Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; 75-6
Title: Growing calves and yearlings in south and central Florida
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074273/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing calves and yearlings in south and central Florida
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chapman, H. L ( Herbert L. ), 1923-
Peacock, F. M ( Fentress McCoughan ), 1922-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1975
Copyright Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Calves -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Feedlots -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.L. Chapman, Jr. and F.M. Peacock.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 8).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April, 1975."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074273
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85851104

Full Text


Ona Agricultural Research Center -'" .*
Research Report 75-6 J 1 0 1978 Ap 1, 1975

S-nV. of Florid
Growing Calves and Yearlings i. J4t ra FlorUdL

H. L. Chapman, Jr. and F. M. Peacoco -----

The area of Florida covered by this research report primarily includes the
southern most 25 counties in the state, except for those areas consisting of
organic soils.

CALVES

Table 1. Average Performance of Brahman and Shorthorn x Brahman Steer
Calves Fed in Drylot for 140 Days (16)1/.


3/4 S
1/4 B


Number of calves
Initial weight (Ib)
Final weight (Ib)
Total gain (lb)
Daily gain (ib)
Daily feed intake (lb)
.. Concentrate
Hay
Feed/lb gain (Ib)
Concentrate
Hay


15
526
797
271
1.94

12.01
3.44


6.19
1.77


Breed
1/2 S
1/2 B


16
523
803
280
2.00

12.35
3.45


6.18
1.72


3/4 B
1/4 S


16
526
808
282
2.01

11.37
3.42

5.66
1.70


B


16
493
775
282
2.01

11.12
3.45

5.53
1.72


Table 2. Average Daily Gain and Ration for Calves on Different Forms of
Pangolagrass for 137 Days (19).

Treatments
1 2 3 4
Silage Silage Silage
from from plus
silo bunker pasture Pasture
(self-fed) (hand-fed)


Number of years
Number of animals
Adjusted daily gain, lb
Supplemental feed,lb
Cottonseed meal
Citrus pulp
Mineral
Cottonseed hulls
Roughage, Ib


3
165
0.47

1.29
2.58
0.06

ad lib


2
110
0.53


1
57
0.70


3
164
0.78


1.18 1.39 1.16
2.36 2.78 2.32
0.05 0.09 0.06
0.14
20.00 ad lib ad lib


1/ Numbers in parenthesis refer to research references listed on last page of
the Ona ARC report.


- '-~~----- --"-








Table 3. Summary of Calves Grazing Oats and Ryegrass Pastures Over a
S.,: Three-Year Period (12).

Oats Ryegrass


Date planted
,cGrazing, ates:
Started
Ended
Length of grazing period (days)
Total grazing days/acre
Total gain/acre (Ib)
Daily cain (lb)


10-19


12-1
4-6
120
194
270
1 4I


10-23


12-26
4-20
115
224
345
1.54


Table 4. Average Daily Gain and Feed Data of Calves Wintered on Pensacola
Bahia and Later Fed in Feedlot. (10).

Treatment
1 2 3 4

Number of calves 36 36 36: 36
Wintering period
Daily gain (Ib) 0.09 0.39 0.77 1.21
Daily feed intake (Ib) 1.97 3.04 5.55 8.21
Feed/lb gain (lb) 21.9 7.8 7.2 6.8
Feedlot period
Daily gain (Ib) 2.25 2.12 2.03 1.82
Daily feed intake (Ib)
Concentrate 17.61 18.17 18.58 18.01
Hay 2.14 2.16 2.14 2.07
Feed/lb gain (Ib)
-.. Concentrate 7.82 8.57 9.15 9.93
Hay 0.95 1.02 1.05 1.14
Total gain/calf (Ib) 327 344 378 399


Table 5. Performance of Light Weight Calves Fed Various Levels of
Concentrate on Winter Pangolagrass Pasture as Compared to Drylot (3)

SPangola Pasture Drylot
Feed intake..(% BW) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Full fed

Number of calves 34 33 34 34 34
Days on feed 185 181 174 172 171
Initial weight (Ib) 221 221 221 221 219
Final weight (Ib) 378 414 434 452 462
Total gain (lb) 157 193 213 231 243
Daily gain (Ib) 0.85 1.07 1.22 1.34 1.42








Table 6. Performance of Various Types of Calves Fed
grass Pasture as Compared to Drylot (4).


on Winter Pangola-


Pangola Pasture Drylot
Brahman Brahman Brahman B xA B x A.
heifers steers bulls steers steers

Number of calves 30 30 30 30 29
Days on feed 162 162 150 150 162
Initial weight (lb) 314 319 336 327 318
Final weight (lb) 513 559 568 566 642
Total gain (1b) 199 240 232 239 324
Daily gain (lb) 1.23 1.48 1.55 1.59 2.00
Feed/day (lb)
Concentrate 6.92 7.00 6.96 6.96 13.54
Hay 4.06


Table 7. Average Performance of Light Weight Calves Fattened in Drylot (7).

No
Synovex Synovex

Number of calves 17 18
Initial weight (lb) 311 309
Final weight (lb) 525 578 /
Total gain (lb) 214 269
Daily gain (lb) 1.50 1.88
Daily feed intake (lb)
Concentrate 9.47 9.47
Pangola hay 5.13 5.13
Feed/gain (lb)
Concentrate 6.31 5.03
Pangola hay 3.42 2.73


Table 8. Steer Calves Fed on Winter Pangolagrase Pasture and in Drylot (5).

Pangolagrass Pasture Drylot
Breed of calf Brahman X Bred Brahman X Bred
Protein Supplement CSM Urea CSM Urea CSM CSM'

Number of animals 29 30 30 30 29 29
Initial weight (lb) 379 377 428 428 377 429
Final weight (lb) 609 591 675 656 646 750
Total gain (lb) 230 214 247 228 269 321
Daily gain (Ib) 1.33 1.24 1.43 1.32 1.55 1.86
Daily feed intake (Ib)
Concentrate 7.80 7.58 8.51 8.42 11.35 14.26
Hay 5.53 5.35 5.54 5.20 1.63 1.16









Table 9. Steer Calves Fed on Winter Pasture and in Drylot (6).

Pangola Pangola Pangola Pangola Drylot Drylot
Ryegrass Ryegrass
1.5% BW 2.0% BW 1.5% BW 3.0% BW 2.2% BW

Number of animals 18 18 18 18 18 18
Initial weight (Ib) 375 386 381 384 377 380
Final weight (lb) 651 580 697 702 689 644
Total gain (lb) 276 194 316 318 312 264
Daily gain (lb) 1.23 0.87 1.41 1.42 1.39 1.18
Daily feed intake (lb)
Concentrate 6.80 3.47 8.99 7.16 11.30 9.39
Hay .62 1.62 .65 .99 4,38 6.00


Comments and Suggestions for Calves during 1975

1. The way calves are managed afterweaning will depend upon whether they
are raised or purchased and upon the stress factors present at weaning.
2. Calves raised on the ranch should be castrated, dehorned, branded and
vaccinated while still nursing the cow and at least four weeks before
being weaned, if these steps are to be done. At weaning they should
be confined for 7-14 days, provided clean, fresh water, good quality
roughage and,3 to 4 pounds of citrus pulp or a complete feed. After being
completely weaned they can be moved to pasture. The need for worming,
treating for flukes, use of antibiotics, and vitamin ADE will vary from
area to area. The advice of a veterinarian should be obtained for herd
health management.
3. Purchased calves should be held in isolation and provided water, hay and
feed for 7-10 days. In most cases purchased calves should be vaccinated,
wormed, treated for flukes if from a fluke area, provided antibiotics and
vitamin APE. Rely on a veterinarian for herd health recommendations.
Calves should be castrated, dehorned and branded when given other treatments
if these need to be done.
4. Calves can be grown out on good Pangola, Slenderstem or stargrass-pasture
and a limited amount of concentrate more economically than on a full feed
; in drylot.insouth and central Florida.
5. Bahiagrass is not recommended for calves.
6, Gains on pangolagrass will not be improved by.feeding the grass as hay or
silage.. .
7. Calves will grow well on ryegrass or clover-grass pasture without supplemental
feed.
8. Do not over feed on pasture. Calves should have maximum of 1.0 to 1.5
percent of body weight. The feed supplement should emphasize energy.
9, Avoid selling lightweight calves, if possible.








YEARLING CATTLE


Table 10.


Effect of Forage .and Fertilizer on Weight Gains of Yearling
Steers in Early Grazing Trials.1-2/


Kind of forage Average daily gain (lb)

Carpetgrass, unfertilized 0.26
Carpetgrass, fertilized 0.98
Common bahia, unfertilized 0.36
Common bahia, fertilized 0.73 1
Carpetgrass-clover, fertilized, unirrigated 1.44
Pangola, fertilized 1.34
Pensacola bahia, fertilized 1.05


/ Each figure is an average of two years data.
12/ Hodges, E. M. and W. G. Kirk. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Rpts.. 1947, 1948.


Table 11.


Variability in Annual Beef Production from Yearling Cattle
d. j-_ rA ~e c_-, ~- /fI F d Ylb B f/A >1\2,


jDJU LU it.o UKin o ora an LL aj I. .L

Forage Range Average

Common bahia 138 158 149
Carpetgrass 141 182 165
Coastal bermuda 189 212 200
Torpedo grass 198 206 203
Pensacola bahia 210 224 215
Argentine bahia 170 236 216
Pangolagrass 294 360 339


An average of three years data. The grazing period was from approximately
March 15 to October 1 of each year.
Hodges, E. M., W. G. Kirk, D. W. Jones and F. M. Peacock. Fla. Agr.
Expt. Sta. Annual Repts. 1953, 1954, 1955.


Table 12.


Variability in Gain of Yearling Cattle Due to Grass Variety
and Year.1i2/


Daily gain (Ib)
Range Average

Pensacola bahia 0.76 1.02 0.88
Tifhi bahia 0.88 1.08 0.96
McCaleb stargrass 1.17 1.36 1.23
Slenderstem 1.26 1.65 1.42
1/ Figures are from three years of experiments except for McCaleb stargrass
which was for two years.
2/ McCaleb, J. E. and E. M. Hodges. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Annual Repts.
1962, 1963, 1964.


2/
2. _









Table 13.


Performance of Steers Fattened on Pangola or Pensacola
Bahia (10).!/


Daily citrus Pangola Pensacola
pulp intake (Ib) 0 5 9 0 5 -9


Steers/acre
Days on test
Total gain/steer (Ib)
Daily gain/steer (lb)
Total gain/acre (lb)


2.4
185
264
1.32
634


2.4
185
326
1.75
782


2.4
185
332
1.78
797


2.4
199
213
1.08
511


2.4
199
286
1.43
686


2.4
199
317
1.58
760


1/ All cattle received 2 lb of 41% cottonseed meal per animal daily.

Table 14. Gain and Feed Intake Data for Yearlings Fed Various Levels
of Supplemental Feed and on Different Summer Pastures (9).

Pangola Pangola Pangola Pensacola
no fed in fed late bahia, fed
feed late and mid late and
summer summer mid summer

Total gain (Ib) 199 237 265 242
Daily gain (Ib) 1.13 1.36 1.52 1.34
Feed/steer (Ib) 0 260 488 513
Increase in gain (Ib) 0 38 67 43
Feed/increase gain (Ib) 0 6.84 7.28 11.93


Table 15. Yearlings Fed Pangola Hay and Silage in Fattening Rations (11).

Hay Silage
1 2 3 1 2 3

Initial weight (Ib) 760 749 764 777 768 765
Final weight (Ib) 901 977 1041 934 1005 1058
Total gain (lb) 141 228 277 157 237 293
Daily gain (Ib) 1.15 1.86 2.27 1.29 1.94 2.40
Feed intake (Ib)
Hay 16.44 12.22 8.36 59.18 37.91 28.44
Concentrate 3.02 10.79 16.34 3.03 10.87 16.56


Table 16. Performance of Long-Yearlings on Oats and Rye (13).-!

Oats Rye

Grazing period (days) 123 90
Gain/head (Ib) 182 110
Daily gain (Ib) 1.46 0.96
Total gain/acre (Ib) 185 74
1/ Five year average.








Comments and Suggestions for Yearling Cattle During 1975

:1.,; Yearling.cattle from the 1974 calf crop can be grown out on well fertilized
Pangolagrass, Slenderstem, McCaleb, or other digitaria and stargrass pasture.
2.; The Bahiagrasses are not recommended for yearlings.
3. Supplemental feeding is'not recommended during the spring and .summer months
of 1975.
4., Yarlings on.,ryegrass or legume-grass pasture will not require supplemental
feed.
5. Ryegrass or oats are better annual pastures than rye in south and central
Florida.
6. Use a maximum of 0.5 to 1.0 percent of body weight for yearlings fed.on
pasture.
































This public document was printed at a cost of $68.00 or $0.08 per
copy for education use for participants of the Beef Cattle Short
Course.
i - - i -. i - . i 11 11 -








Research Refer-,,:- f'om rbe Or:a ARC


1. Chapman, H. L., Jr. 1972. Use of Merhionine Hydroxy Analogue in Beef Cattle
Rations. Ona ARC Research Report RC-1972-6.
2. Chapman, H. L., Jr., D. W. Beardsley, T. J. Cunha and W. K. McPherson. 1967.
Developing calves and steers on pastures in south and central Florida.. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 719.
3.: Chapman, H. L., Jr. and R. E. L. Greene. 1971. Effect of various levels of
concentrate feed for growing lightweight calves. In Process of Publication.
4.' Chapman, H7. L., Jr., and R.E.L. Greene. 1972. Comparison of Brahmans and
Brahman x Angus calves grown on pasture or drylot. In Process of Publication.
5. Chapman, H.L., Jr. and R.E.L. Green. 1973. Comparison of pasture vs drylot
for growing calves. In Pr cess of Publication.
6. Chapman, H.L., Jr. and R. E.L. Greene. 1974. Use of supplemental feed and
ryegrass for growing calves. In Process of Publication.
7. Chapman, H.L., Jr., and G.D. Brown. 1975. Fattening lightweight calves in
drylot. In Process of Publication.
8. Hodges, E. M., G.B. Killinger, J.E. McCaleb, O.C. Ruelke, R.J. Allen,Jr.,
S.C. Schank and A.E. Kretschmer. 1967. Pangolagrass. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta.
Bull. 718.
9. Hodges, E.M., W.G. Kirk and F.M. Peacock. 1964. Supplemental feeding of steers
on Pangolagrass and Pensacola bahiagrass pastures. Proc Soil Crop Sci. Soc.
of Fla. 24:196-199.
10. Kirk, W.G., E.M. Hodges, J.W. Carpenter, F.M. Peacock and F.G. Martin. 1974.
Supplemental feeding of steers on Pangola digitgrass and Pensacola bahia-
grass pastures. Proc. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 33:53-55.
11. Kirk, W.G., F.M. Peacock, E.M. Hodges and J.E. McCaleb. 1960. Value of Pangola
hay and silage in steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 621.
12. McCaleb, J.E. and E.M. Hodges. 1969. Oats and ryegrass for beef production
and pasture renovation. Proc Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. of Fla. 29-214-218.
13. McCaleb,J.E., F.M. Peacock and E.M. Hodges. 1964. Oats and rye for grazing on
Florida flatwoods. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Cir. 152.
14. McCaleb, J.E., F.M. Peacock and E.M. Hodges. 1964. Response of steers grazing
oats on Florida flatwoods to supplemental energy feed. Proc. Soil Crop Sci.
Soc. of Fla. 24:184-187.
15. Peacock, F.M. and W.G. Kirk. 1959. Comparative feeding value of dried citrus
pulp, corn feed meal and ground snapped corn for fattening steers in drylot.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 616.
16. Peacock, F.M.,and W.G. Kirk. 1963. Feedlot performance and carcass grade of
Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 597.
17. Peacock, F.M., W.G. Kirk, E.M. Hodges, A.Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter, 1964.
The effect of winter gains and subsequent feedlot performance. Fla. Agr. Expt.
Sta. Bull. 667.
18. Peacock, F.M., W.G. Kirk, E.M. Hodges, A.Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter. 1965.
Influence of summer pasture, diethylstilbestrol and shade on fattening cattle
in south Florida. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Tech. Bull. 700.
19. Peacock, F.M., J. E. McCaleb, E.M. Hodges and W. G.Kirk. 1961. Factors
influencing winter gains of beef calves. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 635.
20. Peacock, F.M., W.G. Kirk, E.M. Hodges and J.E. McCaleb. 1972. Use of oats,
ryegrass, Pangola digitgrass, hay, silage and pasture for growing calves.
Ona ARC Research Report RC-1972-3.




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