Group Title: Quincy AREC research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; 81-6
Title: Evaluation of insect management methods on peanuts in 1981
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074337/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of insect management methods on peanuts in 1981
Series Title: Quincy AREC research report
Physical Description: 5, 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Tappan, William B., 1928-
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Diseases and pests -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: William B. Tappan and D.W. Gorbet.
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074337
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84899282

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-, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Quincy, Florida

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
SMarianna, Florida

Quincy AREC Research Report NF 81-6


Evaluation of Insect Management Methods on Peanuts in 1981

William B. Tappan, Entomologist, Quincy, and
D. W. Gorbet, Associate Agronomist, Marianna


MATERIALS AND METHODS

One bait and 12 insecticidal foliar spray treatments and 3 insecticidal granu-
lar soil treatments were field tested on Florunner peanuts for insect control, phy-
totoxicity, and effect on crop performance. In a second experiment, certain
breeding lines and varieties were studied to determine if any tolerance to insect
attack could be detected. A third experiment was conducted to study the effects
of broadcast parathion granular treatments with and without irrigation and no
irrigation versus irrigation on infestations of the lesser cornstalk borer on
Florunner peanuts.

The Orthene bait was broadcast over the plots or foliage on dates of spray
treatments, and that which was deposited on the soil surface was left undisturbed.
The RH-9358 granules were applied broadcast immediately prior to planting at three
rates (2, 2 and 4 pounds Al/acre), and incorporated to a depth of 2 inches with
the soil. Three weeks later, one of the 2-pound-rate treatments was sidedressed
with an additional 2 pounds A I/acre in a 6-inch band, which was incorporated to a
depth of 1 inch with the soil. All sprays were applied with a boo -
pressurized hand sprayer that covered 2 rows with 3 o gr rRPV s rayer
was calibrated to deliver approximately 26 gallons of s r ri0 1. at nor al
walking speed.

Treatments listed in Table 1 were replicated 3 tim s in complete randomize
blocks. Each plot was 4 rows wide, and rows were 30 fet i l9 ltoigtia
foot centers. The 2 center rows constituted the experi Wn Il ow
on either side acted as buffers between plots. Alleys between blocks of plots
were 10 feet wide. Plots treated with the RH-9358 granules were 12 X 34 feet in
size, and were reduced to 12 X 30 feet after planting. Treatments listed in Tables
5, 6, and 7 were replicated 3 times in complete randomized blocks. Each plot in
Tables 5 and 6 was 2 rows wide, and the rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 2 rows were the experimental plot, and there were no buffers between
plots within blocks. Alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet wide. Each plot
in Table 7 was 5 rows wide, and the rows were 20 feet long planted on 3-foot
centers. The 3 center rows constituted the experimental plot, with the right-hand
2 rows serving for foliage insect counts and yield determinations and the left-hand
1 row serving for lesser cornstalk borer counts.during the growing season. The
1 row on either side of the 3 center rows acteld as buffers between plots. All
alleys between blocks of plots were 10 feet Wide. The test areas were located in
the northwest portion of the farm at the Agricultural Research Center in Marianna,
Florida.





-2-


All cultural practices in preparing the test areas for planting were perfor-
med in the usual manner. Beds for planting were prepared and fertilizer
(400 pounds/acre of 4-8-24 with minor elements) applied in March. Herbicides;
Balan, 1 gallon + Vernam, 2.5 pints per acre were applied on April 7, 1981,
and Lasso, 3 quarts + Dyanap, 1.5 gallons per acre were applied on May 11.
Foliar disease control was applied to all tests as follows: Bravo, 1 quart per
acre on June 5 and 18; Bravo, 2.125 pints per acre on July 1; Manzate, 2
pounds + Bravo, 1 pint per acre on July 15, 29, August 12 and 26; Citcop,
1 quart + Bravo, 1 pint per acre on September 9; Citcop, 1 quart + Bravo,
1.5 pints per acre on September 23; and Bravo, 2.125 pints on October 7,
which was applied only to the insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer tests.
The insecticide test was planted on May 4 and harvested on September 25, and
the peanuts were picked on September 28. The insect tolerance and lesser corn-
stalk borer tests were planted on May 28 and harvested on October 12, and the
peanuts were picked on October 15.

The dates treatment applications were made are given in a footnote in Tables
1 through 4. The insecticidal bait and sprays were applied generally as needed
for thrips and worm control. The broadcast granular soil applications were made
the same day as planting, with one receiving an additional sidedressing 3 weeks
later. Irrigation was applied 8 times at 1 inch per acre to the lesser cornstalk
borer test on dates given in a footnote in Table 7.

Tobacco thrips counts in the insecticide test were made from natural infesta-
tions by counting the number of adult and immature thrips collected in 25cc.
bottles from 10 terminal foliage buds per plot at weekly intervals beginning on
May 18 and ending on June 22. In the insect tolerance test, the thrips counts
were made from 5 terminal foliage buds per plot taken weekly beginning on June
11 and ending July 2. Counts were made in the laboratory after the thrips had
been washed from the buds with alcohol and collected on 9 cm. filter paper in a
BUichner funnel under vacuum. A binocular microscope with 15X magnification
was used to make the counts. Ratings of foliage damaged by thrips were made on
the same dates that thrips were counted. The rating system used was based on a
scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being no damage and 10 being 100 percent of the foliage
showing some feeding damage.

Counts of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, velvetbean
caterpillar, and other foliage feeding Lepidoptera larvae were made from natural
infestations by counting the number of live larvae in 3 feet of row per plot at
weekly intervals beginning on July 20 and ending September 7 in the insecticide
test. Worm counts were made weekly beginning on July 22 and ending September
23 in the insect tolerance test, and July 30 to September 24 in the lesser cornstalk
borer test.

Lesser cornstalk borer counts in the lesser cornstalk borer test were made on
dates foliage feeding worms were counted. The number of lesser cornstalk borer
larvae either in or out of the silken tubes were counted and included in the number
of worms per foot of row on the count dates. At harvest, the percent of infested
lesser cornstalk borer plants was determined on September 25 in the insecticide
test and on October 12 in the insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer tests.
Ten plants were examined per plot and damage to pegs, pods, or stems was noted
as a damaged plant, and the percent infested plants was calculated by the number
damaged multiplied by 10.

Yield was calculated in pounds per acre from the total weight of dried peanuts
picked from 2 rows of each plot in each test. No crop value was calculated for the
3 tests.





-3-


Visual phytotoxicity ratings in the insecticide test were begun on May 18
and continued at weekly intervals until August 31. Plots were rated according
to severity of phytotoxicity observed. The ratings were based on the following
system:


None
Slight chlorosis or spotting
Moderate chlorosis or spotting
Heavy chlorosis or spotting with some necrosis
Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.


An analysis of variance was made of all treatment means except the insecti-
cide phytotoxicity indices. Duncan's multiple range test was applied to all means
analyzed to obtain statistical comparisons for data interpretation.


Rainfall data expressed in inches for
October 16 were as follows:


the duration of the tests from May 3 to


May
6-0.33
7-0.47
20-0.40
21-0.02
26-0.02
27-1.49
Total- 2.73










T=Trace


June
4-1.83
7-0.15
9-0.83
12-0.07
13-0.02
14-T
17-0.41
23-0.10
24-1.21
27-0.12
Total-4.74


July
2-0.06
3-0.08
4-0.14
5-0.50
10-0.09
13-0.01
14-0.01
17-0.32
18-0.08
19-0.25
21-0.32
31-2.16
Total- 4.02


Grand Total-16.48 inches


August
1-0.03
2-0.15
3-0.02
4-0.12
7-0.42
8-0.17
9-0.03
10-0.55
11-0.02
12-T
21-T
22-0.01
23-0.05
24-0.11
28-T
29-T
30-0.80
31-0.05
Total- 2. 53


September
2-0.99
4-0.37
5-0.02
6-0.37
16-0.69
17-T
Total-2.44


October
10-0.02
Total -0.02


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Tobacco thrips populations were about half as large as they were in 1980,
but population and damage curves followed the same pattern as has been observed
during the past 6 years. Foliage feeding worm populations began infesting the
plants at approximately the same time as in 1980, but populations were generally
smaller. The lesser cornstalk borer populations in the insecticide test were
extremely light, and infestations in the insect tolerance and lesser cornstalk borer
tests did not begin increasing until the first week in October. The primary foliage
feeding insect species were corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm,
soybean looper, and velvetbean caterpillar. The economic threshold level was
reached in the insecticide test on August 10, the insect tolerance test on August 12
and the lesser cornstalk borer test on August 13, which was approximately 3 weeks
later than in 1980. Foliage feeding insect populations were larger in the insect
tolerance test, and was probably due to the late planting date and the difference in
physiological stage of growth. Velvetbean caterpillar infestations were late occurring
in all tests, and never reached economic threshold levels. The drought conditions







that prevailed during August, September, and October may have been responsible
for the small insect populations, but failed to influence the lesser cornstalk borer
populations until the last 2 weeks of the test period. The rainfall in the 1980
test period was 11.69 inches below that in 1979, and in 1981 the rainfall was 5.21
inches below that in 1980. Both 1980 and 1981 were extremely dry years, but
enough rain fell in 1981 to produce peanuts yields larger than in 1980. Apparently,
Florunner is a drought resistance variety capable of producing well under the
conditions of this study. (See Tables 2 through 7.)

The thrips count on June 1 indicated that all treatments gave significant
control. On June 8, the thrips foliage damage indices showed that all treat-
ment significantly reduced foliage injury. The planting time application of RH-9358 -
granules at 4 pounds Al/acre and 2 + 2 pounds Al/acre 3 weeks later were the
best treatments in reducing foliage damage. Orthene bait and Monitor at the high
rate followed in efficacy in that order. The RH-9358 granular treatment at a total
of 4 pounds Al/acre gave excellent protection from thrips injury during the peak
thrips infestation, which indicated the residual effectiveness of the material. (See
Table 2.) No significant yield response to any of the treatments was observed,
which corroborates past conclusions that thrips have no economic influence on the
crop. (See Table 3.)

Control of corn earworm, fall armyworm, granulate cutworm, lesser cornstalk
borer, and other Lepidoptera and the effect on yield are presented in Table 3.
The economic threshold level for foliage feeding worms was reached on August 10
and peaked on August 17. The population of worms was small as compared to
that in 1980, and was about 3 weeks late in occurring, with corn earworm and
fall armyworm being the most prevalent species. Control by all treatments on
Aigust 17 was significant except for RH-9358 at 2 and 2 + 2 pounds Al/acre and
Ammo at 0.021 pound Al/acre. Weakness in the RH-9358 treatments was evident,
with the 2-pound-AI/acre rate being less effective than the check. Should RH-9358
be registered for use on peanuts, an insecticidal foliage spray near the end of
the season may be necessary to enhance control. The Orthene bait performed
well under the conditions of the test, and has the advantage of not requiring
incorporation with the soil. The population of foliage feeding worms declined after
the peak on August 17 probably due to the drought conditions that prevailed.
There was no significant differences among any of the treatments with respect to
lesser cornstalk borer control. The lesser cornstalk borer populations were
extremely small even though conditions were conducive to an increase in numbers.
Apparently, rainfall in early season had not allowed an early lesser cornstalk borer
increase, which adversely affected the late season populations. None of the treat-
ments had any significant effect on yield, which was confounded by the drought
conditions that occurred during the test period. The data seemed to confirm the
observation in 1980 that threshold values of 4-5 worms per foot of row, which have
been set for foliage feeding worms on peanuts, are too low. The data indicated
that the drought conditions affected yield more than all the arthropod pests com-
bined. (See Table 3.)

Phytotoxicity was observed only on plants treated with RH-9358 granules.
(See Table 4.) The 2-pounds-Al/acre rate was the least phytotoxic of the three
RH-9358 treatments. Symptoms of RH-9358 were manifested on June 1 by chlorosis
and necrotic spotting along leaflet edges and tips. Early stages of the phytotoxicity
were evident as only chlorotic areas, but later developed into necrotic spots. Some-
times the entire leaflet margins turned necrotic. Generally, the phytotoxicity
was confined to the early stages of plant growth, and in late season the degree of
phytotoxicity diminished. On August 17, no phytotoxic symptoms were observed
on any of the treatments, indicating that the RH-9358 material had dissipated from







the soil, and was no longer being absorbed by the plant in sufficient quantities
to cause injury. This dissipation of RH-9358 from the soil was borne out by the
fact that insect control efficacy was waning also at that time. (See Table 3.)
Even though RH-9358 was severely phytotoxic in early season, no effect on
yield was noted. (See Table 3.)

Thrips populations in the insect tolerance test peaked on June 11, with
several lines showing significant tolerance to thrips attack. However, the data
collected on June 11 may have been affected by the heavy rainfall that occurred
on June 9. Since only 2 days had elapsed from the recorded date of the rainfall
to the count date, many of the immature thrips washed off the plants may have
not found their way back to the terminal buds. Thus, the count on June 11 must
be discounted, since Florunner was showing significant tolerance. As the data
indicated on June 18, there was no significant differences between any of the
lines for thrips tolerance. There were significant differences in the thrips foliage
damage indices indicating that several lines possess excellent tolerance to thrips
attack even though they have no apparent repellancy characteristics. (See Table
5.) The effects of thrips on yield of the various lines was obscured by varietal
differences, and it is doubtful that the differences in yield among lines was attri-
butable to thrips damage. The proceeding deduction was drawn from the fact that
Florunner. had a high thrips foliage damage index, but produced the highest yield.
(See Tables 5 and 6.) Several lines were significantly better than Valencia for
tolerance to foliage feeding worms on August 12, but when the worm populations
peaked on August 19, none of the lines were statistically different from Valencia
or each other. The lesser cornstalk borer infestation in the insect tolerance test
was much larger than in the insecticide test. Although several lines were signifi-
cantly better than Valencia, the line that showed the most promise for tolerance
to the lesser cornstalk borer was 73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B. The yield of 73 X 18A-
5-2-3-1-2-B would have a decided disadvantage, unless the tolerance of the line
could be incorporated into a higher yielding line. Again, SE Runner 56-15 showed
good tolerance to the lesser cornstalk borer, but also has the disadvantage of
being a low yielding line. Florunner showed some of the tolerance to the lesser
cornstalk borer that has been reported in Texas, but the expression of the tolerance
in the field seems to be sporadic. However, Florunner is a high yielding variety,
and that characteristic may be due to insect tolerance that is not always observable.
(See Table 6.)

In the lesser cornstalk borer test, the population of foliage feeding worms
reached the economic threshold level on August 13, and peaked on the same date.
Even though there was a significant difference in worm populations on August 13,
with respect to irrigation, that difference was reversed on August 20, indicating
that the drought conditions prevailing had made the natural population of foliage
feeding worms too variable for an accurate test. The coefficient of variability on
August 13 was 35%, while that on August 20 was 21%. However, with the popula-
tion of foliage feeding worms present in the test being so small and variable, no
definite conclusions as to the effect of irrigation on the worms could be drawn from
the data. On the other hand, data collected at harvest showed that irrigation
reduced the lesser cornstalk borer infestation significantly. The population of. the
lesser cornstalk borer failed to attack the test plants in sufficient numbers in early
season to obtain data at that time. Therefore, the portion of the test regarding
efficacy of the parathion granular treatment with and without irrigation had to be
aborted. Yield was significantly increased by irrigation, and there was a highly
significant (P = 0.01) negative correlation (r = -0.898) between yield and percent
lesser cornstalk borer infested plants. The correlation did not satisfy the question
of how much yield loss was due to the lesser cornstalk borer and how much to the
drought or lack of irrigation. (See Table 7.)





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 1: Soil and Foliar Insecticide
Marianna 1981.


Treatments Applied for Insect Control on Florunner Peanuts. ARC,


Lbs. or Gals. Lbs. Al
No. per Acre per per Acre per
Treatment Applications Application Application

RH-9358, 5%G 2 40.0b + 2.75ce 2.0 + 2.0
RH-9358, 5%G 1 80.0b 4.0
RH-9358, 5%G 1 40.0b 2.0
Orthene, 5%B (CC-8158) 3 20.0d 1.0
Orthene, 0.35%S (SP) 3 25.6 0.75
Monitor, 0.35%S (WM) 3 24.2 0.71
Monitor, 0.48%S. (WM) 3 23.5 0.94
RH-0994, 0.35%S (EC) 3 26.0 0.76
RH-0994, 0.48%S (EC) 3 26.8 1.08
Lannate, 0.29%S (L) 3 25.7 0.62
Ammo, 0.011%S (EC) 3 27.2 0.021
Ammo, 0.022%S (EC) 3 26.5 0.040
Ammo, 0.032%S (EC) 3 25.2 0.057
Pounce, 0.05%S (EC) 3 26.3 0.11
FCR-1272, 0.011%S (EC) 3 24.8 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022%S (EC) 3 23.8 0.036


aB = Bait, EC = Emulsifiable Concentrate,
Powder, and WM = Water Miscible.


G = Granules, L = Liquid Concentrate, S = Spray, SP = Soluble


bBroadcast incorporated at planting on 5/4/81. Crop was harvested on 9/25/81.

CBanded incorporated on 5/25/81.

dBroadcast over foliage on same dates as spray treatments: 5/19, 6/23, and 8/11/81.


pounds of formulation per 1,000 feet of row.





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 2: Effects of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Thrips Control and Damage on Florunner Peanuts.
Marianna,- 1981.


ARC,


Treatment and bd cd
Lbs. Al per Acre Mean Number Thrips per Bud 'd Mean Thrips Foliage Damage Indices '
per Applicationa 5/18e 5/25 6/1 6/8 6/15 6/22 5/18d 5/25 6/1 6/8 6/15 6/22

RH-9358, 5%G, 2.0f + 2.09 0.9a 2.4abcd 0.6a 0.2a 1.1a 1.6a 0.0 2.Obcd 2.3abc 1.Oa 1.0a 1.Oa
RH-9358, 5%G, 4.0f 0.5a 0.8a 0. 9ab 0.4ab 2.2abc 0.9a 0.0 1.Oa 1.7a 1.3a 1.Oa 1.7a
RH-9358, 5%G, 2.0f 1.2a 3.3abcd 4.8abcd 0.4ab 2.4abcd 1.8a 0.0 2.Obcd 3.3cdef 4.3ef 2.7bc 3.Ob
Orthene, 5%B(CC-8158), 1.0h 1.3a 2.3abcd 1.3ab 1.Oabc 4.4efg 2.1a 0.0 1.7abc 2.0ab 2.3b 1.7ab 3.Ob
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.75 1.5a 4.6bcd 1.9ab 1.labcd 5.4g 1.5a 0.0 2.Obcd 3.7defg 3.7de 3.Ocd 3.7b
Monitor, 0.35%S, 0.71 1.9a 4.3bcd 2.2ab 2.3cdef 4.1cdefg 1.7a 0.0 2.3cde 4.7g 4.7f 3.3cde 4.3b
Monitor, 0.48%S, 0.94 1.2a 2.9abcd 1.6ab 1.7bcde 3.5bcdefg 1.3a 0.0 1.3ab 2.7abcd 2.7bc 2.3bc 3.3b
RH-0994, 0.35%S, 0.76 1.6a 4.Obcd 9.3efg 2.4cdef 2.7abcde 3.0a 0.0 3.3f 6.3h 8.0gh 6.7g 6.Ocd
RH-0994, 0.48%S, 1.08 1.7a 4.1bcd 10.6fg 3.5fgh 2.5abcde 1.9a 0.0 3.0ef 6.7h 8.3h 7.3g 6.3cd
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.62 1.8a 5.Ocd 12.4g 3.4fgh 2.6abcde 2.2a 0.0 2.7def 6.7h 8.7h 7.7gh 6.3cd
Ammo, 0.011%S, 0.021 1.7a 3.5abcd 8.1cdef 4.1gh 3.1bcdef 3.0a 0.0 2.3cde 4.0efg 7.3g 6.7a 6.7cd
Ammo, 0.022%S, 0.040 1.9a 2.0ab 5.2bcde 2.7efg 3.7bcdefg 3.3a 0.0 2.Obcd 3.0bcde 4.3ef 4.3ef 5.7c
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.057 1.3a 2.2abc 4.4abcd 2.7efg 4.7fg 3.0a 0.0 1.3ab 2.0ab 3.7de 4.7f 6.7cd
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11 1.6a 5.3d 8.6defg 4.3h 3.2bcdef 2.6a 0.0 1.3ab 4.3fg 7.3g 6.7g 7.Ocd
FCR-1272, 0.011%S, 0.019 1.5a 3.2abcd 3.2ab 2.6defg 4.3defg 2.7a 0.0 2.3cde 2.3abc 3.7de 4.3ef 6.3cd
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.036 2.0a 2.5abcd 4.1abc 2.5cdef 4.2defg 2.7a 0.0 1.7abc 2.3abc 3.3cd 4.Ode 5.7c
Check (Untreated) 1.9a 5.2cd 17.9h 3.3fgh 2.0ab 2.5a 0.0 7.3g 9.0i 9.7i 8.7h 7.3d

Percent
Adults 99 18 3 5 5 8
Immatures 1 82 97 94 95 92
aB=Bait, G = Granules, and S = Spray.
bTen terminal buds per plot were examined.
cRating System: 0 = None to 10 = 100% of foliage showing some damage.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
pretreatment count for sprays.
Broadcast incorporated at planting on 5/4/81. Crop was harvested on 9/25/81.
gBanded incorporated on 5/25/81.
Broadcast over foliage on same dates as spray treatments: 5/19, 6/23, and 8/11/81.




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 3: Effects of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Control of Lepidoptera Complex, Lesser Cornstalk Borer, and
Yield of Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1981.


Treatment and
Lbs. Al per Acre
per Applicationa
RH-9358, 5%G, 2. k + 2.01
RH-9358, 5%G, 4.0
RH-9358, 5%G, 2.0
Orthene, 5%B(CC-8158), 1.0m
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.75
Monitor, 0.35%S, 0.71
Monitor, 0.48%S, 0.94
RH-0994, 0.35%S, 0.76
RH-0994, 0.48%S, 1.08
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.62
Ammo, 0.011%S, 0.021
Ammo, 0.022%S, 0.040
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.057
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11
FCR-1272, 0.011%S, 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.036
Check (Untreated)


Mean Number Worms Per Fi


3.4a
1.7a
2.9a
3.6a
3.2a
2.6a
2.1a
2.6a
2.4a
2.7a
1.8a
2.8a
2. 7a
2.2a
2.8a
3.1a
3.7a


0.4a
0.Oa
0.2a
0.3a
0.3a
0.la
0. 2a
0.2a
0.3a
0.2a
0. 3a
0.7a
0. 3a
0.2a
0. 7a
0.la
0.4a


O. Oa
0.la
0.la
0.la
0.Oa
0.la
0.la
0.Oa
0.Oa
0.la
0.Oa
0.Oa
0.la
0.2a
0.la
0.Oa
0.Oa


5.8a
4.2a
3.9a
4.9a
4.7a
4.4a
4.8a
3.6a
3.9a
4.1a
5.6a
3.7a
5.0a
4.7a
5.2a
3.4a
6.1a


5. 9cd
3.4abc
8.7e
3.6abc
3.8abc
3.4abc
2.6a
3. 0a
2.0a
2.3a
5.7bcd
4.2abc
3.2ab
3.6abc
4. 2abc
3.8abc
7.Ode


Lesser Cornstalk Borer
% Infested Plantsb
9/25


4. cde 1. Oa
1.8ab 1.3a
3. Obcd 1.2a
1.3ab 0.6a
1.6ab 0.7a
0.7a 0.6a
2.Oab 0.6a
1.2ab 0.3a
1.8ab 0.7a
1.9ab 0.7a
2.2abc 1.3a
2.7abcd 0.9a
1.9ab 1.2a
2.8abcd 0.6a
2.9bcd 1.4a
4.4de 1. Oa
5.1e 1.1a


Oa
3a
1 0a
1 Oa
3a
10a
3a
3a
7a
10a
3a
7a
3a


0.2a
0.4a
O. Oa
O. Oa
0.la
0.4a
0.la
0.2a
0.2a
0.2a
0. 4a
0.3a
0. 3a
0.la
0.la
0.Oa
0.3a


aB = Bait, G = Granules, and S + Spray.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level.
c predominantly corn earworm 79% and fall armyworm 21%.
Predominantly corn earworm 83% and fall armyworm 17%.
ePredominantly corn earworm 90% and granulate cutworm 10%.
Predominantly corn earworm 50% and fall armyworm 45%.
gPredominantly fall armyworm 59% and corn earworm 36%.
hPredominantly fall farmyworm 74% and corn earworm -20%.
!Predominantly fall armyworm 69% and granulate cutworm 24%.
JPredominantly granulate cutworm 49%, fall armyworm 33%, and corn earworm 12%.
9/21/81 0.8/foot of row.
Broadcast incorporated at planting on 5/4/81. Crop was harvested on 9/25/81.
Banded incorporated on 5/25/81.
mBroadcast over foliage on same dates as spray treatments: 5/19, 6/23, and 8/11/81.


Check means were: 9/14 0.6 and


Mean
Yield /Acreb
Ibs.
3, 904a
3, 51 7a
3,848a
3,493a
3,735a
3,614a
3, 267a
3,501a
4,057a
3,630a
3, 759a
4,114a
3, 646a
3, 541a
3,840a
3,905a
3,404a




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 4: Phytotoxic Effect of Soil and Foliar Insecticide Treatments on Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1981.


Treatment and
Lbs. Al per Acre
per Applicationa
d e
RH-9358, 5%G, 4.0d
RH-9358, 5%G, 2.0
Orthene, 5%B(CC-8158), 1.0
Orthene, 0.35%S, 0.75
Monitor, 0.35%S, 0.71
Monitor, 0.48%S, 0.94
RH-0994, 0.35%S, 0.76
RH-0994, 0.48%S, 1.08
Lannate, 0.29%S, 0.62
Ammo, 0.011%S, 0.012
Ammo, 0.022%S, 0.040
Ammo, 0.032%S, 0.057
Pounce, 0.05%S, 0.11
FCR-1272, 0.011%S, 0.019
FCR-1272, 0.022%S, 0.036
Check (Untreated)


Mean Phvtotoxicity Indicesb


'25 6/1 6/8 6/15


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


3.7
3.7
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


4.0
4.0
3.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


4.0
4.0
3.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


6/22 6/29


4.0
3.3
2.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


4.0
3.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


aB = Bait, G = Granules, and
Rating System: 0 = None, 1
with some necrosis, and 4 =


S. + Spray.
= Slight chlorosis or spotting, 2 = Moderate chlorosis or
Severe chlorosis or spotting with considerable necrosis.


dPretreatment count for sprays.
Broadcast incorporated at planting on 5/4/81. Crop harvested on 9/25/81.
eBanded incorporated on 5/25/81.
Broadcast over foliage on same date as spray treatments: 5/19,6/23, and 8/11/81.


Spotting, 3 = Heavy chlorosis or spotting


7/6 7/13 7/20
3.0 3.0 2.0
2.0 1.7 0.7
0.3 0.3 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0


7/27
1.3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


8/3
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


8/10
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


8/17
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0


8/24 8/31
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0
0.0 0.0






AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 5: Tolerance of Certain Breeding Lines and Varieties
to Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1981.


to Thrips Attack and Damage as Compared


Breeding Lines Mean Number Mean Thrips Foliage
and Thrips per Buda'b Damage Indices
Varieties 6/11 6/18 6/25 7/2 6/11 6/18 6/25 7/2
72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B 9.8cd 5.3a 1.3a 5.6a 0.0 5.7ab 4.7a 4.3ab
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B 4.3a 7.3a 1.5a 4.5a 0.0 7.0bc 8.0c 7.7d
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B 3.6a 7.Oa 1.7a 2.5a 0.0 7.0bc 7.7c 7.0d
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B 9.4bcd 10.Oa 1.5a 6.la 0.0 7.7bc 8.0c 7.0d
73 X 24A-2-1-1-1-b3-B 5.5abc 6.0a 1.la 3.5a 0.0 5.7ab 5.3ab 4.3ab
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B 2.9a 8.6a 1.9a 3.8a 0.0 4.Oa 6.7bc 6.3cd
NC-343 6.9abc 7.6a 1.4a 2.3a 0.0 4.0a 5.3ab 4.3ab
NC-10247 4.0a 7.3a 1.3a 4.5a 0.0 4.0a 3.7a 3.3ab
NC-10272 5.2ab 7.la 1.8a 5.7a 0.0 4.7a 5.0a 4.7abc
NC-15729 11.3d 5.5a 1.3a 3.5a 0.0 4.7a 3.7a 3.Oa
NC-15745 6.7abc 4.6a 0.9a 2.6a 0.0 4.7a 5.3ab 5.0bc
SE Runner 56-15 13.5d 4.8a 0.5a 3.9a 0.0 8.0c 8.0c 7.3d
Valencia 13.7d 4.3 2.7a 4.la 0.0 8.7c 8.0c 7.3d
Check (Florunner) 3.4a 8.2a 1.7a 3.3a 0.0 7.3bc 8.0c 7.7d -

Percent
Adults 5 4 18 11
Immatures 95 96 82 89


aMeans followed by the same letter
bFive terminal buds per plot were
Rating System: 0 = None to 10 =


are not significantly different at the 5% level.
examined. Seed sown on 5/28/81 and crop harvested on 10/12/81.
100% of foliage showing some damage.




AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 6: Tolerance of
Compared to


Certain Breeding Lines and Varieties to the Lepidoptera Complex and Lesser Cornstalk Borer
Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1981.


with Yields


Breeding Lines Mean Number Worms Per Foot of Rowa Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
and b d f h k % Infested Plants Yield/Acrea
Varieties 7/22b 7/29c 8/5d 8/12 819f 8/269 92 9/9 9/16j 9/23 10/12la a Lbsd/A


72 X 41A-6-1-2-2-b3-B
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-1-B
73 X 18A-4-2-1-1-2-B
73 X 18A-5-2-3-1-2-B
73 X 24A-2-1-1-1-b3-B
73 X 20B-3-1-2-2-b4-B
NC-343
NC-10247
NF-10272
NC-15729
NC-15745
SE Runner 56-15
Valencia
Check (Florunner)


2.7a
3.0a
3.3a
2.0a
4.7a
5.0a
5.7a
4.3a
3.0a
5.3a
6.3a
4.7a
5.3a
6.7a


2.3a
2.7a
3.3a
3.0a
1.7a
3.3a
2.0a
2.7a
2.0a
2.7a
1.3a
2.0a
1.3a
3.0a


0.3a
0.Oa
1.7a
0.3a
2.0a
1.3a
0.3a
1. 0a
1.0a
0.Oa
1.0a
2.3a
3.7a
2.7a


5.3ab
5.0ab
6.3ab
4.3a
4.7ab
5.0ab
10.7bc
6.3ab
5.0ab
7.3ab
3.0a
7.0ab
14.3c
6.3ab


17.0a
8.3a
19.0a
18.3a
17.3a
13.7a
18.7a
15.3a
12.3a
10.7a
15.0a
18.3a
20. 0a
15.0a


8. Oabc
3.7ab
6.7abc
10. 3c
8.7bc
8.7bc
6.7abc
3.3a
4.7ab
3.7ab
5.3abc
6.7abc
10. 3c
6.0abc


0.2a
0.Oa
0.la
0.6a
0.2a
0.la
0.2a
0.3a
0.la
0.6a
0.4a
0.la
0.la
0.la


0.1a
0. 1a
0.8a
0.6a
1. 0a
0.la
0.9a
0.7a
0.6a
0.3a
0.la
0.8a
0.1a
0.2a


2.1a
1.7a
2.6a
2.3a
1.8a
2. 0a
1.8a
2.3a
1.9a
1.2a
2. 1a
3.0a
3.2a
1.0a


3.6a
2.8a
3.7a
4. 0a
2.6a
2.1a
4.3a
2.9a
1.9a
2.0a
1.9a
3.2a
2.9a
3.6a


73cde
60abc
57abc
33a
57abc
63bcd
80cde
70bcde
90de
57abc
63bcd
57abc
97e
43ab


1,428i
3,073bc
2,832cd
1,973fg
2,299ef
2,553de
3,473a
2,323ef
1,488hi
3,292ab
2,807cd
1,440i
1,851gh
3,606a "


aMeans followed by the same
b10/12/81.
Predominantly corn earworm
XPredominantly corn earworm
Predominantly corn earworm


letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Seed sown on 5/28/81 and crop


harvested on


- 94% and fall armyworm 5%.
- 77%, lessern cornstalk borer 8%, beet armyworm 7%, and rednecked peanutworm 7%.
- 60%, fall armyworm 25%, rednecked peanutworm 9%, granulate cutworm 4%, and lesser


cornstalk borer 2%.
predominantly corn earworm 52%, fall armyworm 29%, granulate cutworm 7%, rednecked peanutworm 7%, and beet
farmyworm 3%.
Predominantly corn earworm 46%, fall armyworm 46%, granulate cutworm 5%, and rednecked peanutworm 2%.
gPredominantly fall armyworm 52%, corn earworm 28%, granulate cutworm 10%, and lesser cornstalk borer 8%.
SPredominantly granulate cutworm 59%, fall armyworm 21%, corn earworm 7%, and soybean looper 7%.
!Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 81%, fall armyworm 9%, corn earworm 5%, and granulate cutworm 5%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 46%, soybean looper 21%, fall armyworm 19%, nd corn earworm 14%.
Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 33%, soybean looper 30%, fall armyworm 29%, and corn earworm 8%.
"Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 33%, soybean looper 30%, fall armyworm 29%, and corn earworm' 8%.





AREC, Quincy and ARC, Marianna, Florida


Table 7: Effects of Irrigation versus No Irrigation on the Lepidoptera Complex, Lesser Cornstalk Borer, and Yield
of Florunner Peanuts. ARC, Marianna 1981.

a Lesser Cornstalk Borer Mean
Mean Number Worms per Foot of Rowa ar Cnstal e ean
b c d e h % Infested Plantsa Yield/Acrea
Treatment 7/30b 8/6' 8/13d 8/20e 8/27. 9/39 9/10h 9/17 9/24J 10/12 Lbs.

No Irrigation 0.7a 0.8a 5.6b 2.7a 0.9a 0.3a 0.7a 1.6a 2.6a 55b 3,322b
Irrigationk 1.Oa 0.9a 3.la 3.8b 1.4a 0.1a 0.3a 1.9a 2.8a 9a 4,114a

aMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level. Seed sown on 5/28/81 and crop
harvested on 10/12/81.
Predominantly corn earworm 90%, lesser cornstalk borer 7%, and fall armyworm 3%.
Predominantly corn earworm 41%, fall armyworm 31%, lesser cornstalk borer 14%, beet armyworm 7%, and
dgranulate cutworm 7%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 46%, corn earworm 45%, lesser cornstalk borer 3%, and granulate cutworm 3%.
ePredominantly fall armyworm 48%, corn earworm 43%, and granulate cutworm 8%.
Predominantly fall armyworm 54%, granulate cutworm 20%, corn earworm 12%, lesser cornstalk borer 10%,
and soybean looper 5%.
gPredominantly granulate cutworm 63%, corn earworm 25%, and fall armyworm 13%.
. Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 94% and fall armyworm 6%.
!Predominantly velvetbean caterpillar 52%, fall armyworm 27%, soybean looper 17%, and corn earworm 3%.
JPredominantly velvetbean caterpillar 34%, soybean looper 32%, fall armyworm 30%, and corn earworm 3%.
Irrigation at the rate of 1 inch per acre was applied on 6/22, 7/1, 7/13, 7/20, 7/27, 8/18, 9/15, and 9/25/81.




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