Group Title: North Florida Station mimeo report - University of Florida Experiment Station ; NFES 68-5
Title: Chill and warm hour data for north and northwest Florida chilling seasons, 1963-64 through 1966-67
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074336/00001
 Material Information
Title: Chill and warm hour data for north and northwest Florida chilling seasons, 1963-64 through 1966-67
Series Title: North Florida Station mimeo report
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Davis, D. R
North Florida Experiment Station
Publisher: North Florida Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Publication Date: 1967
 Subjects
Subject: Plants -- Effect of cold on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peach -- Effect of cold on -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.R. Davis.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July 3, 1967."
Funding: NFES mimeo rpt. ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074336
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 84839001

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/00


S// NORTH FLORIDA EXPERIMENT STATION
Quincy, Florida
July 3, 1967

North Florida Station Mimeo Report NFES 60-1


CHILL AND WARM HOUR DATA FOR NORTH AND NORTHWEST FLORIDA -
CHILLING SEASONS 1963-64 THROUGH 1966-67
n 1 n ISEP !5 ^
D. R. Davis-/ SEP 15 J

Peaches have become increasingly important in North and Northwe'st Florida since 1960.
Total acreage devoted to commercial peach production in the area from the .Suaaniee River
westward in North Florida is now 4,061 acres. Madison County has 1,920 acres, followed by
Jeffercon County with 960 acres; Holmes, 450 acres; and Gadsden, 245. The counties of Leon,
Jackson, Hamilton, Bay, and Santa Rosa all have more than 50 acres each and no county is
without a few acres.

The growth of the peach industry in this part of Florida has been somewhat c:- a hit-
or-miss proposition due to the lack of suitable climatic records. Temperature is the one
climatic variable most paramount in defining those areas suitable for the production of
peaches and other deciduous fruit crops. Cold winters and late freezes define the northern
limits of the various fruit crops while mild or warm winters may be the limiting factor to
the south. Varying amounts of cool or cold temperatures, known as chilling, are necessary
to break dormancy of most deciduous fruits depending, not only upon species, but also upon
variety. Chilling requirements of fruit varieties are computed by relating time of
blooming with the accumulated chill hours below some base temperature, without regard to
the magnitude of temperature departure below the specified base temperature. Without the
proper climatic records, extension personnel have been handicapped in making recommendations
as to the best peach varieties adaptable to the area and in appraising the chan-es of late
freezes damaging the crop.

Chilling is computed in North and Northwest Florida by totalizing the cold hours, that
is, hours below 450F., for the period November 1 through February 15. Although 450F. has
been widely accepted for many years as the base temperature for computing chilling,
horticulturists are not in complete agreement as to the exact base temperature that should
be used. Temperatures in the range between 450 and 550F. may also have some value in
conditioning fruit and leaf buds cf the peach tree for dormancy break. Sharpe and Parker
(1964) stated that "temperatures in the range of 450-500 have considerable benefit, while
temperatures above 700 during the chilling period appear to be detrimental." Warm
temperatures above 650 may have the effect of nullifying some of the accumulated chill
hours.

Butson and Corrber (1964)3 outlined in detail the temperature hazards to peach
production in Feninsular Florida. An analysis of the climatological probability of
receiving varying amounts of chilling are presented in this paper for a number of stations
from Lake City and Glen St. Mary southward. Since no such study has been undertaken for
the north and northwest counties because of the lack of suitable weather records, a n--nber of
chill hour recording stations was established in the period 1963-1965 by the ESSA Weather
Bureau Agricultural Service Office in Quincy. The stations are located at DeFuniak Springs,

-1Advisory Agricultural Meteorologist, ELSA, Weather Bureau, North Florida Experiment
Station.
2/Sharpe, R. H. and R. Parker, 1964. Peach Production in Florida. Univ. Fla. Agr. Ext.
Ser. Cir. 264.
3/Eutson, K. D. and J. F. Gerber. 1964. Temperature Hazards to Peaches in Florida. Proc.
Fla. Hort. Soc. 77: 395-401.









Chipley, Marianna, Quincy, Greenville, Cherry Lake, and Live Oak. Chill hour data are also
collected from the stations that were already in existence. These are the climatological
station at Monticello and the Weather Bureau in Tallahassee.

A summary of the chill hour information collected in the past four chilling seasons is
included in this report. Tables I, II, III, and IV lists the total chill hours below the
base temperature of 450F. for the chilling seasons of 1963-64, 1964-65, 1965-66, and 1966-
67 respectively. Table V shows the accumulated chill hours for the temperature base of
550F. for the 1966-67 chilling season. Accumulated warm hours above the temperature of
650F. for the 1966-67 chilling season are given in Table VI. In all cases the chill and
warm hours are accumulated through March 15 even though the cutoff date for the chilling
season is accepted as February 15 for North and Northwest Florida. The long chill hour
record for the Quincy Climatological Station located at the North Florida Experiment Station,
the Monticello Climatological Station located at the Big Bend Horticultural Lab, and the
Tallahassee ESSA Weather Bureau are given in Tables VII, VIII, and IX respectively.

Tables X and XI are included for comparative purposes. The information contained in
these two tables was taken directly from the chill hour reports and news letters of the
Dayton Basket Sales Co. of Americus, Georgia. The stations listed in these tables are
located in the principal peach producing areas of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina.

Table I. Summary of accumulated chill
hours for Quincy Microweather
and Quincy Climat Stations
(Base 450F) 1963-64


Quincyl/ Quincy-/
Date Microweather Climat
Nov. 1-15 73 64
Nov. 30 120 106
Dec. 15 276 262
Dec. 31 504 502
Jan. 15 652 668
Jan. 31 730 785
Feb. 15 814 885
Feb. 29 924 1017
Mar. 15 943 1036

-'Quincy microweather station located at
the Talquin Road Branch of North Florida
Experiment Station approximately 3 miles
SSW of Quincy Post Office.

2/Quincy climate station No. 7424 located at
the Tobacco Section of the North Florida
Experiment Station approximately 1 mile
SSW of Quincy Post Office.









Table II.


Summary of accumulated chill hours for selected stations of North and Northwest
Florida (Base 450F) 1964-65.


Defuniak-/ Quincy Quincy
Date Springs Marianna2/ Microweather Climat Tallahassee!/ Monticello/ Live Oak-1
Nov. 1-15 0 16 0 2 26 0 0
Nov. 30 54 81 28 23 63 37 24
Dec. 15 190 199 131 126 185 140 113
Dec, 31 259 249 156 184 240 199 129
Jan. 15 348 332 195 245 323 M 150
Jan. 31 532 480 349 421 501 400 298
Feb. 15 654 581 436 516 598 506 347
Feb. 28 754 654 502 592 681 597 386
Mar. 15 833 730 530 667 753 672 442

l/The Defuniak Springs station is located in the northwest edge of Defuniak Springs at
Raio Station WZEP in low land, a relatively cold location

2The Marianna Station is located approximately 6.5 miles North of Marianna at the Field
Station of the North Florida Experiment Station

3/ESSA, Weather Bureau, Tallahassee Municipal Airport

4/Monticello 3W climatological station No. 5879 Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, 4 miles
West of Monticello

-The Live Oak station is located at the Suwannee Valley Experiment Station approximately
5 miles ENE of Live Oak


Table III.


Summary of accumulated chill hours for selected stations of North and
Northwest Florida (Base 450) 1965-66.


Quincy
Defuniak Micro- Quincy Monti- Cherry- Live
Date Springs Marianna weather Climat Tallahassee cello Greenvillel- Lake Oak
Nov. 1-15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nov. 30 50 56 38 39 36 45 32 16 33
Dec. 15 186 180 140 133 141 168 127 109 118
Dec. 31 297 311 224 214 224 258 200 211 176
Jan. 15 379 389 264 246 253 308 235 253 204
Jan. 31 688 725 578 534 514 633 524 556 439
Feb. 15 820 862 703 644 648 744 630 665 545
Feb. 28 889 941 777 713 715 824 695 728 603
Mar. 15 990 1038 850 785 786 896 764 805 689

-/The Greenville station is located at a peach orchard 5 miles NE of Greenville

2/The Cherry Lake station is located at a peach orchard at Cherry Lake, North of Madison











Summary of accumulated chill hours
Florida (Base 450) 1966-67


per selected stations of North and Northwest


Date
Nov. 1-15
Nov. 30
Dec. 15
Dec. 31
Jan. 15
Jan. 31
Feb. 15
Feb. 28
Mar. 15


Nov. 1-15
Nov. 30
Dec. 15
Dec. 31
Jan. 15
Jan. 31
Feb. 15
Feb. 28
Mar. 15


Defuniak
Springs
140
222
418
569
691
836
983
1090
1136


Tallahassee
55
131
232
357
442
553
670
766
799


Chipley
75
162
333
473
581
711
842
946
983


Monticello
72
163
279
404
484
539
743
853
Q99


Marianna
66
121
268
410
503
624
751
848
886


Greenville
48
117
219
337
408
509
612
701
71&


Quincy
Microweather
60
135
293
413
510
611
712
800
816

Cherry Lake
57
131
271
401
468
564
662
751
761


Table V. Summary of accumulated chill hours for selected stations of North and Northwest
Florida (Base 550) 1966-67

Defuniak Ouincy Quincy
Date Springs Chipley Marianna Microweather Climat
Nov. 1-15 203 138 121 132 121
Nov. 30 402 353 303 339 295
Dec. 15 594 587 527 557 510
Dec. 31 865 806 790 018 749
Jan. 15 1109 1053 954 998 933
Jan. 31 1352 1262 1177 1186 1114
Feb. 15 1602 1503 1416 1416 1323
Feb. 28 1769 1669 1578 1570 1487
Mar. 15 1842 1749 1661 1648 1567

Tallahassee Monticello Greenville Cherry Lake Live Oak
Nov. 1-15 84 126 90 106 104
Nov. 30 259 331 244 359 279
Dec. 15 474 562 450 550 502
Dec. 30 716 823 693 827 732
Jan. 15 865 973 838 970 871
Jan. 31 1082 1176 1033 1168 1085
Feb. 15 1304 1444 1259 1393 1304
Feb. 28 1462 1632 1433 1539 1482
Mar. 15 1551 1739 1521 1610 1555


Table IV.


Quincy
Climat
60
126
265
390
470
578
695
785
804


Live Oak
47
121
221
319
392
469
567
659
683l


I


i mmq







-5-


Summary of accumulated warm hours
Florida (above Base 650) 1966-67


for selected stations of North and Northwest


Defuniak Quincy Quincy
Date Springs Chipley Marianna Microweather Clim.at
Nov. 1-15 77 135 169 146 159
Nov. 30 158 208 249 218 246
Dec. 15 197 257 317 269 301
Dec. 31 231 283 346 290 334
Jan. 15 237 303 375 312 376
Jan. 31 298 372 444 391 450
Feb. 15 326 405 485 434 482
Feb. 28 362 438 527 481 508
Mar. 15 517 511 682 657 588


Tallahassee Monticello Greenville Cherry Lake Live Oak
Nov. 1-15 179 134 132 124 126
Nov. 30 272 211 229 201 213
Dec. 15 343 265 302 264 278
Dec. 31 383 294 344 301 338
Jan. 15 438 322 385 341 373
Jan. 31 519 391 481 428 489
Feb. 15 577 401 532 478 558
Feb. 28 638 421 591 551 613
Mar. 15 837 551 753 702 779


Table VII.


Year
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67


Summary of accumulated chilling hours for Quincy, Florida.
Climatological Station (Base 450F) for chilling seasons
1949-50 through 1966-67


Nov. 30
139
215
175
130
158
152
127
153
52
59
143
57
80
106
106
23
38
126


Dec. 31
292
502
312
361
380
419
332
292
281
284
354
405
281
332
502
184
224
390


Jan. 31
312
699
481
573
573
652
614
429
657
530
574
757
567
668
785
421
578
578


Feb.


15
379
860
520
645
663
777
659
461
886
551
643
864
651
803
885
516
703
695


28
426
883
574
712
697
787
M
491
1031
594
765
878
653
950
1017
592
777
785


Mar. 15
M

M
M
M
787
M
M
1048
653
911
912
745
M
1036
667
850
004


18 Yr. Mean
M-Missing Data


113 340 581 676 742


Table VI.


Feb.










Table VIII.


Year
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67


Chill hour record Monticello Climatological Station (Big
Bend Horticultural Laboratory)(Base 45 F) Chilling Season
1949-50 through 1966-67
Nov. 30 Dec. 31 Jan. 31 Feb. 15 Feb.
137 296 315 318 399
222 514 708 867 901
171 235 400 437 495
104 330 522 574 616
94 270 496 597 625
143 431 684 809 819
134 346 667 697 750
149 272 411 448 482
42 264 644 865 1006
51 297 557 595 637
136 332 553 633 757
58 393 754 832 895
76 275 535 599 599
115 357 667 803 946
107 525 706 786 874
37 199 400 506 597
50 261 611 735 826
163 404 589 743 853


13 yr. Avg., *-111 337 568 661 727 779


Table IX. Chill hour record Tallahassee Weather Bureau(Base 450F) Chilling season
1952-53 through 1966-67
Year Nov. 30 Dec. 31 Jan. 31 Feb. 15 Feb. 28 Mar. 15
1952-53 73 256 434 468 504 507
1953-54 100 272 440 533 560 660
1954-55 149 405 627 731 734 754
1955-56 122 294 578 609 657 679
1956-57 145 284 397 430 441 494
1957-53 29 235 566 767 905 919
1958-59 41 247 498 512 546 596
1959-60 100 267 453 517 631 754
1960-61 35 328 650 753 759 784
1961-62 78 254 490 556 556 631
1962-63 107 340 596 715 334 858
1963-64 120 517 764 848 950 969
1964-65 63 240 501 598 681 753
1965-66 36 224 514 648 715 786
1966-67 131 357 553 670 766 799

15 yr. Avg. 88 301 537 623 682 730


28 Mar. 15


Mar. 15
467
940
515
622
740
844
772
534
1035
710
899
922
704
968
886
672
900
899


28


28












Table X. Summary of accumulated chill hours
and Alabama (Base 450) 1965-66


Ft. Valley,
Georgia
53
112
272
414
580
939
1076
1234
M


Americus,
Georgia
53
136
232
398
498
841
989
1131
1253


for selected stations of Georgia


Griffin,
Georgia
104
239
422
632
M
1226
1395
1608
1749


Barney,
Georgia
41
107
250
386
420
735
919
1050
1125


Thornsby,
Alabama
46
131
262
450
605
971
1103
1280
M


M data missing


Summary of accumulated chill hours for selected stations of
Georgia, and Alabama (Base 450) 1966-67


South Carolina,


Spartanburg, Columbia, Experiment, Americus, Ft. Valley, Barney, Thornsby,
S. C. S. C. Ga. Ga. Ga. Ga. Ala.
Oct. 1-15 23 19 22 0 0 E 2
Oct. 31 60 54 71 24 22 M 56
Nov. 15 148 147 137 112 103 60 145
Nov. 30 303 238 349 227 215 150 245
Dec. 15 497 466 572 409 386 288 443
Dec. 31 772 712 342 593 570 447 652
Jan. 15 1021 836 1072 712 702 562 377
Jan. 31 M 1 M M M M M
Feb. 15 M 1439 1478 947 1040 865 1247
Feb. 28 1704 1450 1703 1032 1157 972 1436
M data missing


DRD
8/14/67
200 CC


Date
Nov. 1-15
Nov. 30
Dec. 15
Dec. 31
Jan. 15
Jan. 30
Feb. 15
Feb. 20
Mar. 15


Table XI.


----




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