Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1973-4
Title: Effect of carotene deficient rations and supplemental vitamin A on production and liver vitamin A of calves /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074280/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of carotene deficient rations and supplemental vitamin A on production and liver vitamin A of calves /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 16 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Calves -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamin A in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Carotenes   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 14-16).
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 1973."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074280
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85836610

Full Text



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Agricultural Research Center, Ona * f -"
Research Report RC-1973-4 April 1973 -
/I :* * '.. ... *. T" : t 0

EFFECT OF CAROTENE DEFICIENT RATIONS AND SUPPLEMENTALL : t

VITAMIN A ON PRODUCTION AND LIVER VITAMIN A OF CALVESj j -I
'. .L *- .. ". ** "* c' " '. .:':;..
W1. G. Kirk, R. L. Shirley, J. F. Easley, F. M. Peacock

and Frank G. Martin-'


Vitamin A :icsn essential nutrient for beef cattle.- .It is.involved in

the many physiological activities of other vitamin and" hormones, .protects .

epithelial tissue from infection and- is necessary for-edequate growth., Stress

factors, disease, dittary:deficien.ies, high nitiate level,,, and rich concentrate

rations and high temperatures will increase :the anial.,vitamin A requirements.

Beef cattle obtain most of -their..vi.ta. in A. from carotenes. found in green-

leafy plants.. These carotenes are converted .to vitamin A in the.iintftinal

wall of cattle An excess of.carotene or vitamin. A intake above daily needs .: .

will be stored, in the liver.-as vitamin.-.A.and ,used when needed. Thus the .-

vitamin, and carotene content :of previous and current -rations are important- ,

considerations in. understanding vitamin adequacy in beef production. The- "c ,

objective of three trials was to determine the effect of supplemental .vitamin

A for calves that had been depleted for 140 days on,a ration.low in f protein,

total digestibleinutrients (TDN) and carotene.



1/ Animal Scientist Emeritus, Ons ARC; Animal Nutritionist-and Assistant

.Animal Nutritionist, Main Station, Gainesville; Associate Animal

M;usbandman, One ARC; and Associate Statistician, Main Station, .

Gainesville. .:






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LITERATURE REVIEW


Reviews of the known facts of vitamin A in the health of livestock have

been made by Morrison (14), Moore (13), in N.R.C. (16) and Maymone (12). Perry

et al. (17) found that adding vitamin A to a steer ration which met N,R.C.

standards for carotene increased gain and level of liver and plasma vitamin A

but decreased plasma carotene. Kirk et al. (10), show that feeding 30,000 I.U.

vitamin A daily or an initial injection of 2.7 and 5.4 million I.U. to calves

and yearling cattle did not improve rate of gain but increased (P4.,01) liver

vitamin A level. The control cattle did not exhibit any gross symptoms of

vitamin A deficiency other than low rate of gain when vitamin A level of dry

liver was 21 micrograms (mcg) for weanling calves and 5 mcg for yearlings kept

on dry feed for five months before placed on test. Perry et aIlt ( ) increased

production by feeding calves 20,000 I.U. daily or initial injection of 1, 4 and

6 million I.UT vitamin A. Liver storage, however, was not increased with

injection of 1 million I.U. vitamin A. Chapmen et al. () reported that'in two

steer trials gains were not increased by feeding 25,000 I.U. vitamin A daily

while in a third trial gains were 22% above the control.

Kohlmeier and Burroughs ( 'found that no dietary vitamin A was required

for good feed lot performance as long as liver and plasma vitamin A levels

remained above 2 mcg per gram and 25 mcg per.100milliliters (ml1), respectively.

Cattle placed in the feed lot with liver vitamin A from 20 to 40 mcg per gram

will have sufficient tissue reserve for 90 to 120 days under normal conditions.

Cattle with less than 5 mcg per gram of liver would require supplemental vitamin

A almost immediately when placed in the feed lot. They state that the minimal

vitamin A level necessary to maintain the above critical liver and plasma

levels is 636 I.U. per pound of air-dry feed. NRC (15) reported in 1963 that

an adequate calf finishing ration should contain 750 I.U. vitamin A per pound

and in 1970 NRC (16) recommended 1000 I.U.





-3-


Ullrey (19) states that recent research show that: (1) chemical analysis

does not establish biopotency of carotene as only 15 of the more than 00

naturally occurring carotenes and carotenoids have vitamin A activity; (2)

presence or absence of the s"ubstancet'in the ration which influence rate of

emulsification and absorption of carotene; and (3) variation in vitamin A

utilization between individual animals of the same species.


METHODS


Seventy-two weaned calves, 24 in each of three trials with six lots per

trial, were fed a vitamin A deficient ration for 140 days followed by a 56-day

vitamin A supplemental period at the Ona Agricultural Research Center. The

ration ingredients of cottonseed hulls, cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and mineral

mixture, (5 were :elected because they were widely used in mixed Florida

cattle rations. 'Dried citrus pulp furnished from 57.47. to 64.4% by weight

of the total ration.

The following daily additions per animal were made to the basal ration

during the supplemental period: Lot 1, none; Lot 2, 0.5 pounds pangolagrass

hay (hay); Lot 3, 2 pounds hay; Lot 4, 0.5 pounds hay + 12,000 I.U. vitamin

A; Lot 5, 2 pounds hay + 48,000 I.U. vitamin A; and Lot 6, 12,000 I.U. vitamin A.

The rations fed to the six lots of calves in the depletion and supplemental

periods are given in Table 1. The 1963 N.R.C. (5) recommendation for a 600-

pound calf finishing ration should contain 117 protein, 667. TDN and 750 I.U.

vitamin A per pound of feed. In the depletion period the ration fed the six

lots was 5% low in protein, 67. in TDN and 247. in vitamin A. Rations fed in the

supplemental period were from 3% to 7% deficient in both protein and TDN while

the ration fed Lot 1 was 187. and that fed Lot 2 was 127. below the vitamin A

standard and Lots 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 5%, 727., 3497. and 80%, respectively, above











ingredients fed in:depletion and supplemental periods.


Lot

Ration ingredients:
Cottonseed hulls

Cottonseed meal

Citrus pulp

Mineral

Hay

I. U. vitamin A
daily/calf-V


Depletion
all lots


25.7

14.9

57.7

1.7


19.5
15.0

64.2

1.3


. Supplemental- 56 days


2


19.2
14.5

62.1

1.3

2.9


3 4 5 6


17.4
13.3

57.4

1.3.
10.6


19.1

14.5

62.5

1.3

2.6

12,000


'17.4

13.3
57.4

1.2
10.7

48,000


Vitamin A requirements % '96 82 88 105' 172 449. 181

Crude protein % 10.5 10.7 10.5 10.2 10.5 10.2 1:0.7
TDN % 62.1 64.2 63.4 61.6 62.6 :61.8 64.3


1/ Vitamin A palmitate, 30,000 I.U. per gram.


19.6

14.9

64.4

1.1


12,000


_ __ ____


Table 1. Percentage






the standard. 'The calves -ere ed. once.daily as much of the mixed ration as

would be eaten in 24 hours.

A fresh:liver 'sample by the biopsy method () was obtained from each calf

initially and at six 28-day intervals thereafter. A final liver and blood

sample from each animal were taken when slaughtered. A total of 560 fresh

liver samples were assayed for vitamin A and carotene,

The procedure of Gallup and Hoefer (7), modification of the Carr-Price

8bC13 acetic anhydride method, was used to determine the vitamin A and

carotene of liver; that of Kimble (8) for plasma vitamin A and carotene; and

the method outlined by AO.A.C. () for carotene in feed. Individual daily

gain, slaughter data, level of vitamr.n A and carotene in fresh liver collected

at 28-day intervals and final vitamin A and carotene of blood plasma were ;

examined statistically (6.


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Production

Production data for the six lots of 12 calves in both the depletion and

supplemental periods each are summarized in Table 2. Average daily gain of the

72 calves fed the same ration in the 140-day depletion period was 1.55 pounds,

a daily gain range of 1.46 pounds for Lot 6 to 1.4$ pounds for Lot 5..

The ration was only moderately palatable as shown by the 2.6 to 2.7 pounds of

feed eaten daily per 100 pounds live weight. Gains were considered relatively

low for calves having a feeder grade of Low Choice. The low gains is attributed

to several factors: deficiency of protein and TDN in the ration; unknown

essential nutrients found in high quality alfalfa meal; and not to a critical

deficiency of vitamin A.

The greater gain by all lots in the supplemental period is to be

expected as calves were larger and more accustomed to their ration and feeding







Table 2. Production data in depletion and


Lot

Calves

Depletion period, 140 days:

Initial weight, Ib

Daily gain, Ib

TDN/lb gain, lb

Supplemental period, 56 days:

Initial weight, lb

Daily gain, lb

TDN/lb gain, Ib

Carcass data:

Dressing percent

Ribeye area/100 Lb
carcass, sq. in.

Edible meat,%


1

12


426

1.57

. 5.8


645

1.94

6.4


60.8

2.1


2
12


429

1.51

5.6


641

1.56

7.0


60.0

2.1


3
12


431

1.59

5.'5


654

1.85

6.3


60.0

2.1


4
12


428

1.59


5 6
12 12


434 436

1.61, 1.46


5.6 5.5 6.2


650.

1.93

6.2


59.7

2.1


655

1.88

6.1


59.6

2.1


640

1.82

6.2


60.2

2.0


51.1 51.5 51.3 50.6


1 _I_ __ _~ __


~


supplemental periods.


51.1 51.4










routine. Lot 1, control, ate the most feed and had a slightly higher average

daily gain in the 56-day supplemental period than Lots 2 to 6. The addition

of hay, fed lots 2, 3, 4 and 5 reduced level of protein and TDN in their

rations, a probable cause of the lower daily gains. The addition of vitamin

A alone and combined with hay to the basal ration, both at two levels, resulted

in no significant increase in rate of gain and decrease in feed requirements

per unit gain.

No abnormalities were observed in any of the animals at slaughter and

all carcasses were passed by the Federal Meat Inspector. Statistical analysis

did not reveal any significant difference in rate of gain in either the 140-day

depletion period or 56-day supplemental period, for the six lots.


Slaughter and Carcass Results

The average initial feeder grade was "Low Choice", final slaughter grade,

"High Good" and carcass grade "Good" for the 72 calves. There was no signi-

ficant difference in live and carcass grades, dressing percentage, rib eye

area and yield of edible meat for the six lots. Feeder grade indicated a

higher potential than U. S. Good carcass grade if a ration higher in protein

and TDN had been fed. There was no individual or lot data to show that adding

hay and vitamin A to the basal ration improved quality of carcass and increased

the yield of edible meat.

Vitamin A and Carotene in Fresh Liver


Vitamin A. The 72 calves were fed an average of 8093 I.U. vitamin A

daily in the 140-day depletion period, 77%. of the recommended level for

finishing calves having an average weight of 600 pounds. The average vitamin

A level per gram of fresh liver by 28-day periods for the six lots of calves

are given in Table 3. There was considerable initial variation in liver vitamin






b. e , r .,
Table 3. Level of vitamin A in fresh; liver at 28-day intervals.-
,,- ,. i' i *,


22/
Lot 1 2 ..: 3 4

Depletion period 140 days:'
S. fesh live'' : 4/ -
mcg/gram fresh liver- **'


5 : ":6


Initial

28 days

56 days

84 days

112 days,

140 days

Supplemental

168 days

192 days


113,. 131

80 81

43 56

25 27

14 13 ..-

10 11
3/
period 56 days:-

5 7

5 6


94' 105

67 72.

36 47

22 24

11 11
9 8


6.


Kirk et al. (11)

Fed onty basal ration, 196 days.

Basal 'rat-ion .+ supplements daily per

Lotr 3, 2 b. hay; Lot 4, 0.5 lb hay'+

+4,o000 I.U.; and Lot 6, 12,000 I.U.
., .. . J -,'.


,.. (P/ .01) decrease in
* (P/ .01) increase in


calf; Lot 1, none; Lot 2, 0.5

12,000 I.U. vitamin A; Lot 5,

vitamin A.


liver vitamin A, all lots.

liver vitamin A, Lot 5. "
i- ,, ..'. .


, V'


87

72

33

17


'6


99

71

46

24

13

.9


'105
-" "71

S43,

..23
12

9


17- **


lb hay; :
2 lb hay


--


Avg.










A between the six lots of calves but these differences became less with each

successive 23-day period. The vitamin A level after C4 days on the depletion

ration for all calves was 78% of the initial value with a further 137. reduc-

tion in the last 56 days, a highly significant (P.O01) rate of decrease.

The highest initial level of vitamin A was 174 mcg per gram of fresh liver

and at the end of the depletion period 32 mcg, both from the same calf. The

lowest individual level at the end of the depletion period was 1 mcg in trial

1, 2 mcg in trial 2 and zero meg in trial 3. These calves, however, appeared

healthy as shown by their appearance and comparable weight gains. It has been

suggested that 23 mcg vitamin A per gram of liver (2) is close to the level

where vitamin A deficiency occurs while the level may be as low as 2 mcg per

gram of liver (9) before animal performance is affected.

There was a further decrease in liver vitamin A in the 56-day supplemental

period for Lot 1, control, and Lots 2, 3 and 4. Feeding 12,000 I.U. daily, Lot

6, maintained liver vitamin A as at the end of the 140-day depletion period.

The data show that liver vitamin A was maintained for this lot when the daily

ration contained 1,353 I.U. per pound; 80% above the NRC (15) recommended level

of 750 I.U. per pound feed. The efficacy of 12,000 I.U. vitamin A daily indi-

cated that part of the 12,000 I.U. fed Lot 4 was required in the digestion of

0.5 pounds low-level carotene hay. Raising the vitamin A level to 3367 I.U.

per pound of feed, the basal ration fed Lot 5 plus 2 pounds of hay and 48,000

I.U. vitamin A daily per calf, resulted in liver vitamin A storage at the same

rate as reduction in last 56 days of the depletion period. A longer than the

56-day period was required to show the effect of the vitamin A supplements on

vitamin A liver storage.

Calves in Lot 1, control, fed a ration 247. below the 1963 NRC vitamin A

recommended level in the depletion and 17% in the supplemental period, showed






-10-


no gross symptoms of vitamin A.deficiency. The high average initial level of

113 mcg vitamin A per gram of liver, low rate of gain, 1.58 pounds daily for

the 196 days,.and level of vitamin A in citrus pulp, which made up about 60% of

the total ration eaten, contributed to their well-being in the three 196- day

trials.

Carotene. The liver. carotene level for each lot by 28-day intervals is

shown in Table 4. .The highest individual initial level was 43 mcg/gram of

fresh liver with:thwo calves having zero carotene at the end of the depletion

period. Liver carotene was significantly reduced (PL..01); an average of

53% the.first 56 days of the depletion period and 147 in the next 84 days.

The average liver carotene reduction was a further 6% for the 72 calves in

the supplemental period. The supplemental hay and vitamin A at the rates fed

ha4,little if any affect on the carotene level of the liver.

Regressiop..analysis showed that the rate of decline in vitamin A and

carotene in fresh liver during the depletion period differed in the three trials.


Vitamin A and Carotene in Blood Plasma

One blood sample from each calf was obtained at time of slaughter. The

average vitamin A and carotene in blood plasma for-the six lots in each trial

are given in Table 5. The highest individual level of vitamin A was 66 mcg

per 100 ml plasma for a'calf in Lot 5, and the lowest was zero for a calf in

both Lots 1 and 2. The highest individual plasma carotene level was 307 mcg

for a calf in Lot 1 and the lowest was zero for/the same two calves which had

zero plasma vitamin A. Analysis of variance showed that-there was a significant

difference (P-c.0l) in plasma vitamin A between trials and between lots and in

carotene between trials. There was an interaction (P O.-05) between trials and

lots in plasma carotene. Duncan's Multiple range test showed that for the.,

three trials vitamin A in plasma from Lots 4, 5 and 6 was greater (P4.01)









Table 4. Level of carotene in fresh liver at 28-day intervals./


Lot

Depletion period:


Initial

28 days

56 days

84 days

112 days

140 days

Supplemental

168 days

196 days


14

10

8

7

4

4
perio3/
period:-


11

I;

1(


1

1


mcg/gram fresh

+ 17

2 12

) 7

9 5

+ 5

+ 4


1/ Kirk et al. (11)

2/ Fed only basal ration 196 days.

3/ Supplements fed daily per animal given in Table 3.
** (P/.01) decrease in liver carotene, all lots.


Avg.


liver**

13

11

5
.5

6

4


*







. 42.


Table 5. Vitamin A and carotene in


blood plasma.


2 .

AvR. meC


per 100 ml plasma


Vitamin A:

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Avg 3 trials


Carotene:

Trial

Trial

Trial


Avg- 3 als 123
Avg 3 trials 123


a. 139a
115. 139


92 -125a


abc means in the same row or

significantly.


column with different superscripts differ
. '


Lot


6


Avg


56

54

36


45a
38b

28c


b
41


49b


48b


.136

194

3a


132

197

16


186

101

129


187

165

41


154a

152a

,51b


168

143

44


- -- --


- -- ---


---


- ;


''-"'
''
-7,


28a


27a


"'







-13-


than for Lots 1, 2 and 3 but no significant difference was detected within

each of the two groups.

There were no significant differences in plasma carotene among the lots

in Trial 1. Lots 3 and 5 had significantly less p.lama: carotene than Lots 1

and 2 in Trial 2. Plasma carotene was higher (P-.0Ol) for Lot 3 trial 3 than

for the other five lots, with no difference among Lots 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6.

Supplemental feeding of hay at two levels-.in combination with Vitamin A

at two levels and vitamin A alone increased plasma vitamin A for Lot 4, 5 and

6; only Lot 5, however, had an increase in liver vitamin A (Table 3) and the-

lowest plasma carotene. Apparently Lot.5 fed 2 pounds of hay and 48,000 I.U.

vitamin A daily converted more of the ration carotene to vitamin A with

excess stored in the liver as vitamin A.

SUMMARY

Avergge.idaily. gain for the 72 calves was 1.55 pounds in the 140-day

depletion period and 1.05 pounds in the 56-day supplemental period, low for

calves having an initial feeder grade of Low Choice. All rations were low in

protein and TDHNand unknown nutritional factors found in alfalfa leaf meal to

promote rapid.gain. There was ;no significant difference in rate of gain be-

tween the six lots of calves in either the depletion or supplemental periods.

Calves fed the control ration for 196 days showed no apparent gross vitamin A

deficiency symptoms. "

Vitamin A per gram of fresh liver was reduced from an average of 105 mcg

initially to Smcg:Gfter 140 days on the basal ration, a 917. decrease (P/_.01),

There was a further small decrease in liver vitamin A in the 56-day supplemental

period ; for Lpts 1, .2, .3 and 4 with 'Lot 6 at the same level at the end of

both periods.:
48,000 I.U. vitamin A daily per animal (3367 I.U. vitamin A per pound of feed)







-14-


increased from 6 to 17 mcg per gram, the same rate of increase as decrease

in the last 56 days of the depletion period.

Carotene per gram fresh liver was reduced from an average of 15 mcg

initially to 5 mcg in the 140-day depletion period, a 677 decrease (PL..01)

with little change in liver carotene values in the 56-day supplemental

period for any lot.

.The addition of hay and vitamin A, both at two levels, (Lots 4 and 5)

and vitamin.A alone (Lot 6) in the 56-day supplemental period increased

vitamin A. level of.:blood plasma .P i01)'. Lot 5 calves fed the basal.ration

plus 2 pounds hay and 48,000 I.U. vitamin A daily had the lowest level of

plasma carotene and the highest level of liver vitamin A.


LITERATURE CITED

1. A.O.A.C. 1960. Official methods of analysis (9th ed.). Association of

Official Agricultural Chemists, Washington, D. C.

2. Beeson, W. M., T. W. Perry, W. H. Smith, and M. T. Mohler. 1965. Effect

of different levels of vitamin A on the performance of Hereford and

Charolais x Hereford heifers self-fed on blue grass pasture. Purdue

Univ. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Proj. Rept. 169.

3. Chapman, H. L. Jr., D. H. Cox, C. E. Haines, and G. K, Davis. 1963.

Evaluation of the liver biopsy technique for mineral nutrition studies

with beef cattle. J. Ani. Sci. 22:733-737.

4, Chapman, J. L. Jr., R. L. Shirley,'A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter. 1971.

Vitamins A and E. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. I.F.A.S, Bull. 748.

5. Cunha, T. J., R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Ammerman, G. K. Davis,

W. G. Kirk, and J. F. Hentges, Jr. 1964. Minerals for beef cattle in

Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 683.





-15-

6. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F-test. Biometrics 11:1.

7. Gallup, W. G. and J. A. Hoefer. 1946. Determination of vitamin A in

liver. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 18:288.

8. Kimble, M. S. 1939. The photoelectric determination of viteain A and

carotene in human blood plasma. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 24:1055.

9. Kohlmeler, R. H. and Wise Burroughs. 1970. Estimation of Critical

plasma and liver vitamin A levels in feedlot cattle with observations upon

influence of body stores and daily dietary requirements. J. Attim; Sci.

30:1012-1018.

10. Kirk, V. G., R. L. Shirley, J. T. Easley, and F. M. Peacock. lS70, Cattle

gains fed and injected with vitamin A. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech Bull. 741.

11. Kirk, H. G., R. L. Shirley, J. T. Easley and F. M. Peacock. 1971. Effect

of carotene deficient rations and supplemental vitamin A on gain, feed

utilization and liver vitamin A of calves. J. Anim. Sci. 33:476-4;0.

12. Maymone, B. 1965. Connaissance sur 1' activeit E biochemique de 1A

vitamin A et son importance pour l'utilivsation des vitamins conte8us

den les ailments compose's pour animaux. World Review of Animal Production.

Rome, Italy, July-Sept. 99-123.

13. Moore, Thomas. 1957. Vitamin A. Elsevier Publishing Co., New York.

14. Morrison, F. B. 1956. Feeds and Feeding. 22nd Ed. The Morrison Publishing

Company, Ithaca, N. Y.

15. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 1963. National Res. Council Publ.

1137. Washington, D. C.

16. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 4th Rev. Ed. 1970. National

Res. Council. Washington, D. C.

17. Perry, T. W., W. M. Beeson, M. T. Mohler and W. H. Smith. 1962. Level

of supplemental vitamin A with and without suncured alfalfa meal for

fattening steer calves. J. Anim. Sci. 22:333-339.




MAR 6 utw


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18. Perry, T, W.,, M. Beeson,. H. H. Smith and M. T. Mohler. 1967.


Injectable vs oral vitamin A for fattening steer calves. J. Anim.


Sci. 26:115-118.


19. Ullrey, D. E. 1972. Biological availability of fat-soluble vitamins:


Vitamin A and carotene. Jour. An. Sci. 35:648-657.




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