2 8 7 4 4
% Immatures 62 98 92 93 96 96


aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop was
applied on 5/17 and 6/22/83.


planted on 4/29, harvested on 9/16, and picked on 9/22/83. Baits and sprays


bTen terminal buds per plot were examined.
CRating System: 0, = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
dMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
pretreatment count or rating.





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marlanna, Florida


Table 3. Effects of Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Control of Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Yield
of Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1983.

Treatment and Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Lbs. Al per Acre % Infested Plants0 Yield/Acre
per Applicationa 9/16 Ibs.
Orthene, 2.5% B, 0.5(CC-12327) 27abc 2,404a
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-12327) 27abc 2,743a
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331) 37bc 2,638a
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331) 30abc 2,299a
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-13063) 20ab 2,920a
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.91 23ab 1,843a
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.58 30abc 2,428a
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.017 33bc 2,525a
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.038 27abc 2,436a
MK-936, 0.005% S, 0.009 57d 2,735a
MK-936, 0.01% S, 0.018 43cd 2,404a
FMC-54800, 0.02% S, 0.038 23ab 1,782a
FMC-54800, 0.03% S, 0.057 13a 2, 146a
Pounce, 0.075% S, 0.15 20ab 2,864a
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.059 30abc 2,194a
Check (Untreated) 60d 2,420a


Baits and


aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop was planted on 4/29, harvested on 9/16, and picked on 9/22/83.
sprays applied on 5/17 and 6/22/83.
bMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.








AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4. Phytotoxlc Effect of Bait and Chemical Follar Spray Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1983.

Treatment and bMen Py I eb
Lbs. Al per Acre--Mean Phytotoxicity Indices
Lbs. AI per Acre
per Applicationa 5/16c 5/23 5/30 6/6 6/13 6/20 6/27 7/4 7/11 7/18 7/25 8/1 8/8 8/15 8/22 8/29
Orthene, 2.5% B, 0.5(CC-12327) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-12327) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 2.5% B, 1.0(CC-13063) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.29% S, 0.58 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.017 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.038 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
MK-936, 0.005% S, 0.009 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
MK-936, 0.01% S, 0.018 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FMC-54800, 0.02% S, 0.038 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FMC-54800, 0.03%, 0.057 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pounce, 0.075% S, 0.15 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.059 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop
applied on 5/17 and 6/22/83.


was planted on 4/29, harvested on 9/16, and picked on 9/22/83.


Rating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting,
spotting with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.
Cpretreatment rating.


Baits and sprays

3 = Heavy chlorosis or





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marlanna, Florida


Table 5. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to Thrips Attack and Damage. ARC,
Marianna 1983.

Breedling Lines Mean Numberb Mean Thrips Foliage
and Thrips per Bud b Damage Indicesac ,
Varieties 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 4.4a 15.9ab 6.2a 2.0ab 0.0 8.0ef 8.0de 7.3a
72 X 94-14-1-1-1-2-1-b4-B 6.0a 45.2d 17.1cd 2.2ab 0.0 7.0cd 7.7de 8.0a
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 4.0a 30.9bcd 11.8abcd 1.4a 0.0 8.3fg 9.3gh 7.7a
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 4.0a 33.7cd 9.Sab 1,3a 0.0 8.3fg 9.3gh 7.3a
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 4.1a 36.lcd 12.7bcd 2.lab 0.0 7.3de 8.3ef 7.7a
UF-80202 6,3a 27.4abc 15.Obcd 1.3a 0.0 6.7cd 8.Ode 7.7a
UF-81206 4.5a 35.2cd 14.2bcd 2,7ab 0.0 6.7cd 8.Ode 8.0a
UF-82201 3.2a 16.2ab 14.8bcd 1.4a 0.0 4.7b 6.3b 8.3a
UF-82204 3.5a 13.7a 18.2d 1.7ab 0.0 3.7a 5.0a 8.7a
NC-10247 3.7a 38.7cd 13.7bcd 1.2a 0.0 4.7b 6.7bc 7.3a
NC-15745 4.3a 34.5cd 9.4ab 1.5a 0.0 6.3C 7.3cd 7.7a
Valencia 6.3a 26.6abc 11.4abc 2. lab 0.0 9. Og 10.Oh 8.Oa
Check (Florunner) 4.7a 40.8cd 11.Oabc 1.4a 0.0 7.3de 9.0fg 8,0a

% Adults 83 1 2 13
% Immatures 17 99 98 87

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
bTen terminal buds per plot were examined. Crop was planted on 5/26, harvested on 10/17, and picked on
10/21/83.
CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines
Foliage Damage. ARC, Marianna 1983.


and Varieties to the Lepidoptera Complex and Larval


Breeding Lines
and
Varieties
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B
72 X 94-14-1-1-1-2-1-b4-B
73 X 18A-4-2--1-12-B
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B
UF-80202
UF-81206
UF-82201
UF-82204
NC-10247
NC-15745
Valencia
Check (Florunner)


Mean
9/13c
5,4a
8,1a
6, 6a
6.8a
9.3a
7.6a
7.7a
7. la
6. 0a
7.3a
6.8a
9.8a
5.9a


Number Larvae
9/20d
21.labc
35. 3e
18. la
28.1bcde
31.7de
21.8abc
29. 3cde
21. labc
23. 8abcd
17.8a
19.4ab
27.3bcde
15.la


per Foot
9/27e
26.1a
32.9a
18.4a
23.4a
32.8a
22.8a
28.9a
23. 1a
23.0a
22.4a
20.9a
21.8a
20.3a


of Rowa
10/4f
15.8abc
19.2bc
14.0ab
17.3abc
22.2c
16.7abc
22.6c
14, 8abc
14. lab
13.3ab
10.9a
15. labc
12.8ab


Mean Larval Foliage
Damage indicesa ,
9/279 10/49
7.3a 7.7a
7,3a 8.3a
7.3a 7.3a
8.0a 8.3a
7.0a 7.7a
7.3a 7.7a
7.7a 8.7a
7.3a 7.3a
6.3a 7.0a
5.3a 6.0a
6.7a 7.3a
6.7a 6.7a
6.7a 7.3a


aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/26,
harvested on 10/17, and picked on 10/21/83.
bRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Predominantly looper 58%, velvetbean caterpillar 17%, fall armyworm 14%, and corn earworm 11%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 89%, corn earworm 6%, and fall armyworm 4%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 93%, corn earworm 4%, and fall armyworm 2%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 91%, fall armyworm 4%, and corn earworm 3%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 7. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding
with Yields. ARC, Marianna 1983.


Lines and Varieties to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk Borer


Breeding Lines Leafhopper Foliage Mean Number Lesser Cornstalk Borer Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
and Damage Indicesa,b Webs per Foot of Rowa % Infested Plantsa Yield/Acrea
Varieties 8/16 8/23 8/30 9/6 10/4 10/17 Ibs.
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 8.0bcd 0.4ab 1. c 0.0 0.3a 47abc 1,017f
72 X 94-14-1-1-1-2-1-b4-B 7.7bc 0.2a 0.3ab 0.0 0.Oa 53abc 1,960d
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 7.3b 0.2a 0.4ab 0.0 0.Oa 33ab 2,759b
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 7.3b 0.9bc 0.2ab 0.0 0.3a 20a 1,137ef
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 9.0d 0.4ab 0.4ab 0.0 O.0a 53abc 2,154d
UF-80202 7,3b 0.6ab 0.3ab 0.0 0.2a 43abc 2,626b
UF-81206 8.3bcd 0.4ab 0.6ab 0.0 0.Oa 30a 2,698b
UF-82201 7.3b 0.la 0.Oa 0.0 0.la 37abc 2,505b
UF-82204 8.0bcd 0.6ab 0.lab 0.0 0.3a 70cd 2,456bc
NC-10247 3.3a 1.2c 0.6b 0.0 0.4a 53abc 1,960d
NC-15745 3.0a 0.9bc 0.4ab 0.0 0.6a 67bcd 2,202cd
Valencia 8.7cd 1.4c 1.2c 0.0 0.6a 93d 1,380e
Check (Florunner) 8.0bcd 1.2c 1.2c 0.0 0,3a 47abc 3,122a ,


aMeans followed by the same letter
10/17, and picked on 10/21/83.


are not significantly different at the 5% level,


Crop was planted on 5/26, harvested on


bRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
CRainfall of 6.55 inches occurred during the 7-day period proceeding this count.







AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 8. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F3 Crosses to Thrips Attack and Damage. ARC, Marianna 1983.

Parent Lines
and Mean Number Thrips per Budab Mean Thrips Foliage Damage ndicesa
F3 Crosses 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30 6/9 6/16 6/23 6/30
519 4.7a 47.1b 10.0a 2.4a 0.0 7.7a 9.0c 8.0c
72 X 41A 3.8a 23.9a 5.2a 2.5a 0.0 7.0a 8.0b 7.0a
80 X 6A-BK1 3.6a 28.6a 7.9a 2.5a 0.0 6.3a 7.3a 7.7bc
80 X 6A-BK2 2.8a 22.la 8.7a 3.9a 0.0 6.7a 7.7ab 8.0c
80 X 6B 4.3a 15.5a 8.3a 2.7a 0.0 6.7a 7.3a 7.3ab

Adults 64 1 2 28
Immatures 36 99 98 72


aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly
harvested on 10/17, and picked on 10/21/83,
Five terminal buds per plot were examined.


different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/26,


CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 9. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F3 Crosses to the Lepidoptera Complex and Larval Foliage
Damage. ARC, Marianna 1983.

Parent Lines Men me ea Mean Larval Foliage
Mean Number Larvae er Six Plants Damage Indices2.b
and Da e Indicesa,
F3 Crosses 9/13C 9/20d 9/27e 10/4f' 9279 10/4

519 13.3a 39.Oa 29.Oa 26.Oa 4.3a 5.3a
72 X 41A 12.7a 17.7a 14.3a 19.3a 2.3a 3.0a
80 X 6A-BK1 17.3a 26.3a 14.3a 11.Oa 2.7a 3.3a
80 X 6A-BK2 16.0a 30.Oa 18.7a 21.0a 3.3a 4.3a
80 X 6B 13.7a 32.3a 24.7a 21.0a 3.0a 3.7a

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/26,
harvested on 10117, and picked on 10/21/83.
bRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
CPredominantly looper 59%, corn earworm 32%, fall armyworm 6%, and velvetbean caterpillar 3%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 79%, corn. earworm 16%, and fall armyworm 3%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 71%, corn earworm 24%, and fall armyworm 4%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 70%, corn earworm 22%, and fall armyworm 5%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marlanna, Florida


Table 10. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and
Borer. ARC, Marianna 1983.


F3 Crosses to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk


Parent Lines Leafhopper Foliage Mean Number Lesser Cornstalk Borer Lesser Cornstal,k Borer
and Damage Indices Webs per Six Plantsa % Infested Plantsa
F3 Crosses 8/16 8/23 8/30 9/6c 10/4 10/17

519 4.3a 6.0a 6.0a 0.Oa 5.7a 97b
72 X 41A 7.3b 8.6a 5.3a O.Oa 2.7a 83b
80 X 6A-BK1 7.Ob 9.0a 7.0a 0.Oa 4.7a 87b
80 X 6A-BK2 8.0b 8.3a 8.3a 0.3a 3.0a 90b
80 X 6B 7.7b 7.0a 4.3a 0.3a 2.0a 60a

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/26,
harvested on 10/17, and picked on 10/21/83.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
CRainfall of 6.55 inches occurred during the 7-day period proceeding this count.





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11. Effects of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation and
No Irrigation on Control of the Lepidoptera Complex and Larval Foliage Damage on Peanuts. ARC,
Marianna 1983.

Treatment and Me N L c Mean Larval Foliagq
Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row c,
Lbs. Al per Acre Damage Indices .
per Applicationa 9/5e 9/12 9/199k 9/26 10/3 9/19' 10/31

Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 0.la 1.3a 2.7a O.Oa 0.Oa 1.0a 1.Oa
No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%, 2.0 0.la 2.8ab 4.0a 0.Oa 1.0b 1.3a 1.0a
Irrigation 0.6a 4.6b 11.8b 0.la 2.7c 2.7b 2.7b
No Irrigation 0.4a 5.2b 15.2c 0.2a 7.3d 5.0c 5.0c

aG = Granules. Parathion was applied on 6/3, 6/17, 7/1, 7/15, 7/29, 8/12, 8/26, 9/9, and 9/23/83. Crop
was planted on 5/26, harvested on 10/17, and picked on 10/21/83.
b
Irrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/13, 7/18, 7/25, 8/12, 8/18, 8/24, and 8/31/83.
CMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
ePredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 46%, fall armyworm 27%, and granulate cutworm 27%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 45%, fall armyworm 30%, corn earworm 17%, and looper 6%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 62%, fall armyworm 19%, corn earworm 10%, and looper 7%.

predominantly fall armyworm 33%, granulate cutworm 33%, and looper 33%.
predominantly corn earworm 43%, granulate cutworm 29%, fall armyworm 14%, and looper 14%.
'Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.
All plots were sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. Al per acre on 9/19/83 to control velvetbean caterpillar.






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 12. Effect of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation and No Irri-
gation on Control of the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk Borer with Yields of Peanuts. ARC,
Marianna 1983.

Treatment and Leafhopper Foliage Mean Number Lesser Cornstalk Borer Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Lbs. Al per Acre Damage lndicesC,d Webs per Foot of Rowc % Infested PlantsC Yield/Acrec
per Applicationa,b 8/16 8/22 8/29 9/5e 9/12 9/19f 10/3 10/17 Ibs.
Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 1.Ob 0.0a 0.Oa 0.0 0.Oa 0.0 0.Oa Oa 5,070a
No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 0.0a 0.Oa 0.Oa 0.0 0.Oa 0.0 0.1a 10b 3,324b
Irrigation 7.3c O.Oa 0.Oa 0.0 0.1a 0.0 0.3a 20c 4,649a
No Irrigation 1.3b 1.lb 0.4b 0.0 0.7b 0.0 1.8b 73d 3.361b

aG = Granules. Parathion applied on 6/3, 6/17, 7/1, 7/15, 7/29, 8/12, 8/26, 9/9, and 9/23/83. Crop was planted on 5/26,
harvested on 10/17, and picked on 10/21/83.
b
Irrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/13, 7/18, 7/25, 8/12, 8/18, 8/24, and 8/31/83.
CMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
dating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
eRainfall of 6.39 inches occurred during the 7-day period proceeding this count.
fAll plots were sprayed with Lannate at 0.45 lb. Al per acre on 9/19/83 to control velvetbean caterpillar.
9Rainfall of 1.48 inches occurred during the 7-day period proceeding this count.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs