Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1973-5
Title: Using plant height and tiller height in the management of winter annual grasses /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074278/00001
 Material Information
Title: Using plant height and tiller height in the management of winter annual grasses /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 6, 8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1973
Copyright Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Growth (Plants) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feeds -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Paul Mislevy.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 1973."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074278
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85846794

Full Text

i ,.Agricultural Research Center, Ona *-*
j OResearch Report RC-1973-5 April 1973

GS PLANT HEIGHT AND TILLER HEIGHT IN THE

NAGEMENT OF WINTER ANNUAL GRASSES-

Y 1 6 73 Paul Mislevy2/

Supplement forage is extremely valuable in a winter livestock
SS Un!v 0 flOr
e* ram. Winter annuals (small grains and ryegrass) can provide

much of this forage. These plants produce high quality forage and are

available during the time of year when our permanent pastures are

generally producing very little.

Small grains generally provide forage much faster following seeding.

However, ryegrass will continue producing forage much longer into the

spring. Small grains and ryegrass like many other annual crops require

good fertilization and good management.

Ryegrasses and small grains both have the potential of producing

2 to 4 tons of dry matter per acre. However, McCaleb3/et al indicated

animals grazing oats (Avena sativa L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) over

a four year period consumed only 47% and 42% respectively of the total

production. The remainder being unpalatable stems or trampled material

which the animals rejected.

Therefore the need remains for high yields along with a uniform

seasonal distribution of quality forage. The purpose of this study was

to use plant height and tiller height as criteria in the management of

small grains for forage.


1/ Presented at the 1973 Beef Cattle Shortcourse, University of Florida,

Gainesville, Florida.

2/ Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida.

3/ McCaleb, J. E., F. M. Peacock and E. M. Hodges. 1964. Oats and

rye for grazing on Florida flatlands. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-152.





-2-

Experimental procedure

During the winters of 1971-72 small grain experiments were conducted

at Immokalee and Ona. Fertilizer applications at seeding were 75-120-120

and 60-60-58 Ibs/A N-P205-K20 at Immokalee and Ona respectively. Following

each harvest, 50 pounds of N was applied/A. Both small grain experiments

were seeded in early December at 180 Ibs/A for rye and 90 lbs/A for

oats. The small grains consisted of Gator and Florida Black rye and

Florida 501 oats.

At the time of harvest, a strip 1.5 feet wide and 17 feet long was

removed from a 5 foot by 20 foot plot with a Sensation rotary mower.

Total herbage from the strip was weighed, subsamples taken and weighed,

dried at 600C and weighed again. Dry matter was then calculated and

converted to tons/acre. Samples of each harvest were analyzed for

in vitro organic matter digestion (IVOMD).

The initial harvest of both rye and oats was removed when the

growing point was 0.5 to 1.0 inches above the soil surface for both

species (Fig. 1). Oat plants at this stage were 15 to 17 inches tall

with rye ranging 12 to 15 inches. Plants generally attain these heights

in central Florida in approximately 40 days after seeding provided they

are well fertilized and moisture is adequate. The mowing height was

3 inches and as a result a major portion of the growing points were not

removed during the first harvest which was made up only of leaves.

Following the first harvest the plants continued to grow (Fig. 2).

The second harvest was not removed until the plants had developed young

tillers ranging from 3 to 5 inches tall. Following the second harvest,

all subsequent harvests were removed each time new developing tillers

attained a height of 3 to 5 inches with the height of the entire grass

being about 12 inches.








-3-

Results and Discussion

Using the plant height at initial harvest and tiller height in

subsequent harvests in the management of oats and rye resulted in a

uniform forage distribution throughout the winter. Table 1 illustrates

the percent of total dry matter production produced per harvest by oats.

and rye, All three small grains at the Immokalee location averaged 31,

23, 23 and 21% of total yield for harvests 1 through 4, respectively.



Table 1, Percentage dry matter distribution of three small grains
over five harvests at two locations.


Dry matter distribution (%)

Harvests


Small Grain



Gator rye

Fla. Black rye

Fla. 501 oats


1



26

29

39


2



23

25

22


3 4

Immokalee

23 22

25 21

20 19


Ona

Gator rye 27 25 30 18

Fla. Black rye 44 54 -- -- --

Fla. 501 oats 46 25 29 -- --





Allvarieties contributed approximately 20% of their total yield in the

fourth harvest at Immokalee, Gptor rye exhibited a fairly uniform forage

distribution at Ona, averaging 27, 25, 30 and 18% for harvest 1; through 4.


5






-4-

respectively, The three small grains produced approximately 0.5 tons/A,

in the first harvest (Table 2). However, all plots of Florida Black rye

were lost following the second harvest due to mismanagement. The second

harvest of Florida Black rye was delayed allowing the plants to start

heading. At the same time young tillers had developed and reached a

height of 5 inches. Delaying removal of the taller plants (boot stage)

resulted in the death of the young 3 to 5 inch tillers. As a result

when the second harvest was removed the plants died.



Table 2. pry matter production of three small grains from five harvests
at two locations.


Dry matter

Harvests


production (T/A)


Small grain



Gator rye

Fla. Black rye

Fla. 501 oats

LSD (.05)


1



.49

.49

.67


2



.40

.40

.36


3 4

Immokalee

,40 .40

.40 .36

.36 .31


Ona

Gator rye ,54 .49 .58 .36 -- 1.97.

Fla. Black rye .54 .71 -- .- -- 1.25

Fla. 501 oats .58 .31 ,36 -- 1.25

LSD (.05) .62



Harvest dates Immokalee: 1=1-12-72; 2=2-4-72; 3=3-2-72; 4=4-3-72;,
5=4-24-72.

Harvest dates Qna: 19i-24-72; 2=3-8-72; 3=4-6-72; 4=5-4-72.


5



.09


Total



1.78

1.65

1.70

NS


- ---~~










Table 3 illustrates in vitro organic matter digestion as influenced

by the above harvest management. At the Immokalee location IVOMD ranged

from 71.9% to a high of 80.0% over the first 3 harvests. However, in

the fourth harvest all species decreased in in vitro digestion due to

leaf deterioration caused by a severe rust infestation. At Ona a lower

but similar pattern followed. The low 65.6% IVOMD for Florida Black rye

was the result of mismanagement, allowing plants to attain boot stage

before harvesting.



Table 3, In vitro organic matter digestion of three small grains at
four harvests from two locations.


Small grain



Gator rye

Fla. Black rye

Fla. 501 oats


1



71,9*

76.0

76.6


2


73.1

75.5

77.7


IVOMD (%)

Harvests

3

Immokalee

74.5

74.4

80.0


Ona

Gator rye 67.5* 74.4 71.6 61.9

Fla. Black rye 70.7 65.6 ---- ---

Fla. 501 oats 76.3 72.4 69.5 ----


* Average of four replications.


4



65.7

63.8

65.8







Summary

The initial harvest was removed when plants were 12 to 15 inches

tall for rye and oats respectively. All subsequent harvests were removed

each time young developing tillers attain a height of 3 to 5 inches.

However, primary tillers at each harvest averaged 12 inches. Following

this type of management for oats and rye resulted in a uniform forage

distribution through the cool season, with fewer tillers being unpala-

table and stemmy.



































RC-1973-5
4-27-73-950 copies















10














De



Tiller

Young Tiller Growing Point
0







Fig. 1. Diagramatic drawing of a small grain plant at initial harvest. The growing point ranging from 0.5 to
1 inch above the soil surface, was not cut at a 3 inch stubble height. Plant height averaged approximately
15 inches.

















Growing Point


Fig. 2. Plant height and developing tillers at initial harvest.














10










5







Stubble of
Mature Culm Young Tiller








Fig. 3. Plant height at third and subsequent harvests averaged 12 inches. Developing tillers ranged
from 3 to 5 inches.




























APPENDIX










Table 1. Influence of small grain varieties on dry matter yields at
Immokalee, 1972-73.


Dry matter production (T/A)

Harvests


Variety

Oats

Fla. 501

Elan

Wheat

Coker 68-19

Wakeland


Barley

Fla. 102


.60

.58



.67

.50


2



.45

.34



.43

.37


.57 .34


3



.36

.32



.55

.50



.36


4



.77

.73



.34

.46



.30


Total



2.18

1.97



1.99

1.83



1.57


Rye


Winter Grazer 70

Wrens Abruzzi

Vita Graze

Balbo

Tetrapetkus


1.66

1.96

1.68

1.99

1.64


Date planted:

Seeding rate:

Fertilization:


Harvest dates:


December 5, 1972

3 bu/A,

85-70-140 Ibs/A N-P205-K20 at seeding + 50 lbs N following
each harvest.

1=1-17-73; 2=2-9-73; 3=3-14-73; 4=4-6-73







Table 2. Influence of small grain varieties on dry matter yields at Ona,
1972-73.


Dry matter production (T/A)

Harvest


Variety

Oats

Fla. 501

Elan

Wheat

Coker 68-19

Wakeland

Barley

Fla. 102


1



.42

.48



.36

.35



.46


2



.38

.41



.48

.49



.42


3



.71

.74



.51

.65



.57


4



.17

.19



.27

.23



.11


5



.56

.51



.27

.54



.17


Total



2.24

2.33



1.89

2.26



1.73


Rye


Fla. Black

Winter Grazer 70

Wrens Abruzzi

Gator

Vita Graze

Balbo


Tetrapetkus


.25

.40

.29

.33

.28

.38


.25

.16

.17

.29

.25

.16


1.12

1.53

1.57

1.73

1.75

1.57

1.39


.22

.15

.18

.20

.23

.15


.17


Date planted:

Seeding rate:

Fertilization:


Harvest dates:


10-20-72

3 bu/A,

90-50-100 lbs/A
each harvest.

1=12-1-72; 2-


N-P205-K20 at seeding + 50 Ibs N following


=12-19-72;


3=1-26-73; 4=3-6-73; 5=4-3-73.












Table 3. Percentage forage distribution of small grains over four harvests
at Immokalee, 1972-73.



Forage distribution (%)
Harvest

Variety 1 2 3 4


Oats

Fla.501 28 21 16 35

Elan 30 17 16 37

Wheat

Coker 68-19 33 22 28 17

Wakeland 28 20 27 25

Barley

Fla.102 36 22 23 19

Rye

Winter Grazer 70 38 17 20 25

Wrens abruzzi 38 18 21 23

Vita Graze 40 16 20 24

Balbo 33 18 20 29

Tetrapetkus 24 24 23 29




tc 10 M ) MY "U'" IIJ


1978


Table 4, Percentage forage distribution of small grains over five harvests at
Ona, 1972-73,



Forage distribution (%)
Harvest

Variety 1 2 3 4 5


Oats
Fla.501 19 17 32 7 25

Elan 21 18 32 8 22
Wheat

Coker 68-19 19 26 27 14 14

Wakeland 15 22 29 10 24

Barley

Fla.102 27 24 33 6 10

Rye
Fla. Black 22 22 36 20

Winter Grazer 70 26 10 33 10 21

Wrens Abruzzi 18 11 34 12 25

Gator 19 17 29 12 23

Vita Graze 16 14 33 13 24

Balbo 24 10 35 10 21

Tetrapetkus 28 12 35 7 18


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$133,00, or 14 cents per copy to inform ranchers on managing
winter grass.


MAR 6




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