WEED CONTROL IN PASTURES WITH oAI'D SDIL5 IN i-'. L.L.'. L:.
Jo EO McCaleb and E. M. Hodges
Range Cattle Experiment Statipn
The following chart lists the plants which often are undesirable species
in native and improved pastures in central Florida. Also shown are the
herbicides, plant response to these chemicals and literature references giving
materials which are currently accepted as controlling agents for the species.
Rates per acre of herbicide, volume of carrier agent and method of application
are not given because weed maturity, season of year, proximity to desirable
crops and climatological factors must be considered. Herbicides other than
those listed also may result in satisfactory control in many circumstances,
and may be even more desirable when the many factors involved are given full
consideration. It is beyond the scope of this paper to list all herbicides
available or effective in controlling these plants. Study of the references,
the Southern Weed Conference Proceedings in particular, will result in a
fuller understanding of the trials and materials which are being tested and
suggested for control of specific plants. The percentage plant kill, or
control, which is satisfactory varies with plant species and management
programs. In pastures 100 percent control may be unnecessary and excessively
The list of noxious pasture plants in pastures on sandy soils in peninsular
Florida which can be controlled with herbicides has increased each year since
World War II. Experiments must be continued to improve the effectiveness of
use of herbicides now available and to evaluate new compounds. This will help
to meet the greater demands for agricultural products and to combat the
constantly shifting weed populations which result from an intensified control
Mimeo Report 60-2 -
February 15, 1960
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Selected Iorui'.,id-3 ir. Po :.' on dc.=, oi s ; ie_ i',cnc,.. l .-:..:i!' ,
Name and Classificationi Herbicidez Response) Reference4
Aster (Aster spp.) P 2,4-D
Black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia serotina) P 2,4-D
Caesar-burr (Urena lobata) P 2,4-D
Dog fennel (Eupatorium capillifolium) P 2,4-D
Dollar weed (Dichondra carolinensis) A 2,4-D
Elderberry (Sambucus simpsonii) P 2,4-D; 2,4,5-.T
Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) P
Nettles, stinging (Urtica sppo) P 2,4-D
Pigweed, red-root(Amaranthus retroflexus) A 2,4-D
Pigweed, spiny (Amaranthus spinosa) A 2,4I-D
Pokeweed (Pokeberry) (Phytolacca americana)P 2,4-D
Primrose willow (Jussiaca spp.) A 2,4-D
Ragweed, common (Ambrosia artemisiaefolia)A 2,4-D
Sesbania (Sesbania macrocarpa) A 2,4-D
Smartweeds (Polygonum pennsylvanicum) A 2,41-D; 2,4-D +
Teaweed (Sida spp.) P 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T
Thistle, bull (Cirsium spp.) B 2,4-D
Water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) A 2,4-D
Grasses and Grass-like Plants
Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) P Da; ATA
Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) P Da; ATA; erbon
Carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis) P Da
Cattails (Typha spp.) P Da; ATA; Da + ATA
Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica) P Da --
Cordgrass, Bakers (Spartina bakerii) P Da; Urox
Pangolagrass (Digitaria decumbens) P Da; ATA
Rush, common (Juncus effusus) P 2,4-D
Sawgrass (Maricus jamicensis) P Da; ATA
Sedge--watergrass (Cyperus spp.) A-P ATA; 2,4-D; Mbr
Smutgrass (Sporobolus poiretii) P Da; Urox
Torpedograss (Panicum repens) P Da; ATA
Blackberry (Rubus spp.) P 2,4,5-T
Gallberry (Ilex glabra) P 2,4,5-T
Persimmon, Eastern (Diospyrus spp.) P 2,4,5-T; 2,4-D
Prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) P 2,4,5-T
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) P 2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-T
Wax myrtle (Myrica spp.) P 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T
S,I 6,19 -
1. A = Annual; B = Biennial; P = Perennial.
2. 2,4-D = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 2,4,5-T = 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic
acid; Da (dalapon) = 2,2-dichloroproponic acid; ATA (amitrol) = 3-amino-1,2,4-
triazola; MB = Methyl bromide; Urox = 3-chlorophenyl)-l,l-dimethylurea trichlor-
oacetate; erbon = 2(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) ethyl 2,2-dichloropropionate.
3. S = usually quite susceptible; I = usually susceptible at higher rates or with
4. Literature Cited.
1. Annual Report, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. p. 60. 1958.
2. Annual Report, Fla. Agr. Exp, Sta. p. 335. 1957.
3. Annual Report, Fla. Agr. Exp. Stao p. 346. 1958.
4. Burt, E. 0,, and E. West. Response of weeds to foliage sprays of 2,4-D,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Stao Agron, and Plant Path. Mimeo 58-1, June 1958,
5. Darrow, R. A. Trichlorobenzoic acid and associated herbicides in the
control of woody plants in Texas. So. Weed Conf. Proc. 10:134-135.
6, McCaleb, J. E., and D. W. Jones. Effect of several herbicides on
pasture grasses. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 16:294-296. 1956.
7 Nation, H. A. Two chemicals appear promising for control of palmetto.
So. Weed Conf. Proc. 3:172-174, 1950.
8. Orsenigo, J. R. Pasture weed control. Everglades Exp. Sta. Mimeo 59-15.
24. Unpublished data. Range
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