Group Title: Quincy NFREC Research report - University of Florida Research and Education Center ; NF84-4
Title: Insect management on peanuts in 1984
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 Material Information
Title: Insect management on peanuts in 1984
Series Title: Quincy NFREC Research report
Physical Description: 19 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and Daniel W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074354
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85483307

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NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Marianna, Florida

Quincy NFREC Research Report NF 84-4

Insect Management on Peanuts in 1984

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
Daniel W. Gorbet, Agronomist, Marianna

Materials and Methods

Two baits and 11 chemical foliar spray treatments were field tested on
Florunner peanuts for insect control, phytotoxicity, and effect on crop
performance. In a second experiment, certain breeding lines and varieties
were studied to determine if any tolerance to insect attack could be de-
tected. In a third experiment, 3 F selections and the 2 parent lines were
compared to determine if insect tolerance from one of the parents had been
transferred to the F selections, and to increase the seed source from the
F selections. A fourth experiment was conducted to study the effects of
broadcast parathion granular treatments with and without irrigation and
irrigation versus no irrigation on infestations of the lesser cornstalk
borer on Florunner peanuts.

The Orthene bait treatments were broadcast over the row immediately
following planting and over the foliage on the dates of spray treatments.
All sprays were applied with a boom-type CO2-pressurized hand sprayer that
covered 2 rows with 3 Tee Jet D3-25 nozzles per row. The sprayer was cali-
brated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray per acre at 26 p.s.i.
at normal walking speed. The parathion granular treatments in the lesser
cornstalk borer experiment were broadcast ov:r th- foliag- beginning; 11
days after planting and continuing on a bi-w hd ter.
Irrigation was applied 6 times at 1 inch of water per acre in the lesser
cornstalk borer experiment, when soil moisture reached 60 .b, of tension.
JUL ly iOD
The dates treatment applications were madi are given in a footnote in
Tables 1 through 4. The baits and foliar spraeb FiF AF.a6v.F.Jtg d as
needed for thrips and Lepidoptera larval conty 0--.hi- ....ganles and
irrigation water were applied in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment on
dates listed in footnotes in Tables 11 and 12.

Treatments listed in Table 1 were replicated 3 times in complete ran-
domized blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were 30 feet long
planted on 3-foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the experimental
plot, and the 1 row on either side acted as buffers between plots. Alleys
between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Treatments listed in Tables
5,6,7,8,9,10,11, and 12 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized
blocks. Each plot in Tables 5,6,7,8,9, and 10 was 2 rows wide, and rows
were 20 feet long long planted on 3-foot centers. The 2 rows were the ex-
perimental plot, and there were no buffers between plots within blocks.
Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Each plot in Tables 11






2

and 12 was 4 rows wide, and rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 2 center rows constituted the experimental plot, and the 1
row on either side acted as buffers between plots. All alleys between
blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. The experimental areas were located as
follows: foliar insecticide and lesser cornstalk borer experiments north
of the Center office adjacent to Florida Highway 71, and insect plant tol-
erance experiments southwest portion of Marianna airport.

All cultural practices in preparing the experimental areas for planting
were performed in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and
fertilizer (300 pounds/acre of 3-9-18 plus minor elements) applied on April
23. An application of 0.5 pound/acre of boron was made on July 23. Herbi-
cides; Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 2.33 pints/acre were applied on the foliar
insecticide and lesser cornstalk borer experimental areas on April 25, and
on the insect plant tolerance experimental areas on May 25. At cracking;
Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 4 quarts/acre were applied on the folia insecti-
cide experimental area on May 4, Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 5 quarts/acre on
the lesser cornstalk borer experimental area on June 7, and Lasso, 2 quarts
+ Dyanap, 4 quarts/acre on the insect plant tolerance experimental areas on
June 14. Foliar disease control sprays were applied on all experimental
areas as follows: Bravo, 2 pints on June 11 and 25; Bravo, 2.125 pints on
July 9, 23, August 6, 20 and 31; Bravo S, 4 pints on the lesser cornstalk
borer and insect plant tolerance experimental areas on September 14, and
Bravo 2.125 pints/acre on September 27. The foliar insecticide experiment
was planted on April 27, harvested on September 10, and picked on September
13. The lesser cornstalk borer experiment was planted on May 31, harvested
on October 11, and picked on October 15. The insect plant tolerance exper-
iments were planted on May 31, harvested on October 15, and picked on
October 18.

Tobacco thrips counts in the foliar insecticide experiment and insect
plant tolerance experiments were made from natural infestations by counting
the number of adult and immature thrips collected in 25 cc. bottles from 10
terminal foliage buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning in the foliar
insecticide experiment on May 7 and ending on June 11, and beginning in the
insect plant tolerance experiment on June 14 and ending on July 5. In the
insect plant tolerance experiment comparing parental lines with F selec-
tions, the thrips counts were made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plot
taken weekly beginning on June 14 and ending on July 5. Counts were made
in the laboratory after the thrips had been washed from the buds twice with
alcohol and collected on 9 cm. filter paper in a Buchner funnel under
vacuum. A binocular microscope with 15X magnification was used to make the
counts. Ratings of foliage damaged by thrips were made on the same dates
that thrips were counted. The rating system used was based on a scale of 0
to 10, with 0 being no damage and 10 being 100 percent of the foliage show-
ing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, looper, vel-
vetbean caterpillar, yellowstriped armyworm, and other foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larvae were made from natural infestations by counting the
number of live larvae in 3 feet of row per plot at weekly intervals. Owing
to the more than adequate rainfall that prevailed during May, June, July,
and August, Lepidoptera larval populations in the foliar insecticide and
insect plant tolerance experiments never reached the economic threshold









level of 4 to 5 larvae per foot of row but one time on July 19 and Septem-
ber 12, respectively. Therefore, recorded data relative to efficacy of the
treatments was of little comparative value. Larval counts were made weekly
beginning on July 19 and ending on September 3 in the foliar insecticide
experiment, August 29 to October 3 in the insect tolerance experiments, and
August 30 to October 4 in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment. Foliage-
feeding-larval damage ratings were made in the lesser cornstalk borer ex-
periment on October 4. The rating system was the same as that for thrips
damage.

The percent of infested lesser cornstalk borer plants was determined at
harvest on September 10 in the foliar insecticide experiment, on October 11
in the lesser cornstalk borer experiment, and on October 15 in the insect
plant tolerance experiments. Ten plants per plot were examined and damage
to pegs, pods, or stems was noted as a damaged plant, and the percent in-
fested plants was calculated by the number of damaged plants multiplied by
10.

A leafhopper foliage damage rating similar to the thrips damage rating
was made in the insect plant tolerance experiments on August 15. Leaf-
hoppers were not a problem in the foliar insecticide or lesser cornstalk
borer experiments.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried
peanuts picked from 2 rows of each plot in each experiment, except the par-
ental lines and F selections experiment. In the lesser cornstalkk borer
experiment, a nine-square-foot area of each plot was sampled for pods re-
maining in the soil immediately after picking, which was included in yield
figures for the experiment. No crop value was calculated for the 4 experi-
ments.

Visual phytotoxicity ratings in the foliar insecticide experiment were
begun on May 14 and continued at weekly intervals until August 27. Plots
were rated according to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings
were based on the followed system:

0 = None
1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting
2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting
3 = Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis

An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the
foliar insecticide phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was
applied to all means analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data
interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the duration of the experiments
from May 1 to October 19 were as follows:

May June July August September October

3-T 12-0.02 2-1.20 1-0.01 3-0.08 15-T


(Rainfall data continued)










May June July August September October

4-0.03 13-0.67 3-1.43 2-0.56 5-0.24 16-0.12
9-0.06 15-0.09 6-0.13 3-0.12 Total-0.32 18-0.03
15-0.72 18-0.28 13-2.07 6-0.13 Total-0.15
22-0.88 20-0.03 14-0.01 13-0.64
23-0.04 22-1.23 18-0.72 15-0.10
26-0.39 23-1.06 19-0.13 18-0.75
27-0.38 25-0.35 20-0.67 24-0.99
Total-2.50 29-0.60 22-0.35 25-2.44
30-0.98 23-0.26 27-0.02
Total-5.31 24-0.07 Total-5.76
25-0.33
28-0.08
30-3.76
31-0.80 T =Trace
Total-12.01 Grand Total = 26.05 inches

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Tobacco thrips populations in early season were slightly larger than
they were in 1983, but population and damage curves followed the same
pattern as has been observed during the past 9 years. Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera larvae began infesting the plants at approximately the same
time as in 1983, but populations reached the economic threshold level (4 to
5 larvae per foot of row) in the foliar insecticide experiment only one
time on July 19 owing to more than adequate rainfall during July and August
and a record drought during September and October. The economic threshold
level was reached in the insect plant tolerance experiment on the Valencia
variety on September 12, but never reached that level in the lesser corn-
stalk borer or parental lines and F selections experiments. The primary
foliage feeding Lepidoptera species were corn earworm, fall armyworm, gran-
ulate cutworm, looper, rednecked peanutworm, yellowstriped armyworm, and
velvetbean caterpillar. Velvetbean caterpillar infestations began appear-
ing about two months earlier than in 1983, but were rot as numerous as the
corn earworm and fall armyworm owing to the drought in September and
October. Potato leafhopper became a problem in the insect plant tolerance
experiments in August, but were of no consequence in the other experiments
owing to the more than adequate rainfall. The soil in the insect plant
tolerance experimental area was sandy, and did not retain soil moisture as
well as the soil in the other experimental areas. Wilting of weed hosts
around the insect plant tolerance experiments caused migration of the leaf-
hopper into those experiments. Lesser cornstalk borer populations were
smaller in all experiments than in 1983 owing to the more than adequate
rainfall in June, July, and August. The drought period during September
and October came too late in the growing season to allow a large increase
in the borer population. The rainfall during the experimental period was
2.09 inches above that for 1983, but the total for July was 10.82 inches
above that for July of 1983. The rainfall caused yields in the foliar
insecticide experiment to be over twice as large as those in 1983, but the
drought during September caused a slight reduction in yields in the insect
plant tolerance experiment. The dry spell in 1983 occurred in July and
August, whereas in 1984 it occurred over September and October, which
lessened the impact of the velvetbean caterpillar and lesser cornstalk






5

borer on the crop.

The thrips count on May 21 in the foliar insecticide experiment indi-
cated that all treatments except Ammo spray at 0.038, Bendiocarb spray" at
0.18, FCR-1272 spray at 0.02, Lannate spray at 0.57, and Pounce spray at
0.21 pound AI/acre gave significant control. However, the largest popu-
lations on the untreated check and treated plots did not occur until May
28, three weeks after treatment, and the count on that date indicated that
efficacy of many of the treatments had declined markedly. On May 28, the
thrips foliage damage indices showed that all treatments except Ammo sprays
at 0.038 and 0.055, Bendiocarb spray at 0.18, FCR-1272 spray at 0.02,
Lannate spray at 0.57, and Pounce spray at 0.21 pound AI/acre significantly
reduced foliage injury. Monitor spray a 1.03, Orthene spray at 0.96, and
Orthene bait at 1.0 pound AI/acre provided the best protection from foliage
injury on May 28, and for the remainder of the experimental period. All
the synthetic pyrethroids; Ammo, FCR-1272, and Pounce, with the exception
of FMC-54800, showed a definite weakness for thrips control. (See Table
2.) Yield response to the treatments indicated for the 9th year in succes-
sion that thrips had no economic influence on the crop. (See Table 3.)

Foliage feeding Lepidoptera populations reached the economic threshold
level on July 19, but heavy rainfall during the month reduced the popula-
tions to levels that were of no value in evaluating the efficacy of the
various treatments for control. (See Table 3.)

Control of the lesser cornstalk borer and the effect on yield are pre-
sented in Table 3. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation was as large as
anticipated, and was about two times smaller than in 1983 owing to the more
than adequate rainfall during the experimental period. Examination of the
pods and vines immediately after digging on September 11 indicated that
several treatments gave significant control. However, the coefficient of
variability was 68 percent indicating that the infestation was not uniform
and highly variable from plot to plot. None of the treatments had any sig-
nificant effect on yield. The increase in yield (over two fold) from that
in 1983 indicated that the rainfall enhanced pod production.

No foliage phytotoxicity was observed on any of the treated plants.
(See Table 4.) The yield data also indicated no below ground phytotoxi-
city. (See Table 3.)

Thrips populations in the insect plant tolerance experiment peaked on
June 21, but none of the lines showed any significant tolerance to thrips
attack. Thrips populations were low, which probably accounted for the lack
of significant differences in tolerance between lines. Thrips foliage
damage indices did not necessarily coincide with the thrips counts, but
there were some lines that had significantly less damage than either Flo-
runner or Valencia on June 21 and 28. By July 5, there was no significant
difference between any of the lines with respect to foliage damage indices.
The data indicated that small numbers of thrips do cause more damage to
some lines than large numbers on other lines. A physiological factor in
the plant may trigger the feeding habit of the thrips, which relates to the
amount of foliage damage that is inflicted. (See Table 5.) The effects of
thrips on yield of the various lines was obscured by varietal differences
and weather, and it is doubtful that the differences in yield among lines









was attributable to thrips damage. The proceeding deduction was drawn from
the fact that the foliage damage indices for Florunner and 72 X 41A-6-1-2
2-b3-B were almost identical, but Florunner produced 2,202 pounds of pods
per acre more than 72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B. The poor yield obtained from 72
X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B was a varietal response as well as a response to the
drought of September and October. (See Tables 5 and 7.) Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera populations were small during the entire experimental period
owing to the drought in September and October. The economic threshold of 4
to 5 larvae per foot of row was reached on September 12 on Valencia, but
populations declined thereafter due to the drought and wilted condition of
the plants. No data of comparative value was recorded regarding foliage
feeding Lepidoptera. (See Table 6.) Potato leafhopper foliage damage
indices indicated that NC-10247 and NC-15745 were significantly more toler-
ant than either Florunner or Valencia, but yield variations were probably
related to genetic factors of the various lines. There was a nonsignifi-
cant (P = 0.05) positive correlation (r = +0.403) between yield and leaf-
hopper foliage damage indicating that the leafhopper had no effect on
yield. (See Table 7.) The lesser cornstalk borer damage counts at digging
on October 15 indicated that there was no significant differences among the
various lines. Most of the lesser cornstalk borer attack was confined to
the area of plant growth below ground around the crown of the plant. This
peculiarity of the lesser cornstalk borer feeding habit could not be ex-
plained. The effect of the lesser cornstalk borer on yield was a nonsig-
nificant (P = 0.05) negative correlation (r = -0.519) between yield and
percent lesser cornstalk borer infested plants indicating the lesser corn-
stalk borer had no effect on yield. (See Table 7.)

In the parental lines and F selections experiment, thrips populations
were small and peaked on June 2f. On June 28, 80 X 6A-BK1 and 80 X 6A-BK2
had significantly fewer thrips per terminal bud than the other lines. By
June 28, 72 X 41A, 80 X 6A-BK1, and 80 X 6B-BK3 showed significantly less
foliage damage than the other lines. (See Table 8.) Foliage feeding
Lepidoptera populations were too small to provide any meaningful data for
insect tolerance comparisons. (See Table 9.) Leafhopper foliage damage
indices indicated that 519, 80 X 6A-BK1, and 80 X 6A-BK2 were significantly
more tolerant than 72 X 41A. (See Table 10.) None of the parental lines
or F selections showed any significant tolerance to the lesser cornstalk
bore#. (See Table 10.)

Parathion granule applications with or without irrigation significantly
reduced the number of foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae per foot of row on
September 13, 20, and 27. The reduction in number of larvae was reflected
in a significant reduction in the amount of foliage damage that was re-
corded on October 4. Even though drought conditions prevailed during Sep-
tember and October, irrigation had no significant effect on the efficacy of
the parathion treatments. Nonsignificant (P = 0.05) negative correlations
(r = -0.715 and -0.846) between number of larvae, foliage damage indices
and yield indicated that the foliage feeding Lepidoptera had no effect on
yield. (See Tables 11 and 12) The lesser cornstalk borer infestation at
digging on October 11 was slightly smaller than in 1983, and a significant
reduction in percent of plants infested occurred in plots irrigated, irri-
gated plus parathion, and not irrigated plus parathion. Even though there
was a significant difference between treatments in the percent of plants
infested by the borer, the control with parathion or irrigation did not






7

produce a significant increase in yield. Irrigation appeared to be the
limiting factor on yield, and produced a significant negative response in
the insect. A nonsignificant (P = 0.05) negative correlation (r = -0.888)
between percent lesser cornstalk borer infested plants and yield indicated
that the borer had no effect on yield. (See Table 12.)







NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1. Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Florunner Peanuts. AREC,
Marianna 1984.

Lbs. or Gals. Lbs. AI
Number per Acre per per Acre per
Treatmenta,b Applicationsc Application Application
d
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 4 19.0 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 4 20.0 1.00
Orthene, 0.24% S(75% SP) 3 26.0 0.51
Orthene, 0.45% S(75% SP) 3 25.5 0.96
Monitor, 0.48% S(4.0 Ibs./gal. WM) 3 25.8 1.03
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(2.0 Ibs./gal. EC) 3 26.0 0.020
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 3 24.6 0.037
Ammo, 0.019% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 3 25.2 0.038
Ammo, 0.032% S(2.5 lbs./gal. EC) 3 24.2 0.055
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 3 25.1 0.057
Pounce, 0.095% S(3.2 Ibs./gal. EC) 3 26.5 0.21
Bendicarb, 0.09% S(76% WP) 3 23.8 0.18
Lannate, 0.28% S(2.4 Ibs./gal. WM-LV) 3 24.1 0.57
Check (untreated) -- ---


aBait = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable Concentrate, S = Spray, SP = Soluble
Water Miscible-Low Volume, and WP = Wettable Powder.
bCrop was planted on 4/27, harvested on 9/10, and picked on 9/13/84.
CBaits and sprays applied on 5/8, 6/27, and 7/23/84.

An additional application made at planting on 4/27/84.


Powder, WM = Water Miscible, WM-LV =







NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2. Effects of Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Thrips
Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1984.


Control and Damage on Florunner


Treatment and
Lbs. AI per Acre Mean Number Thrips per Budb'd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesc'd
per Applicationa 5/7 5/14 5/21 5/28 6/4 6/11 5/7 5/14 5/21 5/28 6/4 6/11
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331) 0.3a 2.6ab 8.2abc 14.6a 5.9a 2.0a 0.0 2.0bc 5.0bc 5.7bc 5.0c 4.7b
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331) 0.3a 3.9ab 6.2ab 6.8a 5.5a 1.9a 0.0 1.7ab 3.3ab 4.3ab 3.0a 3.0a
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.51 0.5a 2.8ab 7.1abc 19.3abc 8.3a 1.8a 0.0 2.0bc 5.3bc 6.0c 4.3bc 6.0c
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.96 0.2a 1.4a 4.3a 15.4ab 9.2a 1.6a 0.0 1.0a 3.0a 4.0a 3.7ab 4.0ab
Monitor, 0.48% S, 1.03 0.4a 3.6ab 4.7a 19.1abc 10.3a 1.6a 0.0 1.0a 3.7ab 4.0a 4.0abc 4.3b
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.020 0.4a 2.3a 17.8cde 27.2bcd 9.8a 1.2a 0.0 1.7ab 6.0cd 8.3de 8.0ef 8.3d
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.037 0.6a 2.6ab 7.3abc 32.6d 11.2a 1.6a 0.0 1.0a 6.3cde 7.3cd 6.3d 7.3d
Ammo, 0.019% S, 0.038 0.5a 3.2ab 16.7bcde 32.9d 11.4a 1.7a 0.0 1.3ab 7.0cde 8.Ode 8.0ef 7.7d
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.055 0.2a 2.0a 10.labcd 29.0cd 11.7a 1.5a 0.0 1.0a 7.0cde 7.7de 7.0de 8.0d
FMC-54800, 0.03% S, 0.057 0.3a l.la 10.6abcd 13.3a 8.6a 3.3a 0.0 1.3ab 5.0bc 5.7bc 4.3bc 6.0c
Pounce, 0.095% S, 0.21 0.6a 2.7ab 17.4cde 27.9bcd 10.2a 2.0a 0.0 1.7ab 7.0cde 8.0de 8.0ef 8.0d
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S, 0.18 0.4a 7.6c 26.6e 30.9cd 8.4a 1.9a 0.0 1.3ab 7.7de 9.0de 9.3g 8.0d
Lannate, 0.28% S, 0.57 0.2a 4.0ab 19.1de 36.7d 9.9a 1.6a 0.0 1.7ab 7.7de 8.7de 8.7fg 8.0d
Check (Untreated) 0.6a 5.4bc 24.7e 36.6d 6.2a 1.4a 0.0 2.7c 8.3e 9.3e 9.7g 8.0d

% Adults 100 28 7 1 2 10
% Immatures 0 72 93 99 98 90

aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop was planted on 4/27, harvested on 9/10, and picked on 9/13/84. Baits and
sprays applied on 5/8, 6/27, and 7/23/84.
b
Ten terminal buds per plot were examined.

CRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
d
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Pretreatment count or rating.
fAn additional application made at planting on 4/27/84.
An additional application made at planting on 4/27/84.




NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 3. Effect of Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Control of the Lepidoptera Complex and Yield
of Florunner Peanuts. AREC, Marianna 1984.
o
Treatment and Mean Nuer Larvae per Foot of Rb Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row b b
Lbs. AI per Acre % Infested Plants Yield/Acre
per Applicationa 7/19c 7/30 8/6e 8/13 8/20g 8/27 9/3 9/10 lbs.
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331)3 7.0a 0.3a 0.3ab 0.4a 0.6a 0.4a 0.4a 7 ab 5,566a
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331)3 7.la 0.la 0.4ab 0.6a 1.2a 0.9a 0.2a 17abcde 5,268a
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.51 6.la 0.3a 0.3ab 0.7a 0.7a 0.8a 0.3a 3a 5,235a
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.96 5.7a 0.Oa 0.8bc 0.6a 0.6a 0.4a 0.3a 13abcd 4,856a
Monitor, 0.48% S, 1.03 5.0a 0.Oa 0.la 0.3a 0.4a 0.3a 0.la 27cde 5,582a
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.020 5.8a 0.4a 0.la 0.4a 0.8a 0.4a 0.7a 17abcde 5,211a
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.037 6.7a 0.6a 0.4ab 0.2a 0.8a 0.6a 0.la 7ab 5,469a
Ammo, 0.019% S, 0.038 5.2a 0.la 0.2ab 0.4a 1.0a 0.3a 0.2a 7ab 5,332a
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.055 6.6a 0.4a 0.2ab 0.6a 0.7a 0.8a 0.la 30de 5,623a
FMC-54800, 0.03% S, 0.057 6.6a 0.4a O.la 0.3a 0.la 0.6a 0.la 3a 5,550a
Pounce, 0.095% S, 0.21 4.6a 0.la 0.la 0.7a 0.7a 0.2a 0.2a l0abc 5,106a
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S, 0.18 4.9a 0.2a 1.Oc 0.4a 0.6a 0.4a 0.la 17abcde 5,380a
Lannate, 0.28% S, 0.57 7.la 0.4a 0.la 0.3a 0.9a 0.6a 0.2a 23bcde 5,001a
Check (Untreated) 4.9a 1.0a 0.Oa 0.6a 1.0a 0.7a 0.Oa 33e 5,033a

aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop was planted on 4/27, harvested on 9/10, and picked on 9/13/84. Baits and
sprays applied on 5/8, 6/27, and 7/23/84.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
CPredominantly corn earworm 82%, fall armyworm 11%, yellowstriped armyworm 6%, and velvetbean cater-
pillar 1%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 56%, corn earworm 37%, yellowstriped armyworm 5%, and granulate cutworm -
2%.
predominantly fall armyworm 74%, corn earworm 21%, granulate cutworm 3%, and cabbage looper 2%.

Predominantly fall armyworm 54%, corn earworm 24%, velvetbean caterpillar 15%, rednecked peanutworm -
3%, yellowstriped armyworm 2%, and cabbage looper 2%.
gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 57%, fall armyworm 32%, corn earworm 6%, and cabbage looper 5%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 69%, fall armyworm 16%, cabbage looper 9%, granulate cutworm -
5%, and yellowstriped armyworm 1%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 62%, cabbage looper 17%, fall armyworm 10%, yellowstriped army-
worm 3%, granulate cutworm 3%, and lesser cornstalk borer 3%.
jAn additional application made at planting on 4/27/84.







NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 4. Phytotoxic Effect of Bait and Chemical Foliar Spray Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. AREC,
Marianna 1984.

Treatment and
Lbs. AI per Acre Mean Phytotoxicity Indices
per Applicationa 5/14 5/21 5/28 6/4 6/11 6/18 6/25 7/2 7/9 7/16 7/23 7/30 8/6 8/13 8/20 8/27
Orthene, 5% B, 0.5(CC-12331)c 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 5% B, 1.0(CC-12331) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.24% S, 0.51 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Orthene, 0.45% S, 0.96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Monitor, 0.48% S, 1.03 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272, 0.011% S, 0.020 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FCR-1272, 0.022% S, 0.037 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.019% S, 0.038 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Ammo, 0.032% S, 0.055 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FMC-54800, 0.03% S, 0.057 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pounce, 0.095% S, 0.21 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S, 0.18 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lannate, 0.28% S, 0.57 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Check (Untreated) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

aB = Bait and S = Spray. Crop was planted on 4/27, harvested on 9/10, and picked on 9/13/84. Baits and
sprays applied on 5/8, 6/27, and 7/23/84.
bRating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or spotting, 3 = Heavy
chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.
CAn additional application made on 4/27/84.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC,
Marianna 1984.

Breeding Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
ab a~c
and Thrips per Bud Damage Indices
Varieties 6/14 6/21 6/28 7/5 6/14 6/21 6/28 7/5
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 1.3abcd 6.9a 3.4a 1.9a 0.0 4.0ab 5.7bcd 6.0a
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 1.5abcd 8.8a 4.0a 1.6a 0.0 6.3cd 6.7cd 5.3a
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B l.lab 6.5a 5.5a 1.9a 0.0 5.3bc 5,0abc 4.7a
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 1.5abcd 8.2a 3.5a 1.7a 0.0 5.0abc 5.7bcd 5,0a
UF-80202 1.8bcd 7.6a 3.2a 1.2a 0.0 3.3a 4.3ab 3.7a
UF-81206 1.3abcd 6.9a 3.9a 1.9a 0.0 5.7bcd 5.0abc 5.0a
UF-82201 l.labc 6.2a 3.6a 1.2a 0.0 5.7bcd 6.0bcd 5.0a
UF-83107 1.9cd 7.6a 4.7a 1.6a 0.0 5.0abc 5.Oabc 4.7a
UF-83110 1.2abc 7.9a 5.3a 2.4a 0.0 4.7abc 6.Obcd 6.0a
NC-10247 1.0a 4.9a 5.0a 2.4a 0.0 3.3a 3.0a 3.3a
NC-15745 1.0a 5.8a 2.2a 1.4a 0.0 5.7bcd 6.0bcd 4.7a
Valencia 2.0d 7.4a 4.5a 3.8a 0.0 7.3d 7.7d 6.7a
Check (Florunner) 1.4abcd 4.2a 4.la 1.3a 0.0 6.0cd 5.7bcd 5.7a


a
Means followed by the same letter are not

Ten terminal buds per plot were examined.
10/18/84.
c.


significantly different at the 5% level.

Crop was planted on 5/31, harvested on 10/15,


and picked on


Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines
Marianna 1984.


and Varieties to the Lepidoptera Complex.


Breeding Lines
and Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row
Varieties 8/29b 9/5c 9/12d 9/19e 9/26f 10/39
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B --- -- --- -- --- --
73 X 18A-4-2--1-12-B --- -- --- --- --- -
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B --- -- --- --- -- --
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B ---- .-- --- -----
UF-80202 ---- --- ---- ---- ----
UF-81206- --- ---- --- --- -
UF-82201 -------
UF-83107 ---- --- ---- ---- ---
UF-83110 ---- -- --- ---
NC-10247 ---- --- ---- ---- -
NC-15745 ---- --- --- ---------
Valencia 0.2 1.1 4.1 3.0 1.3 0.7
Check (Florunner) 0.2 0.4 1.8 0.7 0,0 0.2


aCrop was planted on 5/31, harvested on
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar -


10/15, and

100%.


picked on 10/18/84.


Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 93% and cabbage looper 7%.


predominantly velvetbean caterpillar -


94%, corn earworm 4%, and rednecked peanutworm 2%.


Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 97% and lesser cornstalk borer 3%.


Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar -


100%.


gPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 50%, lesser cornstalk borer 38%, and cabbage looper 13%.


AREC,








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 7. Tolerance of Certain Peanut Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Corn-
stalk Borer with Yields. AREC, Marianna 1984.

Breeding Lines Leafhopper foliageb Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
and Damage Indices % Infested Plants Yield/Acre
Varieties 8/15 10/15 lbs.


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B
UF-80202
UF-81206
UF-82201
UF-83107
UF-83110
NC-10247
NC-15745
Valencia
Check (Florunner)


4.0cde
3.3bcd
2.3abc
4.7def
3.3bcd
5.7ef
4.0cde
6.0f
6.3f
1.3a
1.7ab
8.3g
4.0cde


799e
2,432bc
1,561d
2,190cd
2,311bc
2,238cd
2,009cd
3,473a
3,303a
2,093cd
2,492bc
2,553bc
3,001ab


a
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/31,
harvested on 10/15, and picked on 10/18/84.
beating System: 0 = None to = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.










NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 8. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F4 Selections to Thrips Attack and Damage. AREC, Marianna -
1984.

Parent Lines
and Mean Number Thrips per buda'b Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indicesa'c
F Selections 6/14 6/21 6/28 7/5 6/14 6/21 6/28 7/5
--4
519 1.9a 6.3a 5.6bc 2.la 0.0 7.0c 7.0b 5.7cd
72 X 41A 2.0a 7.7a 5.1abc 3.2a 0.0 4.0a 5.0a 4.7bc
80 X 6A-BK1 1.5a 7.7a 4.lab 2.0a 0.0 3.7a 4.3a 3.0a
80 X 6A-BK2 2.0a 10.2a 3.3a l.la 0.0 6.0b 7.Ob 6.0d
80 X 6B-BK3 1.2a 6.9a 6.9c 1.9a 0.0 4.0a 4.3a 3.7ab

% Adults 94 4 6 7

% Immatures 6 96 94 93
a
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/31,
harvested on 10/15, and picked on 10/18/84.
Five terminal buds per plot were examined.
cRating System: 0 = None to 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 -= 100% of foliage showing some damage.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida

Table 9. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F4 Selections to the Lepidoptera Complex. AREC, Marianna -
1984.


Parent Lines
and
F4 Selections

519

72 X 41A

80 X 6A-BK1

80 X 6A-BK2

80 X 6B-BK3


Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row

9/12c 9/19d

1.3 0.8


a
Crop was planted on 5/31, harvested
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar

fPredominantly lesser cornstalk borer


on 10/15, and picked on 10/18/84.

- 100%.

- 83% and rednecked peanutworm -

- 100%.

- 83% and lesser cornstalk borer

- 100%.


9/26e

0.7


17%.


- 17%.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 10. Tolerance of Peanut Parent Lines and F4 Selections to the Potato Leafhopper and Lesser Cornstalk
Borer. AREC, Marianna 1984.


Parent Lines
and


Leafhopper Foliage
Damage Indices


Lesser Cornstalk Borer
a


% Infested Plants


F Selections 8/15 10/15
-4
519 1.0a 57a

72 X 41A 5.0d 70a

80 X 6A-BK1 1.3ab 70a

80 X 6A-BK2 2.3bc 83a

80 X 6B-BK3 3.3cd 77a

a
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Crop was planted on 5/31,
harvested on 10/15, and picked on 10/18/84.
bRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 11. Effects of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation and
No Irrigation on Control of the Lepidoptera Complex and Larval Foliage Damage on Peanuts. AREC,
Marianna 1984.


Treatment and c Mean Larval Foliage
sTreatment and Mean Number Larvae per Foot of Row Damage Indicesc'
Lbs. AI per Acreh k
per Applicationb 8/30 9/6 9/139 9/20 9/27 10/4 10/4
Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 0.3a 0.2a 0.la 0.2a 0.2a 0.Oa 0.Oa

No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 0.2a 0.la 0.la 0.2a O.Oa 0.Oa 0.Oa

Irrigation 0.3a 0.8a 3.1b 2.6b 2.8b 1.0a 1.0b

No Irrigation 0.3a 0.6a 3.3b 3.6b 2.9b 0.7a 1.7c


G = Granules. Parathion was applied on 6/11, 6/27, 7/11, 7/25, 8/8, 8/22, 9/5, 9/19, and 10/3/84. Crop was
planted on 5/31, harvested on 10/11, and picked on 10/15/84.
bIrrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/11, 9/3, 9/12, 9/18, 9/24, and 10/1/84.
c
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
d
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 46%, fall armyworm 27%, and cabbage looper 27%.
fPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 60%, cabbage looper 27%, and fall armyworm 13%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 92%, cabbage looper 5%, fall armyworm 2%, and cabbage looper 1%.

predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 98% and cabbage looper 2%.

iPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 93%, cabbage looper 4%, fall armyworm 2%, and lesser cornstalk
borer 1%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 87% and lesser cornstalk borer 13%.
predominantly velvetbean caterpillar damage.









NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Marianna, Florida


Table 12. Effect of Broadcast Parathion Granular Treatments with and without Irrigation and Irrigation and
No Irrigation on Control of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer and Yield of Peanuts. AREC, Marianna -
1984.

Treatment and Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Lbs. AI per Acre % Infested Plantsc Yield/Acrec
a,b
per Application 10/11 lbs.
Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 3a 4,995a

No Irrigation +
Parathion, 10%G, 2.0 3a 4,546a

Irrigation 30b 4,566a

No Irrigation 70c 3,977a

aG = Granules. Parathion was applied on 6/11, 6/27, 7/11, 7/25, 8/8, 8/22, 9/5, 9/19, and 10/3/84. Crop was
planted on 5/31, harvested on 10/11, and picked on 10/15/84.
bIrrigation, 1.0 inch of water per acre, was applied on 7/11, 9/3, 9/12, 9/18, 9/24, and 10/1/84.
cMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.




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