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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; RC-1986-9
Title: Commercial corn variety results from Okeechobee and Myakka City, Florida, 1986
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074262/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial corn variety results from Okeechobee and Myakka City, Florida, 1986
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 6 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stephenson, Robert John
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Corn -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Corn -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.J. Stephenson ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December 1986."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074262
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85835418

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




/00


Central Science
Library
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona r 17
OCT 2 2 1987
Research Report RC-1986-9 December 1986
S UnT of Florida

COMMERCIAL CORN VARIETY RESULTS FROM
OKEECHOBEE AND MYAKKA CITY FLORIDA, 1986

R.J. Stephenson, E.S. Horner, F.G. Martin, P. Mislevy,
V.R. Hoge, P. Miller, T.E. Seawright,
J.S. Southwell and R.L. West


Corn (Zea mays) is the principle silage crop in the U.S., with more than
100 million tons harvested annually. Nation wide corn silage yields range
from 4-20 tons dry matter per acre.

Maximum nutrient value and carotene content is obtained in corn harvested
at the glazed or dent stage of maturity. Grain types are generally superior
to the 'silage' corn or late maturing types, since the nutritive value of corn
silage is proportional to grain content. Late-maturing varieties generally
have a greater silage weight per acre, but lower dry matter (DM) content than
the grain types. The best varieties utilize the growing season to its fullest
potential. In southern Florida early maturing varieties are ready to harvest
before heavy summer rains, which allows the land to be utilized for other
crops.

The majority of corn grown in Florida is utilized by the dairy industry
as silage. Considerable sorghum and some grass silage is also used by
producers. In Florida the major limitations to corn silage production are
insect, disease and soil moisture problems.

Planting dates start as early as February 1 in the extreme southeast and
continue through mid-April in the north. Early plantings usually result in
higher yields because the corn escapes high temperatures, insects, competition
from weeds and excessive moisture at harvest.

Experimental Procedures

Corn silage variety trials were conducted at Okeechobee on an Immokalee
fine sand and at Myakka City on a Myakka muck. The same twenty commercial
corn varieties were evaluated at both locations.

Okeechobee Corn varieties were seeded in 30 inch rows on 19 March, 1986
and thinned to a final population of 26,000 plants per acre. Herbicides were
not used and the study received only minimal cultivation between seeding and




- Assistant Professor, AREC-Ona; Professor, Agronomy Dept., Gainesville;
Professor Statistics, Gainesville; Professor, AREC-Ona; Extension Agent I,
Okeechobee; Extension Director II, Okeechobee; Extension Agent II, Palmetto;
Extension Director I, Wauchula; and Lab Tech III, AREC, Ona.









harvest. Furadan(R) 15G insecticide was applied at the rate of 17 lb/A in 7
inch bands at see ng to control army worms and mole crickets. The
insecticide Sevin 50 WP was applied at the rate of 2 lb/A to control army
worms,.corn earworms and stinkbugs. The insecticide was applied on two
separate occasions when over half the plants were infested with earworms.
(R) 1/
Prior to seeding 120 lb P 20 and 240 lb K O + 20 lb/A TEM( 300-
fertilizer was applied and discea into the soil. Nitrogen was applied at a
rate of 100 and 50 lbs N/A when corn plants were 6 and 20 inches,
respectively. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with four
replications.

Myakka City Procedures were similar to those used in Okeechobee with
the following differences. Corn was seeded on 27 March and experimental
design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Prior to 24
lbs N, 36 lbs P 0 and 72 lbs K 0 were applied and disced into the soil. An
additional 100 Ibs of N/A was applied when corn was 12 inches. Herbicide
practices were 1 quart/A atrazine 4L postemergence in 30 gallons of water per
acre when the corn was 36 inches high. No cultivation practices were used
after seeding.

Corn Maturity at Harvests

Corn plants were harvested for silage production and variables recorded
were: forage DM (yield and percent), ears per acre, grain yield, percent
kernel moisture and grain to stover ratio.

Percent kernel moisture was high at harvest and consequently most of the
kernels had not reached the hard dent stage of maturity. Grain yield values
were converted and expressed in bushels of shelled corn at 15.5% moisture.

Results and Discussion

Myakka City No significant differences were found among varieties for
any of the responses (Table 1). Forage DM and grain yields were greater at
Myakka City than Okeechobee. This was due in part to differences in soil
moisture between sites. The Myakka was planted on muck while Okeechobee was
on a fine sand. Both sites were moisture stressed which reduced forage and
grain yields.

Okeechobee Significant differences (P<0.05) in forage DM yield, percent
forage DM, grain yield and percent kernel moisture existed among the 20
commercial corn varieties tested (Table 2).

Forage DM yields ranged from 4.9 t/A for 'Pioneer 3055' to 2.6 t/A for
'Asgrow RX 892'. Varieties tested averaged 3.7 t/A, which was Approximately
40 percent of that averaged during the 1986 season at AREC Ona. Cultural
practices, insect problems, planting dates, stage of maturity at harvest and
soil moisture were different for the two years and locations.



-/TEM 300 micronutrients contain the following elements: iron, 18.0%; zinc,
7.0%; manganese, 7.5%; boron, 3.0%; and copper, 3.0%.










Grain yield is an important characteristic when selecting a corn variety
for silage. A variety with a high grain yield potential will enhance silage
quality. In 1986 grain yields averaged 71 bu/A (shelled) which was extremely
low compared to 166 bu/A at Ona in 1986. The corn was not irrigated and
subjected to hot-dry conditions shortly after planting. This, along with ear
worms suppressed grain and forage yields. Soil moisture and insects were not
a problem at Ona in 1986 and years past. A correlation existed between number
of ears and grain yield (R = 0.436). Pioneer 3055 had the highest grain
yield and percent forage DM yield at harvest (Table 2).

Grain to stover ratio is expressed as a percentage by weight of grain to
forage. PAG SX 383 had an above average forage DM yield, yet grain yield was
well below average (Table 2). This resulted in a grain to stover ratio of
22-78. When selecting a commercial corn variety, select varieties which have
relatively high forage DM yields, high grain yield and grain to stover ratio.
Commercially available varieties tested in 1986 which fit these criteria
include Pioneer 3055 and Sunbelt 1860.

Army worms (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith) and other insects were a problem
and influenced grain and forage yield. Hot-dry stressful conditions shortly
after planting stunted the corn, making it more susceptible to insect damage.

In order to determine true performance of a variety, testing should be
conducted for a period of at least three years. Many of the entries used in
these trials were evaluated for a number of years and are shown in Table 3.

Conclusion

When selecting a commercial corn hybrid for southern Florida, the ideal
variety would have a high forage and grain yield and high grain to stover
ratio. Corn grown for grain production should have a low kernel moisture
percentage, which is an indication of rapid drying, resulting in earlier
harvesting and lower drying costs.

Varieties performing relatively well at Myakka City (on the muck) and at
Okeechobee (fine sand) were: Northrup King PX 95, PAG SX 383 and Dekalb 711.
Many of the better yielding varieties at Myakka City did not perform well at
Okeechobee and vice versa. This indicates that varietal performance depends
on location and conditions.







Table 1. Forage and grain yields and other agronomic variables of commercial corn varieties grown at Myakka
City, 1986.


Forage dry matter Ears/ Grain Kernel Grain-to-stover
Brand Variety Yield At harvest acre Yield moisture ratio

t/A % no. bu/A % %

PAG SX 352 5.5 a 25.6 a 23,326 136 a 38.1 a 45 55 a
Paymaster 8990 5.3 a 21.3 a 20,334 101 a 40.6 a 41 59 a
Asgrow RX 892 5.2 a 27.8 a 31,363 127 a 40.7 a 39 61 a
Northrup King PX 9540 5.1 a 24.3 a 25,561 102 a 46.0 a 38 62 a
Northrup King PX 95 5.1 a 20.8 a 23,226 113 a 39.0 a 48 52 a
McCurdy 8150 4.9 a 22.9 a 21,484 113 a 40.4 a 42 58 a
PAG SX 383 4.8 a 22.0 a 19,741 115 a 38.3 a 44 56 a
Dekalb 711 4.7 a 22.0 a 25,561 103 a 41.4 a 41 59 a
Sunbelt 1827 4.6 a 22.2 a 20,334 115 a 37.2 a 36 64 a
Jacques 8700 4.5 a 24.6 a 20,909 116 a 36.4 a 36 64 a
Pioneer 3055 4.5 a 19.8 a 20,334 92 a 38.3 a 38 62 a
Jacques JX 247 4.5 a 22.3 a 22,651 95 a 38.5 a 33 67 a
Coker 21 4.3 a 20.9 a 18,591 102 a 37.7 a 40 60 a
Dekalb 789 4.3 a 20.2 a 21,484 88 a 39.2 a 34 66 a
Asgrow O's Gold 5509 4.3 a 17.1' a 15,682 63 a 38.5 a 30 70 a
Pioneer 3192 4.2 a 21.0 a 19,741 85 a 40.5 a 33 67 a
Funks G 4733 4.2 a 19.9 a 19,741 96 a 40.1 a 39 61 a
Funks G 4868 4.1 a 19.3 a 29,046 105 a 40.1 a 50 50 a
Agri. Tech. GX 900 4.1 a 19.1 a 19,741 79 a 46.0 a 38 62 a
Sunbelt 1860 3.9 a 17.9 a 22,651 87 a 39.9 a 39 61 a
AVERAGE 4.6 21.6 22,075 102 39.8 39 61


Means within a column followed by the same letters)
probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
t Variable not analyzed for significant differences.
Based on 15.5% moisture (shelled corn).
Determined at harvest.
Calculated on oven dry basis.


are not significantly different at the 0.05 level of







Table 2. Forage and grain yields and other agronomic variables of commercial corn
Okeechobee, 1986.


varieties grown at


Forage dry matter Ears/ Graint Kernel* Grain-to-stover
Brand Variety Yield At harvest acre Yield moisture ratio

t/A % no. bu/A % %

Pioneer 3055 4.9 a 21.7 a 20,328 105 a 38.9 a-e 40 60 a
Funks G 4868 4.6 ab 17.7 bc 29,040 76 a-d 48.4 a 41 59 a
Northrup King PX 95 4.5 ab 18.4 ab 23,232 83 a-c 37.8 b-e 36 64 a
Sunbelt 1860 4.4 a-c 16.8 b-d 22,651 93 ab 36.5 b-e 47 53 a
Jacques 8700 4.4 a-c 15.2 b-f 20,909 71 a-d 42.6 ab 40 60 a
Asgrow O's Gold 5509 4.1 a-d 16.6 b-e 15,682 94 ab 32.0 c-f 43 57 a
PAG SX 383 3.8 a-d 14.6 b-g 19,747 44 d 41.2 a-c 22 78 a
Funks G 4733 3.7 a-d 15.1 b-f 19,747 68 a-d 38.3 b-e 36 64 a
Pioneer 3192 3.7 a-d 13.9 c-g 19,747 79 a-d 29.3 ef 40 60 a
Dekalb 711 3.6 a-d 12.4 f-h 25,555 55 cd 29.6 ef 27 73 a
Agri. Tech. GX 900 3.6 a-d 14.9 b-f 19,747 84 a-c 31.9 c-f 43 57 a
Jacques JX 247 3.5 a-d 14.8 b-f 22,651 80 a-d 37.0 b-e 43 57 a
Northrup King PX 9540 3.4 a-d 11.7 f-h 25,555 71 a-d 25.5 f 40 60 a
Sunbelt 1827 3.3 b-d 14.1 c-g 20,328 74 a-d 40.6 a-d 46 54 a
Paymaster 8990 3.3 b-d 12.7'e-h 20,328 52 cd 34.2 b-f 29 71 a
Coker 21 3.3 b-d 12.9 d-h 12,778 64 b-d 36.4 b-e 38 62 a
Dekalb 789 3.2 b-d 12.5 f-h 21,489 66 b-d 39.3 a-e 59 41 a
McCurdy 8150 3.1 b-d 12.0 f-h 21,490 73 a-d 30.1 ef 45 55 a
PAG SX 352 2.9 cd 10.6 gh 23,232 43 d 34.4 b-f 28 72 a
Asgrow RX 892 2.6 d 9.6 h 31,363 49 cd 30.8 d-f 35 65 a
AVERAGE 3.7 14.4 21,780 71 35.7 39 61


Means within a column followed by the same letters) are
probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Variable not analyzed for significant differences.
tBased on 15.5% moisture (shelled corn).
Determined at harvest.
Calculated on oven dry basis.


not significantly different at the 0.05 level of







Table 3. Average grain and forage dry matter yields of corn varieties grown in southern Florida for four to
seven years, 1980-1986.


1980-1985 1986t
Forage Grain Forage Grain
Brand Variety Years tested dry matter* 15.5% moisture* dry matter 15.5% moisture

t/A bu/A t/A bu/A

Northrup King PX 95 4 10.0 177 4.8 98
McCurdy 8150 7 9.0 169 4.0 90
Jacques JX 247 5 9.8 178 4.0 88
Coker 21 5 9.3 178 3.8 83
Funks G 4733 5 8.9 155 4.0 82
AVERAGE, 9.4 171 4.1 88



Data collected at AREC-Ona on a fine sand by: P. Mislevy, E. S. Horer and F. G. Martin.
Average of yields taken at Myakka City and Okeechobee.
Data collected under irrigated conditions.




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