Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1977-2
Title: Sorghum x sundangrass hybrid and pearlmillet hybrid forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1976 /
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 Material Information
Title: Sorghum x sundangrass hybrid and pearlmillet hybrid forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1976 /
Series Title: Research report ;
Physical Description: 4, 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Everett, P. H ( Paul Harrison ), 1927-
Green, V. E
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona, FL
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher, P.H. Everett and V.E. Green.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1977."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074269
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85864714

Full Text


-R'y



Research Reports RC-1977-2 0\ ~ January 1977



SORGHUM X SUDANGRAS PEARLMILLET HYBRID FORAGE


PRODUCTION AT ONA AND IMMOKALEE : 1976.

R.S. Kalmbacher, P.H. Everett, and V.E. Green



Sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and pearlmillet hybrids are extremely rapid
growing summer annual grasses. These crops are ready fer feeding 70-75 days
after seeding. As compared with corn they have a lower fertility requirement,
require less soil moisture and higher soil temperatures for germination, thus
are seeded later.

Sorghum x sudangrasses and pearlmillets may be green chopped, harvested
as hay, or grazed by both beef and dairy cattle. However, green chopping or
some form of harvesting would allow the utilization of higher yields per acre.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of new sorghum x
sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids, which are continually being released, it
is necessary that these forages be tested under south Florida conditions.
The purpose of this publication is to present comparative data on sorghum x
sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids tested at the Agricultural Research Center
(ARC) Ona and ARC Immokalee. Where trade names are used no discrimination
or endorsement is intended.

Experimental Procedure

Sixteen sorghum x sudan hybrids were seeded at the ARC-Ona on March 12,
1976, and 14 were seeded at the ARC, Immokalee on March 5, 1976. Seeding rates
were 16 Ib/acre. Five pearlmillet hybrids were seeded at Immokalee on March 5,
1976 at 8 Ib/A. All hybrids were seeded in rows 18" apart. AAtrex (R) was
applied at seeding at a rate of 2 Ib/A active ingredient.




1/
Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida.
Professor Director, Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee, Florida.
Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville.












At Ona the field plot design consisted of 4 replications of a randomized
complete block. At Immokalee there were 3 replications of a randomized complete
block design. Fertilization practices for the Ona sorghum x sudan trial was
as follows: Prior to seeding 0-112-224 Ib/A of N-P205-K20, resp. was applied
and disked into the seedbed. Fifty Ib/A N was applied at emergence, and 100
Ib/A N was applied when plants were 16-18" tall. Fifty Ib/A N was applied after
harvest 1 and 2. The trial was irrigated by an over-head system during March,
April and early May. During this time 4.7" water were applied.

Fertilization of the sorghum x sudans and pearlmillets at Immokalee prior
to seeding consisted of 0-60-120 Ibs/A of N-P205-K20, resp., plus 20 lb/A of
FTE 503 2. Dolomitic limestone was also applied at a rate of 2,000 Ib/A and
disked into the seedbed. A starter fertilizer (10-30-10) was applied at 200
Ib/A in the row at seeding. After emergence 50 Ib/A N plus 80 Ib/A of 0-0-60
(muriate of potash) was surface applied. When plants were 16-18" tall 100
Ib/A N plus 80 Ib/A 0-0-60 was applied. Fifty Ib/A N was applied after harvest
1 and 2. The trial was irrigated by a seepage irrigation system with laterals
on 50 foot centers.

Samples submitted for IVOMD (In vitro organic matter digestibility) were
composite samples of the same hybrid over different replications.

Results and Discussion

Sorghum x Sudans, ARC Ona.
Dry matter yields from each of the four sorghum x sudan harvests are pre-
sented in Table 1. There were no significant differences among hybrids at the
5-27-76 harvest. Yields ranged from 5.5 to 3.7 tons per acre. All hybrids
were essentially disease free, but lodging was a serious problem with 4 hybrids,
particularly Dekalb 'Sudax SX-16' (Table 2). Lodging from high winds may be
a problem with sorghum x sudans. This can create problems with harvesting
the forage. Lodged plants loose quality rapidly when they lay close to the
surface of the soil and remain wet.

Yields tended to drop at harvest 2 and again at harvest 3 (Table 1). Wet
weather and disease (mainly anthracnose and northern corn leaf blight) are
largely responsible for this response. The 1976 growing season at the Ona
ARC did not have the normal frequent rains which lead to super-saturated soils.
Sorghums are severely injured by very wet soils, and normally sorghum experiments
are terminated after 2 or 3 harvests. The 1976 season experienced 4 harvests
which led to unusually high dry matter yields (Table 1).

After harvest 3 was removed on 8-31-76 the stubble was sprayed with Paraquat
@ Ib/A acid to suppress weeds. During the fall, growing conditions were more
ideal less water, cooler temperatures, lower humidity. Sorghum x sudans yielde
higher at the 10-20-76 harvest than they had at the 8-31-76 harvest (Table 1).
There was also less incidence of disease (Table 2).













Total dry matter yield for the 222 day growing season ranged from a high
13.5 T/A produced by George Warner 'Gro-N-Graze' to a low of 9.3 T/A produced
by Dekalb 'Sudax SX-16' (Table 1).

Sorghum x sudans grown at Ona averaged 11.7 T/A (Table 3). Hybrids
produced during the years 1972-75 have yielded 6.0 to 9.2 T/A. Sorghum x
sudangrass hybrids produced during the years 1972-75 were spaced in 36" rows,
but were spaced in 18" rows in 1976.

Sorghum x sudans, ARC Immokalee.
Forage yields from the first 3 harvests of sorghum x sudans grown at the
ARC, Immokalee were similar to those grown at ARC, One. However, because
there were only 3 harvests at Imooksl~ps total dry matter yields were consider-
ably lower than those at Ona (Table 4). Funk '83-F' and Excel 'Super Chow Maker
A' were the higher yielding hybrids at the 5-26-76 harvest. They produced 5.4
and 5.3 T/A, resp. There were no significant differences among hybrids at the
7-14-76-harvest. Acco 'S-99', and McNair 'Drip-O-Heney' were the highest
yielding at harvest 3 (1.7 and 1.5 T/A resp.). Total dry matter yield ranged
from 8.8 to 5.6 T/A and averaged 7.3 T/A.

Forage yields tended to decline from the 5-26-76 harvest until the 9-2-76
harvest (Table 4). Incidences of anthracnose and northern corn leaf blight
were more prevalent as the season progressed (Table 5). Lodging was not a
problem on sorghum x sudangrasses during the 1976 season at Immokalee.

Sorghum x sudangrass quality, as expressed by percent IVOMD (In vitro
organic digestibility), was relatively uniform at both ARC locations (Tables
7 and 8). Average IVOMD did not fluctuate greatly (57.9 to 53.0 and 57.8 to
54.0 at Ona and Immokalee, resp.) within the growing season. The stage of
maturity was late boot to early anthesis at all harvests.

Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), or prussic acid poisoning has been associated
with feeding sorghum x sudengrass hybrids. This HCN potential differs with
hybrids, stage of growth, level of N fertilization and environmental condi-
tions. Prevention of HCN poisoning may be accomplished by being aware of the
environmental conditions which cause accumulation of toxic compounds. Sorghum
x sudangrass should not be grazed at too early a growth stage, and particular
precautions should be taken after drought or frost.

Pearlmillets, ARC Immokalee.
Dry matter yields of the pearlmillets produced at ARC, Immokalee are
presented in Table 8. There were no significant differences in yield except
for the 7-14-76 harvest where Growers 'Pearl-Gro 421' (and NAPB'Pearlex 24')
were higher yielding 0.1 and 0.6 T/A, resp. Total dry matter yield ranged from
6.0 to 5.1 T/A.















Conclusion

Total dry matter yields from 16 sorghum x sudan hybrids grown at the
ARC, Ona ranged from 13.5 to 9.3 T/A after 4 harvests. Total yield averaged
11.9 T/A. At the ARC, Immokalee 14 sorghum x sudan hybrids ranged in yield
from 8.8 to 5.6 tons/A dry matter and averaged 7.3 T/A after 3 harvests.

Lodging was a serious problem among 4 hybrids produced at Ona. Lodging
was not'a problem at Immokalee. Anthracnose and northern cprn leaf blight
were most severe at the 2nd and 3rd harvest.

Forage quality, as indicated by percent IVOMD, was uniform at each
harvest. Average IVOMD at each harvest ranged from 57.9 to 53.0 percent at Ona
and 57.8 to 54.0 at Immokalee.

At the ARC Immokalee total dry matter yield of 5 pearlmillet hybrids har-
vested 3 times at anthesis was not significantly different. Total average
dry matter yield was 5.7 tons/acre.











Table 1. Average dry matter yield in tons/A of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids
grown at the ARC, Ona. 1976.


Harvest Date


Brand


Variety


1


5/27/76


George Warner
Pennington
McNair
Growers
Acco
Taylor Evans
Acco
Excel
Funk
McNair
FFR.
Dekalb
Acco
Dekalb
Asgrow
Dekalb


Gro-N-Graze R
Summergrazer
Drip-0-Honey
11
Sweet Sioux III
TE Haygrazer
S-99
Super Chow Maker
83 F
711 A
5506
Sudax SX-17
Sweet Sioux IV
Sudax SX-16 A
H-7452
Sudax SX-16


2


7/12/76


3


8/31/76


5.5 at 3,3 ab 2.0
5.1 a 3.4 a 2.3
4.8 a 3.3 ab 2.0
4.8 a 3.1 ab 2.5
5.0 a 3.4 ab 1.9
4.9 a 2.9 abcd 2.3
5.0 a 3.1 ab 1.7
A 5.1 a 2.9 abcd 1.5
4.6 a 2.9 abed 1.9
4.0 a 2.5 bcd 2.6
4.2 a 3.0 abc 1.8
5.0 a 2.7 abcd 1.3
4.2 a 2.6 abcd 1.5
4.3 a 2.0 d 1,5
3.9 a 2.2 cd 1.7
3.7 a 2.2 cd 1.6


SMeans within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly differ-
ent (K=100, Duncan's least significant difference test).

Date Seeded: March 12, 1976.
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: 0-112-224 Ib/A (N-P205-K20, resp.) prior to seeding. 50 lb N/A
at emergence; 100 Ib N/A when plants 16-18"; 50 Ib N/A after each
harvest.
Herbicide: At seeding, AAtrex @ 2# ai/A. Paraquat @ k# acid/A applied after
8-31-76 harvest. Results: Good to excellent.
Irrigation: Over-head (4.7").
Maturity at harvest: late boot to early anthesis.


4
10/20/76
2.7 ab


abcd
abc
abcd
ab
abcd
abc
bcd
cd
abcd
a
bcd
d
cd
cd
bcd
bcd


2.4
2.8
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.3
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.3
1.9
2.3
2.4
1.8
1.8


abc
a
abc
abc
abc
abc
ab
abc
abc
abc
bc
abc
abc
c
c


Total
13.5 a.
13.2 ab
12.9 ab
12.9 ab
12.9 ab
12.5 abc
12.1 abc
12.1 abcd
11.8 abcd
11.5 abcd
11.3 abce
10.9 abcd
10.6 abcd
10.2 bcd
9.6 cd
9.3 d








Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of sorghum


the ARC. Ona.


1976


Harvest Harvest
1 2


Harvest Harvest
3 4


Rrandr


Hvhri r


George Warner
Pennington
McNair
Growers
Acco
Taylor Evans
Acco
Excel
Funk
McNair
FFR
Dekalb
Acco
Dekalb
Asgrow
Dekalb


Gro-N-Graze R
Summergrazer
Drip-0-Honey
11
Sweet Sioux III
TE Haygrazer
S-99
Super Chow Make
83 F


711 A
5506
Sudax SX-17
Sweet Sioux
Sudax SX-16
H-7452
Sudax SX-16


rA


IV
A


Average


- Y 7 V - 7 V - V -


0 112


6.5
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.0
6.7
6.0
6.0
6.5
5.8
6.3
5.8
7.2
5.0
5.8
6.0

6,5


5.3
6.7
5.3
6.5
5.5
5.6
4.3
5.6
5.6
6.0
6.0
5.3
5.3
5.0
5.9
5.5

5.6


5.8
5.8
6.2
5.8
5.8
5.8
5.4
6.3
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.4
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.8

5.7


197 6


Br an I I I I I I I b I d


x sudangrass hybrids grown at










Table 3. Average dry matter yields of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown
at the ARC, Ona, 1972-1976.

Dry Matter Yields (T/A)
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 Av.


Grown for five years 1972-1976
Dekalb SX-16 9.7
Grown for any four years 1972-1976
Pennington Summergrazer 9.1
Taylor Evans TE Haygrazer 9.2

Grown for any three years 1972-1976
Bingham Growfast 8.2

Grown any one or two years 1972-1976
George Warner Gro-N-Graze R
McNair Drip-0-Honey
Growers 11
Acco S-99 --
Excel Super Chow Maker A
McNair 711 A
FFR 5506 --
Dekalb Sudax SX-17
Dekalb Sudax SX-16 A
Funk 83F --
Asgrow Grazer A---
Acco Sweet Sioux III --
Asgrow H-7452
Dorman Sure-Graze 10.1
Pioneer 988 8.9
Acco Sweet Sioux
Acco Sweet Sioux IV -
Rudy Patrick Saxon
FMC Sweet Chew


Average: Within years


10.1 8.1 5.5 9.3


7.4
6.9


5.8 13.2
6.2 12.5


9.0 6.8


-- -
7.6


w--




7.6


9.7


8.4

8.8


9.2 9.2 7.4


-- 13.5
- 12.9
-- 12.9
-- 12.1
- 12.1
-- 11.5
-- 11.3
-- 10.9
-- 10.2
-- 11.8

6.3 12.9
9.6



6.2 10.6
6.0 --
5.8 -

6.0 11.7


Seeding Date: 1972, 3-16; 1973, 3-13;


8.5


8.9
8.7


8.0



13.5
12.9
12.9
12.1
12.1
11.5
11.3
10.9
10.2
9.7
9.7
9.6
9.6
9.2
8.9
8.8
8.4
6.0
5.8

9.8


rr
rrr


1974, 3-6; 1975, 3-14; 1976, 3-12.














Table 4. Average dry matter yield in tons/A of sorghum x sudan hybrids
grown at ARC, Immokalee. 1976.
Harvests


Hybrid


Variety


Funk 83-F
Excel Super Chow Maker
Acco S-99
McNair Drip-0-Honey
Pennington Summergrazer
Acco Sweet Sioux III
FFR 5506
George Warner Gro-N-Graze R
Acco Sweet Sioux IV
Dekalb Sudax SX-16 A
Growers 11
Taylor Evans TE Haygrazer
Asgrow H-7452
Dekalb Sudax SX-17


A


1 2
/26/76 7/14/76
5.4 a+ 2.1 a
5.3 a 2.0 a
4.4 bc 1.9 a
4.3 bcd 2.1 a
4.6 ab 2.3 a
4.2 bcde 2.3 a
4.0 bcde 1.8 a
4.1 bcde 1.7 a
4.0 bcde 1.7 a
4.2 bcde 1.5 a
3.6 cde 2.0 a
3.5 de 2.0 a
4.3 bcd 1.5 a
3.4 c 1.3 a


+ Means within the same columnsfollowed by the same letter are not signifi-
cantly different (K=100, Duncan's least significant difference test.).

Date Seeded: March 5, 1976.
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: Broadcast: 2000# Dolomite/A; 0-60-120#/A (N-P205-K20, resp.);
20# FTE 503; 50# N+80# 0-0-60/A at emergence; 100# N+80# 0-0-60
when plants 16-18" tall. Starter fertilizer: 200#/A 10-30-10
in row. 50 Ibs N/A were applied after harvest 1 and 2.
Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2# active/A. Results: Good to excellent.
Irrigation: Seepage.
Maturity at Harvest: Late boot to early anthesis.


3
9/2/76
1.3 bc
1.2 bc
1.7 a
1.5 ab
0.9 c
0.9 c
1.3 bc
1.2 bc
1.3 bc
1.3 bc
1.3 bc
1.3 bc
0.7 c
0.9 c


Total
8.8 a
8.5 a
8,0 ab
7.9 ab
7.8 ab
7.4 abc
7.1 abc
7.0 abc
7.0 abc
7.0 abc
6.9 abc
6.8 abc
6.5 bc
5.6 c


5












Table 5. Agronomic characteristics
ARC, Immokalee. 1976.


of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown at the


Harvest .Harvest Harvest
1 2 3
41 M.) 4.1
X CO M C0 0X 0
4IJ I B 4- I (I I I -I M
C rO *i l 3 to d J3 to H
W D b0 O O 00 bo O 0 CO
rI a, Id H,. O .,.4 a '0
S0 *4 0 0 "4 0
Brand Hybrid a _


Funk
Excel
Acco
McNair
Pennington
Acco
FFR
George Warner
Acco
Dekalb
Growers
Taylor Evans
As grow
Dekalb


83-F
Super Chow Maker A
S-99
Drip-O-Honey
Summergrazer
Sweet Sioux III
5506
Gro-N-Graze R
Sweet Sioux IV
Sudax SX-16 A
11
TE Haygrazer
H-7452
Sudax SX-17


Average


5.6
5.7
5.2
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.7
5.5
5.0
5.6
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.0


4.7
4.2
4.6
5.0
5.2
5.0
6.0
4.7
4.7
4.6
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.0


4.8


5.417.5












Table 6. Percent IVOMD on a dry matter basis of sorghum x
grown at the ARC, Ona. 1976.


sudangrass hybrids t


Hybrid


Dekalb
Dekalb
Asgrow
Acco
Acco
Taylor Evans
George Warner
Acco
FFR
Dekalb
McNair
Funk
Growers
McNair
Excel
Pennington
Average


Variety


1
5/27/76


Sudax SX-17
Sudax SX-16
H-7452
S-99
Sweet Sioux III
TE Haygrazer
Gro-N-Graze R
Sweet Sioux IV
5506
Sudax SX-16 A
Drip-0-Honey
83 F
11
711 A
Super Chow Maker
Summergrazer


56.9
59.1
57.3
55.7
59.3
58.3
60.4
53.7
57.5
52.3
58.3
57.3
51.5
55.4
A 55.4
54.5
56.4


Harvest Date


4
10/20/76 Average


- - _ _ 1 1 1 -


2 3
7/12/76 8/31/76
- - IVOMD % - -

59.7 57.5
58.0 59.1
59.5 54.9
57.6 55.8
60.6 48.9
59.8 54.4
58.6 53.2
57.2 57.0
56.0 52.6
61.8 53.6
58.1 49.3
56.2 52.9
57.6 51.7
56.7 50.2
52.5 49.1
57.0 47.9
57.9 53.0


at
ab
abc
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcd
abcde
abcde
abcde
bcde
cde
cde
de
e


" Samples composite over 4 replications.

SMeans within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different.
(K=100, Duncan's least significant difference test).

Date Seeded: March 12, 1976.
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: 0-112-224/A (N-P205-K20, resp.) prior to seeding. 50 Ib N/A at
emergence; 100 Ib N/A when plants 16-18"; 50 lb N/A after each
harvest.
Herbicide: At seeding, AAtrex @2# ai/A. Paraquat @k# acid/A applied after 8-31-76
harvest. Results: Good to excellent.
Irrigation: Over-head (4.7").
Maturity at Harvest: late boot to early anthesis.


Harvest Date


61.3
57.7
56.8
58.1
57.9
54.0
54.3
56.9
57.7
55.8
55.9
52.6
54.9
51.8
54.9
48.8
55.6


58.9
58.5
57.1
56.8
56.7
56.6
56.6
56.2
56.0
55.9
55.4
54.8
53.9
53.5
53.0
52.1











Table 7. In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids grown at the ARC, Immokalee. 1976.


Hybrid


S-99
H-7452
Sweet Sioux III
Sudax SX-17
Sudax SX 16 A
Warner Gro-N-Graze R
5506
83 f
Sweet Sioux IV
Evans TE Haygrazer
gton Summergrazer
Drip-0-Honey


Acco
Asgrow
Acco
Dekalb
Dekalb
George
FFR
Funk F
Acco
Taylor
PenninE
McNair
Growers
Excel


Average


1
5/26/76


56.6
55.8
54.7
53.3
53.5
53.8
52.9
56.6
51.6
52.1
54.3
53.1
52.9
r A 54.1
54.0


Harvest
2
7/14/76
- -IVOMD %-


61.3
59.0
58.2
63.1
59.9
58.8
59.1
56.2
56.6
55.0
57.5
55.3
54.7
54.2
57.8


Samples composite over 3 replications.

SMeans within columns not followed by the same letter not significantly
different. SK=100 Duncan's least significant difference test.) . .

Date Seeded: March 5, 1976,
Row Width: 18"
Fertilization: Broadcast: 2000# Dolomite/A; 0-60-120#/A (N-P205-K20, resp.); 20#
FTE 503; 50# N+80# 0-0-60/A at emergence; 100# N+80# 0-0-60 when
plants 16-18" tall. Starter fertilizer: 200#/A 10-30-10 in row.
Herbicide: AAtrex @2# active/A. Results: Good to excellent.
Irrigation: Seepage.
Maturity at Harvest: late boot to early anthesis.


Trand


11
Super Chow Make


3
9/2/76


57.3
59.7
57.9
53.7
55.9
56.5
56.2
54.9
59.0
58.1
48.4
51.2
52.0
51.1
55.1


Average


58.4 a
58.2 a
56.9 a
56.7 a
56.4 a
56.4 a
56.1 a
55.9 a
55.7 a
55.1 a
53.4 a
53.2 a
53.2 a
53.1 a


s


-' ----

















Table 8. Dry matter yield (tons/acre) of pearlmillet hybrids grown
at the ARC, Immokalee. 1976.


Harvest
Brand Hybrid 1 2 3
5/14/76 6/16/76 7/14/76 Total

Funk Hybrid Millet III 2.8 a + 2.7 a 0.5 c 6.0 a
Growers Pearl-Gro 421 2.7 a 2.6 a 0.7 a 6.0 a
NAPB Pearlex 37 3.1 a 2.2 a 0.5 c 5.8 a
NAPB Pearlex 24 2.6 a 2.5 a 0.6 ab 5.7 a
Excel Mill-Hy 99 2.3 a 2.3 a 0.5 bc 5.1 a


Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly
different (K=100. Duncan's least significant difference test).

Date Seeded: March 4, 1976.
Seeding Rate: 8 Ib/A.
Row Spacing: 18".
Fertilizatoon: Broadcast: '2000# Dolomite/A; 0-60-120#/A (N-P205-K20);
50# N/A + 80#/A 0-0-60 after emergence; 100# N/A + 80#/A
0-0-60 when plants 16-18" tall. 50# N/A applied after
harvest 1 and 2. Starter fertilizer: 200#/A 10-30-10
in row.
Herbicide: AAtrex @ 2# active/A. Results: Good to excellent.
Irrigation: Seepage.
Maturity at harvest: anthesis.




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