Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1979-2
Title: Evaluation of sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids for forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1978 /
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 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids for forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1978 /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 3, 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Everett, P. H ( Paul Harrison ), 1927-
Green, V. E
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1979
Copyright Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher, P.H. Everett and V.E. Green.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1979."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074295
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85894585

Full Text

Agricultural Research Center- *
' Research Report RC-1979-2a


S1 979
EVALUATION OF SORGHUM X SUDANGRASS AND PEARLMILLET BRIDS "

FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE: 1. _Of F
1/
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. H. Everett and V. E. Green-


Sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids are extremely rapid growing
summer annual grasses. These crops are ready for harvesting 70 to 75 days
after seeding and even earlier for grazing. Compared with corn, they have
a lower fertility requirement and require less water. Sorghum x sudangrasses
and pearlmillets may be green chopped, harvested as hay, or grazed by both
beef and dairy cattle.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of new hybrids,
which are continually being released, it is necessary that these forages be
tested under south Florida conditions. The purpose of this publication is
to present comparative data on sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids
tested at the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) and Immokalee ARC. Where
trade names are used no discrimination or endorsement is intended.

Experimental Procedure

Twelve sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and five pearlmillets were seeded
at the Ona ARC on March 8, 1978, but due to excessive rains they were reseeded
on March 20, 1978. At the Immokalee ARC 12 sorghum x sudangrass and 6 pearl-
millets were seeded on March 1, 1978. All sorghum x sudangrass entries at
both locations were seeded at 16 Ib/acre. Pearlmillets were seeded at a rate
of 8 Ib/acre. Sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillets at Ona were seeded in
rows 18 inches apart, and all entries at Immokalee were seeded in 30 inch
rows. The field plot design at both locations consisted of 4 replications of
a randomized complete block.

Fertilization at Ona consisted of 0-130-260 lbs/A of N-P205-K20 with
26 Ib/A of fritted micronutrients FTE 5032/which was applied prior to the
March 8 seeding. At the March 20 reseeding 75 lb/A of N was applied. At
Immokalee 50-100-200 Ib/A of N-P205-K20 plus 20 lbs FTE 503 were applied and
disked into the seedbed. When plants were 16 to 18 inches tall 100 lb/A of
N was applied at both locations. The test at Immokalee had this N application
applied in a band 4 to 6 inches from the row, and fertilizer was covered with
a rolling coulter. Fertilization after each harvest consisted of a surface
application of 50 to 75 Ib/A of N.


1/ Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida; Professor,
Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee, Florida; Professor, Department of
Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville.

2/ FTE 503 micronutrients have the following elemental content: iron, 18.0%;
zinc, 7.0%; manganese, 7.5% boron, 3.0%; copper, 3.0%; molybdenum, 0.2%.





2




To control weeds, AAtrex(R) was applied pre-emergence at a rate of 2 Ib/A
active ingredient. After each harvest the stubble was broadcast-sprayed with
0.25 lb/A of active paraquat. Furidan 10G was applied in the row at seeding
at the rate of 20 Ib/A (commercial product). Diazinon field bait was applied
at 25 Ib/A to control mole crickets. Immokalee experiments were sprayed
with Lannate at 1 Ib/A in 100 gallons of water in early April to control
budworm.

The Ona experiment was irrigated with an over-head system. A total of
7.9 inches was applied: 4.2 inches from April to May and 3.7 inches from
October to December. Irrigation was provided at Immokalee through a seepage
system with laterals on 40 foot centers.

Results and Discussion

Sorghum x sudangrass Ona ARC

There were significant differences among the 12 hybrids tested (Table 1).
Dry matter yield ranged from 10.9 to 7.8 T/A and averaged 9.3 T/A. Higher
yielding entries were Pennington 'Summergrazer' variety (10.9 T/A), Northrup
King 'Sordan 70A' variety (10.5 T/A) and Growers 'GSA SS-621' variety (10.2 T/A).
The lowest yielding was actually a true sudangrass hybrid Northrup King
'Trudan 7' variety. In spite of its low yield (7.8 T/A), it was a leafy entry
which regenerated quickly after harvest.

The fall season of 1978 was mild and the experiment was not frosted until
January 4, 1979. Consequently, there were five harvests covering a 291-day
growing season. All entries yielded well through the second harvest (July
10, 1978), then heavy summer rains severely curtailed production (Table 1).
In September and October, when the high water table subsided, yields improved.
The poor yields at harvest 5 reflect the slower rate of growth with the advent
of cool weather.

Using a single years' data to select a hybrid is not recommended. Table
2 contains several entries with 2 to 5 years of test results. Pennington
Summergrazer, Taylor Evans Haygrazer, Growers variety 11 ("eleven"), McCurdy,
Sweet M and Northrup King, Sordan 70A are good hybrids for the Ona area.

Most entries were harvested in the boot to anthesis stage of maturity
(Table 3). The percent dry matter was in the range of 12% to 19% at harvest 1;
harvest 2, 19% to 23%; harvest 3, 19% to 24%; harvest 4, 19% to 25% and at
harvest 5, (after frost) 25% to 32%.

Disease was not a problem at harvest 1, but with the advent of hot,
humid weather (harvest 2, 3, 4) anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) and
southern leaf blight (Helminthosporium spp.) infection increased (Table 3).










Sorghum x sudangrass Immokalee ARC.

There were significant differences in the yield of hybrids tested
(Table 4). The yield ranged from 12.1 to 5.8 T/A and averaged 10.1 T/A.
The better yields at Immokalee were attributed to better drainage in the
summer. Yields were more consistent through the 311-day growing season,
and there was no drastic mid-summer drop in yield like there was at Ona.

Better yielding hybrids were McCurdy Sweet M (12.1 T/A), Northrup King
Sordan 70A, to name a few (Table 4). Both these hybrids have yielded well in
past years (Table 5). Other consistently good entries at Immokalee were
Pennington Summergrazer and Dekalb SX 16A.

Incidence of anthracnose and Helminthosporium increased after June with
little apparent difference in the resistance of the hybrids tested (Table 6).

Pearlmillet hybrids Ona and Immokalee.

There were no significant differences in the yields of the entries
tested at Ona or Immokalee (Table 7 and 8). The total yields at both loca-
tions averaged 7.4 and 6.0 T/A, respectively. The millets were harvested
three times at Ona and 5 times at Immokalee. Wet conditions in July were
responsible for killing-out entries at Ona, where-as the millets at Immokalee
survived due to the drainage afforded by the reverse-action of the irrigation
ditches.

At the present Ate there are no pre-emergence herbicides labeled for
pearlmillet. AAtrex was tried in this experiment, but should not be repeated.
Seedling injury was apparent at both locations, and no doubt had an adverse
affect on yields.

Anthracnose was not a severe disease problem on the pearlmillets like it
was on the sorghum x sudangrass entries. However, the occurence did increase
after June on those entries that survived the high water table.

Conclusion

Sorghum x Sudangrass hybrids

There were significant differences in the yields of entries tested at
Ona and Immokalee. Yields at these locations averaged from 9.3 and 10.1 T/A,
respectively after five harvests. Better yielding entries at both locations
were: Pennington Summergrazer, Northrup King Sordan 70A, McCurdy Sweet M, and
Youngs Sweet Chew.

Pearlmillet hybrids

There were no differences in the total yields of hybrids tested at either
location. Yield averaged 7.4 and 6.0 T/A at Ona and Immokalee, respectively.

For grazing purposes the pearlmillets developed very rapidly in 50 to 60
days to provide excellent quality grazing. They recovered rapidly after cutting,
but they did not persist through high water tables like the sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids. Depending on intended land use, sorghum x sudangrass hybrids may be a
better crop since they persist throughout the summer and into the fall.














Table 1. Dry matter yield of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown at Ona
ARC 1978.


Brand

Pennington
Northrup King
Growers
McCurdy
Youngs
Fla Feed & Seed
George Warner
Taylor Evans
Funks
Dekalb
Dekalb
Northrup King
Average

Means followed
(Duncan's LSD,


Hybrid

Summergrazer
Sordan 70-A
GSA-SS-621
Sweet M
Sweet Chew
Gator Grazer
Gro-N-Graze-R
Haygrazer
FP-1
SX-17
SX-16A
Trudan 7


by the same letter
K=100).


Harvest
1 2 3 4 5 Total
- - - -DM tons/acre- - - -


3.1
3.6
2.6
3.6
3.3
3.1
3.5
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.7
2.7


3.7
3.4
4.0
3.2
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.9
2.4
2.5
2.6
1.8


1.4
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.2
1.0
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.7
0.9


2.3
2.0
2.1
1.5
1.9
2.3
2.2
2.1
2.1
1.7
1.7
2.0


0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.4


10.9
10.5
10.2
9.7
9.7
9.7
9.4
9.2
8.5
8.0
7.9
7.8
9.3


are not significantly different.


Harvest dates: 1=5/27/78; 2=7/10/78; 3=9/8/78; 4=11/7/78; 5=1/5/79.
Seeding date: March 20, 1978
Row width: 18"
Fertilization: 75-130-260 lb/A of N-P 20 -K 0 + 26 lb/A FTE 503 at seeding
100 lb/A of N when plants 16 to 18" tall. 50 to 75 lb/A of N
after each harvest.
(R)
Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 lb/A (active) pre-emergence. Paraquat at 0.25 lb/A
broadcast sprayed over stubble after each harvest.
Irrigation: Overhead (4.2" in spring and 3.7" in fall-winter).
Maturity at harvest: boot to anthesis.


at
a
ab
abc
abc
abcd
abcd
abcd
bcd
cd
cd
d


0














Table 2. Average dry matter yields of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown
at the Ona ARC, 1974-78.

Dry matter yield (tons/acre)


1974 1975


1976 1977 1978 Average


Grown any 5 years 74-78
Taylor Evans Haygrazer
Pennington Summergrazer


6.9t
7.4


6.2+
5.8


12.5 13.6 9.2
13.2 11.7 10.9


Grown any 2 to
Growers
Northrup King
George Warner
McCurdy
Funks
Dekalb
Acco
Average


3 years
11
Sordan 70A
Gro-N-Graze-R
Sweet M
FP-1
SX 17
Sweet Sioux


7.2
w--


12.9 12.0
12.3
13.5 10.8
12.5
11.9
10.9 10.8
6.2 10.6 11.6
6.1 12.3 11.9


Brand


Hybrid


12.5
11.4
11.2
11.1
10.2
9.9
9.5


10.5
9.4
9.7
8.5
8.0

9.5


t Row spacing was 36" these years.

Seeding dates: 1974, 3-6; 1975, 3-14; 1976, 3-12; 1977, 3-3; 1978, 3-20.







Harvest


Brand
Pennington
Northrup King
Growers
McCurdy
Youngs
Fla Feed & Seed
George Warner
Taylor Evans
Funks
Dekalb
Northrup King


Hybrid
Summergrazer
Sordan 70A
GSA-SS-621
Sweet M
Sweet Chew
Gator Grazer
Gro-N-Graze-R
Haygrazer
FP-1
SX 16A
Trudan 7


*^ >, >, >, >, >
r.9
'r) 41 0U 4l 0 4J 4J1
4jCO W 2 4.1 -1 M W 4.1
Sca Wi M cc 4i cc cBti ^Ci (< ^ a P-
Q) ,3 0o ) 10 0 0 00 0 3 03
t / 4.1 .*r4 Q0 4.1 *r4 cc 4.J .,4 W 4J M1 4,1
0i 0 -r tB < *i c u g .-I Cu 0u s r i


7.1
7.3
6.9
7.1
7.3
6.9
7.3
7.1
6.9
6.3


4.3
3.3
3.3
3.5
13.8
4.5
3.0
3.8
3.8
3.0
3.5


6.8
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.3
6.5
6.3
6.0
6.1
5.8
6.8


4.5
4.8
4.3
4.5
4.3
4.5
4.5
4.5
4.8
3.5
5.5


3.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
3.0
2.8
2.8
3.0
2.3
2.5
4.0


t Height in feet

SDM= dry matter %
* Disease rated on scale 1 to 10. l=none, 10=100% leaf area affected.
** Maturity: 1=vegetative; 2=boot stage; 3=anthesis (pollen); 4=milk stage; 5=dough stage.


Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of


sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown at the Ona ARC 1978.












Table 4. Dry matter yield of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown at
Immokalee ARC 1978.


Harvest
1 2 3 4 5 Total
- - - DM tons/acre- - - -


McCurdy
Northrup King
Youngs
Taylor Evans
Pennington
Fla Feed & Seed
Dekalb
Growers
Dekalb
George Warner
Funks
Northrup King
Average


Sweet M
Sordan 70A
Sweet Chew
Haygrazer
Summergrazer
Gator Grazer
SX 17
GSA SS-621
SX 16A
Gro-N-Graze-R
FP-1
Trudan 7


Means followed
LSD, K=100).


by the same letter are not singificantly different. (Duncan's


Harvest dates: 1=5/11/78; 2=6/29/78; 3=9/5/78; 4=10/27/78; 5=1/4/79.
Seeding date: March 1, 1978.
Row width: 30"
Fertilization: 50-100-200 lb/A of N-P 0 -K 0 + 20 lb/A FTE 503; 100 Ib/A of
N when plants 16 to 18 tall, 50 to 75 lb/A N after each
harvest.
Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 lb/A (active) pre-emergence. Paraquat(R) 0.25 lb/A
(active) broadcast over the stubble after each harvest.
Irrigation: Seepage. Ditches on 30 foot centers.


Brand


Hybrid


2.8
1.8
2.2
1.9
2.3
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.9
1.9
2.0
1.4


3.6
3.2
3.1
3.1
2.9
3.0
3.0
2.8
3.0
2.9
3.0
1.5


3.0
3.4
2.6
2.8
2.7
3.0
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.1
1.5


1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.8
1.8
1.4
1.0


0.9
0.9
1.0
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.7
0.9
0.4


12.1 at
11.2 ab
11.0 ab
10.9 ab
10.9 ab
10.9 ab
10.2 be
10.0 bc
10.0 bc
9.8 bc
9.4 c
5.8 d
10.1













Table 5. Average dry matter yield of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown at
Immokalee ARC, 1976-1977.

Dry matter yield (tons/acre)


Brand


Hybrid


McCurdy
Northrup King
Pennington
Dekalb
Funks
Taylor Evans
Dekalb
George Warner
Average


Sweet M
Sordan 70A
Summergrazer
SX 16A
FP-1
Haygrazer
SX 17
Gro-N-Graze-R


Seeding date: 1976=3/5; 1977=3/2; 1978=3/1.


1976


9.3
7.8
7.0

6.8
5.6
7.0
7.3


1977

8.6
9.3

10.1
8.2
8.4
10.1
8.7
9.0


1978

12.1
11.2
10.9
10.0
9.4
10.9
10.2
9.8
10.6


Average


10.4
9.9
9.4
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.6
8.5









Table 6. Agronomic characteristics of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown


1


Brand


Hybrid


McCurdy Sweet M
Northrup King Sordan 70A
Youngs Sweet Chew
Taylor Evans Haygrazer
Pennington Summergrazer
Fla Feed & Seed Gator Grazer
Dekalb SX 17
Growers GSA SS-621
Dekalb SX 16 A
George Warner Gro-N-Graze-R
Funks FP-1
Northrup King Trudan 7


Harvest
3


4.1 to .rq 4.1 M *r4 4.1 M rq 4J Co -rI 41J W 4
60 a) 0 60 ) 3 60 6 0) 3 60 ( 3
-r-4 r4 Cc
*rlJ r 4


7.5
6.8
7.3
7.3
7.1
6.8
6.4
6.8
6.3
6.8
6.5
6.8


2.0
2.0
1.8
2.5
2.3
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
2.5
1.5
3.0


6.6
6.5
6.2
6.5
6.1
6.6
5.8
6.6
5.9
6.4
5.6
6.5


4.0
4.0
4.8
4.0
4.0
4.5
3.8
3.5
3.5
4.0
4.2
4.0


Height in feet

t DM= dry matter %
Disease rated on a scale 1 to 10. l=none, 10=100% leaf area affected
Maturity: vegetative; =boot stage; 3=anthesis (pollen) 4=milk stage; 5=dough stage.
Maturity: l=vegetative; 2=boot stage; 3=anthesis (pollen); 4=milk stage; 5=dough stage.


3.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
2.0
3.0
2.0
4.0


2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.5
3.0


at the Immokalee ARC, 1978.














Table 7. Dry matter yield of pearlmillet varieties grown at the Ona ARC 1978.

Harvest
Brand Hybrid 1 2 3 Total
- - DM tons/acre- -

McCurdy Grazex 3.7 1.1 3.4 8.2 a+
Growers Pearl-Gro 421 3.9 1.4 2.3 7.6 a
Ring Around Millhy 99 3.5 1.4 2.4 7.3 a
Northrup King Millex 23 3.4 1.5 2.2 7.1 a
Funks G 112 3.7 1.2 1.8 6.7 a
Average 7.4

SMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different
(Duncan LSD, K=100).

Harvest dates: 1=5/15/78; 2=6/12/78; 3=8/3/78.
Seeding date: March 20, 1978.
Row width: 18"
Fertilization: 75-130-260 lb/A of N-P 0 -K,0 + 26 lb/A FTE 503 at seeding
100 lb/A of N when plants 16 to 18" tall. 50 to 75 Ib/A of
N after each harvest.
Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 lb/A (active) pre-emergence. Paraquat 0.25 Ib/A
(active) broadcast over stubble after each harvest.
Irrigation: Overhead (4.2" in spring and 3.7" in fall-winter).
Maturity at harvest: boot to anthesis.














Table 8. Dry matter yield of pearlmillet varieties grown at the Immokalee
ARC, 1978.

Harvest


1 2 3 4 5 Total
- - - DM tons/acre- - - -


Ga AES
McCurdy
Funks
Growers
Ring Around
Northrup King
Average


GAHI-3
Grazex
G112
Pearl-Gro-421
Millhy-99
Millex 23


SMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different (DLSD,
K=100).

Harvest dates: 1=5/5/78; 2=6/1/78; 3=7/18/79; 4=8/14/78; 5=9/14/78.
Seeding date: March 1, 1978
Row width: 30"
Fertilization: 50-100-200 Ib/A of N-P 0 -K 0 + 20 Ib/A FTE 503; 100 lb/A of
N when plants 16 to 18 tall, 50 to 75 lb/A N after each harvest.
Herbicide: AAtrex(R) 2.0 lb/A (active) pre-emergence Paraquat at 0.25 lb/A
(active) broadcast over the stubble after each harvest.
Irrigation: Seepage. Ditches on 40 foot centers.


Brand


1.5
2.1
1.7
1.9
2.2
2.2


1.7
1.9
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.4


3.0
1.7
2.0
1.6
1.1
1.1


0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4


7.0 at
6.5 a
6.0 a
5.7 a
5.4 a
5.4 a
6.0




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