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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-73-2
Title: Sorghum, sundangrass-sorghum hybrid and pearlmillet variety testing in south central Florida, 1972
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074258/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sorghum, sundangrass-sorghum hybrid and pearlmillet variety testing in south central Florida, 1972
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Paul Mislevy.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1973."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074258
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85834771

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Agricultural Research Center, Ona : *
Research Report RC-73-2 January 1973


........... SORGHUM--UDANGRAS&S-SORGHUM HYBRID. AND PEARLMILLET
i U L i 'VARIETY TESTING IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1972

Paul Mislevyl/


Supplemental grain and forage is extremely valuable in a livestock

-- .. feeding program._-As land prices and taxes continue to increase, livestock

management will become more intensified. As more cattle are carried

per acre, it will require greater forage yields. To obtain maximum

forage yields it may be necessary to harvest high producing crops for

green chop or silage. Regardless of how the forage is utilized, sorghum,

sudangrass-sorghum hybrids, and pearlmillets can provide high yields of

quality forage in a relatively short time.

Grain sorghums with their short stiff stems and good yielding

ability can also provide grain for supplement. The purpose of this

research was to evaluate a selected number of forage sorghums, sudangrass-

sorghum hybrids, pearlmillets and grain sorghum varieties in south

central Florida.


Experimental Procedure


Variety testing of grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sudangrass-

sorghum hybrids and pearlmillets was carried out at the Ona Agricultural

Research Center (ARC) during 1972. The soil type was an Ona fine sand.

Both the grain and forage sorghum experiments each contained 10 commercial

varieties and the third experiment contained 6 sudangrass-sorghum

hybrids and 4 pearlmillet varieties. :The experimental ,design was a

randomized complete block with six replications. ,


I/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist) Agricultural Research

Center, Ona.











Fertilization practices prior to seeding were 150-150-150 pounds

of N-P205-K20 per acre. When the grain and forage sorghum experiments

attained a height of three and four feet respectively, an additional

150 pounds of N per,.acre was applied. Following each harvest, 100

pounds of N was applied 'to all experiments. All three experiments

were seeded March 16, at a rate of 16 pounds per acre, with the;

exception of pearlmillet at 8 pounds per acre. Row spacing in all

experiments was 36 inches. The herbicide Aatrex was used preemergence

,at a rate of 2 pounds per acre actual followed by 1 cultivation when

plants were 4 to 6 inches tall. The experiments were irrigated as

needed, receiving a total of 7.5 inches of water during the 1972

growing season.

Both harvests of the forage sorghum experiment were removed when

the grain was at the dough stage. The first harvest of the sudangrass-

sorghum hybrids and pearlmillet varieties was removed when the plants

were at the boot stage and remaining harvests were made at the early

flowering stage. All harvests of the forage sorghums and sudangrass-

sorghum hybrids and millet varieties were analyzed for organic matter

digestion. This in vitro organic matter digestion.(IVOMD) procedure

is an indication of the amount of organic matter which is digestible

by ruminants.


Results and Discussion


Pioneer 931 and Penisilagd produced significantly higher dry matter

yields in harvest 1 when compared with seven other forage sorghum

varieties (Table 1). In harvest 2, Pioneer 931 again produced a








3.



significantly higher yield. Both Pioneer,931 and Pennsilage contributed

significantly higher total seasonal dry matter yields producing 16.1

Snd 14.2 tons per acre respectively. Considerable lodging occurcd among

all varieties in harvest 1 following the 30 to 40 mile per hour wind

gusts of Hurricane Agnes (Table 2). However, Pennsilage, Dekalb FS 4

and Pioneer 931 demonstrated most lodging resistance. All varieties

contained considerable amounts of the diseases Helminthosporium sp. and

Anthracnose at both harvests.



Table 1. Dry matter yield of forage sorghum varieties at ARC, Ona 1972.


Brand

Pioneer-
Pennington
Acco
Dekalb
Golden Acres
Asgrow
Rudy-Patrick
Golden Acres
Golden Acres
Acco

LSD (.03)


Variety

931
Pennsilage
FS 401R
FS 4
TE Silomaker
Beefbuilder T
55 F
TE Milkmaker
TE T.D.N.
FS 1404


Dry matter yields

Harvest -/ Harvest 2

9.5 6.6
10.4 3.7
6.5 3.7
6.7 3.5
6.4 3.6
5.9 3.2
3..8 3.8
3.7 2.6
4.1 1.7
2., 2,0

3.0 1.4


(T/A)

Total yield

16.1
14.2
10.2
10.2
9.9
9.1
7.6
6.3
5.8
A.9

3.5


1/ Harvest dates: Harvest 1, 7-5-72;


Harvest 2, 9-28-/22.


I_' ,^o organic matter digestion (IVOMD) was quite similar for

both harvests ranging from a low of 50.4% to a high of 60.6% in harvest

1 and in harvest 2 from 48.7% to 59.5% (Table 3).


-^---~-~L----.---. -. __,,,


** ..'















Table 2. Characteristics of forage sorghum at two harvests at ARC, Ona 1972
--- -


Brand

Pioneer.

Golden Acres

Asgrow

Golden Acres

Acco

Golden Acres

Dekalb

Rudy-Patrick

Pennington

Acco


Variety

931

TE Milkmaker

Beefbuilder T

TE Silomaker

FS 401 R

TE T.D.N.

FS 4

55 F

Pennsilage

FS 404


Plant
ht. in

94

72

84

63

62

66

72

72

90

69


Harvest 1
il/
Lodging-
. %7

40

80

80

80

80

100

30

90

30

80


1/ Much of lodging due to hurricane Agnes..


Disease


65

65

65

65

65

65

65

65

32

65


Plant
ht. in.

120

108

102

96

96

72

90

114

120

90


Harvest 2
Lodging

0

0

0

0

0


0
0

0

0

0
0


Disease
76

65

65

65

65

65 -

75

95

65

65

65








5.


Table 3. IVOMD of forage sorghum following .t...harvests.


...............- .... IVOND (7%)

Brand Variety H.. arvest 1 Harvest 2

Pioneer 931 50.4 48.7
l-.Golden Acres TE Milkmaker 59.3 58.0.
Asgrow Beefbuilder T 59.2 '58.0
Golden Acres TE Silomaker 60.6 54.5
Acco FS 401, R 60.3 .52.8
Golden Acres TE T.D.N. 59.0 55.2
Dekalb FS 4 59.9.' 56.8
SRudy-Patrick 55 F 55.8 59.5.
Pennington Pennsilage .. 54.8 54.2.
'Acco FS 404 60.4 56.6






Significant differences existed in dry matter production between

the sudangrass-sorghum hybrids and millet varieties. However in harvest

...... 1-no significant differences were observed among the above two species

(Table 4). In harvest 2 all sudangrass-sorghum hybrids significantly

out-yielded the millet varieties. Harvest 2 dry matter yields for the

sudangrass-sorghum hybrids increased over harvest 1 from .9 to 1.7 tons

peracre for Grofast and Pioneer 988 respectively. The dry matter

production of the pearlmillet varieties in harvest'2 were the same or

less than in the first harvest. .In harvest 3 the sudangrass-sorghum

hybrids again significantly'out-yielded the pearlmillet varieties (Table 4).

However, both sudangras.a-sorghum hybrids and pearlmillet varieties

decreased in yield from.previous.'highs. The sudangrass-sorghum hybrids

seem to produce their highest'yidld in the second harvest, whereas the

pearlmillets decreased in yield from the first harvest. The sudangrass-

sorghum hybrids. significantly-out-yielded the pearlmillet varieties

approximately 2 to 1 in total seasonal dry matter production.











Table 4. Forage production for sudangra s-sorghum hybrids and
pearlmillets at ARClOna 1972.1'


Brand Variety

Sudangrass-sorghum hybrids

Dorman Sure-Graze
Dekalb Sudax SX-16
Golden Acres TE Haygrazer
Pennington Summergrazer
Pioneer 988
Bingham Grofast

Pearlmillet

Pennington Hygrazer
Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 24
Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 21
Dorman Mil-Hy

LSD (.05)


Harvest
1



2.9
2.6
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.5



3.0
2.8
2.2
2.2

NS


Dry matter
Harvest
2



4.2
4.2
4.2
3.7
4.2
3.4



S2.0
1.5
2.2
1.8

1.1


yields (tons/A)
Harvest Total
3 yield


3.0
2.8
2.2
2.7
2.1
2.3



0.9
1.3
0.7
0.3

0.7


10.1
9.7
9.2
9.1
8.9
8.2



5.9
5.5
5.1
4.3

1.6


1/ Harvest dates: Harvest 1,


5-12-72; Harvest 2, 7-7-72; Harvest


3, 9-6-72.


The only significant difference in total drymatter yield of

sudangrass-sorghum hybrids was between Sure-Graze and Grofast. Other

differences were not significant. No significant differences in total

yield were observed among the pearlmillet varieties.

Lodging was not a problem among the sudangrass-sorghum hybrids or

pearlmillet.varieties during the 1972 growing season (Table 5). Plants

were free of disease until the second harvest when all sudangrass-sorghum

varieties with the exception of Sudax SX 16 were infested with at least

30% disease. All pearlmillet varieties were relatively disease free

in the second harvest with the exception of Pearlex 24 which contained










Table 5. Characteristics




Brand Variety

Sudangrass-Sorghum hybrid


of sudangrass-sorghum hybrids and pearlmillets at ARC/Ona 1972.1/


Harvest 1
Plant Lodging
ht.in. 7.
<,


Disease
S% -


Harvest 2
Plant Lodging Disease
ht.in. % %


Harvest 3
Plant Lodging:
ht.in %-


Bingham


Grofast


Pernington Summergrazer

Dorman Sure-Graze

Golden Acres TE Haygrazer

Dekalb ,. *Sudax SX 16

Pioneer 988

Pearlmillet

Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 24

Dorman Mil-Hy

Pennington Iygrazer

Rudy-Patrick Pearl'e 21


77 0 0

77 0 0

75 0 0

..75. 0 0

77 0 0

74 0 0


I 0


S 0
t 0


0

0

0

0


65 96

-32 96

30 96

65 88

0 96

65 84



32'/ 80

0- 60

0 76

0 55


Harvest 1 removedd 5-12-72; Harvest 2, 7-7-72;

Rust Infestation 1st observed.
[ ,


Harvest 3, 9-6-72.


Disease
%


75

75

75

75

75

75


0

0

0

0

0

0



0



0

0










approximately 32% rust. This is the first time rust has been observed

on pearlmillet. In the third harvest both species were severely

attacked by disease, with all pearlmillets approximately 75% rust infested.

In vitro organic matter digestion of sudangrass-sorghum hybrids

and pearlmillet varieties was quite uniform over the first two harvests

(Table 6). However, IVOMD decreased in harvest 3 whichmay be partially

due to a loss of leaves caused by a severe disease infestation. In

addition, the IVOMD of the sudangrass-sorghum hybrids was quite similar

to the pearlmillet varieties. This was surprising due to a higher

leaf to stem ratio possessed by the pearlmillets.



Table 6. IVOMD of sudangrass-sorghum hybrids and pearlmillet varieties
for three harvests.


Brand Variety

Sudangrass-sorghum hybrids

Bingham Grofast
Pennington Summergrazer
Dorman Sure-Graze
Golden Acres TE Haygrazer
Dekalb Sudax SX 16
Pioneer 988

Pearlmillet

Rudy-Patrick Pearlex '24
Dorman Mil-Hy
Pennington Hygrazer
Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 21


Harvest IVOM D (%)2 Har

Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Harvest 3


54.3
55.5
57.3
58.9
59.8
59.4



56.3
56.3
57.1
54.6


51.7
59.0
66.8
54.4
58.5
55.9



55.7
54.2
54.9
59.1


47.7
50.6
50.8
47.4
51.8
47.9



47..2
50.2
43.2
48.7











Significant differences in grain production was observed among

the commercial grain sorghum varieties. Excel. Bird-Go significantly

out-yielded all varieties with,the exception of Georgia 615 in the

first harvest (Table 7).' All varieties"Vdre allowed to retiller after

the first harvest but only Dekalb Br-64 produced a significant grain

yield .in the sedbnd harvest.

All varieties were infested with approximately 65% disease in the

first harvest (Table 8). Very little bird damage was observed among

varieties with the exception of Dorman Br-i00 which suffered 25%

damage. Lodging was also evident following the severe wind gusts

created by Hurricane Agnes. Dekalb Br-64, Northrup Kidg 222 G and

Dorman Br-100 possessed the greatest lodging resistance but none of

the above varieties were among the top yielders in. the first-hervest.'


Table 7. Grain sorghum yield, ARCjOna 1972.-


Brand

Excel
Ga
Dekalb
Acco
Pioneer
Northrup King
Dorman
AKS
Golden Acres
Asgrow


Variety

Bird-Go
615
Br-64
R 1093
828
222 G
Br-100
614
TE Bird-A-Boo
Bravis R


LSD (.05)


Grain Production

Harvest I Harvest II

7018 -
6582 ---
5566 880
6002 ---
5808
5324
5227 ---
5082 --
5082 --
4889 --

866


(Ibs/A)

Total yield

7018
6582
6446
6002
5808
5324
5227
5082
5082
4889


J/ Harvest date: Harvest 1, 7-20-72; Harvest 2, 10-27-72.




FIAR 6 1978


Table 8. Characteristics of


grain sorghum, ARCjOna 1972.


2/
Harvest 1-


Disease BirP Lodging
% Damage % 7.
r -


Excel
Pioneer
AKS
Ga
Northrup King
Acco

Dorman

Golden Acres -

Dekalb

Asgrow


Bird-Go
828
614
615
222 G
R 1093

Br 100

TE Bird-A-Boo

BR 64

,Bravis R


65 25

65 0

65 0

65 0


28 open
26 semi-open
33 open
14 open
0 compact
12 extremely
open
1 extremely
open
23 extremely
open
0 extremely
open
13 extremely
open


1/ Harvest date: Harvest 1, 7-20-72;


Harvest 2, 10-27-72.


2/ Above data was not recorded for Harvest 2.






















ARC, Ona
1-31-73 .200 copies.


Brand


Variety


Plant
ht.in.


Panicle
type


-- -- -




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