Group Title: North Florida Station mimeo report - University of Florida Experiment Station ; NFES 67-2
Title: Irrigation of shade tobacco, 1964-66
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074350/00001
 Material Information
Title: Irrigation of shade tobacco, 1964-66
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 4, 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kincaid, Randall R ( Randall Rich ), 1903-
Davis, D. R
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Tobacco -- Irrigation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.R. Kincaid and D.R. Davis.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 11, 1967."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074350
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85534345

Full Text


NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
/VFES' 7-Q_ Quincy, Florida
January 11, 1967

North Florida Station Mimeo Report NFES 67-2 / ', /

IRRIGATION OF SHADE TOBACCO, 1964- 6 i
'o,^ O > i
R. R. Kincaid and D. R. Davis- 1/1t


Introduction 'q

Shade tobacco is irrigated to provide insurance against low yield and poor quality
during seasons with prolonged dry periods, which often occur in May when the crop should
be making its most rapid growth. The rate of irrigation is generally 1 inch or more per
week.

Preliminary studies on irrigation of shade tobacco have been conducted at this station
for three years, 1964-1966. The objectives were to find suitable methods of measuring soil
moisture and computing it from day to day, and to determine the best moisture level at which
to apply irrigation water for highest yield and best quality.

Methods

The 1964 trials served to establish certain methods of handling an irrigation
experiment. In 1965 and 1966, five plots were used for each irrigation treatment in
randomized complete blocks. Each plot was 16 feet (four rows) wide and 24 feet long. The
two inside rows were used for records. Alleys between blocks of plots were 8 feet wide,
with ditches to provide drainage.

Conventional methods of tobacco production were used, the only variable being
irrigation.

The moisture holding capacity was based on the moisture content of soil samples taken
from the plots 24 hours after being saturated. The samples were weighed before and after
drying and the water loss or weight differential was converted into inches of water. This
was accepted as the moisture holding capacity of the soil. The soil was sampled to a depth
of 18 inches. (15 inches in 1964)

Soil moisture was measured twice a week by means of a nuclear soil moisture meter, and
was also estimated from a formula involving amount of sunshine, temperature, day length,
age of plants, and number of leaves removed by priming. For each treatment, irrigation
equivalent to 1 inch of rain was applied when soil moisture reached a certain percentage of
field capacity.

Results

The results shown in Table 1 indicate how the crop varied with irrigation each year.
The 1966 crop, grown on the more productive soil and with the most precise methods, is
considered to have given the most reliable results.


1/
- Plant Pathologist, North Florida Experiment Station and Advisory Agricultural
Mef-orolog5st. ESSA, Weather Bureau, North Florida Experiment Station, respectively.





Yield, grade index (relative value per pound), crop index (relative value of the cfot),
and the three best grades (corresponding to the No. 1 string grade) were all highest for
each year where an intermediate amount of irrigation was applied.

With an increasing number of irrigations, there was a smaller percentage of the crop in
the dark grade, and a larger percentage in the off-color (K) grades.

In the 1966 crop, the amount of fleck, found on leaves in the field as well as in the
packing house, increased as the soil moisture increased. The same was true for the
percentage of plants showing calcium deficiency.

Burn test, which measures the fire-holding capacity of the leaves, was highest each
year for the wettest treatment.

In summary, the best over-all results, except burn test, were obtained where 1 inch of
irrigation was applied whenever the moisture content of the top 18 inches of soil reached a
level averaging about 1.4 inches. The amount of irrigation which gave best yield and
quality each year was less than is commonly applied commercially.

Results of the best 1966 treatment included a rather low incidence of fleck. A further
reduction in fleck might be obtained by postponing irrigation during periods when ozone
concentration is above normal and a fleck outbreak is forecast,

Suegested Irrigation Guide for Farm Shades

Irrigation schedules require that certain measurements be made and a running log of
soil moisture be maintained.

Measuring Rain.--An accurate measurement of rain will be necessary, Rainfall may be
measured near, but not under, the shade with an accurate rain gauge, preferably of the
compound type, Since spring and summer showers vary greatly in amount within a short
distance, rainfall should be measured within 1/4 mile of the area to be irrigated,

Rating the Irrigation System.--The irrigation schedule described in this paper is based
upon the application of 1 inch of irrigation water when the soil moisture has been reduced
to a certain level. This, then, will necessitate a knowledge of the rate of application for
each sprinkler system so that 1 inch of water can be applied with a fair degree of accuracy.
The rate of irrigation is measured once at the beginning of the season for each combination
of sprinklers that may be used. The rate varies from one spot to another, especially in
windy weather, Therefore, it is suggested that 25 identical cylindrical cans be placed in
the area to be irrigated, extending from center to each corner without regard to location of
sprinklers, as follows:

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 b
0 0
L .. t t
Care shcqud be taken to see ihat cans are level for accurate measurements.






-3-


When an estimated 1 inch of irrigation has been applied, the total depth of water in
the 25 cans is measured and averaged. From the length of irrigation time in this test, the
number of hours for a 1 inch application of water can be calculated with sufficient accuracy.
If the measurement is made on a clear day, subtract 10 percent from the required time for a
partly cloudy day and 20 percent for a cloudy day, to compensate for less evaporation loss.

Observing Sunshine.--To effectively use the system it will be necessary to keep a daily
record of the cloudiness or the amount of sunshine. The habit of making an estimate of the
sunshine at 9 or 10 in the morning and another at 2 or 3 in the afternoon should be
sufficient to successfully use the moisture tables. Carry a small pocket notebook to record
the relative cloudiness of each day as it will be used in tomorrow morning's computations.
It is easy to forget by tomorrow how cloudy it was today.

Soil Moisture Estimation

Soil moisture estimations involve the keeping of a log of gain or loss of water
available for crop use. Water gain is that which comes from rain or irrigation. Water loss
is that water that is used by the plants, water that evaporates from the soil, and excessive
water that runs off or percolates through the soil following heavy or prolonged rains.

Weather elements, especially sunshine and temperature play a very important role in the
daily amount of water used by plants and evaporated from the soil. Other factors are soil
texture, day length, plant age, and number of primings.

Soil Moisture Tables 2, 3, and 4 have been constructed to take most of these items into
consideration. The tables are constructed to compensate for the different water-holding
capacity of the 3 classes of soil found in the shades of the Type 62 cigar-wrapper
production area of north Florida and south Georgia, so that the day of irrigation is
approximately the same as would be indicated by more elaborate tables.

Table 2: For light, sandy soils for days which are clear, partly cloudy and cloudy.

Table 3: For average fine sandy loam soils for days which are clear, mostly clear,
mostly cloudy and cloudy.

Table 4: For soils with above-average clay content, for days which are clear, partly
cloudy, and cloudy.

It is assumed in these tables that the crop is transplanted between March 20 and April
15, and that priming is started about 7 weeks after transplanting and continued at an
average rate of three leaves a week.

Soil moisture log is the daily record of estimated soil moisture in inches. Referring
to Table 2, 3, or 4, according to the class of soil, the moisture for the previous day is
adjusted for water loss to a lower figure, depending on the amount of sunshine and the number
of the week following transplant date. Then water gain by rain or irrigation is added.

The log must be started on a day when soil moisture is at field capacity, 24 hours
after a heavy rain which saturates the soil, preferably with some run-off. Therefore, the
log should be started with the first heavy rain after February 1. The first entry in the
log will be 3.0. Following this entry the log is maintained using only the week 1-2 column
of the soil moisture tables until transplanting day.









Table 5 is a sample soil moisture log. It has eight columns, as follows:

1. Date
2. Number of the week since the transplanting date, which is considered the first day
pf the first week.
3. Sunshine observed yesterday.
4. Soil moisture yesterday morning (from column 8 of the previous day).
5. Estimated moisture (located in the soil moisture table using the information in
columns 2, 3, and 4).
6. Rain past 24 hours (measured at 6 to 7 in the morning).
7. Irrigation yesterday or last night.
8. Soil moisture this morning (sum of columns 5, 6, and 7).

The sample log shown in Table 5 illustrates entries for an average fine sandy loam soil
(Table 3).

May 6, during the 6th week after transplanting, with a clear day and soil moisture
2.5 inches on May 5, the entry for May 6 is 2.2.

May 8, 0.2 inch rain added.
May 10, moisture 1.5; plan to irrigate today or tomorrow.
May 11, 1.0 inch irrigation added.
May 12, 3.5 inches rain.
May 13, moisture recorded as 3.0.

Plans for irrigation at 1.4 inches of moisture should be modified according to the rain
forecast, as follows:

Moisture Probability of Rain Irrigate
this A. M. Today Tomorrow Today

1.5 Less than 40% and Less than 50% Yes
1.5 40% or more or 50% or more No
1.4 Less than 60% and Less than 90% Yes
1.4 60% or more or 90% or more No
1.3 Less than 90% Yes
1.3 More than 90% No
1.2 Regardless of forecast Yes

Regardless of soil moisture, the crop should be irrigated after transplanting as needed
to establish a stand.

Soil moisture log forms (Table 6) may be obtained from your County Agent.









DRD
RRK
1/11/67
450 CC








TEble 1: results of Irriprio. n Experiments, 1964-1966.
Three DOrk No.2f Plants




1964 ii 2 2 112 .532 80 2 62 6 8.9
431 1.3 1698 .546 820 29 1 10.







L.S.D. 5 1 6 7 035 133 1
69 2.1 10 126 .634 78 3 34 13 1.

L.S.D. .% 4 .040 116 i 6 8 ii 1.6

196 Dx 1753 .67 1202 53 2 8 1 52 8.5 2.
58 1.27 7 14153 .661 1017 45 22 13 8 61 11.
41 1.. 1417 .52 21 1 3 9 6 4 5.7 1.
69 1.96 6 1431 .61 91 45 37 6 i 6 6
60 2.2 6 1161 .614 1728 2 2 13 6.4

L.S.D. 5% 178 .051 133 ID 13 8 .i -

1966 2 Fl. 15- 178 .6 67 12 3 )2 25 1 53 2.17
66 1.2" 21 1112 .731 1290 62 17 6 3 11 1 3.6
47 1. 14 3 .61 6267 121 211 1 62 2.1 2.0,
7 1. 7 1534 .61 101 45 22 3 8 1 61.4 2.06

L.S D. 16 132 .005 i 1 9 6 M 20 .7 1.22








TABLE 2
SOIL MOISTURE TABLE
LIGHT SANDY SOILS


Yesterday Clear (75 100% Sunshine)
Available Soil Estimated Moisture (inches)


Moisture
Yesterday


3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1. 2*


3.0
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


Yesterday Partly Cloudy (25 75% Sunshine)
Soil Estimated Moisture (inches)


Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Week
1-2

3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


Week Week Week
3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Cloudy (0 25% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


*See Irrigation instructions on page 4 of text.








TABLE 3
SOIL MOISTURE
AVERAGE FINE SANDY


TABLE
LOAM SOILS


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday

S3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2,1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1,4
1.3


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Clear (75 100% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2,8
2,7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1,9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.7
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.6
2.5
2,4
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1,5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


Mostly Cloudy (25 50% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2,6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1,6
1.5*
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1,5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3,0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.8
2.7
2,6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2,0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday


3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Mostly Clear (50 75% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2,5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2,0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1,3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1,7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


Cloudy (0 25% Sunshine)
Estimated Hoisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2,6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


*See Irrigation instructions on page 4 of test.


3,0
2.9
2,8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*








TABLE 4
SOIL MOISTURE TABLE
SOIL WITH ABOVE-AVERAGE CLAY CONTENT


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Clear (75 100% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.3*
1.2*


Yesterday
Soil
Moisture
Yesterday


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5


Partly Cloudy (25 75% Sunshine)
Estimated Moisture (inches)
Week Week Week Week
1-2 3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.1
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


3.0
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*
1.2*


Yesterday Cloudy (0 25% Sunshine)
Soil Estimated Moisture (inches)


Moisture
Yesterday

3.0+
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3


Week
1-2


3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


Week Week Week
3-5 6-11 12+


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


3.0
3.0
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5*
1.4*
1.3*


Scc Irrigation instructions on page 4 of text.








TABLE 5
SOIL MOISTURE ESTIMATION LOG

SOIL CLASS AVERAGE FINE SANDY LOAM SOIL

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
SOIL SOIL
MOISTURE MOISTURE
WEEK SINCE SUNSHINE YESTERDAY| ESTIMATED RAIN IPR WATER = THIS
DATE TRANSPLANT YESTERDAY A. M. MOISTURE + PAST 24 HRTS. + YESTERDAY MORNING

5/6 6 Clear 2.5 2.2 0 0 2.2

5/7 6 Clear 2.2 1.9 0 0 1.9

5/8 6 Mostly Clear 1.9 1.7 0.2 0 1.9

5/9 6 Clear 1.9 1.7 0 0 1.7

5/10 6 Clear 1.7 1.5 0 0 1.5

5/11 6 Clear 1.5 1.3 0 1.0 2.3

5/12 6 Cloudy 2.3 2.2 3.5 0 5.7

5/13 7 Mostly Clear 5.7 3.0 0 0 3.0

5/14 7 Clear 3.0 2.6 0 0 2.6

5/15 7 Mostly Cloudy 2.6 2.5 0 0 2.5






TABLE 6


SOIL MOISTURE LOG

SOIL CLASS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
SOIL SOIL
MOISTURE MOISTURE
WEEK SINCE SUNSHINE YESTERDAY ESTIMATED RAIN IRR WATER = THIS
DATE TRANSPLANT YESTERDAY A. M. MOISTURE + PAST 24 HRS. + YESTERDAY MORNING












1
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