Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1976-5
Title: Relative acceptability of growing/finishing beef rations containing dehydrated poultry waste (DPW) and cane molasses, citrus molasses, citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles, corn steepwater molasses, beet molasses or wood molasses /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074271/00001
 Material Information
Title: Relative acceptability of growing/finishing beef rations containing dehydrated poultry waste (DPW) and cane molasses, citrus molasses, citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles, corn steepwater molasses, beet molasses or wood molasses /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caswell, Larry Forrest, 1948-
Chapman, H. L ( Herbert L. ), 1923-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm manure as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Molasses as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: L.F. Caswell and H.L. Chapman, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1976."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074271
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85855876

Full Text


L_ i A

Agricultural Research Center, Ona JUL 1 0 1978 *
Research Report RC-1976-5 Septen er 1973

RELATIVE ACCEPTABILITY OF GROWIFTG/ I irjNGM F _f__ NTAINING
DEHYDRATED POULTRY WASTE (DPW)/1 AND CANE- MOLASSES, CITRUS MOLASSES,-
CITRUS MOLASSES DISTILLERS' CONDENSED SOLUBLES / CORN STEEPWAIERJ
MOLASSES,4/ BEET MOLASSES,5/ OR WOOD MOLASSES6
L. F. CaswellI/ and H. L. Chapman, Jr../

Dried caged-layer manure, commonly referred to as dehydrated poultry waste
(DPW), has been shown to provide appreciable amounts of protein, energy and
certain essential minerals when incorporated into growing/finishing rations for
beef cattle. However, the performance of cattle fed rations containing high
levels of DPW is subject to variation. Frequently, examination of intake data
from studies in which 25 to 30% DPW was fed indicates the presence of palatability
problems. Whether these problems are associated with ration flavor, aroma, physi-
cal factors such as dustiness or a combination of these is difficult to determine.

The acceptability of rations containing dry-heat processed broiler litter has
been improved through the addition of 10 to 15% cane molasses. However, similar
data for DPW is not available. The value of other liquid feed ingredients relative
to cane molasses for this purpose also needs to be determined and could provide
useful information applicable under a wide range of locations and conditions.

The study reported herein was conducted to investigate the use of various
liquid feed ingredients to increase consumption of DPW-containing rations and to
evaluate the reliability of point-in-time observation of feeding patterns as an
indicator of the relative acceptability of different rations.

Experimental Procedure

Trials 1 through 6:

Ten Santa Gertrudia, Angus x Santa Gertrudis and Charolais yearling bulls
were divided into two groups of five based upon weight and breeding and given free
choice access to five rations containing 30% DPW and 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20% cane
molasses, citrus molasses, citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles; corn
steepwater molasses, beet molasses and wood molasses in trials 1 through 6,
respectively. Two groups of bulls were used to facilitate conducting trial 1
concurrently with 2, 3 concurrently with 4, and 5 concurrently with 6. Average
initial body weights of the bulls in trials 1 through 6 were 760, 738, 789, 762, 842
and 821 lb., respectively.


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6/


Supplied by Newbern Groves, Inc., Tampa, Florida; The Coca-Cola
Co., Plymouth, Florida; Jaquin-Florida Distilling Co., Auburn-
dale, Florida; SuCrest Corp., Chicago, Illinois; Industrial
MolassesCorp., Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Masonite Corp.,
Chicago, Illinois, respectively.


7,G/ Assistant Animal Nutritionist and Animal Nutritionist, respectively,
Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida.









The bulls were fed in partially covered, paved lots with constant access to
water. The feed bunk in each lot was divided into five compartments of equal
size allowing the bulls equal access to all rations simultaneously in a
"cafeteria" arrangement. Rations were randomly allotted to the compartments
daily. Feed was replenished as needed to ensure availability of ample feed in
each compartment at all times. Intake of each diet was recorded daily over a
12-day feeding period for each trial, with all residual feed replaced with fresh
feed at approximately 9:00 a.m. daily.

The ingredient and partial chemical composition of the experimental ration is
presented in table 1. Levels of cracked corn grain and citrus pulp were altered
to accommodate addition of the liquid feed ingredient of interest. However, the
ratio of corn grain:citrus pulp was constant among.rations. All diets were
formulated to contain at least 13% crude protein, 13 to 14% crude fiber and 68 to
71% TDN (dry basis).

Prior to trials 1 and 2, and for at least nine days between subsequent
rialss, the cattle were full-fed a ration containing no DPW or liquid feed ingred-
ients but similar in other respects to the experimental rations. At the
initiation of each trial, the experimental rations were introduced abruptly to
prevent gradual transition to the DPW or test ingredients.

Feeding patterns were observed and recorded for 60 minutes on each of the
last five days of each trial starting at approximately 10:00 a.m.

Trials 7 and 8:

Based upon data collected in trials 3 and 5, trials 7 and 8 were conducted
to determine the intake of rations containing 30% DPW and 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40%
citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles and beet molasses, respectively.
These experimental rations are described in table 1. Average initial body weights
of the bulls in trials 7 and 8 were 887 and 836 lb., respectively. Management of
the experimental animals was identical to that of trials 1 through 6.

Trial 9:

Subsequent to trials 1 through 8, seven Santa Gertrudis and Angus x Santa
Gertrudis bulls (average initial body weight, 911 lb.) were selected from the
original ten animals and given free-choice access to seven rations, six of which
contained the most preferred level of cane molasses (5%),citrus molasses (15%),
citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles (30%), corn steepwater molasses
(5%), beet molasses (30%) and wood molasses (10%) as determined from trials
I through 8. As in previous trials, the control ration contained 30% DPW but
none of the above liquid feed ingredients. Trial 9 was managed identically to
the previous eight trials with the exceptions that the feed bunk was divided
into seven compartments of equal size, and feeding patterns were not observed.










Results

.In table 2 are presented the daily feed intake and feeding pattern data for
trials 1 through 6. In all trials, dry matter intake, expressed as lb/head/day,
followed the same pattern, with respect to significant differences, as intake on
an as-fed basis, and therefore, will not be discussed in this report. For each
trial, dry matter intake expressed as grams per unit of metabolic size (W 0.75)
was calculated by dividing the average metabolic size of the bulls used into the
average daily dry matter intake in grams. Consequently, statistical comparisons
;f these values could not be performed.

Trial 1. Daily feed intake on an as-fed basis was higher (P4L.0) for the
ration containing 5% cane molasses than that of rations containing 0, 15 or 20%.
Intake of the 10% ration was intermediate between values for diets containing 0
or 5% cane molasses. Of the total 16.$tlb. (2.2% of body weight) of feed consumed
per head daily, approximately 54% was chosen from the rations containing 5 or 10%
cane molasses. With respect to feeding patterns, time spent at the feeder during
the hour the bulls were observed followed the same general pattern as intake.

Trial 2. As fed intake was higher (P <.01) for diets containing 10, 15, or
20% citrus molasses than for the control ration containing no citrus molasses.
Also, there was a trend for consumption to be greater for the 15% ration than for
the 10 and 20% citrus molasses treatments. Approximately 75% of the total feed
consumed (16.9 Ib/head/day; 2.3% of body weight) was chosen from rations containing
10, 15 or 20% citrus molasses. Total dry matter intake as grams per unit of metabo-
lic size in trial 2 was similar to that of trial 1 (86.7 and 82.6 g, respectively).
Feeding patterns were not significantly affected by treatment although average time
at the feeder for the 15% citrus molasses ration was 139% greater than for the 20%
ration.

Trial 3. Intake of the rations containing citrus molasses distillers' con-
densed solubles increased in a somewhat linear manner with each added increment of
test ingredient through 15%, at which point, intake equalled that of the control.
As-fed intake for the 20% treatment was greater (P4C.01) than for the 5% level.
These data indicated that levels of citrus molasses distillers' condensed soluble
greater than 20% possibly should be evaluated. Expressed as a percentage of total
(21.6 Ib/head/day; 2.7% of body weight), intakes generally were quite similar among
rations. As in trial 2, no significant differences were observed in feeding
patterns.

Trial 4. The inclusion of corn steepwater molasses at all four levels of
incorporation into the rations depressed (P -.01) intake below that of the control.
Ictal daily feed intake per head was substantial, nevertheless, at 20.3 lb (2.6%
of body weight). Intake of the rations containing the test ingredient ranged from
53 to 61% of control. Significant (P-c..01) differences were observed among the
means for time spent at the feeder, with the patternbeing identical to that of
intake.

Trial 5. The addition of beet molasses at 20% of the ration resulted in
increased (P 4.01) intake over that of the 0, 10 and 15% levels. Improvement over










the control amounted to 110%. Total intake amounted to 22.4 lb./head/day (2.6%
of body weight), with 29% selected from the 20% beet molasses treatment As was
observed in trial 3 with citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles, these
data indicated that even further improvement in intake might be realized with
beet molasses at levels greater than 20%. No significant differences were
observed among feeding pattern values in trial 5.

Trial 6. The incorporation of wood molasses into the experimental rations
at 5 to 20% did not result in improved intake over the control ration containing
no wood molasses. At the 10% level, as-fed- intake was identical to that of the
control ration at 5.3 IbJhead/day. On a percent-of-total basi, intake of rations
containing 0 to 10% wood molasses amounted to 67%of the 22.0 lb. (2.7%.of body
weight) consumed per head daily. Time at the feeder was higher (PL-.01) for the
rations consumed in the greatest quantities (0, 5 and 10% wood molasses).

In trials 3, 5 and 6, values for total dry matter intake per unit of
metabolic size were quite similar at 101.1, 98.7, 102.3 and 103.7 g, respectively.
The fact that these values were similar among trials 3 through 6 but were substant--;
ially higher than the values of 82.6 and 06.7 g for trials 1 and 2, respectively,
may indicate an adaptation to high dietary levels of DPW with length of feeding.

Intake and feeding pattern data for trials 7 and 8 are shown in table 3.
As in trials 1 through 6, dry matter intake, expressed as lb./head/day, followed
by the same patterns with respect to significant differences as intake on an as-
fed basis.

Trial 7. As preluded by the intake data from trial 3, an improvement in
consumption was realized by feeding levels of citrus molasses distillers'
condensed solubles in excess of 20%. As-fed intake of the 30% treatment was
higher (P1..01) at 8.3 lbJhead/day than for the remaining four treatments. This
represented 39% of the total 21.3 lb./head/day (2.4% of body weight) consumed.
Improvement in intake over the 0, 10 and 20% rations amounted to 196, 131,.apd
108%, respectively. As-fed intake of the 40% citrus molasses distillers' condensed
solubles ration was only 31% of that for the 30% treatment. The high moisture
content of the rations containing 20 or 30% of the test ingredient would
probably dictate routine use of this material only under situations where daily
mixing could be practiced. Time at the feeder in trial 7 followed the same
pattern as intake.

Trial 8. Intake of the 30% beet molasses ration was higher (P.l01) than
that of diets containing 10, 20 or 40% of the test ingredient. However, all
levels of beet molasses tested resulted in improved (P-..01) intake over the cont-
rol ranging from 63 to 215%. Of the total 27.0 lb./head/day (3.2% of body weight)
consumed, approximately '74% was selected from rations containing 10, 20 or 30%
beet molasses. The low intake of the ration containing 40% beet molasses may
have been due, in part, to the wet, sticky consistency of this mixture. For the
0, 10.and 20% beet molasses treatments, time spent at the feeder followed a pattern
similar to intake. However, during the hour the bulls were observed, only 0.6
min./head was spent eating the ration most readily consumed (30% beet molasses).








These data, along with information collected in trial 2, indicate limited use of
point-in-time observation of feeding patterns, as indicator of the relative
palatability of different rations. In all trials substantial "within treatment"
variation in daily feeding pattern measurements were observed, possibly reflecting
a number of uncontrollable environmental factors.

Trial 9. The data presented in table 4 shows that the inclusion of beet
molasses in the ration at 30% resulted in improvements in intake ranging from
132 to 353% over all other treatments. Of the total 26.8 lb./head/day (2.9% of
body weight) consumed, approximately 36% was selected from the 30% beet molasses
ration. Significant (P z01) improvements in intake over the control were also
realized for rations containing 15% citrus molasses, 30% citrus molasses distillers'
condensed solubles or 10% wood molasses. Significant differences observed among
the values for dry matter intake as lb./head/day generally followed the same patte;
as intake expressed on an as-fed basis.

Data from these trials indicate that the acceptability of rations containing
30% DPW can be improved through the inclusion of 5% cane molasses, 15% citrus
molasses, 30% citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles, 30% beet molasses or
10% wood molasses. Corn steepwater molasses used in combination with this level
of DPW appears to be no more, possibly less,palatable than a similar ration con-
taining no corn steepwater molasses. Similar studies need to be conducted using
levels of DPW higher than 30%. Also, rations containing the most preferred levels
of the liquid feed ingredients tested in this study need to be fed singly over an
extended period to evaluate these materials for not only improving intake, but
also maintaining a level of intake comparable to that routinely obtained using
conventional ration ingredients.








TABLE 1. COiMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL RATIONS


Level of liquid feed ingredient, %
Item O8,' 5a 10ab 15a 20a'b 30b 40b


Ingredient composition, %

Bagasse, pelletedc
Dehy. alfalfa meal (17%),
Dehy. poultry waste (DPIW)
Corn gain, cracked
Citrus pulp d
Liquid feed ingredient
Ona mineral mixture

Partial chemical composition

Trial 1, cane molasses


10.0
pelleted 5.0
30.0
30.0
24.0

1.0
1.0


Dry matter, %
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Calculated TDN

Trial 2, citrus molasses

Dry matter, %
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Calculated TDN


89.9

14.0
14.1
70.9


89.9

14.0
14.1
70.9


10 0
5.0
30.0
18.9
15.1
20.0
1.0


10.0
5.0
30.0
13.3
10.7
30.0
1.0


10.0
5.0
30.0
7.3
6.2
40.0
1.0


10.0
5.0
30.0
27.2
21.8
5.0
1.0


89.2

14.0
13.8
70.9


89.0

13.9
13.8
70.3


10.0
5.0
30.0
24.4
19.6
10.0
1.0


883.4

14.1
13.6
70.9


38.0

13.9
13.6
70.3


10.0
5.0
30.0
21.7
17.3
15.0
1.0


87.8

14.1
13.2
70.8


87.2

13.8
13.3
69.2


87.0

14.1
13.1
70.8


86.2

13.8
13.2
68.4







TABLE 1 CONTINUED


Level of liquid feed ingredient, %

Item Oa,b 5a 10a,b 15a 20a,b 30b 40b


Partial chemical composition
Trials 3 and 7, citrus molasses distillers' condensed splubles


Dry matter, %
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Calculated TDN

Trial 4, corn steepwater molasses

Dry matter, %
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Calculated TDN

Trials 5 and 8, beet molasses

Dry matter, %
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Calculated TDN


89.9

14.0
14.1
70.9


89.9

14.0
14.1
70.9


87.9

14.2
14.0
70.4


88.0

15.2
14.0
70.2


89.9 89.2


14.0
14.1
70.9


14.0
13.8
70.9


81.9

14.8
14.0
68.6


77.9

15.4
13.9
66.4


73.9

15.9
13.8
65.4


85.9

14.4
14.0
69.8


86.1

16.4
13.9
69.6


88.5

14.0
13.6
70.8


83.9

14.6
14.0
69.4


84.3

17.7
13.8
68.8


87.9

14.1
13.2
70.8


82.4

19.0
13.8
68.0


87.2

14.1
13.1
70.6


85.8

14.3
12.5
70.4


84.5

14.3
11.9
70.0








TABLE 1 COITIINUED


Level of liquid feed ingredient, %
Iaem ,a,b a 10b 15a 2ab 30b 40
5i:em 15 5 20 30


Partial chemical composition

Trial 6, wood molasses

Dry matter, % 89.9 89.2 88.4 87.8 87.0 --
Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein 14.0 13.8 13.7 13.6 13.4
Crude fiber 14.1 13.8 13.7 13.3 13.2
Calculated TDN 70.9 70.9 70.8 70.7 70.6


a
Levels used in trials 1 through 6.

b
Levels used in trials 7 and G.

SSupplied by United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida.

d
Cane molasses, citrus molasses, citrus molasses distillers' condensed solubles, corn
steepwater molasses, beet molasses or wood molasses.
e
Contains 12% calcium, 12% phosphorus, 25% salt, 1% iron, 0.13% copper, 0.03% cobalt,
0.05% manganese, 0.10% zinc, 0.18% fluorine and 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A per pound.







TABLE 2. INTAKE AND FEEDING PATTERNS, TRIALS 1 THROUGH 6


Level of liquid feed ingredient, %
Trial Liquid feed ing;edien" Item 0 5 10 15 20 Total


1 Cane molasses








2 Citrus molasses








3 Citrus molasses
distillers'
condensed solubles


As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
Grams,per Wkg 0.75 ,
Time at feeder, min./head

As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75 b
Time at feeder, min./head

As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
lb /head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75a
Time at feeder, min./head


2.9c,d
2.9c.d
17.7

2.6c,d
14.8
3.6c'd


1.2
7.1
c
1.1
6.4
4.1


4.3c,d
4.3c'd
19.9

3.9c'd
21.3
5.6


4.6e
28.0

4.16 e
23.4
d, e


3.0d
17.8

2.7d
15.7
5.5


3.8C
17.6

3.3c
18.0
6.1


4.3c,e
26.2

Sc,e
3.u
21.6
9.7e


4.2d'e
24.9

3.7de
21.5
5.3


4.0c,d
18.5

3.4c,d.
18.6
8.2


2.6d
15.9

2.3d
13.1
2.0c


4.9e
29.0

4.3
25.0
6.7


4.c,3
19.9

3.6c,d
19.7
5.8


2.0d
12.2

1.7d
9.7
c1.


d.e
3.6e
21.2
d,e
3.1.
18.1
-. 0


5.2d
24.1

4.30
23.5
6.7


16.4


14.5
82.6
25.2


16.9


14.9
86.7
24.4


21.6


18.5
101.1
32.4







TABLE 2 .- CONTINUED


Level of liquid feed in .-eden:, %
Trial Liquid feed ingredient Item 0 5 10 15 20 Total


4 Corn steepwater
molasses






5 Beet molasses







6 Wood molasses


As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
a
Grams per Wkg 0.75
Time at feeder, min./head

As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75 b
Time at feeder, min./head

As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75a
Time at feeder, min./head


a Dry matter intake expressed as grams per unit of metabolic size.


Measured for 60 min., starting approximately one hour after feeding, on each of
each trial.
c,d,e Means with different superscripts are different (PC_.01).


the last five days of


6.2
30.5

5.6c
31.4
11.1c


3.1c
13.8

2.0
14.4
3.1


5.3c
24.1

4.8c
25.5
oc
9.8


3.5
17.2

3.1 d
17.4
5.2


5.0c,d
22.3

4.5c,d
23.1
8.5


4.2c,d
19.1

3.7cd
19.7
10.3C


3.3d
16.3

2.8
15.7
4.0


3.8c
17.0

3.4c
17.5
6.4


5.3c
24.1

4.7c
25.0.
10.9


3.5d
17.2

3.0d
16.8
3.1


4.0c
17.9

3.5c
18.0
6.3


3.3d
15.0

2.9d
15.4
d1.
1.1


d
3.U
18.8

3.1d
17.4-
5.5


6.5d
29.0

5.7d
29.3
5.8


3.9c,d
17.7

3.4c.d
18.1
1.0


20.3


17.6
98.7
28.9


22.4


19.9
102.3
30.1


22.0


19.5
103.1
33.1







TABLE :3. INTAKE AND FEEDING PATTEHS, TRIALS 7 AND 8


Trial Liquid feed ingredient


7 Citrus molasses dist-
illers' condensed
solubles





8 Beet molasses


Level of liquid feed ingredient, %
0 10 20 30 40


Item


As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter of intake
Lb./head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75
Time at feeder, min./head

As-fed intake
Lb./head/day
Percent of total
Dry matter intake
Lb./head/day
Grams per Wkg 0.75 b
Time at feeder, min./head


2.8o
13.1

2.5C
12.5
2.1


2.7C
10.0

2.4C
12.4
4.6c,d


3.6c
16.9

3.1 c
15.5
4.c,d


5.7d
21.1

5.0d
25.9
13.7e


a Dry matter intake expressed as grams per unit of metabolic size.


Measured for 60 min., starting approximately one hour after feeding, on each of the last
trial.
c,d,e Means with different superscripts are different (P/-.01).


five days of each


4.0c
18.8

3.3c
16.5
d,e
10.0


5.7d
21.1

5.0d
25.9
10.6e


Total


21.3


17.3
86.4
32.1


27.0


23.4
121.2
30.1


U.3d
39.0

6.5d
32.4
13.5e


8.5e
31.5

7.3e
37.8
0.6c


2,60
12.2

1.9c
9.5
1.7c


4.4d
16.3

3.7d
19.2
0.60







TABLE 4. INTAIE, TRIAL 9.


Liquid feed ingredient and level used
Citrus
molasses Corn
Cane Citrus distillers steepwater Beet Wood
Iem Con:-::ol molasses molasses solubles molasses molasses molasses Total
5% 15% 30% 5%. 30% 10%


As-fed intake
Lb./head/day 1.9b 3.0b,c 3.7 3.5c 2.7bc 8.6d 3.4 26.8
Percent of total 7.1 11.2 13.8 13.1 10.1 32.1 12.6

Dry matter intake .d c
Lb./head/day 1.7b 2.7 b 3.2 2.7b 2.4bc 7.4 3.0 23.1
Grams per lk 0.75 0.3 13.2 15.7 13.2 11.7 36.2 14.7 113.0


a Dry matter intake expressed as grams per unit of metabolic size.
b,c,d Means with different superscripts are different (Pz~.O0).




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