• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Main














Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1982-3
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage and sugar sorghum hybrids at ARC, Ona, 1981
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074264/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of commercial forage and sugar sorghum hybrids at ARC, Ona, 1981
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Martin, F. G
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher, D.L. Wright and F.G. Martin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 1982."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074264
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85835866

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC-1982-3 February 1982

EVALUATION OF CtOMERCIAL FORAGE AND SUGAR SORGHUM HYBRIDS
AT ARC, ONA: 1981

R.S. Kalmbacher, D.L. Wright and F.G. Martin/-

When harvested and fed as green chop or stored as silage,
forage sorghums may provide a valuable supplement to perennial
grasses during periods of feed shortages. Some forage sorghum
hybrids may produce more dry matter per acre than corn, however,
digestible energy is usually lower in sorghum than in corn.
Sugar sorghums have good potential for forage as well as for
producing a fermentable carbohydrate for ethanol production.

Sorghums that are seeded in late February are ready for
harvesting within 90 to 100 days. They may be cut 2 or perhaps
3 times during the growing season. Generally, the best yield and
animal performance is obtained when plants are ensiled at physiological
maturity, which maximizes grain content.
hUM"t 7. B -, ,
In order to determine adaptability and product vity of these
sorghum hybrids, which are constantly being release by p ii 6idoo
private plant breeders, it is necessary that these s bs :h. tested
under south-central Florida conditions. The purpose pu
is to present comparative data on the various hybrids tested at the
Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC). Where trade names are used
no discrimination or endorsement is intended.





1/ Associate Professor (Associate Agronomist), ARC, Ona; Assistant
Extension Agronomist, Agricultural Research and Education Center,
Quincy; Associate Professor, Dept. of Statistics, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.







Methods of Procedure


Twelve ccmercial forage sorghum and twelve sugar sorghum
hybrids were seeded at 16 lb/A and 8 lb/A, respectively in 30
inch row spacings on March 9, 1981.

However, due to a freeze, followed by excessive winds, which
resulted in sand-blasting of the seedlings, the sugar sorghum had
to be re-seeded on March 27, 1981. The experimental designs were
randomized, complete blocks with 4 replications.

Fertilization consisted of 40-120-240 lb/A N-P205-K20 plus 24
Ib/A TEM 300 (trace elements) which was disked into the seedbed before
seeding. When plants were 18 to 24 inches tall, 100 Ib/A of N was
*applied. After forage sorghum harvest 1, 50 Ib/A of N was applied
along with 0-50-100 Ib/A of N-P05-K20 when plants were 12 inches tall.
After sugar sorghum harvest 1, 40 lb/A of N was applied along with 0-55-
110 when plants reached 12 inches tall. When forage and sugar sorghum
were 20 to 30" tall, 150 and 140 Ib/A of N was applied, respectively.
After harvest 2, 50-25-25 lb/A of N-P205-K20 was applied when plants
were 6" tall.

Atrazine was post-emergence applied at 2.0 lb/A active for weed
control. When plants were '8 to 10" tall paraquat was post directed
at the rate of 0.25 Ib/A active. To control weeds between harvests,
the experiments were broadcast sprayed with paraquat at 0.25 Ib/A
active one day after harvest. To control soil borne insects
Furadan(R) 10 G was applied in the row at seeding at 2 Ib/A active.
The experiment was irrigated with an over-head system, and 6.3 inches
were applied in March to May.


Results and Discussion

Forage sorghum. There were significant differences in the yields of
forage sorghums (Table 1). Dry matter yield ranged from 8.4 T/A to
20.2 T/A and averaged 12.4 T/A. Highest yielding entries were





-3-


Pioneer 911 and Northrup King 367, andAsgrow Titan-R yielded the
lowest. Sorghums were harvested three times, and the respective
yields were 7.1, 4.6 and 0.8 T/A. Yield at harvest 3 was:;small
because a killing frost (11-23-81) terminated growth earlier than
normal.


Forage sorghum varieties that have been tested for 2 to 5 years
are presented in Table 2. It is wise to rely on the results of at
least 2 year's testing prior to selecting a hybrid. Dekalb FS 25 A
Pioneer 947, and Pioneer 923 are excellent entries that have proven
themselves to be well adapted to south Florida conditions. Pioneer
911 has consistently been a very high producer of forage, but this
variety is extremely late, and due to its size, may be of dubious
forage quality.


Lodging was a severe problem at harvest 1 f(able 3). The only
entries which did not lodge were Pioneer 911, Northrup King 367
and Pioneer 947. Lodging of the grain-heavy forage sorghums due
to the strong winds from early season thmuderstorms has always been
a very limiting factor of forage sorghums and consideration to over-
coming this problem is important. Lodging was less of a problem at
harvest 2.

Plants were definitely shorter at harvest 1 than harvest 2 even
though yields were greater at the first harvest. Disease was not
present at the first harvest, but He minthosporiwn spp. was very bad
at the second harvest when the average rating was "8". Anthracnose
was not a problem.

Grain yields were good at harvest 1, but very poor at the second
harvest. Sorghum midge was responsible for the very poor grain yield.
Most of the varieties were good grain producers, especially Pioneer
923 which even had good grain at harvest 2. All hybrids averaged
hard dough and dough stage of maturity at harvest 1 and 2, but was
vegetative at harvest 3.








Sugar sorghums. There were significant differences in the dry
matter yields of the twelve sugar sorghums tested (Table 4). Yield
ranged from 22.1 T/A (1n 1500)_ to 7.9 T/A (Brandes) and averaged 12.7
T/A. Yields at the three harvests averaged 6.2, 6.0, and 0.5 T/A.
Some entries produced more dry matter at the second harvest than the
first. Usually, second harvest yields are half of first harvest due
to adverse summer conditions. Soils were not saturated from excessive
rains until mid-to-late August. Most of the summer provided good
distribution of rain.

One of the big problems with the sugar sorghum is seedling vigor.
They are very weak while in the seedling stage. Both forage and
sugar sorghums went through the same spring-cold and excessive wind,
but the sugar sorghum had to replanted. These sorghums grow much more
slowly in the cool spring, so perhaps later.planting dates should be
used for sugar sorghum.

Lodging was also a problem with the sugar sorghums (Table 5).
Some hybrids such as Mer 71-1, amada, Brandes and'the experimental,
AT 623 x Rio and AT 623 x Wrey had no lodging at harvest 1. At
harvest 2 lodging was a problem especially with the two experimental
entries which had 71% and 46% average lodging. It should be noted
that these last two entries were the best grain producers at harvest
2, which would foster lodging.


Disease was slight at harvest 1 when HeZminthosporium spp ratings
averaged "2". At harvest 2 the ratings averaged "7", and there
were not any particular hybrids that were especially disease
resistant. No anthracnose (CoZZetotrichum) was recovered from any
hybrid.

Maturity averaged"early mi.lk"at harvest l,but because of the
excessive lodging, entries were harvested earlier just to clean-up
the experiment. At harvest 2 entries were in the dough stage and
were vegetative at harvest 3, which was frosted.








Conclusions

1) Significant differences in dry matter production and lodging
resistance were found among the twelve hybrids tested. Better
entries which are recommended for south Florida are: Pioneer 923,
Pioneer 947 and Dekalb FS 25 A.

2) Significant differences in dry matter yield werefound among the
twelve sugar sorghums tested. Yield averaged 12.7 T/A andIthose
entries yielding greater than this meanwere:'Mn 1500 (22.1 T/A);
Mer 71-1 (17.1 T/A); Theis (16.4 T/A). The sugar sorghums have
good yield potential for silage production in south Florida,
but are slower growing in the cool-spring months.




-6-


Table 1. Dry matter yield of forage sorghums grown at the Ona ARC.


1981.


Harvest
1 2 3
Brand Hybrid 6-23-80 9-28-80 11-23-80 Total
-----------tons/acre------------

Pioneer 911 9.4 9.6 1.2 20.2 a
Northrup King 367 9.8 5.4 0.5 15.7 ab
Pioneer 923 8.1 5.1 0.8 14.0 bc
Asgrow Beefbuilder T 8.1 4.4 0.9 13.4 bcd
McCurdy F 75 A 7.5 4.9 0.5 12.9 bcd
Acco Paymaster FS 451 7.4 4.3 0.9 12.6 bed
Dekalb FS-25 A 5.6 5.7 1.0 12.3 bcd
Pioneer 947 7.0 3.7 0.8 11.5 bed
Pennington Pernsilage 6.8 2.9 0.7 10.4 bcd
Gold Kist 30 F 5.8 3.2 0.7 9.1 cd
McCurdy F-75 5.7 2.6 0.7 9.0 d
Asgrow Titan-R 4.2 3.6 0.6 8.4 d

Average 7.1 4.6 0.8 12.4


means followed by the
LSD, K=100).


same letter are not significantly different (Duncan's


Date seeded: March 9, 1981

Seeding rate: 16 Ib/A in 30" rows


Fertilization:


1) 40-120-240 Ib/A of N-P.,0-K20, respectively
in) plus 24 Ib/A TEM 300 (trace elements).
18 to 24" tall, 100 Ib/A of N applied.


at seeding (disk
When plants were


Herbicide:


2) After harvest 1, when plants 12" tall, 50 Ib/A N applied
along with 0-50-100 Ib/A of N-P205K20. When plants were
20-30" tall 150 lb/A N applied.

3) After harvest 2, 50-25-25 of N-P205-K20 applied when plants
6" tall.

2 Ib/A Aatrex (active) post emergence. Post directed spray of
paraquat (0.25 Ib/A active) when plants 8 to 10" tall Immediately
after harvest 1 ad 2, 0.25 Ib/A paraquat (active) broadcast over
stubble.


Insecticide: Furadan 10 G @ 2 Ib/A (active) in the row at seeding.


Irrigation: Overhead with 6.3" applied March to May.






Table 2. Dry matter yield of forage sorghums grown at the Ona ARC, 1977
to 1981.

Year

Brand Hybrid 1977 1978 1979T 19801 1981 Average
-------------------tons/acre--------------

Grown for 5 years

Dekalb FS 25 A 19.4 19.1 13.7 15.6 12.3 16.0
Pioneer 947 19.5 17.1 15.6 14.5 11.5 15.6
Pioneer 923 19.4 19.3 12.0 13.1 14.0 15.6
Gold Kist (Growers) 30 F 18.0 16.6 9.7 13.0 13.0 14.0
McCurdy F 75 15.3 17.3 12.5 11.3 9.0 13.1

Grown for 4 years

Taylor Evans Silomaker 15.3 14.2 11.5 10.1 ---- 13.2
Funks 102 F 14.8 13.9 9.8 12.4 --- 12.9

Grown for 3 years

Pioneer 911 ---- -- 17.8 23.7 20.2 20.6
Taylor Evans Silomilo 13.1 15.7 ---- 8.4 ---- 12.4

Grown for 2 years'

Northrup King 367 --- -- ---- 16.3 15.7 16.0
Asgrow Titan M --- ---- 9.4 10.9 ---- 10.2

Average 16.9 16.6 12.4 13.5 13.7 14.5


seeded in 18" rows

Seeded in 30" rows


Seeding dates: 3-3-77; 3-20-78; 3-6-79; 3-14-80; 3-9-81




-u-


Table 3. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum grown at the Ona
ARC, 1981


Hybrid


Pioneer 911
Northrup King 367
Pioneer 923
Asgrow Beefbuilder T
McCurdy F75 A
Acco PaymasterFS 451
Dekalb FS-25 A
Pioneer 947
Pennington Pennsilage
Gold Kist 30 F
McCurdy F-75
Asgrow Titan R


Average


u1
4J


+~'' c' -'~


10.0
7.5
7.5
7.0
8.0
6.5
7.5
7.5
5.5
6.0
6.0
6.5


Harvest ]


V
HD
HD
HD
HD
HD
ED
ED
HD
HD
HD
HD


12.1
11.6
10.5
10.0
11.0
8.. 8
9.8
7.0
8.9
9.0
9.9
10.0


Harvest 2


V
D
ED
D
D
D
D
D
ED
D
D
D


Harvest 3


I I I 11 t-I-'r--r-r-rI-r


7.1 1 31 34 HD 9.9 8 38 D 2 3 0 23 V 0


height in feet

Disease rated on a scale I to 10


l=none, 10=100% leaf and stem affected.


Maturity: V=vegetative; A=anthesis (pollen shed); ED=early dough; D=dough;
HD=hard dough


Brand









Table 4. Dry matter yield of sugar sorghum hybrids grown
ARC. 1981.


at the Ona


1 2 3
Brand Hybrid 6-19-81 9-29-81 11-23-81 Total


-------------tons/acre----------


USDA/SEA Mi 1500
USDA/SEA Mer. 71-1
USDA/SEA Theis
USDA/SEA Keller
USDA/SEA Sart
USDA/SEA Dale
USDA/SEA Rio
USDA/SEA Ramada
TAES AT 623xRio+
TAES AT 623 x Wrayl
USDA/SEA Wray
USDA/SEA Brandes
Average


7.7
8.7
5.3
8.0
5.9
5.2
6.6
5.6
6.3
5.0
5.3
4.2
6.2


13.7
7.8
9.9
4.5
5.6
5.6
4.6
5.4
3.7
4.5
3.9
2.8
6.0T


0.7
0.6
1.2
0.1
0.6
0.8
0.4
0.6
0.0
0.4
0.1
0.9
0.5


22.1
17.1
16.4
12.6
12.1
11.6
11.6
11.5
10.0
9.9
9.3
7.9


t
a
b
bc
bcd
cd
cd
d
d
d
d
d
d


means followed by the
LSD, K=100)


same letter are not significantly different (Dundan's


Experimental entry, seed not available

Date seeded: March 5, 1981, reseeded March 27.


Seeding rate:

Fertilization:


8 lb/A in 30" rows.

1) 40-120-240 lb/A of N-P 0 -K 0, respectively at seeding
diskedd in) + 24 Ib/A TE 300 (trace elements). When
plants 18 to 24" tall, 100 lb/A of N applied.


2) After harvest 1, when plants 12" tall, 40 lb/A
with 0-55-110 lb/A of N-P205-K20. When plants
30" tall 140 Ib/A of N applied.


N applied
were 20 to


3) After harvest 2, 50-25-25 Ib/A of N-P205-K20 applied when
Plants 6" tall.


Herbicide:


2 Ib/A Aatrex (active) post emergence. Post directed
paraquat 6.25 Ib/A(active) when plants 8 to 10" tall.
after harvest 1 and 2, 0.25 lb/A of paraquat (active)
over stubble.


spray of
Immediately
broadcast


Insecticide: Furadan 10 G, 2 Ib/A (active) in the row at seeding.

Irrigation: Overhead with 6.3" applied March to May.




-10-


Table 5. Agronomic characteristics of
ARC. 1981.


sugar sorghum hybrids grown at Ona


Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Harvest 3




4- *H r *4 c J <
MJ M' W H 4J ,.I
2 -0 -1 0

Brand Hybrid 1a M z I

USDA/SEA n 1500 9.6 2 25 20 E 10.4 7 8 32 M 1.5 190 19 V
USDA/SEA Mer 71-1 10.2 2 0 19 EM 10.6 6 0 30 ED 1.5 190 19 V
USDA/SEA Theis 10.4 2 25 22 M 12.0 7 0 32 ED 1.5 230 23 V
USDA/SEA Keller 9.1 2 75 21 EM 10.1 8 4 29 D 1.5 210 21 V
USDA/SEA Sart 10.0 2 50 22 EM 11.2 7 0 24 ED 1.5 19 0 19 V
USDA/SEA Dale 9.9 2 25 18 EM 10.0 7 12 28 D 1.5 19 0 19 V
USDA/SEA Rio 10.0 2 46 20 I 7.7 8 36 27 D 1.5 230 23 V
USDA/SEA Ramada 7.8 2 0 26 HD 9.5 7 3 31 ED 1.5 240 24 V
TAES AT 623 X Rio 10.3 2 0 21 EM 7.2 8 71 24 D 1.5 230 23 V
TAES AT 623 XWray 9.0 2 0 22 ED 9.7 8 46 28ED 1.5 220 22 V
USDA/SEA Wray 9.5 2 20 17 A 10.3 8 22 261 1.5 270 27 V
USDA/SEA Brandes 7.3 2 0 17 EM 8.3 7 0 25 D 1.5 22 0 22 V
I F..


Average


Z ZZ LU


L? V


.2


ZZ U -/ V


height in feet.


disease rated on a


maturity:


experiment


scale of 1 to 10: 1l=no disease, 10=-00% leaf and stem affected


V=vegetative; A=anthesis (pollen shed); EM=early milk;: Mmilk; ED=
early dough; D=dough; HD=hard dough.


tal entry, seed not available


9.4


9.6




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs