Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1980-8
Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1979-80
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074296/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1979-80
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 9 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Grain -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1980."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074296
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85894645

Full Text

9


Agrieultui~'l Research Center
Research Report RC-1980-8


SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMDKALEE: 1979-80.
R.S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P.H. Everett, R.D. Barnett and F.G. Martin-

The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum
L.), oats (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (T. Hexaploide Lar., a cross between
rye and wheat) are cool season annuals. In south-central Florida these grasses
may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program,
or may be overseeded under certain conditions in perennial grasses, thus
extending the grazing season through the winter. With good management small
grains can provide high quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro organic matter
digestibility) and substantial dry matter yields (2 to 4 T/A).

Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen
fertilization. However, their management differs from that of ryegrass.
When seeded in prepared seedbeds, initial small grain growth should be
grazed of clipped about 45 days after seeding or when plants are 12 to 15
inches tall. Deferring the first grazing much later then 45 days may be
detrimental to regrowth. Rotational grazing of regr plants reach 12 to 15 inches tall, and new develop tig i s ia s AVf
inches tall. JUL 18 1985

New small grain varieties are continually bei jF1FrA.&as3 j~ p~ftf
and private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are inerese
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for
yield, quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south-Florida
conditions.

Experimental Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) two oat, six wheat, one
triticale, six rye and one oat/alfalfa mixture were seeded on November 14,

1/ Associate Professors, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Professor,
Agricultural Research Center, Inmokalee; Associate Professor, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida; Associate Professor,
Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville.


September 1980





-2-


1979. At Immokalee ARC three oats, six wheat, one triticale and six rye
entries were seeded on November 19, 1979. The experimental design at both
locations was four replication. of a randomizeA complete block.


Seeding rates for rye and wheat at Ona were 1.5 bu/A. Rye and wheat
at Immokalee were seeded at 2 bu/A, and at both locations oats and triticale
were seeded at 2 bu/A. The oat-alfalfa mixture at Ona was seeded at 2 bu/A
and 10 lb/A, respectively.


Fertilization at Ona prior to seeding consisted of 475 lb/A of an
0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) fertilizer. At Immokalee 500 Ib of 0-10-20 and 45
Ib/A of N was applied prior to seeding. Nitrogen was applied at 60 Ib/A
12 days after seedling emergence at Ona on all treatments.

Fertilization after each harvest at Ona consisted of the application of
40 Ib/A of N on all pure stands of small grains. However, no additional N
was applied on the small grain/alfalfa mixture. At Immokalee 400 Ib/A of 12-6-6
was applied after harvest 1 and 3, but after harvest 2,4, and 5 an average 65 I
65 Ib/A of N was applied.

All entries were irrigated with an over-head system at Ona, where a total
of 5.0 inches was applied. At Imnokalee a seepage system with laterals on
40 foot centers was used.


Most entries were harvested four times at Ona and five times at Immokalee.
At Ona, the first harvest occurred 50 days after seeding, prior to elevation
of the growing point above the soil surface. The first harvest at Imnokalee
occurred 52 days after seeding.


Results and Discussion


Ona ARC


McNair '1003' wheat produced a significantly higher total seasonal dry
matter yield (2.9 T/A) when compared with all other small grains tested at
Ona during the 1979-80 winter (Table 1). This entry along with Coker '227'
oats, Coker '762' wheat, and McNair '1813' wheat produced a uniform








supply of forage over the 136 day winter period. Generally, if a commercial
grower needs forage for a short period of time (December to early March) the
variety of small grain selected is not critical, since all entries produce
good dry matter yields in the first three harvests. However, if forage
production from small grains is desirable from December to early May the
above varieties should be considered because of their superior tillering
ability and long production period.


From the practical standpoint little differences in total yield were
obtained between the oats, rye, wheat, and triticale entries during the
1979-80 growing season, averaging 2.3, 2.3, 2.5, and 2.2 T/A, respectively.
The major reason most small grain species produced similar total yields was
due to the heavy rain inchess in 10-days) which occurred in late March and
early April, terminating the growth of all entries.


Dry matter production of small grains tested from 2 to 5 years at Ona
are presented in Table 2. Coker 227 oats was the highest yielding small
grain averaging 3.0 T/A over a 5-year period. However, from the practical
standpoint any entry appearing in this table could provide good forage
yields. Therefore, commercial growers should consider the cost of pure-live
seed per acre when making their selection from these entries.


Inmokalee ARC

Higher yielding (2.5 to 2.6 T/A) oat, rye, and wheat varieties were
Coker '227', Pennington 'Wintergrazer 70', and McNair '1003', respectively
(Table 3). Each of these entries gave uniform, long season production
and since all were rather late maturing, provided good forage production
throughout most of the 100-day season.

Good varieties of each species are comparable in dry matter yield,
(for example the better oat, rye and wheat entries yielded 2.5, 2.5 and 2.6
T/A) and the average yields for the three species are quite similar. If
the early, experimental oat (Fla 70Q1153) is not considered, all oat, rye
and wheat varieties averaged 2.3, 2.2, and 2.2 T/A, respectively.








The 'Forage Blend' triticale has been the best triticale tested at
Immokalee to date (Research Reports RC 1979-8 and RC 1978-7). Forage Blend
was very late, decumbent tritica;.e which had no disease problems. It was
slow coming into production, producing only 0.2 T/A as compared to 0.4 or
0.5 T/A for most oat, rye, or wheat entries. However, yields after the
initial harvest were equal to or better than all other small grains. This
entry also continued to provide forage 25 days longer in the spring than
other small grains.


Most entries were free of disease during the 1980 growing season.
Fla 501 oats did have a Helminthosporium outbreak during January and early
February. Weeds were not a problem and should not be a problem if the
seeding date is postponed until the third or fourth week of November in
the Immokalee area.


It is strongly recamended that potassium (K20) be included in the
fertilization of small grains during the growing season in the Imnokalee
area. Potassium in these coarse sands responds similar to nitrogen in
that the soil has a small exchange complex and can retain only small amounts.
It is suggested that a 2-1-1 ratio fertilizer be applied after the 1st or
2nd grazing to replenish soil K.

The yields of selected varieties of oats, rye, and wheat that have
been tested during the past five years are presented in Table 4. It can
be seen that the yields of the better entries of each species are similar.
Consistently good yielding forages for the Imnokalee area are Coker 227
oats, McNair 1003 and McNair 1813 wheat, and Pennington Winter Grazer 70,
McNair VitaGraze, Gurley Grazer 2000 and Wrens Abruzzi ryes.

Conclusions


Ona ARC

Two oat varieties, Coker 227 and Florida 501, and three wheat varieties,
McNair 1003, Coker 762 and McNair 1813, were among the highest yielding small
grains producing a uniform supply of winter forage.





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When managing small grains the initial harvest should be removed 45 to
50 days after seeding and all regrowth each time plants attain a height of
12 to 15 inches.


Inmokalee ARC


There were significant differences in the yields of the small grains
tested. Recommended varieties are Coker 227 oats, McNair 1813 and 1003 wheat
or Pennington WinterGrazer 70, McNair Vita Graze, Gurley Grazer 2000 or Wrens
Abruzzi ryes. These have proven to be consistently good varieties.







Table 1. Small grain forage yield at the Ona ARC, 1979-80.

Harvest
J 2 o 4
Entry 1-3 1-28 3-3 3-28 Total
Oats -----------dry matter yield, tons/acre---------
Coker 227 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.6 2.6 abc$
Fla AES 501 .0.8 0.3 0.5 0.7 2.3 cde
Fla AES 70Q1153 oats* + 1.9 0.1 0.1 2.1 e
plus hairy Pruvian alfalfa
Average 0.8 1.0 0.4 0.5 2.3
Rye
McNair Vita-Graze 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.3 2.5 abed
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.3 bed
Wrens Abruzzi 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.3 2.3 bcde
NAPB SR 80 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.3 bcde
AFC 20-20 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.3 bcde
Gurley Grazer 2000 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.3 2.2 de
Average 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.3
Wheat
McNair 1003 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 2.9 a
Coker 762 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.5 2.5 abcd
McNair 1813 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 2.5 abed
Fla AES FL 71100A29-3-109* 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.4 2.3 bcde
Coker 797 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.3 2.3 cde
Fla AES FL 7271A-103* 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.3 2.2 de
Average 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 2.5
Triticale
Kershen Forage Blend 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 2.2 de


+ entry not ready for harvest.
Means followed by the same letter are not
K=100)
* experimental entry, seed not available.
Date seeded: November 14, 1979.


Seeding rate:


Fertilization:


significantly different (DLSD,


rye, wheat, 1.5 bu/A; oats and triticale, 2 bu/A. Oat-alfalfa
mixture seeded at 2 bu/A and 10 Ib/A, respectively.
1) at seeding 475 Ib/A 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20).
2) at seedling emergence 60 Ib/A of N.
3) after harvest 1,2,3 (except legume mixture) 40 lb/A of N.


Irrigation: Overhead system, applied 5.0 inches throughout the growing season.






-7-


Table 2. Average small grain forage production 1976 to 1980: Ona ARC.


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Average
-----------dry matter, yield T/A---------------


Oats
Coker 227
Fla AES 501


Wheat
McNair 1813
Holley
McNair 1003


Pennington Wintergrazer 70
Wrens Abruzzi
McNair Vita Graze
Gurley Grazer 2000


3.5
3.2


3.2
3.4


3.1
3.2
3.5
3.5


3.1 2.3 3.6 2.6 3.0
2.7 1.8 2.8 2.3 2.6
Average 2.8


2.4 t 2.9 2.5 2.8
2.7 1.5 t t 2.5
t t 2.9 2.9 2.9
Average 2.7


3.0
2.4
2.3
2.2


3.0
2.8
2.9
3.0


2.3 2.5
2.3 2.7
2.5 2.5
2.2 2.4
Average 2.5


t Variety not seeded.


Entry





-8-


Table 3. Small grain forage yield at the Immokalee ARC, 1979-80.

Harvest
1 2 3 t 5 6
Entry 1-10 .-31 2-21 3-13 4-3 4-28 Total
Oats ---------------Dry matter, yield tons/A----------
Coker 227 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.5 t 2.5 abt
Fla AES 501 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 t 2.0 abc
Fla AES 70Q-1153* 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.2 f
Average 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.8
Rye
Pennington Wintergrazer70 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 t 2.5 ab
NAPB SR-80 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 t 2.2 bed
AFC 20-20 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 t 2.2 bed
McNair Vita Graze 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 t 2.1 cd
Wrens Abruzzi 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 t 2.1 cd
Gurley Grazer 2000 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 t 2.1 cd
Average 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 2.2
Wheat
McNair 1003 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 t 2.6 a
McNair 1813 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 t 2.4 abc
Coker 762 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.3 t 2.3 abc
Fl AES 7271A-103* 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.3 t 2.3 abc
Fl AES 71100A-29-3-109* 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 + 1.7 e
Coker 797 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 t 1.7 e
Average 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.4 2.2
Triticale
Kershen Forage Blend 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.4 2.5 ab
t entry died.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (DLSD, K=100).
* experimental entry, seed not available.
Date seeded: November 19, 1979.


Seeding rate:
Fertilization:


Oats, rye, wheat and triticale 2 bu/A.
1) at seeding, 500 Ib/A 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) with 45 Ib/A of N.
2) after harvest 1 and 3, 400 Ib/A of 12-6-6.
3) after harvest 2,4,5 an average 65 Ib/A of N.


Irrigation: seepage with laterals on 40' centers.





-9-


Table 4. Average small grain forage production: 1976 to 1980 Immokalee ARC.


1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Average


-------dry matter yield, tons/acre--------------
2.4 1.8 1.5 2.1 2.5 2.1
1.4 t 1.0 1.9 2.0 1.6
Average 1.9


Oats
Coker 227
Fla 501


Wheat
McNair 1813
Holley
McNair 1003


2.1 2.2 1.7
1.6 1.7 1.4
t t t


0.7 2.4 1.8
t t 1.6
1.8 2.6 2.2
Average 1.9


Rye
Pennington Winter Grazer 70
Wrens Abruzzi
McNair Vita Graze
Gurley Grazer 2000


1.9
2.0
2.0
2.0


2.1
1.9
1.8
2.1


1.8
1.6
2.0
1.4


1.5
1.6
1.9
1.9


Average


t variety not seeded.


Entry


2.5
2.1
2.1
2.1


2.0
1.8
2.0
1.9


Y




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