Group Title: Quincy NFREC Research report - University of Florida Research and Education Center ; NF 84-3
Title: Insect management on flue-cured tobacco in 1984
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074353/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insect management on flue-cured tobacco in 1984
Series Title: Quincy NFREC Research report
Physical Description: 11 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Rich, J. R ( Jimmy Ray ), 1950-
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1984
 Subjects
Subject: Tobacco -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and J.R. Rich.
General Note: Caption title.
Funding: Research report (North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074353
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85483516

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NORTH FLORIDA RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Live Oak, Florida

Quincy NFREC Research Report NF 84-3

Insect Management on Flue-Cured Tobacco in 1984

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
J. R. Rich, Associate Nematologist, Live Oak


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Three baits and 7 chemical foliar spray treatments were field tested on
NC-79 flue-cured tobacco for insect control, phytotoxicity, and effect on
crop yield and value. Formulations, number of applications, rates of ap-
plications, and dosage of active ingredient per acre per application are
presented in Table 1. HUME LIBRARY
HUME LIBRARY
The dates treatment applications were ma e are given in a footno e in
Tables 1 through 6. Two Orthene bait treat ents g~yelrq8qejast by hand
over the foliage and one was banded and inco orated to about 1 inch with
the soil on the same dates of the foliar spra treatments, ex t oe bait
was banded and incorporated at planting, and &EAbSitUaHV. QiA nr ap-
plied 3 days prior to the final harvest for fue ana ysis. An interval
of 14 days was allowed between all bait and spray applications, except as
noted in the preceding sentence. The spray treatments were made with a
tractor-mounted CO -pressurized sprayer with 1 hollow-cone nozzle over each
row and 1 hollow-cne nozzle on each side of the row. The 3 Tee-Jet D3-25
nozzles per row were designed to deliver approximately 26 gallons of spray
per acre at 60 p.s.i. and 4 m.p.h.

Treatments were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each
plot was 2 rows wide, and was separated by a 5-foot vacant alley or buffer
zone between plots within a block. The rows were 40 feet long and 3.67
feet apart within plots. Both rows served as the experimental plot for in-
sect counts, phytotoxicity ratings, crop yield, and crop value determina-
tions. Each row contained 25 to 27 plants set on approximately 19-inch
centers. Alleys between blocks of plots were 20 feet wide. The test area
was east of the location in 1983 near the barn area of the Center.

All cultural practices in preparing the test area for planting were
performed in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and fer-
tilizer applied in late February. The tobacco was transplanted on March
13, 1984, and hand topped on June 11. A sucker control, Royal Tac, was
applied at 2 gallons per acre on June 1 and 8, followed by Royal MH at 2
gallons per acre on June 13.

Green peach aphid counts were made from natural infestations beginning
on April 25 (pretreatment count), and succeeding counts followed at 14-day
intervals. All counts were made by counting the number of live alate and







2


apterous aphids on 4-leaves 3 inches or longer down from the bud. Five
marked plants equidistant from each other in each of the experimental rows
were counted.

Counts of tobacco budworm and tobacco hornworm were made from natural
infestations on April 25 (pretreatment count), and all succeeding counts
were made on the same dates as aphid counts. Each plant in each plot that
had at least 1 larva and the characteristic feeding injury was counted as a
damaged plant.

Visual phytotoxicity ratings were begun on April 25 (pretreatment
count), and all succeeding counts were made on the same dates as aphid
counts. Plots were rated according to severity of phytotoxicity observed.
The readings were based on the following system:

0 = None
1 = Slight leaf spotting or chlorosis
2 = Moderate leaf spotting or chlorosis
3 = Heavy leaf spotting or chlorosis with some necrosis
4 = Severe leaf spotting or chlorosis with considerable
necrosis

Four leaf primings or harvests were made during the crop season for
evaluation of crop performance on June 12, 26, July 23, and August 2.
Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of cured
leaves from each treatment replication. The crop value or dollar return
per acre was obtained by multiplying the yield in pounds per acre by the
return in cents per pound of cured leaf. The value per pound was based
upon the price of the various grades of tobacco.

An analysis of variance was made, and Duncan's multiple range test was
applied to all means analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data
interpretation.

Rainfall data expressed in inches for the term of the experiment were
as follows:

March April May June July August

21-0.25 4-4.50 9-0.21 14-0.68 1-0.51 1-0.13
26- T 5- T 23-0.73 15-1.26 2-1.90 Total-0.13
27-2.08 9-1.90 24- T 16-0.18 3-0.03
28-5.34 10-0.04 25-0.38 18-0.18 9-0.76
29- T 15- T 27-0.43 22-1.16 10-0.05
Total-7.67 23-0.25 29-0.50 23- T 12-0.36
24-0.10 30-0.38 24-0.34 16-0.27
Total-6.79 Total-2.63 29-0.31 17-0.12


(Rainfall data continued)











March April May June July August

30-0.48 18-0.20
Total-4.59 19-1.10
20-1.14
21- T
22-0.58
23-0.95
24- T
30- T
T = Trace 31-0.89
Grand Total = 30.67 inches Total-8.86


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Insect infestations occurred earlier, and populations were larger than
in 1983. The green peach aphid populations were large the entire season,
and reached a peak in early June prior to topping. The large and early
aphid infestations accounted for an increased incidence of PVY infection in
the field over that observed in 1983. Approximately 43% of the test plants
exhibited PVY symptoms on May 9, but the effect on yield was minimal.
Large tobacco budworm populations appeared earlier than in 1983, and re-
mained large until topping in early June. The budworm, at the peak was as
large as that in 1983, which was the largest observed in the past 29 years.
After the tobacco was topped and sprayed for sucker control, the budworm
population declined. The decline was more dramatic than in 1983, since
sucker control was more effective. Sucker control on NC-79 is more criti-
cal than on Speight G-28, as the variety is more prone to sucker after top-
ping. Populations of tobacco hornworm occurred about 9 days earlier than
in 1983, and were larger at the peak in early July. An unseasonally warm
February and early March enhanced transplant growth and early season aphid
and budworm populations. More than adequate rainfall was a factor in early
season plant growth and insect population increase. The wet weather in
late March and early April delayed plant growth, but enhanced insect popu-
lations. The excessive rainfall during the entire season had some adverse
effect on crop yield and value. This marks the 16th year in succession
that no control data have been obtained on the cabbage looper because popu-
lations on the crop have been almost nonexistent.

Green peach aphid began building populations on field plants on April
25 (pretreatment count), which was about 9 days earlier than in 1983. The
wet and warm March and April weather seemed to enhance aphid propagation,
as large populations occurred on the plants in early May. Aphid popula-
tions increased until June 6 on untreated tobacco. (See Table 2.) Aphid
populations began a natural decline on June 20, but on July 4 began in-
creasing on new sucker growth near the top of the plants. On June 6, when
populations were the largest on the untreated checks, all treatments except
FCR-1272 spray at 0.038 lb. AI/A. gave significant (P = 0.05) control.
Those treatments with aphid counts on June 6 above 1,000 would not be suit-
able for commercial application even though statistically they were not
different from some of the better treatments. The data confirmed that FMC-
54800 spray at 0.057 lb. AI/A. gave effective control of the aphid, when
applied on a bi-weekly schedule. The Orthene bait treatments performed










well except for the 0.5-lb. rate on June 6. Yield and dollar return data
in Table 6 indicated that damage by the tobacco budworm and hornworm masked
the detrimental effect of the aphid.

Populations of budworm in the pretreatment count were the largest ob-
served in the past 29 years. (See Table 3.) The population increased un-
til the plants were topped on June 11. After topping, sucker control was
effective, and the lack of a food source prevented ah increase in budworm
populations. Using the June 6 count for treatment comparison, only FMC-
54800 spray at 0.057, Bendiocarb spray at 0.19, FCR-1272 spray at 0.038,
Orthene spray at 0.96, and Orthene bait at 1.00 lb. AI/A. gave significant
control. All Orthene bait and spray treatments gave poor control as com-
pared to past results. The data suggest that insect resistance may be a
factor in the poor results with Orthene as well as Lannate. The budworm
definitely reduced yield and dollar return, but the extent of the loss
could not be separated from that caused by the aphid and hornworm. (See
Table 6.)

The hornworm population began to increase on the tobacco on May 9,
about 9 days earlier than in 1983, and continued the increase for the re-
mainder of the season. The population was slightly larger than in 1983,
and damage was about as severe. The largest population occurred on July 4,
when 100% of the plants in the untreated checks were damaged. (See Table
4.) On July 4, all treatments except Orthene bait banded and incorporated
at 1.00 lb. AI/A. gave significant control. The best treatments were FMC-
54800 spray at 0.057, FCR-1272 spray at 0.038, FCR-1272 spray at 0.019, and
Orthene spray at 0.96 lb. AI/A. Damage by the hornworm was reflected in
reduced yield and dollar return. (See Table 6.)

None of the treatments caused any discernible phytotoxicity. (See
Table 5.) Lannate has been observed to cause phytotoxicity, but none was
seen during the test period.

Yield in the untreated check was only 24 lbs./A. larger than in 1983,
which indicated that, even though the hornworm population was larger, the
hornworm was about as damaging as in 1983. Dollar return in the untreated
check decreased $1,434/A. as compared to that in 1983, reflecting the com-
bined effect of insect damage and PVY on quality. The best yield from
treated tobacco was increased 417 Ibs./A., but dollar return decreased by
$213/A., indicating that quality loss to PVY was larger than in 1983. No
doubt the excessive rainfall during the growing period aided in lessening
the quality of the tobacco, which added to the loss in dollar return. The
quality of the tobacco generally was not as good as in 1983, which was
caused by a combination of insect damage, weather, and PVY infection. (See
Table 6.)

Average maximum and minimum air temperatures during the test period
were: March 79 and 50, April 79 and 55, May 87 and 61, June 91 and
66, July 90 and 69, and August 91 and 710F. Temperatures averaged 3
degrees, respectively, above the maximum and minimum for 1983, which in-
dicated that test period temperatures were warmer than in 1983. Rainfall
was 7.33 inches more than in 1983. The more than adequate rainfall caused
leaching of fertilizer that required the addition of nitrogen fertilizer,
which extended the maturation period of the tobacco. The maturation








5

extension also contributed to quality loss. The wet and warm weather had
no deleterious effect on the budworm, as the population was the largest
recorded in the past 29 years.

Orthene 5% bait and 0.45% spray at 1 lb. AI/A. applied on a bi-weekly
schedule were equally effective in control of the 3 major insect pests.
The bait broadcast over the foliage was superior to that banded and in-
corporated with the soil for control of the budworm' and hornworm. FMC-
54800 spray at 0.057 lb. AI/A. was the most effective of all treatments
tested in control of the 3 insect pests.








NFREC, Quincy-and AREC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 1. Foliar Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Flue-Cured Tobacco (NC-79) 1984.


Lbs. or Gals Lbs. AI
b Number per Acre per per Acre per
Treatment Applications Application Application


Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 7 10.0 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)c e 8 20.0 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 'f 8 20.0 1.00
Orthene, 0.35% 5(75% SP) 7 25.6 0.76
Orthene, 0.45% S(75% SP)C 8 25.4 0.96
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 7 25.2 0.057
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 7 25.3 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(2.0 lbs./gal. EC) 7 25.2 0.038
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(76% WP) 7 25.2 0.19
Lannate, 0.28% S(2.4 lbs./gal. WM-LV) 7 25.2 0.59
Check (Untreated) ----- ---- ---

aB = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable concentrate, S = Spray, SP = Soluble powder, WM-LV = Water miscible-low
volume, and WP = Wettable powder.
Baits and sprays applied on 4/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6, 6/20, 7/4, and 7/18/84. Tobacco transplanted on
3/13/84, and harvested on 6/12, 6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
An additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
.Broadcast over foliage.
fBanded and incorporated.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 2. Mean Number of Green Peach Aphids per Plot of Flue-Cured Tobacco (NC-19)


- 1984.


Aphid Countsb Mean Rate
SLbs. AI/Acre/
Treatmenta 4/25 5/9 5/23 6/6 6/20 7/4 7/18e Application


Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) h 2a 217a 178a 1,007ab 71a 166a 882ab 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) '. 2a Oa 52a 17a 5a 35a 285a 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)g Oa Oa Oa 24a 247a 376a 792ab 1.00
Orthene, 0.35% S(SP)f la Oa Oa 5a 8a 10a 361a 0.76
Orthene, 0.45% S(SP) la Qa la la Oa 3a 220a 0.96
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(EC) 2a 123a 14a 17a Oa Oa Oa 0.057
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(EC) 2a 804b 1,238b 1,804b 632ab 1,007bo 2,168c 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(EC) 2a 758b 1,576b 7,934d 1,663c 1,913d 3,668d 0.038
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(WP) la 137a 10a 525a 743ab 1,2190 1,958c 0.19
Lannate, 0.28% S(WM-LV) la 114a 46a 1,216ab 147a 510ab 1,749bc 0.59
Check (Untreated) 2a 870b 1,420b 5,589c 1,063bc 1,168c 2,805cd ---


See Table I for more details.
7/1R/R8l


Baits and sprays applied on 4/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6,


6/20, 7/4, and


Counts made on 10 plants per plot, totaling 30 plants in 3 plots. Means followed by the same letter
are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Pretreatment count. Tobacco transplanted on 3/13/84. Plants were hand topped on 6/11/84. Sucker
control Royal Tac was applied on 6/1 and 6/8/84, and Royal MH on 6/13/84. Tobacco harvested on
6/12, 6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
eAphids on petioles of harvested leaves in plant middle.
SAphids on new sucker growth and petioles of harvested leaves.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
An additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
.Broadcast over foliage.
Banded and incorporated.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 3. Mean Percent Budworm Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants per Plot (NC-79) 1984.


Budworm Countsb Mean Rate
Lbs. AI/Acre/
Treatment 4/250 5/9 5/23 6/6 6/20 7/4 7/18 Application


Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 44b 66b 60cd 91 ef 21ab 11a la 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)' 55b 42a 56bod 81ode 16a 11a la 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)e'g 25a 92c 84ef 98f 47d 23b 6a 1.00
Orthene, 0.35% S(SP)d 47b 72b 69de 88ef 17a 12a 3a 0.76
Orthene, 0.45% S(SP) 48b 58ab 49bc 73bcd 20a 10a 2a 0.96
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(EC) 42b 71b 31a 56a 17a 5a Oa 0.057
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(EC) 52b 75b 42ab 96ef 20a 7a 2a 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(EC) 47b 61b 29a 70bo 14a 5a la 0.038
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(WP) 52b 95c 77ef 61ab 35bcd 24b la 0.19
Lannate, 0.28% S(WM-LV) 45b 64b 52bc 86def 27abc 10a 3a 0.59
Check (Untreated) 55b 97c 92f 98f 37cd 23b 3a ----

a
See Table 1 for more details. Baits and sprays applied on 4/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6, 6/20, 7/4, and
b7/18/84.
Counts made on 50 to 54 plants per plot, totaling 153 to 159 plants in 3 plots. Means followed by
the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
Pretreatment count. Tobacco transplanted on 3/13/84. Plants were hand topped on 6/11/84. Sucker
control Royal Tac was applied on 6/1 and 6/8/84, and Royal MH on 6/13/84. Tobacco harvested on 6/12,
d6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
fAn additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
Broadcast over foliage.
8Banded and incorporated.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 4. Mean Percent Hornworm Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco Plants per Plot (NC-79) 1984.


Hornworm Countsb Mean Rate
Lbs. AI/Acre/
Treatmenta 4/250 5/9 5/23 6/6 6/20 7/4 7/18 Application


Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)f 0 2a 31de 54c 47d 58f 52e 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)d~ 0 3a 21bcd 45bc 36cd 36e 32cd 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)e 0 *3a 28cde 37abc 42cd 87g 80f 1.00
Orthene, 0.35% S(SP) 0 la 31de 39abc 30bcd 29ode 19bc 0.76
Orthene, 0.45% S(SP) 0 1a 21bcd 27abc 17abo 16bcd 10ab 0.96
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(EC) 0 la la 3a Oa la la 0.057
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(EC) 0 la 8abc 32abc 21abcd 15abo 7ab 0.019
FRC-1272, 0.022% S(EC) 0 la 3ab 10ab 7ab 10ab 5ab 0.038
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(WP) 0 2a 29de 10ab 23abcd 31de 36d 0.19
Lannate, 0.28% S(WM-LV) 0 2a 27cde 42bc 31bcd 31de 27cd 0.59
Check (Untreated) 0 5a 42e 97d 99e 100g 97g ---


See Table 1 for more details. Baits and sprays applied on 4
7/18/84.
Counts made on 50 to 54 plants per plot, totaling 153 to 159
same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.


/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6,

plants in 3 plots.


6/20, 7/4, and

Means followed by the


Cpretreatment count. Tobacco transplanted on 3/13/84. Plants were hand topped on 6/11/84. Sucker
control Royal Tac was applied on 6/1 And 6/8/84, and Royal MH on 6/13/84. Tobacco harvested on 6/12,
6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
eAn additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
fBroadcast over foliage.
gBanded and incorporated.








0
-NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Live Oak, Florida

Table 5. Phytotoxic Effects of Certain Insecticide Formulations on Flue-Cured Tobacco, (NC-79) 1984.


Mean Phytotoxicity Indicesb Mean Rate
S Lbs. AI/Acre/
Treatment 4/25c 5/9 5/23 6/6 6/20 7/4 7/18 Application

Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.50
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)edf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.00
Orthene, 5% B(CC-72337)eg 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.00
Orthene, 0.35% S(SP)d 0 0^ 0 0 0 0 0 0.76
Orthene, 0.45% S(SP) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.96
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(EC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.057
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(EC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.019
FRC-1272, 0.022% S(EC) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.038
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(WP) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.19
Lannate, 0.28% S(WM-LV) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.59
Check (Untreated) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ---


aSee Table 1 for more details. Baits and sprays applied on 4/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6, 6/20, 7/4, and
7/18/84.
Rating System: 0 = None, 1 = Slight leaf spotting or chlorosis, 2 = Moderate leaf spotting or
chlorosis, 3 = Heavy leaf spotting or chlorosis with some necrosis, and 4 = Severe leaf spotting or
chlorosis with considerable necrosis.
Pretreatment count. Tobacco transplanted on 3/13/84. Plants were hand topped on 6/11/84. Sucker
control Royal Tac was applied on 6/1 and 6/8/84, and Royal MH on 6/13/84. Tobacco harvested on 6/12,
6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
eAn additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
Broadcast over foliage.
gBanded and incorporated.








NFREC, Quincy and AREC, Live Oak, Florida


Table 6. Effects of Certain Insecticidal Treatments on Yield and Dollar Return per Acre of Flue-
Cured Tobacco (NC-79) 1984.


Mean Rate Yield Dollar
Lbs. AI/Acre/ Lbs./Acre Return/Acre
TreatmentApplication Mean 3 Reps.0 Mean 3 Reps.o


Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)d 0.50 2,413bc 2,741a
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331) 'f 1.00 2,568abc 3,035a
Orthene, 5% B(CC-12331)e 1.00 2,174c 2,661a
Orthene, 0.35% S(SP)d 0.76 2,825a 3,400a
Orthene, 0.45% S(SP) 0.96 2,769ab 2,851a
FMC-54800, 0.03% S(EC) 0.057 2,601ab 3,304a
FCR-1272, 0.011% S(EC) 0.019 2,574ab 3,143a
FCR-1272, 0.022% S(EC) 0.038 2,428abc 3,153a
Bendiocarb, 0.09% S(WP) 0.19 2,387bc 2,627a
Lannate, 0.28% S(WM-LV) 0.59 2,643ab 3,159a
Check (Untreated) --- 1,658d 974b


See Table 1 for more details. Baits and sprays applied on 4/25, 5/9, 5/23, 6/6, 6/20, 7/4, and
7/18/84.
Tobacco transplanted on 3/13/84, and harvested on 6/12, 6/26, 7/23, and 8/2/84.
dMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
An additional application made on 7/30/84 for residue analysis.
fAn additional application made at transplanting on 3/13/84.
Broadcast over foliage.
gBanded and incorporated.




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