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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1975-8
Title: Winter annual forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1974-75
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074263/00001
 Material Information
Title: Winter annual forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1974-75
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Everett, P. H ( Paul Harrison ), 1927-
Barnett, Ronald David, 1943-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. Mislevy, P.H. Everett and R.D. Barnett.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1975."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074263
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85835823

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





S Ona Agricultural Research Center HUME LIBRARY*
15 Research Report RC-1975-8 Septembe 1975
JUL 1 0 1/8
Winter Annual Forage Production at Ona and Immokalee, 1 74-75.

P. Mislevy, P.H. Evere t "-W F IP Y-dr&Qe a

Winter annuals can provide a source of high quality forage throughout the
winter months in South Central Florida. This is important since the growth of
most perennial grass and legume varieties are greatly reduced during this time
of the year. Winter annuals such as small grains, ryegrasses and clovers have
the ability to produce 2 to 4 tons of highly digestible dry matter over a 5-
month period. These species like most other annual crops grow rapidly and will
provide forage in 40 to 60 days following seeding, under good fertilization,
irrigation and superior management.

The purpose of these experiments were to determine forage production of
several ryegrass, small grains and clover varieties grown at Ona and Immokalee.

Experimental Procedure
The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four
replications for all studies at Ona, and the small grain study at Immokalee.
The ryegrass and clover study at Immokalee contained three replications. The
experiments were seeded at Ona October 30 and at Immokalee November 26, 1974.
Seeding rates were as follows: small grains 3 bu/A;' ryegrass 20 Ib/A; red
clover 10 lb/A and whiteclover 4 lb/A.

Experimental areas at both locations were rotovated, seeded and irrigated
immediately following seeding. Sprinkler and seepage irrigation was used at
the Ona and Immokalee locations respectively. Irrigation was applied as needed
throughout the growing season.

Fertilization practices were 0-60-120 Ib/A, N-P 0 -K 0 (Nitrogen-Phosphorus-
Potassium) and 0-50-100 Ib/A N-P 0 -K20 at Ona and Immokalee locations
respectively at seeding. When plants of all experiments except the clovers
attained a height of 2-4 inches 50 Ibs/A N was applied. No nitrogen was applied
on the legume experiments. Following each harvest 50 lb/A N was applied on
both small grains and ryegrass experiments.

Management practices imposed on small grains involved removing the initial
harv&,ct ~nen plants attained a height of 13-16 inches depending on species.
The grc'.ing point at this stage of development (Transition stage) ranged from
.25 to 1.0 irches above the soil surface for all varieties except Florida 70 Q
1153 oats and Florida Black rye. The growing point of these two species
developed faster and had elevated the culm (hollow stem of a grass) 5 to 7



1/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist), Agricultural Research Center,
Ona; Professor (Soil Chemist), Agricultural Research Center, Immckalee;
and Associate Professor (Associate Agronomist), Agricultural Research and
Education Center, Quincy.





2

inches, indicating that these species should have been harvested approximately
36 days after seeding. With the exception of the above two varieties small
grains will attain the transition stoge in approximately 43 days after seeding,
provided adequate moisture and fertility is avaoil.ble. Regrowth was removed
each time plants attained a height of 12 to 15 inches. Plants at this height
had developed new tillers appro-ximatJly 3 to 5 inches tall. These new tillers
will provide forage for the next harvest. All ryegrass and clover experiments
were harvested each time plants attained a height of 12 to 14 and 6 to 8
inches respectively. Plants would attain this height in about 30 days.

Results and Discussion

Significant differences were observed in the forage production af small
grains grown at Ona (Table 1). Coker 227 oats produced the highest yield

able 1. Forage production mf osel, vaiet1e s at the1974-75.

Harvest--
Small grain 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
Oats
Coker 227 .3 .7 .2 .7 1.0 .5 3.4r2
Elan .3 .7 .2 .3 .6 .7 2.8bc
Florida 501 .2 .6 .2 .5 .6 .2 2.3de
TAM 0-312 .2 .6 .2 .5 .7 .0 2.2de
Fla. 70 Q 1153 .3 .9 .0 .0 .0 .0 1.2h
(experimental)
Wheat
Wakeland .3 .6 .3 .4 .6 .5 2.7bc
McNair 1813 .3 .5 .3 .5 .6 .0 2.2de
Trolley .2 .6 .2 .4 .3 .4 2.1ef
Coker 68-19 .3 .6 .2 .4 .3 .0 l.8fg
Rye
Winter grazer 70 .4 .6 .3 .4 .6 .7 3.0b
Balbo .4 .6 .2 .4 .5 .8 2.9b
Gurley Graze 2000 .3 .5 .3 .4 .6 .6 2.7bc
Wrens Abruzzi .2 .6 .2 .5 .6 .4 2.5cd
Vita Graze .3 .5 .2 .4 .6 .3 2.3de
Gator .3 .5 .2 .4 .6 .3 2.3de
Florida Black .2 .9 .0 .0 .4 .0 1.58

1/ Harvest dates: 1=12-16-74; 2-1-6-75; 3=1-30-75; 4=2-21-75; 5=3-26-75;
6-4-29-75.

2/ Means followed by different letters are significant at the 5% level according
to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.








averaging 3.4 tons per acre dry matter. This yield was significantly higher
when compared with all other small grains. Two rye varieties Wintergrazer 70
and Balbo also produced higher yields averaging 3.0 and 2.9 tons per acre dry
matter respectively, Balbo is a rye introduced from the northern states and
has produced quite consistently over the last four years at Ona. Unlike other
rye varieties Balbo generally remains vegetative, producing very few heads in
March and April, All small grains produced a fairly uniform seasonal distri-
bution of forage, with the exception of Florida Black rye and Florida 70 Q
1153 oats (experimental). Both varieties are very difficult to manage as a
forage because of their early heading habit.

Forage production of small grains at Immokalee were lower when compared
with yields at Ona .(Table 2). Two oat varieties, Coker 227 and Elan, were the


Table 2. Forage production of
Immokalee. 1974-75.


small grain varieties grown at the ARC,


Dry matter yield T/A
1/
Harvests-
Small grain 1 2 3 4 5 Total

Oa is
2/
Coker 227 .5 .5 .5 .8 .3 2.6a-
Elan .4 .5 .5 .7 .4 2.5ab
lorida 501 .4 .4 .4 .6 .4 2.2obcde
I'?. 0 312 .4 .4 .4 .6 .3 2. bcdef
II-. 70 Q 1153 .2 .5 .3 .5 .0 1.5h
(L;',perimtntal)

Wheat
Wakeland .5 .4 .5 .5 .5 2.4abc
McPair 1813 .4 .4 .4 .6 .5 2.3abcd
HoJley .4 .4 .3 .5 .2 1.8efgh
Coker 68-19 .3 .3 .4 .6 .0 l.ogh

Rye
Gurley Graze 2000 .4 .4 .4 .7 .3 2.2abcde
Vita Graze .4 .4 .4 .5 .4 2.,bcdef
Gator .3 .3 .5 .5 .4 2.Ocdefg
Balbo .3 .3 .4 .6 .3 1.9.1cgh
Wrens Abruzzi .3 .3 .4 .7 .2 1.9defgh
Florida Black .2 .4 .6 .3 .3 1.8efgh
Winter Grazer 70 .3 .2 .4 .5 .3 1.7fgh

I/ Harvest dates: 1=1-8-75; 2=1-31-75; 3=2-24-75; 4=3-24-75; 5=4-23-75.


2/ Means with different letters are significant at
Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


the 5% level according to







highest yielders averaging 2.6 and 2.5 tons per acre dry matter respectively.
Wakeland and McNair 1813 wheat also produced quite well in Imaokalee averaging
2.4 and 2.3 tons per acre respectively. Both wheat varieties in addition to
Balbo rye contained very few heads in late April. This characteristic would
allow these species to be better adapted to grazing than many other small grain
varieties.

Significant differences were obtained among ryegrass varieties grown at
Ona (Table 3). Florida Reseeding 74 (experimental) produced significantly

able 3. Forage production of ryegrass varieties at the ARC, One, 1974-75.


Dry matter yield T/A
1/
Variety 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

Pla. Reseeding 74 .2 .5 .5 .7 .6 1.0 3.5a-
(ar-sqrloe~ntal),
Gulf .1 .5 .6 .7 .6 .9 3.4ab
Fla. Rust Retstant .1 .5 ,5 .9 .5 .8 3.3ab
Magnolia .1 .4 .5 .6 .6 1.0 3.2bc
Wintergreen .0 .2 .4 .7 .7 1.0 3.0cd
Common .1 .4 .4 .6 .6 .8 2.9de
N. K. Tetrablend 444 .1 .3 .4 .6 .5 .9 2.8de
Aubade .1 .4 .4 .6 .5 .7 2.7c

1/ Harvest dates: 1=12-19-74; 2=1-7-75; 3=1-29-75; 4=2-25-75; 5=3-27-75;
6=4-29-75.

2/ Means with different letters are significant at the 5% level according to
Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

higher yields when compared with the 4 lowest yielding varieties. Aubade
produced the lowest dry matter yield averaging 2.7 tons per:acre. Regardless
of thc yield obtained, only .8 tons per acre separated the highest from the
lowest yielder. This would indicate when purchasing ryegrass seed for south
central Florida, one should obtain the least expensive rust resistant variety.
Both Aubade and Common contained rust when the March harvest was removed.

A comparison of 7 ryegrass varieties was evaluated in Immnokalee (Table 4).
FloridAP Rust Resistant, Gulf, Florida Reseeding 74 and Magnolia produced
signi.ic:t'y higher dry matter production when compared with the 2 lower
yieldiL--. varieties. These data coincide quite closely with the results from
Ona, i:Lric.<.ting very little differences among ryegrass varieties. Only .5 tons
per cc.c c a:rates the highest from the lowest yielder. Due to the slower
establl:h~.nt rote of ryegrasses, some 70 days are required before adequate
forage is available for harvest. Unlike small grains which may be harvested
in 45 days.

Significant differences in yields of clover varieties were observed at Ona
(Table 5). The first 7 varieties produced significantly higher dry matter
yields when compared with the two lower yielding varieties. Pennscott red







Table 4. Forage production of ryegrass varieties grown at the ARC, Immokalee,
1974-75.

ry matter yield T/A
Harvests-
Variety 1 2 3 4 5 Total
.... i i t


Fla. Rust Resistant
Gulf
Fla. Reseeding 74
(experimental)
Magnolia
Common
N. K. Tetrablend 444
Aubede
i i mmo II II I -- I


.6
.5
.5

.5
. .6
.5
.5


.8
.6
.6
.6


2.7a-
2.7a
2.7a


2.6a
2.5ab
2.3b
2.2c


1/ Harvest dates: 1=1-8-75; 2=1-31-75; 3=2-24-75; 4=3-24-75; 5=4-23-75.

/ Means followed by different letters are significantly different at the 5%
1~~pl accordtn2 tn Duncan's Multiple Range Test.



Table 5. Forage production of clover varieties grown at the ARC, Ona* 1974-75.

Dry matter yield T/A
1/.


Variety


Pennscott Red
FS-6 W;ite (experimental)
FS-4 Wh1ite (experimental)
TilLoau White
La. S-1 White
FS-5 White (experimental)
Nolins Improved White
Trifolium semioilosum
Dixie Crimson (reseeding)
im t ,


Harvests- -
1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
.. .. ... .... .. .. . ---, 2 /
.5 .7 .6 1.2 .6 .9 4.5a-
.2 .6 .4 1.0 .9 1.1 4.2a
.2 .7 .4 1.0 .8 1.0 4.la
.3 .7 .4 .9 .8 1.0 4.la
.3 .7 .5 1.0 .7 .8 4.0a
.2 .7 .3 .9 .9 1.0 4.0a
.2 .7 .5 1.0 .7 .8 3.9a
.0 .3 .2 .9 .7 .9 3.Ob
.4 .7 .4 1.0 .1 .0 2.6b


1/ Harvest dates: 1=1-28-75; 2=2-25-75; 3=3-27-75; 4=4-30-75; 5=5-30-75;
6=6-30-75.
2/ Means followed by different letters nr<' signifincnt at the 5% level according
to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


clover was the highest yielder, producing 4.5 tons per acre dry matter. This
variety produced higher yields earlier than the white clovers and continued
producing well throughout the spring. Due to the upright growth habit of red
clover it would also be well adapted to spring hay production. Red clover acts
as an annual in central Florida, therefore following the May or June harvest
plants die. Preliminary information indicates that the 3 FS white clovers and
Tillman white clover will partially survive the summer and start growth again
in the fall.


-- ---- ---





6

Yields of clover varieties grown at the ARC, Immokalee were significantly
different (Table 6). Nolins Improved White and FS-6'White (experimental)
produced 2.8 tons per acre dry matter respectively. These yields were signifi-
cantly higher when compared with the 2 lowest yielding varieties. Once
established the 3 FS white clovers and Tillman white clover continued producing
forage over a longer period of time when compared with the other varieties.


Table 6. Forage production
1974-75.


of clover varieties grown at the ARC, Immokalee,


Dry matter yield T/A

Harvests-


Varieties
-- m i


Nolins Improved White
PS-6 White (experimental)
FS-4 White (experimental)
FS-5 White (experimental)
La. S-1 White
Pena-cott Red
Tillman
T- ifoclium semipilosum
DiL.- Crimson (reseeding)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total

3 .3 .6 .6 .5 .4 .1 2.8a
2 .3 .4 .6 .5 .5 .3 2.8a
,1 .3 .3 .5 .5 .5 .3 2.5ab
.1 .2 .4 .5 .4 .5 .3 2.4ab
.2 .2 .4 .6 .5 .3 .1 2,3ab
.2 .2 .4 .6 .5 .3 .1 2.3ab
,1 .3 .3 .6 .4 .4 .0 2.lab
.2 .2 .3 .4 .3 .4 .2 2.0abc
,1 .1 .1 .4 .3 .3 0 1.3bc
.0 .1 .2 .6 .3 .0 .0 1.2c


1/ harvest dates: 1=1-31-75;
6=6-26-75; 7-7-23-75.


2=2-24-75; 3=3-24-75; 4=4-23-75; 5=5-23-75;


2/ Means followed by different letters are significant at the 5% level
according to Dunean's Multiple Range Test.


Conclusion
There are definite differences in the performance of winter annuals between
and within locations. Small grains will generally produce forage 25 to 30 days
earlier than ryegrasses and clovers. However, ryegrasses and clover will
provide forage longer in the spring and require less critical management. To
obtain maximum forage production adequate water, good fertility and superior
management is required.


--




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