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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1976-2
Title: Commercial forage sorghum, sorghum x sudangrass hybrid, pearlmillet and grain sorghum variety testing in south central Florida, 1975
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074260/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial forage sorghum, sorghum x sudangrass hybrid, pearlmillet and grain sorghum variety testing in south central Florida, 1975
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 12 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Green, V. E
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. Mislevy, and V.E. Green.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1976."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074260
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85835243

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





.C agricultural Research Center, Ona *-
Rc3ear h Report RC-1976-2 HUME LIBRAY January 976

'JUL 1 0 id
COMMERCIAL FORAGE SORGHUM, JORGHUI X SUDANGRASS HYBRID, P ARRMILLET
AND GRAIN SORGHUM VARIETY TESTING IP 1 A/TimDTBfALFI Eal.AA, 1975.
1/
P. hisievy and V. E. Greenr


Grain sorghum and summer annual forage crops can play in important role
in cattle feeding programs in South Central Florida. These crops, with their
rapid growth and high yielding ability, can help fill the forage gaps found in
perennial forage production. They may follow a winter vegetable crop or be
used in a pasture renovation program to provide timely forage in late April
and early May. To obtain maximum yields of quality forage, it may be necessary
to harvest these high producing crops as green chop, hay or silage. They can
be grazed but grazing these stemmy, robust plants generally does not result in
maximum forage utilization, due to the selective leaf and tiller grazing by
the animal. Regardless how these forages are utilized, varieties, proper
seeding date, high fertility, water, insect and disease control are necessary.
Grain sorghums with their short stiff stems and good yielding ability, when
managed properly can also provide grain for supplement or the entire plart
m,,y be eisiled to produce quality forage.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a selected number of forage
sorghums, pearlmillets, grain sorghums and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids in
South Central Florida.


Experimental Procedure

Three summer annual variety experiments were conducted at the Agricultural
Research Center (ARC), Ona on an .Gaa fine sand. They included grain sorghums,
forage sorghums, sorghum x sudangrasses, and pearlmillets. The forage sorghum
and grain sorghum experiments contained 6 anf 12 commercial hybrids, respec-
tively. The third experiment contained 7 sorghum x sudangrass hybrids, 3
pearlmillets and 1 sudangrass hybrid. The experimental design for each study
was a randomized complete block, with four replications, with exception to the
forage serghum study which contained 5 replications.

Fertilization practices prior to seeding were 0-120-2'0 Ib/A (N-P205-K20
in addition to 20 Ib/A of fritted micronutrients FTE 503.2/ Following
the emergence of all hybrids, 100 1b/A of N was applied. When the grain sorhum,
sorghum x sudangrass, and pearlmillet hybrids reached a height of 18 inches,
an additional 50 Ib/A N was applied. One hundred lbs/A N was applied on
the forage sorghum when an 18-24 inch height wao attained. Following the
initial harvest of forage sorghum, 100 Ib/A N was applied in two applications.
Fifty Ib/A N was applied after each harvest on the sorghum x sudangrass and
pearlmillet hybrids. The experiments were irrigated as needed, receiving a
total of 11 inches of water during the 1975 growing season.

1/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist) and Professor (Agronomist)
Agricultural Research Center, Ona, University of Florida, Gainesville.
2/ FTE 503 micro-utrients have the following elemental content: Iron 18.0 ,
Zinc 7.0%; Manganese 7.)%; Copper 3.0%7; Boron 3.07 and Molybdenum 0.2%.








The grain sorghum and sovghum x sudangrass-pearlmillet experiment was
seeded March 13 at a rate of 16 Ib/A with the exception of pearlmillet which
was seeded at 8 Ib/A. The forage sorghum study was seeded on March 14 at a
seeding rate of 16 Ib/A. A pre-emergence treatment of the herbicide Aatrex
was applied at a rate of 2.5 Ib/A actual material. When plants in all 3
studies attained a height of 12 to 15 inches, Lorox was applied as a directed
spray (application of spray material to the base of sorghum and millet plants,
not allowing spray to contact upper leaf canopy) at the rate of 1.0 lb/A
active material to control crabgrass. Plants were cultivated once. In
late April malathion was applied to control bud worms.

Both harvests of the forage sorghum were removed when the grain was at
the dough stage. All harvests of the sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet
hybrids were removed when the plants were at the anthesis (early flowing)
stage. Following the grain removal from grain sorghum, the remaining portion
of the plant was harvested as stover. Agronomic characteristics such as
plant height, lodging, disease and etc. were recorded for all varieties.


Results and Discussion

Significant differences in dry matter production were observed among
commercial forage sorghum hybrids grown at the ARC, Ona (Table 1). In harvest
1, Rudy Patrick 55F and Taylor Evans TDN yielded 8.5 and 8.0 T/A dry matter,



Table 1. Forage Sorghum yield grown at the ARC, Ona 1975.


Dry matter T/A-/
Brand Hybrid Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Total yield
Rudy Patrick 55F 8.5a 2.0ab 10.5a
Taylor Evans TDN 8.0a 2.2ab 10.2a
Taylor Evans Milkmaker 6.8ab 2.9a 9.7a
McNair Energy Plus 7.5ab 1.4b 8.9ab
Pennington Pennsilage 6.8ab 1.6b 8.4ab
Dekalb FS 1B 5.7b 1.5b 7.2b

Average 7.2 2.0 9.2

1/ Treatment means in each column not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 5% level according to Duncan's Multiple
Range Test.
Harvest Date: Harvest 1, June 13, 1975; Harvest 2, September 17, 1975

respectively. These yields were significantly higher than the 5.7 T/A dry
matter produced by Dekalb FS IB. Harvest 2 yields were considerably lower,
averaging 28% of the initial harvest. Taylor Evans produced the highest
second harvest yield averaging 2.9 T/A. One reason for the low second harvest







yields was the supersaturated (excessive amount of water) soil conditions
obtained during the months of July and August. Higher mid-summer production
could have been obtained if these hybrids were seeded on soils with better
drainage. Total yields ranged front 10.5 T/A dry matter for Rudy Patrick 55F
to 7.2 T/A for Dekalb FS 1C. Lodging was quite variable among forage sorghum
hybrids (Table 2). Five hybrids range in lodging from 1 to 2%, while McNair
Energy-Plus averaged 18% lodging. Disease was not a problem in the first
harvest.

Differences in total dry matter production among sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids were not significant (Table 3). Little differences existed among the
hybrids in both harvest 1 and 2, which averaged 2.9 and 3.0 T/A dry matter,
respectively. However, third harvest yields, which were grown under excessive
moisture conditions, were only 10% of the first or second harvests which
averaged .3 T/A. Significant differences did exist among pearlmillet hybrids
and sudangrass (Table 3).

At harvest 1 Rudy Patrick Pearlex 24 yielded 2.7 T/A dry matter which was
337. higher than the next best variety (Table 3). This variety continued
to produce well in the second harvest which averaged 4.0 T/A dry matter.
However, after the second harvest all plants died. PearlmilleL was very sen-
sitive to excessive moisture conditions. Rudy Patrick Pearlex 24 was also
highest in total dry matter yield, producing 6.7 T/A.

Lodging was not a problem among sorghum x sudangrass hybrids prior to
Harvest 1 (Table 4). However, the pearlmillet NK Millex 23 did contain 8%
lodging. Harvest 2 little lodging was noticed among the sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids, however, the pearlmillet varieties ranged from 1 to 10% lodging.

Disease was not a problem on any sorghum x sudangrass or pearlmillet
hybrid at the first harvest. At harvest 2 considerable amounts of
Helminthosporium sp. and anthoracnose were observed on all hybrids.

Differences in grain production were not significant among commercial
grain sorghum hybrids (Table 5). Asgrow Dorado M produced the highest grain
yield which averaged 5,532 Ib/A. This was approximately 2,000 pounds higher
than the lowest yielding hybrid, FMC Oro-Y. Following the grain removal, the
remaining portion of the sorghum plant was harvested as forage (stover).
Stover yields for all hybrids were quite similar and averaged 1.8 T/A dry
matter.

Lodging and seed head disease were not a problem among commercial grain
sorghum hybrids in 1975 (Table 6). Bird damage ranged from 1 to 37.. Such
damage was mainly on non-bird resistant varieties.

Dry matter production of forage sorghum, sorghum x sudangrass, and
pearlmillet hybrids grown four consecutive years (1972-1975) or less at the
ARC, Ona are shown in Tables 7, 8 and 9.. Grain production of commercial grain
sorghum hybrids grown 3 years or less are shown in Table 10.








Table 2. Characteristics of Forage Sorghum riybrids grown at the ARC, Ona 1975.1


Harvest I Harvest II

Brand Hybrid Plant height Disease Lodging Maturity at harvest Plant height

feet --- feet

Rudy Patrick 55F 8.0 0 2 Dough 5.0

Taylor Evans TDN 6.0 0 1 Early dough 4.3

Taylor Evans Milkmaker 8.0 0 1 Dough 5.4

McNair Energy Plus 7.0 0 18 Hard dough 4.9

Pennington Pennsilage 7.0 0 2 Early dough 3.9

Dekalb FS IB 6.0 0 2 Hard dough 3.5


fi Average of 5 replications







Table 3. Dry matter vield of sudangrass, so-ghum x s'iangrass, and
pearlnillet hybrids gro *n at the ARC, Ona 1975.


Harvest
1 2 3


Total yield


Dry matter (T/A)
Sorghum x Sudangrass hybrids

Acco Sweet Sioux III 3.4 2.9 .2 6.51/
Acco Sweet Sioux IV 3.1 3.0 .3 6.2
Taylor Evans Haygrazer 3.0 3.0 .3 6.3
Rudy Patrick Saxon 3.1 2.8 .2 6.1
FMC Sweet Chew 2.9 2.8 .3 6.0
Pennington Summergrazer 2.4 3.1 .3 5.8
Dekalb SX-16 2.5 2.8 .3 5.6

Average 2.8 2.9 .3 6.0

Pearlmillet and Sudangrass hybrids
2/
Rudy Patrick Pearlex 24 2.7 4.0 -- 6.7a-
Farmers Forage
Research FFR-74 1.5 1.9 -- 3.4b
Northrup King Millex 23 1.6 1.6 -- 3.2b
Excel Mil-Hy 99 1.8 1.1 -- 2.9b

Average 1.9 2.2 -- 4.1


1/ Means within the column are not
level.


significantly different at the 5%


2/ Means followed by the same letter are not significaXily different at
the 5% level according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

*Sudangrass hybrid.


Harvest Dates: Harvest 1
Harvest 2
Harvest 3


Pearlmillet May 30; Sorghum x Sudangrass May 27.
Pearlmillet August 5; Sorghum x Sudangrass July 29.
Sorghum x Sudangrass October 6.


Brand


Hybrid


__~ _









Table 4. Characteristics of Selected Sudangrass, Sorghum x Sudangrass, and Pearlmillets hybrids
Grown at the ARC, Ona 1975.1/


Harvest I Harvest II
Brand Hybrid Plant height Lodging Disease Plant height Lodging Disease


feet feet %
Sorghum x Sudangrasses

Acco Sweet Sioux III 7.0 0 0 7.2 2.5 6
Acco Sweet Sioux IV 6.5 0 0 7.7 0.0 8
Taylor Evans Haygrazer 7.0 0 0 7.6 0.0 5
Rudy Patrick Saxon 7.0 0 0 8.0 0.0 3
FMC Sweet Chew 6.5 0 0 8.0 0.0 11
Pennington Summergrazer 6.0 0 0 8.0 0.0 3
Dekalb SX-16 7.0 0 0 7.5 1.3 1


Pearlmillets

Rudy Patrick Pearlex 24 4.8 3 0 6.7 1.0 8
Farmers Forage
Research FFR-74 5.7 0 0 7.0 10.0 20
Northrup King Millex 23 4.7 8 0 5.0 10.0 10
Excel Mil-hy 99 4.6 0 0 4.8 9.0 23


1/ Average of four replications









Table 5. Grain and stover yields of Commercial Grain Sorghum hybrids
grown at the ARC, Ona 1975.


Brand


Asgrow
Dekalb
FMC
Taylor Evans
Funks
McNair
Dekalb
FMC
Pennington
Taylor Evans
Funk
FMC


Hybrid


Dorado M
E-59
Oro-T
Hondo
G 516 BR
654
BR-54
Oro
Penngrain BR.
Y-101
BR-79
Oro-Y


Grain yield-!
Ibs/A
5532
5390
5129
5020
4937
4704
4552
4490
4435
4332
3993
3466


21
Stover yield-
--Tons/A--
2.1
2.0
1.7
2.0
2.0
1.8
2.3
1.7
2.3
1.4
2.1
1.2


Average 4665 1.8


1/ Means within the column are not
5% level.

2/ Stover is the remaining portion
removal of the head for grain.


significantly different at the


of the sorghum plant following


Grain Sorghum Harvested: June 30, 1975


Stover Harvested: July 3, 1975









Table 6. Characteristics of Grain Sorghum hybrids grown at the ARC,


Brand Hybrid Plant ht. Bird damage Lodging Head type Seed head disease
feet %. 7%


Asgrow Dorado M 4,2 3 0 Open 2
Eekalb E-59 4.2 3 0 Open 1
FMC Oro-T 4.2 3 0 Open 1
Taylor Evans Hondo 4.2 3 0 Compact 0
Funk G 515BR 3.7 0 0 Extremely Open. 0
McNair 654 4.0 2 0 Open 2
Dekalb BR 54 4.6 2 0 Extremely Open 0
FMC Oro 3.8 2 0 Open 2
Pennington Penngrain BR 4.2 0 0 Open 0
Taylor Evans Y-101 3.8 2 0 Open 1
Funk BR 79 4.3 0 0 Extremely Open 0
FMC Oro-Y 3.7 1 0 Extremely Open 2


1/ Average of four replications.


1/
Ona. 1975-







Table 7. Dry,matter yields of forage sorghum hybrids grown at the AP.C, Ona,
1972-75.


Dry Matter Yield (T/A)
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 19734 1975 Av.


Grown for four years 1972-1975

Taylor Evans Milkmaker 6.3 9.3 5.9 9.8 7,8

Grown any three years 1972-1975

Pennington Pennsilage 14.2 9.1 -- 8.4 10.6
Dekalb FS 4 10.2 10.4 5.9 8.8
Rudy Patrick 55F 7.6 8.1 -- 10.3 8.7

Average 10.7 9.2 5.9 9.4 :9.4

Grown any two years 1972-1975

Pioneer 931 16.1 13.9 -- -- 15.0
Taylor Evans T.D.N. 5,8 10.3 8.1
Funks 102F -- 10.1 6.1 8.1
Acco FS 531 -- 8.9 6.4 -- 7.7
Excel Silofill 33A 7.6 5.9 -- 6.8
Dekalb FS IB" -. -- 6.2 7.2 6.7
Dekalb FS 24 4- 7.5 4.5 -- 6.0

Average 11.0 9.6 5.8 8.8 8.3

Crown any one year 1972-1975

Acco FS 401R 10.2 -- 10,2
Taylor Evans Silomaker 9.9 -- -- .- 9.9
Asgrow BeefbuilderT 9.1, -- 9.1
McNair Energy Plus -- -- 8,8 8.8
Asgrow Titar R -- 7.5 7.5
Haile-Dean Cow Vittles -- -- 6.3 -- 6.3
Dekalb FS-28A -- -- 5.8 5.8
Acco FS-401-R -- -- 5.0 5.0
Acco FS 404 4.9 -- -- -- 4.9
Funks G-650-S -- -- 4.3 -- 4.3

Average these hybrids 8.6 7.5 5.4 8.8 7.1

Average over years 9.4 9.2 5.6 9.2 8.1


Seeding date: 3/16/72; 3/13/73; 3/6/74; 3/14/75







Table 8. Average dry matter yields of Sorghum x Sudangrass hybrids grown at
the ARC, Ona, 1972-1975.


Dry matter yields (T/A)
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 1974 1975 Av.


Grown four years 1972-1975

Dekalb Sudax SX-16 9.7 10.1 8.1 5.5 8.4

Grown any three years 1972-1975

Bingham Grofast 8.2 9.0 6.8 -- 8.0
Taylor Evans Haygrazer 9.2 -- 6.9 6.2 7,4
Pennington Summergrazer 9.1 7.4 5.8 7.4

Average 8.9 9.0 7.1 6.0 7.6

Grown 1972 and 1973

Dorman Sure-Graze 10.1 8.4 -- -- 9.3

Grown any one year 1972-1975

Asgrow Grazer A-1 -- 9.7 -- -- 9.7
Pioneer 988 8.9 -- -- -- 8.9
Acco Sweet Sioux -- 8.8 -- -- 8.8
Funk 83F -- 7.6 -- 7,6
Acco Sweet Sioux III -- -- 6.3 6.3
Acco Sweet Sioux IV -- -- -- 6.2 6.2
Rudy Patrick Saxon -- -- -- 6.0 6.0
FMC Sweet Chew -- -- -- 5.8 5.8

Average these hybrids 8.9 9.3 7.6 6.0 7.5


Average over years


9.2


9.2


6.0


7.9


Seeding Date: 3/16/72; 3/13/73; 3/6/74;


3/14/75








Table 9. Average dry matter production of
ARC, Ona, 1972-1975.


Pearlmillat hybrids grown at the


-,, ,' Dry matter yield (T/A)
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 1974 1975 Av.


Grown any two years 1972-1975

Rudy Patrick Pearlex 24 5.5 6.7 6.1
Pennington Hygrazer 5.9 5.5 -- 5.7
Rudy Patrick Pearlex 21 5.1 5.6 -- -- 5.4
Funks Millet III -- 5.8 5.0 5.4
Excel Mill-Hy 99 -- 5.6 4.1 -- 4.9
Dorman Mil-Hy 100 4.3 -- 4.9 -- 4.6
Dekalb X-O01 -- -- 3.9 2.9 3.4


Average 5.2 5.7 4.4 4.8 5.1


Grown any one year 1972-1975

Ga. CPES Tifton Gahia I -- 5.8 -- 5.8
Pennington Southgraze -- -- 4.8 -- 4.8
Northrup King Millex 23 3.2 3.2


Average these hybrids 5.8 4.8 3.2 4.6


S Average over years 5.2 5.6 4.5 4.3 4.9


Seeding Date: 3/16/72; 3/13/73; 3/6/74; 3/13/75









Table 30.


Average yields of grain Sorghum hybrids grown at the ARC, Ona
1972-1975.


Grain production Ib/A, dry weight
Brand Hybrid 1972 1973 1974 1975 Av.

Grown for three years 1973-1975
Asgrow Dorado M 5110 5120 5530 5257

Grown any two years 1972-1975
Dekalb BR-64 .6450 5500 -- -- 5970
FMC Oro-T 6670 5130 5900
Acco R 1093 6000 5700 -- -- 5850
Dekalb E 59 -- 5400 -- 5390 5390
Excel Bird-Go 68 -- 5830 4480 -- 5150
Funk BR 79 --" 6260 -- 4000 5130
Funk G-516 BR -- 5260 4940 5100
Acco R 1029 -- 5830 4230 -- 5030
Dorman BR-100 5230 -- 4500 -- 4860
Pennington Penngrain BR -- -- 5220 4440 4830
Taylor Evans Y-101 -- -- 4920 4330 4630
McNair 654 -- 4000 4700 4350

Average 5890 5880 4660 4700 5180

Grown any one yeat 1972-1975
Excel Bird-Go 7020. -- -- -- 7020
Excel BiFd Go A 6710 6710
Ga. 615 6580 6580
Pioneer 828 5810 -- 5810
Northrup King 222G 5320 -- -- 5320
AKS 614 5080 -- 5080
Taylor Evans Bird-A-Boo 5080 -- 5080
Funk G 459 -- -- 5060 -- 5060
Dekalb F-64 -- -- 5020 5020
Taylor Evans Hondo 5020 5020
Northrup King Savanna-3 -- 4910 -- 4910
Asgrow Bravis R 4890 -- 4890
ARK-AES ARK 663 -- 4870 -- 4870
Dekalb BR 54 -- 4550 4550
FMC Oro -- 4490 4490
FMC Oro-Y -- 3470 3470

Average these hybrids 5680 5810 4980 4380 5240

Average over years 5740 5790 4790 5090 5460

Seeding Date: 3/16/72; 3/13/73; 3/6/74; 3/13/75




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