Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1976-11
Title: Fermentation of ensiled mixtures of oats caged-layer manure and dried cane molasses /
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074270/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fermentation of ensiled mixtures of oats caged-layer manure and dried cane molasses /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 4, 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Caswell, Larry Forrest, 1948-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1976
Copyright Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm manure as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Poultry -- Manure -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Molasses as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: L.F Caswell.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 1976."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074270
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85856011

Full Text

%' agricultural Research Center, One *
-.'." Research Report RC-1976-11 December 1976


FERMENTATION OF ENSILE O ATSIF CA -LAYER
MANURE2 AND TRIED CANE 1ASs-3 \

L. .Caswell "


Recent research has shown that tpo"try wastes can.be rendered free of patho
gens by a number of physical and/or chemical processing methods. Consequently,
the use of these materials in rations for livestock could become a reality.
However, certain processing methods may increase dustiness and impart an
undesirable odor in poultry wastes. Some processes add expense, in terms of
labor, material and energy requirements. Also, a decrease in nutritive value
of the product may accompany processing methods which employ dry heat; Crude
protein, for example, may be reduced by as much as 20 to 25% by dehydrating
poultry wastes at temperatures of 400 to 6000F.

A biological method of processing caged-layer manure, such as fermentation,
may provide an inexpensive means pf preparing the material for incorporation
into rations for livestock. Research conducted in Virginia and Pennsylvania
in which poultry wastes were ensiled with forages and crop residues demon-
strated one or more of the following advantages: (1) pathogens were markedly
reduced or eliminated; (2) nutritive value was maintained; (3) palatability
was enhanced; (4) the product was less obnoxious to handle after ensiling;
(5) silage feeding equipment was advantageously used; and (6) a final pro-
duct approaching a complete feed was produced. In Florida, the possibility
of annually producing more than one forage crop on a given tract of land would
add still another potential advantage. Cleaning of caged-layer houses could
be synchronized with forage crop harvests thereby providing a nearly year-
round means of waste disposal.

The study reported herein was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of
ensiling caged-layer manure with oats at various levels of addition of dried
cane .molasses.


1/,21,3/
Supplied by Joe Smith, Wauchula, Florida; Newbern Groves, Inc.,
Tampa, Florida; and Super-Mol Division of Huco, Inc., Tampa,
Florida, respectively.

4/
Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida
33865.





Experimental Procedure


Oats (aerial part), harvested in the hard dough stage at a height of 4 in.
above the soil surface, were chopped tc an average length of 2 in. and ensiled
with built-up (approximately 5 months) caged-layer manure and/or dried
cane molasses in laboratory-scale silor, The air-dried poultry waste was
obtained from an open-side, commercial caged-layer house, sifted through 1/2
in. hardware cloth to remove compacted material and thoroughly mixed prior
to incorporation into the mixtures for ensiling. A chemical profile of the
oats, manure and molasses used in this study is presented in table 1.

In table 2 are shown the percentages of oats, manure and molasses in each
of the seven mixtures ensiled. Conforming to recommended practices for ensi-
iing cereal grain forages, the control mixture consisted of 98% oats and 27
dried molasses. Six additional mixtures were evaluated-in which oats and
caged-layer manure were ensiled in ratios of 85:15 and 70:30 (dry matter basis),
with dried molasses used to replace 2, 4 and 8% (fresh basis) of each forage-
waste mixture in a factorial arrangement.

A sufficient amount of each mixture to fill each of four silos with approx-
imately 2 lb. of material and to freeze two 1-lb. samples for subsequent chem-
ical analyses leading to characterization of the unfermented initial mixtures
'eas prepared by manually turning with shovels on a concrete floor. The silos
consisted of doubled 1-gal. polyethylene bags supported by 1-gal, cardboard
food containers. Both polyethylene bags were individually sealed around the
Afrmly packed ensiled mass. Care was taken to expel as much air as possible
before sealing. Each silo was weighed immediately after sealing.

Following an average fermentation period of 64 days at approximately 81F,
each silo was weighed and opened, and the top 2 in. of fermented material was
removed and discarded. Concurrently, subjective measurements of surface and
subsurface molding were recorded. Determinations of dry matter, total nitro-
ge'n (crude protein), organic matter, in vitro organic matter digestibility
(IVOMD), pH, water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid were performed on
samples of silage from the approximate center of each silo.

Results

Upon opening the silos, all silages possessed a pleasing aroma typical of
fermentation and were olive green. Surface mold growth was appreciably greater
in silages containing manure than in oats ensiled with molasses only, but sub-
surface molding was minimal and not noticeably different among treatments.

Dry matter, crude protein and organic matter contents of the ensiled mix-
tures are shown in table 3. With each added increment of manure and molasses,
dry matter generally increased and organic matter decreased. Crude protein
levels were elevated from 8.2% in oats ensiled with molasses alone to an
average of 11.7 and 16.6% in mixtures containing oats and manure in ratios of
85:15 and 70:30, respectively.






Shown in table 4 are the fermentation characteristics of the ensiled mix-
tures. In silages with oats and manure in an 85:15 ratio, pH was generally
lower (P.01) than in the 70:30 mixtures. Also, a general trend existed for
pH to be lowered with added increments of molasses within each level of manure.
An exception to this was the 85:15 mixture ensiled with 4% molasses. Eight
percent molasses was required in the 85:15 mixture to obtain a final pH value
as low as that of the control silage. Although pathogenic bacteria were not
enumerated in this suudy, pH values for the 85:15 silages were probably suf-
ficiently low to permit a relatively high degree of confidence that fecal
coliforms were eliminated during fermentation. In the 70:30 silages, pH
values were less satisfactory, but, likewise, probably low enough to ensure
destruction of enteric pathogens.

All pH changes for manure-containing silages were greater (Pr.01) than for
the control and, within each manure level, tended to be greater with each added
increment of molasses. Between manure levels, pH changes were usually similar
for a given molasses level indicating that biological activity was similar
between the 85:15 and 70:30 mixtures.

The above data regarding pH and change in pH was not substantiated by the
le-ls- of lntte nc acid determined. If the silages had been analyzed for acetic
acid, data showing the combined production of these two organic acids may
have contributed much toward clarification of the inconsistent patterns of
trends presently existing between pH data and levels of lactic acid. However,
the important point is that lactic acid production in the manure-containing
silages was at least as great as in the control.

Dry matter loss, extent of water-soluble carbohydrate fermentation and IVOMD
data are presented in table 5. All values for dry matter loss were substantially
higher than normally reported values for other ensiled forages and high mois-
ture grains. Dry matter loss was highest for oats ensiled with only molasses.
For both forage:waste ratios, conservation of dry matter was greater (P!.05)
at the 8% molasses level than in the control mixture devoid of manure. Also,
within each level of manure, dry matter loss was lowest when 8% molasses was
included at ensiling. This difference was significant (Ps.05) in the 85:15
mixture.

Water-soluble carbohydrates fermentation, expressed as g/100 g dry matter,
was greater (P!.01) for all mixtures containing manure than for the control,
indicating that the sugars contributed by the caged-layer manure were readily
fermented. This is best substantiated by the fact that water-soluble carbo-
hydrate fermentation in the 85:15 and 70:30 mixtures containing 2% molasses
was more extensive (Pi.O0 than in the control 8.05 and 8.60 g/100 g DM, res-
pectively, vs. 6.27 g/100 g DM). Additional evidence is the fact that values
for the 70:30 mixture were generally significantly higher (PI.O01) than
values for the 85:15 ratio. This response may be attributable, at least in
part, to the buffering capacity contributed by the high levels of calcium and
ammonia in the manure. Consequently, pH was not as rapidly lowered to the







point where quiescence could occur, and carbohydrate fermentation and lactic
acid production was prolonged. When the extent of water-soluble carbohydrate
fcrmaa.tation was.-epressed as a percent of initial, similar patterns with
respect to significant differences ware observed.

No significant differences were observed in IVOMD among treatments. However,
obvious trends existed within each forage:waste ratio showing improved TVO1)
with increasing levels of molasses. This would be expected due to the readily
diges:i~ae sugars contributed by classes. In vitro organic matter digestibil-
ity teredj to be lotiered by inclusion of manure at 't1he 70:30 ratio. Within
tlis mixture, 8% molasses was required to elevate IVOMD to value similar to
that cZ the rco.ntrol. Apparently, in the 85:15 mi-:ture.s, the levels of molas-
ses added were adequate to compensate for the lowered digestibility created
by inclusion of manure. This was not the case in the 70:30 mixtures.

These data indicate that caged-layer manure can be successfully ensiled with
oats. Based upon the fermentation parameters measured in this study, it appears
that an additional source of fermentable carbohydrates, such as
molasses, may need to be added at ensiling. In the present study involving
two ratios of oats and manure and three levels of molasses, silage acidity,
dry matter conservation, extent of water-soluble carbohydrate fermentation and
in vitro organic matter digestibility were optimal, under the experimental
conditions imposed, in forage-waste mixtures containing 8% dried cane molasses.













TABLE 1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OATS, CAGED LAYER MANURE AND DRIED CANE MOLASSES


Caged-layer Dried cane
Oats manure molasses


Item


Dry matter, %

Composition of dry matter, %
Crude protein
Ether extract
Crude fiber
Ash
NFE


38.5



8.0
3.4
26.0
6.9
55.7


86.5



34..9
2.4
12.9
45.1
4.7


94.0



6.9
0.5
14.9
8.3
69.4


~I --













TABLE 2. INGREDIENT CCG CCITIOI OF ENSILED MIXTURES


Mixture disignation


Control (no manure); 2% molasses
85:15a; 2% molasses
85:15a; 4% molasses
85:15a; 8% molasses
70:30b; 2% molasses
70:30b; 4% molasses
70:30b; 8% molasses


Oats


%, fresh basis
Caged-layer
manure


98.00
90.98
89.13
85.41
82.54
80.86
77.48


7.02
6.87
6.59
15.46
15.14
14.52


Dried cane

molasses


2.00

2.00
4.00
8.00
2.00
4.00
8.00


a.,l>
Desired ratios of oats dry matter:manure dry matter. Actual ratios, calculated from the
dry matter values for oats and manure (table 1), were 85.2:14.8 and 70.4:29.6.


_I _ _
___ _~


I


~-1"--1---1- -














TABLE 3. PARTIAL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ENSILED MIXTURES


Hixture designation


Control (no manure); 2% molasses
85:15; 2% molasses
85:15 ; 4% molasses
85:15; 8% molasses

70:30; 2% molasses
70:30: 4% molasses
70:30; 8% molasses


Dry
matter, %


%, dry basis
Crude
protein


38.2
40.7
43.0

47.2
43.2
43.0
46.4


8.2
12.4
11.8

10.9
17.0
17.0
15.7


Organic
matter


96.4
88.9
84.7

85.1
77.9
82.0
79.1


__ LI__IU~_
I~_ __ _ __


__ _













TABLE 4. FERMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ENSILED MIXTURES


Mixture designation


Control (no manure); 2% molasse
L5:35; 2% molasses
85:15; 4% molasses
85:15; 8% molasses
70:30; 2% molasses
70:30; 4% nmolrcCes
70:30; 8% mols~ass


Change in pH Lactic acid,
pH from initial % of DM


!s 4.21a -1.04a 3.33a
4.34a,b -1.62b,c 4.40b
4.46b,c -1.52c 3.47a,b
4.19a -1.81d 4.37b
4.70d -1.63b,c 3.27a
4.67d -1.69bd 3.12a
A 55c,d -1.78b,d 5,72c


a,b,c,d
Means with different superscripts are different (P.01).


.


.









TABLE 5. DRY MATTER LOSS, EXTENT OF WATER-SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATE FERMENTATION
AND IN VITRO ORGANIC MATTER DIGESTIBILITY (IVOMD) OF ENSILED MIXTURES


Dry matter Carbohydrate fermented
Mixture designation loss, % g/100 g DM % of initial


Control (no manure); 2% molasses 15.1a 6.27e 77.1e
35:15; 2% molasses 10.6bc 8.05f 81.9f
85:15; 4% molasses 12.7ab 8.30g 80.7f
85;15; 8% molasses 6.6d 8.04f 80.6f
70:30; 2% molasses 10.1b,c,d 8.60h 87.1g
70:30; 4% molasses 11.2ab,c 8.42gh 87.48
70:30; 8% molasses 8.3c,d 8.961 87.2g


IVOMD,%


57.2
57.3
57.3
59.0
54.8
55.4
57.8


a,b,c,d'eans with different superscripts are different (P<.05).

e,f,g,h,i
Means with different superscripts are different (P<.01).




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