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Group Title: Quincy AREC Research Report - University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 84-2
Title: Cole crop research, 1982
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074359/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cole crop research, 1982
Series Title: Quincy AREC research report
Physical Description: 15 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Olson, Stephen Michael
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Cole crops -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Broccoli -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Broccoli -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cauliflower -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.M. Olson.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074359
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84850114

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t *


Agricultural Research and Education Center
IFAS, University of Florida
Quincy, Florida 32351

Quincy AREC Research Report QUIN 84-2


Cole Crop Research 1982


S. M. Olson1



CONTENTS


Title


Page Number


Broccoli Variety Evaluation, Spring and Fall 1982


Broccoli
Age


and Cauliflower Influence of
and Size


Broccoli and Cauliflower Influence of Trans lant
Cell Size and Spacing on Yield JUL 1~ i6

Broccoli and Cauliflower Herbicide Trials AS .
Spring and Fall 1982 [IF-Univ.ofi d











1Assistant Professor Vegetable Crops, Quincy AREC, Route 3 Box
638 Quincy, FL 32351.






BROCCOLI VARIETY EVALUATION, SPRING AND FALL 1982


Broccoli is one of the few vegetable crops that is showing a
substantial increase in fresh market consumption. This increase
has been from 0.3 lb in 1967 to 1.4 lb per person in 1979.
Broccoli has one major drawback and that is special packing
needs. There is some potential for small farm production for
local sales. With the large number of new hybrid broccoli
varieties entering the market, these studies were undertaken to
evaluate and compare some of these varieties.


Materials and Methods

The trials were conducted on a Ruston loamy fine sand.
Dolomitic limestone was applied August of 1981 at 3000 lb/A for
spring planting and on January 19, 1982 at 4000 lb/A for fall
planting. Soil was treated with D-D soil fumigant at 22 gal/A on
January 22 for spring crop and on July 5 for fall crop.
Fertilizer rate for N-P 0 -K 0 was 100-100-100 lb/A preplant and
was sidedressed twice wt~ 40-0-40 lb/A. Plants were spaced 12
inches in row and rows were 3 feet apart. Seed were planted on
January 13 and transplanted to field on February 24 for spring
crop. For fall crop, seed were planted on July 29 and
transplanted to field on August 30.

Experimental design was a random complete block design with
4 replicates. Each replicate contained 25 plants.

When heads were ready they were cut with about 7 inches of
stem. They were then weighed and counted and any defects were
noted.


Results and Discussion

Spring

The results of the spring trial are shown in Table 1. The
highest yielding variety was 'Idol' with 425 crates/A, however,
this variety was not acceptable because of a non-typical head
texture. Varieties that produced acceptable yields and were of
good quality include 'Green Hornet', 'Southern Comet', 'Green
Duke','Premium Crop', 'Bravo' and 'Emperor'. Other varieties
produced acceptable yields but were labeled not acceptable
because of various defects such as leaves in head, head did not
mature evenly or stem cracking.

Fall

The results of the fall trial are shown in Table 2. The
highest yielding varieties were 'Emperor' and 'Green Valiant' and
both had good quality. 'Green Valiant' was later than 'Emperor'
by 16 days. Two other varieties, 'Premium Crop' and Bravo








Table 1. Broccoli variety trial results, Spring 1982.


Crate
Cwt/A /A


Vii- -LI 4


Wt.
Ib


Days to
1st
Harvest


Percent
Plants
Harvested


Number
of Stemz
H--rv---t--c './srtt*,ti rt


Idol
Green Hornet
Southern Comet
Green Duke
Orion
Excalibur
Prominence
Futura
Premium Crop
Late Corona
Morses 4636
Cape Queen
Bravo
Emperor
Corsair
Green Comet
Packer
54-396


Takii
Stokes
Takii
Northrup King
Asgrow
Moran
Takii
Asgrow
Takii
Takii
Ferry-Morse
Takii
Northrup King
Northrup King
Moran
Takii
Peto
Takii


97.7ax
73.8b
72.8bc
71.7bc
68.8bc
67.6bc
65.3bcd
63.4b-e
60.8b-e
58.3b-e
58.lb-e
55.0b-e
51.2b-e
50.3b-e
47.2b-e
46.3cde
38.9de
36.8e


425a
321b
316bc
312bc
299bc
294bc
284bcd
276b-e
265b-e
253b-e
252b-e
239b-e
222b-e
219b-e
205b-e
201cde
169de
160e


0.78b
0.53cd
0.54c
0.51cde
0.49c-f
0.47c-g
0.47c-g
0.44c-g
0.47c-g
0.92a
0.49c-f
0.42c-g
0.36fgh
0.43c-g
0.37e-h
0.33gh
0.38d-h
0.27h


z1 None, desirable; 5 severe, undesirable.
YA Not acceptable because of stem cracking, B Not acceptable because of leaves in head, C Head did
not mature uniformly, D Head large of fine texture, not typical broccoli texture, E Plant very
compact, not able to harvest enough stem for market.
Mean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test, 5% level.


Variety


Seed
Source


1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.5
1.0
4.0
2.5
1.0
4.0
2.5
3.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.8
2.5
1.0


Harvested Harvests rr-kin41.0


B
B,C
A,C
B,C


A,B
B,C
A,B,I


B,C


^/'tmmAM4-<-








Table 2. Broccoli variety trial results, Fall 1982.


Yield
Crates
Cwt/A /A


Head
Wt.
lb.


Days to Percent
1st plants
harvest harvested


Number
of
harvests


----~-
Stemz
cracking CommentsY


Emperor
Green
Valiant
Excalibur
Experimental
Hybrid 45
Gem
Experimental


Hybrid
Citation
Futura
Orion
Premium
Bravo
Apollo
Green Du
Shogun
Prima 70
Green Be
Green He
Southern
Comet
SG 1
SG 706
Green Cc
Corsair
54-396


Northrup King

Abbott & Cobb
Moran

Moran
Asgrow


45-B Moran
Moran
Asgrow
Asgrow
Crop Takii
Northrup Ki
Asgrow
ike Northrup Ki
Northrup Ki
Pacific
ret Ferry-Morse
rnet Stokes


met


Takii
Sluis & Groot
Sluis & Groot
Takii
Moran
Takii


1 None, desirable; 5 severe, undesirable.
A Leafy head, B Head did not mature uniformly.
XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5%


Variety


Seed
Source


94.4ax

89.2a
64.5b

64.5b
64.3b

63.9b
61.6bc
61.4bc
59.0bc
57.5bcd
51.3b-e
48.2b-e
47.2b-e
45.2b-e
45.0cde
39.5de
38.6de

36.4e
36.3e
35.7e
35.3e
35. le
32.2e


410a

388a
280b

280b
279b

278b
268bc
267bc
257bc
250bcd
223b-e
210b-e
205b-e
197b-e
196cde
172de
168de

158e
158e
155e
153e
152e
140e


0.71ab

0.78a
0.49cde

0.46c-f
0.52c

0.47c-f
0.50cd
0.53c
0.65b
0.45c-f
0.36fgh
0.38d-g
0.37e-h
0.76ab
0.35fgh
0.35fgh
0.35fgh

0.31gh
0.34fgh
0.32gh
0.28gh
0.35fgh
0.25h


1.5

1.5
1.0

1.0
3.0

1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
3.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
2.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.5
2.0


A,B

A,B
A,B

A,B
A,B
A,B
A,B


A,B
B
B

A,B






A,B


level.


ng

ng
ng


--~-


--









produced acceptable yields and were of acceptable quality. Many
varieties produced heads that were not acceptable because of
leaves in head or head did not mature uniformly. The temperature
during the harvest period of the earlier varieties were very warm
and this was felt to be the factor for so many poor quality
heads.

Based on these results varieties to select for spring crop
would include 'Green Hornet', 'Southern Comet', 'Green Duke',
'Premium Crop', 'Bravo' and Emperor. Fall crop varieties for
planting would include 'Emperor', 'Green Valiant', 'Premium Crop'
and 'Bravo'.


BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER -
INFLUENCE OF TRANSPLANT AGE AND SIZE

Seed costs for hybrid broccoli and cauliflower are very high
(from $125 to $245/lb depending upon variety). The only way
direct seeding can be justified is through use of precision
planters. These planters are expensive and it is hard for small
farmers to justify their purchase. Also the seedlings are in the
field for a longer time and weed control is very difficult.

The use of container transplants allows us to get better
survival than with bare-root transplants, we are better able to
use herbicides to our advantage and use less seed to plant an
area. But container transplants are expensive and require some
skill in production of transplants.

This study was undertaken to look at the interaction of
transplant age and transplant cell size and how it affects yield,
head weight, days to first harvest and number of harvests of
broccoli and cauliflower.


Methods and Materials

Production methods for the broccoli and cauliflower are
described under broccoli variety evaluation. Variety of broccoli
used was 'Green Duke' and variety of cauliflower used was 'Snow
Crown'. Spacing within the row for broccoli was 12 in. and for
cauliflower was 15 in. Spacing between rows was 3 ft. Both were
planted on August 31, 1982.

Treatments consisted of transplants 3, 4 and 5 weeks old
from seeding and cell sizes of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.8 in. (Corresponds
to SpeedlingR flats sizes of 150, 100 and 080). All combinations
were used.

Treatments were arranged in a random complete blockwith 4
replications. All data were analyzed to individual degrees of
freedom for all treatments main effects and interactions.








Results


Broccoli

There was no effect of transplant age or cell size or
interaction of age and cell size on yield and head weight (Table
3). The transplant age did not affect the days to first harvest
but the transplant cell size did. With decreasing cell size
there was a significant increase in the number of days to first
harvest. There was no interaction of age and cell size on days
to first harvest.


Table 3.


Effect of transplant age and cell size on yield, head
weight, day to first harvest and number of harvests of
broccoli, Quincy, 1982.


Transplant Transplant Yield Head Days to
age cell size cwt/A boxes/A weight 1st
(weeks) (in.) (Ib) harvest


Number
of harvests


3 1.5 79.0 343 0.66 58 4.0
3 1.0 81.5 354 0.65 60 4.0
3 0.8 67.6 294 0.56 63 3.0
4 1.5 88.5 385 0.64 56 4.7
4 1.0 82.1 357 0.66 60 3.3
4 0.8 73.6 320 0.60 61 3.3
5 1.5 79.8 347 0.61 57 4.0
5 1.0 74.3 323 0.58 59 3.7
5 0.8 77.4 337 0.59 62 3.7



Transplant age had no effect on number of harvests but cell size
did. There was an overall effect of largest cell size (1.5 in.)
causing an increase in number of harvests over the other 2 cell
sizes (1.0 and 0.8 in.). There was no interaction of age and cell
size on number of harvests.


Cauliflower

Transplant age had no effect on yield or number of heads har-
vested/A but cell size of transplant did (Table 4). The largest
transplant cell size (1.5 in.) had significantly higher yields and
number of heads harvested/A than the other 2 cell sizes (1.0 and
0.8 in.) but there was no difference between the 1.0 and 0.8 in.
cell sizes. There was no interaction of age and cell size. There
was no effect of transplant age or cell size on head weight,
number of harvests or days to first harvest.









Table 4. Effect of transplant age and cell size of yield, head
weight, number of heads per acre, number of harvests
and days to first harvest of cauliflower. Quincy,
1982.

Transplant Transplant Yield Number of Head Number of Days to
age cell size cwt/A heads Wt. harvests 1st harvest
(weeks) (in.) harvested/A (Ib)

3 1.5 156.2 9680 1.62 5.3 67
3 1.0 128.5 8131 1.60 5.0 65
3 0.8 117.3 8131 1.44 4.7 68
4 1.5 140.2 10067 1.39 5.7 64
4 1.0 113.4 7357 1.62 3.3 71
4 0.8 130.9 9486 1.40 4.7 68
5 1.5 149.1 10648 1.39 4.7 64
5 1.0 111.5 8712 1.39 4.0 69
5 0.8 124.5 9293 1.33 6.0 66



Discussion

The transplant age did not affect any of the parameters that
were measured of either broccoli or cauliflower.

The transplant cell size in broccoli had an effect on days to
first harvest and number of harvests. Here the largest transplant
cell size caused a decrease in number of days to first harvest but
it increased the number of harvests needed to gather the crop.
With broccoli the small decrease in days to first harvest with
larger cell size would not warrant the extra costs and the smallest
transplant cell size of any age would be alright to use. But use
of younger transplant would cut costs due to less time to produce,
so younger plants would be more cost effective. One must make sure
that the transplant is old enough to handle with the equipment that
will be used.

With cauliflower the largest transplant cell size produced the
highest yields and number of heads harvested/A. In this case using
the largest transplant would cause a significantly higher yield and
provide more marketable heads/A.


BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER INFLUENCE OF TRANSPLANT CELL SIZE
AND SPACING ON YIELD


Methods and Materials


Production methods for the broccoli and cauliflower are
described under Broccoli Variety Evaluation. Variety of broccoli
used was 'Green Duke' and cauliflower variety was 'Snow Crown'







Row spacing was 3 ft. Both were planted on August 31, 1982.

Treatments consisted of transplants grown in flash with cell
sizes of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.8 in. (Corresponds to Speedling flat sizes
of 150, 100 and 080) and within row spacing of 9 and 12 in. for
broccoli and 12 and 15 in. for cauliflower. All combinations of
cell size and spacing were used.

Treatments were arranged in a random complete block with 4
replications.


Results

Broccoli

The highest yields occurred with the 9 in. spacing and 1.5 and
1 in. cell sizes (Table 5). With the 0.8 in. cell size and 9 in.
spacing the yields were similar to the 12 in. spacing. The
transplant cell size did not affect the yields at the 12 in.
spacing. Neither transplant cell size or in row spacing affect
head weight or number of harvests. In row spacing did not affect
days to first harvest but with decreasing transplant cell size
there was an increase in number of days to first harvest. At the
12 in. spacing the transplant cell size did not affect the per cent
plants harvested but at the 9 in. spacing there was an interaction
of spacing and cell size with the 0.8 in cell size causing a
decrease in number of plants harvested.



Table 5. Effect of transplant size and in row spacing on yield,
head weight, day to first harvet, number of harvests
and per cent plants harvested of broccoli. Quincy,
1982.

Transplant In row Yield Head Days to Number Percent
cell size Spacing Cwt/A Boxes/A weight 1st harvest of plants
(in.) (in.) (lb.) harvests harvested

1.5 9 97.6 424 0.52 56 4.7 98
1.0 9 100.7 438 0.57 60 4.3 92
0.8 9 81.5 354 0.58 62 3.7 73
1.5 12 79.8 347 0.61 57 4.0 89
1.0 12 74.3 323 0.58 59 3.7 89
0.8 12 77.4 337 0.59 62 3.7 91




Cauliflower

The highest yields occurred at the 12 in. spacing and the
transplant cell size did not affect the yields (Table 6). With
the 15 in. spacing the largest transplant cell size (1.5 in.) had









the highest yield but there were no differences between the 1.0
and 0.8 in. cell sizes. Neither transplant cell size or in row
spacing affected head weight or number of harvests. In row
spacing did not affect number of harvests but with the smallest
transplant cell size (0.8 in.) there resulted in increase number
of harvests for both in row spacing. At the 15 in spacing with
1.0 and 0.8 in. cell sizes there was a decrease in percent plants
harvested.



Table 6. Effect of transplant cell size and in row spacing on yield,
head weight, days to first harvest, number of harvests.

Transplant In row Yield Head Days to Number Percent
cell size spacing (cwt/A) weight 1st of plants
(in.) (in.) (lb.) harvest harvests harvested

1.5 12 152.2 1.27 64 4.7 83
1.0 12 157.4 1.20 67 4.3 91
0.8 12 155.5 1.22 68 5.0 88
1.5 15 149.1 1.39 64 4.7 92
1.0 15 111.5 1.39 69 4.0 75
0.8 15 124.5 1.33 66 6.0 80




BROCCOLI AND CAULIFLOWER HERBICIDE TRIALS
SPRING AND FALL 1982


Weed control is a major problem in broccoli and cauliflower
production in Florida. Both crops are expensive to grow, have
relatively short growing seasons, are not competitive with weeds
and their growth and yield are easily reduced by faulty
management (2). Herbicides labeled for weed control in broccoli
and cauliflower are few in number (4). Production of broccoli
and cauliflower on a commercial scale is relatively new in North
Florida and the rates of herbicides applied to these crops
elsewhere in Florida or other areas of the U.S. In many instances
cause injury when used in the light sandy soils of North Florida
(1, 3).

The purpose of this study was to evaluate weed control and
crop tolerance of several herbicides applied alone and in
combination for spring and fall production of broccoli and
cauliflower.

Materials and Methods

Field of Ruston loamy fine sand were limed on January 19,








1982 with 3000 lb/A of dolomite. The areas were treated 4 weeks
prior to planting with D-D at 22 gal/A broadcast. Preplant
fertilization was 100-80-80 lb/A N-P.O.-K.0. Plots were
sidedressed twice during the season with 40 Ibs each of N and
K20/A each time. Crops were grown on raised beds with sprinkler
irrigation. Six week old 'Green Duke' broccoli and 'Snow Crown'
cauliflower plants were transplanted February 24 for the spring
crop and September 1, 1982 for the fall crop. Treatments were
arranged in random block design and replicated 4 times in 6 ft by
40 ft plots. Plants were spaced 15 in. in the row and plots
consisted of half broccoli and half cauliflower. Herbicides were
applied in a 36 in. band over the row witp a CO backpack sprayer
at 30 psi pressure with two 8003 Tee jet nozzles that delivered
21 gal/A. Herbicides were incorporated on the same day of.
application with 0.5 in. of water applied by overhead irrigation.

Spring herbicide treatments (Table 7) were applied pre-
transplant (pre) on February 24 and post transplant (post) on
March 17. Fall herbicide treatments (Table 9) were applied pre
on September 1 and post on September 8. For the fall crop the
rates of Antor and Dual were reduced because of crop injury in
spring and a local grower practice of surface application of
Treflan pre and irrigated in was added., Weed control ratings
were made March 24 for the spring crop and September 16 and
October 25 for the fall crop. Harvest began April 19 for
broccoli and April 2 for cauliflower in spring and October 18 for
broccoli and November 2 for cauliflower in fall.

During the spring production period principal broadleaf
weeds were Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.)
shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus) and henbit
(Laminum amplexicaule L.) and the predominant grass was crabgrass
(Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scopoli).

During fall production period principal broadleaf weeds were
Amaranthus species mainly spiny amaranth (A. spinosus L.)
sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia L.), common lambsquarters
(Chenopodium album L.) and Florida beggarweed (Desmodium
tortuosum (Swartz) D.C.). Principal grasses included crabgrass
and goosegrass (Eleusine indica (1.) Gaertn.). A heavy
infestation of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) was also
present.


Results and Discussion

Spring 1982

All herbicide treatments provided acceptable grass and
broadleaf control except Fusilade, which when used alone did not
control broadleaf weeds (Table 7). Weed pressure at this
location was extremely light even though the land had been out of
production for several years.









Table 7. Influence of herbicide treatments on weed control in spring transplanted
broccoli and cauliflower, Quincy, Fl., 1982.

Rate/A Method of Weed control rating
Treatment application Grass Broadleaf

Hoed check 10.0 ax 10.0 a
Weedy check 0.0 h 0.0 f
Antor 4E 2 qt Prey 7.0 g 7.8 e
Antor 4E 4 qt Pre 8.2 de 8.8 bcd
Prowl 4E 1 pt Pre 8.0 ef 8.2 de
Prowl 4E 1 pt Pr
Fusilade 4E 8 oz Post 7.2 fg 8.2 de
Prowl 4E 1 qt Pre 8.5 cde 8.2 de
Dual 8E 1 qt Pre 9.0 bcd 9.2 abc
Goal 2E 1 qt Pre 9.2 abc 9.5 ab
Dacthal 75W 10 lbs Pre 8.8 b-e 8.0 de
Dacthal 75W 10 Ibs Pre
Fusilade 4E 8 oz Post 9.2 abc 8.5 cde
Fusilade 4E 0.28 oz Post 9.5 ab 0.0 f


ZWeed control rating of 10 = complete control, 0 = no control.

YHerbicides were applied pretransplant (pre) or post transplant (post).
XMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.







Broccoli yields and head weights from the herbicide
treatments were never significantly greater than those from the
check treatments (Table 8). Antor (2 qt/A), Prowl (1 qt/A) and
Dual reduced broccoli yield and head weight significantly as
compared to that with the hoed check. Goal reduced broccoli head
weight significantly below that of the hoed check and showed
early phytotoxic symptoms but plants soon grew out of the damage.
Antor (2 qt/A) and Prowl (1 qt/A) reduced the number of broccoli
plants harvested from 95% of original stand with the hoed check
to 79% and 64% respectively.

Cauliflower yields and head weight from the herbicide
treatments were never significantly greater than those from the
check treatments (Table 8). Antor (2 qt/A) and Dual reduced.
cauliflower yield and Dual also reduced the head weight
significantly below that of the weedy check. Although the
percentage of cauliflower heads harvested did not vary greatly
among treatments, the least number were harvested from the plots
treated with 2 qt/A of Antor because many of the heads were not
of marketable size.

The very low weed pressure encountered probably explains the
similarity in yields of broccoli and cauliflower found in the
check treatments as compared to the herbicide treatments. The
reduction in yield of several herbicide treatments then can be
attributed to herbicide phytotoxicity.


Fall 1982

Weed pressure in the fall was greater than in the spring and
included a severe infestation of yellow nutsedge. All fall
herbicide treatments with exception of Devrinol, Treflan and
Antor (1 qt/A) provided excellent early season grass control
(Table 9). In addition to above, Antor (2 qt/A) and Prowl (1
pt/A) failed to provide acceptable season long grass control.

Acceptable early broadleaf weed control was obtained with
both rates of Prowl, Dual (post), Goal (pre and post) and
Dacthal. Acceptable season long broadleaf weed control occurred
with Prowl (1 qt/A), Goal (pre and post) and Dacthal.

Acceptable season long control of yellow nutsedge was
obtained in the fall with Dual (pre and post) and Goal (pre and
post). In addition both rates of Antor and Devrinol provided
some control of yellow nutsedge. Some control of yellow nutsedge
was also obtained in the weedy check due to competition with
other weed species.

Dual (pre), Devrinol and Goal (post) produced the highest
broccoli yield but they were not significantly higher than the
hoed check. Antor (2 qt/A), Dual (post), Goal (pre) and Dacthal
(Table 10). However, Prowl (1 qt/A) significantly reduced
broccoli yield and the number of harvestable plants below all











Table 8. Effect of herbicide treatments on yield, head weight and percent plants har-
vested of spring transplanted broccoli and cauliflower, Quincy,, Fl. 1982.


Rate/A


Treatment


Method of
application


Yield


cwt/A


Broccoli
Head wt.


lb.


% Plants
Harvested


Yield


cwt/A


Cauliflower
Head wt. % Plants


lb. Harvested


Hoed check
Weedy check
Antor 4E
Antor 4E
Prowl 4E
Prowl 4E
Fusilade 4E
Prowl 4E
Dual 8E
Goal 2E
Dacthal 75W
Dacthal 75W
Fusilade 4E
Fusilade 4E


2 qt
4 qt
1 pt
1 pt
8 oz
1 qt
1 qt
1 qt
10 lbs
10 lbs
8 oz
8 oz


Prez
Pre
Pre
Pre
Post
Pre
Pr e
Pre
Pre
Pre
Post
Post


45.4
49.0
37.4
31.2
35.6

34.7
22.3
28.5
36.5
44.5


abcy
a
b-e
def
cde

cde
f
ef
cde
abc


49.0 a
42.8 a-d


0.60
0.73
0.57
0.53
0.57

0.54
0.51
0.46
0.53
0.67


abc
a
b-f
ef
b-f

c-f
ef
f
def
a-d


0.70 ab
0.63 a-e


90
64
90
99
95

100
96


71.3
81.9
65.9
53.4
73.0

65.9
70.4
54.3
77.5
69.5


a-d
ab
bcd
d
a-d

bcd
a-d
cd
ab
a-d


89.1 a
75.7 abc


ZHerbicides were applied


pretransplant (pre or post transplant (post).


YMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


1.37
1.42
1.25
1.11
1.32

1.13
1.26
0.94
1.28
1.35


1.62 a
1.33 ab


lb. Harvested







Table 9. Influence of herbicide treatments on weed control in fall transplanted broccoli and
cauliflower, Quincy, Fla. 1982.

Weed control ratingz
Rate/A Method of Grass Broadleaf Yellow nutsedge
Treatment Application Earlyy Late Early Late Early Late

Hoed check -- 0 ew 10.0 a 0 g 10.0 a 0 e 10.0 a
Weedy check -- 0 e 0 g 0 g 0 a 0 e 4.2 f
Antor 4E 1 qt Prex 7.8 d 1.8 f 5.5 f 5.2 f 1.5 d 5.5 e
Antor 4E 2 qt. Pre 9.0 abc 6.0 e 7.5 cd 5.8 ef 5.2 c 6.8 d
Prowl 4E 1 pt Pre 8.8 bcd 6.5 de 8.0 bcd 7.2 cd 0 e 1.0 gh
Prowl 4E 1 qt Pre 9.2 abc 8.5 bc 8.8 bc. 8.0 bc 0 e 0 h
Dual 8E 1.5 pt Pre 9.8 ab 8.2 bc 7.2 de 6.5 de 7.8 b 8.5 bc
Dual 8E 1.5 pt Post 9.0 abc 8.5 bc 8.0 bcd 7.8 c 8.0 b 8.5 bc
Goal 2E 1 qt Pre 10.0 a 8.8 abc 10.0 a 9.0 ab 8.2 ab 7.8 cd
Goal 2E 1 qt Post 10.0 a 9.5 ab 10.0 a 9.8 a 9.0 a 9.0 ab
Dacthal 75W 10 lb Pre 9.5 ab 8.0 c 9.0 ab 8.0 bc 0 e 0 h
Devrinol 50W 4 lb Post 8.2 cd 7.5 cd 7.8 bcd 6.5 de 0.5 e 5.2 ef
Treflan 4E 1.5 pt Pre 8.2 cd 6.2 de 6.2 ef 6.0 f 0 e 1.2 g


ZWeed control rating of 10 = complete control, 0 = no control.

Early September 16, Late October 15.

Herbicides were applied pretransplant (pre) or post transplant (post).
Mean separation by Duncan's multiple range tesst, 5% level.











Table 10. Effect of herbicide treatments on yield, head weight and percent plants harvested
of fall transplanted broccoli and cauliflower, Quincy, Fl. 1982.


Treatment

Hoed check
Weedy check
Antor 4E
Antor 4E
Prowl 4E
Prowl 4E
Dual 8E
Dual 8E
O Goal 2E
Goal 2E
Dacthal 75W
Devrinol 50W
Treflan 4E


Rate/A Method of
ADplication


1 qt
2 qt
1 pt
1 qt
1.5 pt
1.5 pt
1 qt
1 qt
10 lb
4 lb
1.5 pt


Prez
Pre
Pre
Pre
Pre

Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Post
Pre
Pr e


Yield
cwt/A


32.1 abcy
24.0 d
29.4 bcd
33.0 abc
28.5 cd
17.8 e
36.5 a
34.7 ab
33.8 abc
36.5 a
33.0 abc
35.6 a
28.5 cd


Broccoli
Head wt. % Plants Yield
lbs. Harvested cwt/A


0.61
0.51
0.59
0.57
0.58
0.52
0.68
0.64
0.65
0.69
0.64
0.67
0.56


a-f
g
bf
d-g
c-f
fg
ab
a-e
a-d
a
a-e
abc
efg


92
82
87
100
60
83
93
93
88
93
92
92
90


86.4
47.2
69.5
76.6
70.4
57.0
90.0
92.6
95.3
100.6
81.9
81.9
67.7


Cauliflower
Head wt. % Plants
lb. Harvested


abc
f
de
cd
de
ef
abc
ab
ab
a
bcd
bcd
de


1.62
1.02
1.42
1.47
1.34
1.46
1.64
1.66
1.70
2.03
1.48
1.57
1.44


ZHerbicides were applied pretransplant (pre) or post


transplant (post).


YMean separation by Duncan's multiple range test, 5% level.


r


I '
S. i







other treatments. Highest broccoli head weight occurred with use
of Dual (pre and post), Goal (pre and post), Dacthal and
Devrinol.

Dual (pre and post) and Goal (pre and post) provided the
highest cauliflower yield though not significantly higher than
with the hoed check (Table 10). Treflan, both rates of Prowl and
Antor at 1 qt/A resulted in significantly lower cauliflower
yields than with the hoed check. Goal (post ) provided
significantly higher cauliflower head weight than all other
treatments. Cauliflower head weights obtained with other
herbicide treatments did not differ from each other or from the
hoed check. Prowl (1 qt/A) reduced the percentage of marketable
heads from 92% with the hoed check to 67%.

The only 2 materials that are legally cleared for broccoli
and cauliflower are Treflan and Dacthal.









LITERATURE CITED


1. Gilreath, J. P. 1982. Weed Control in Cauliflower. Proc.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. 95:342-344.

2. Olson, S. M. and M. Sherman. 1982. Broccoli and
Cauliflower Production. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser. Circ. 555.

3. Teem, D. H., W. L. Currey, B. J. Brecke and R. N. Gallaher.
1982. Promoting the use of directed sprays in soybeans
Florida's approach. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 35:376.

4. William, R. D. 1980. Weed Control Guide for Commercial
Vegetable Production in Florida. Fla. Coop. Ext. Ser.
Circ. 196G.




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