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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1973-9
Title: Production and quality of winter annuals at Ona and Immokalee, 1972-73
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074257/00001
 Material Information
Title: Production and quality of winter annuals at Ona and Immokalee, 1972-73
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. Mislevy ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September 1973."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074257
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85834599

Table of Contents
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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






S" HUME LIBRARY .
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Research Report RC 1973 9 S september 1973
.........OCT 9 1973
PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF WINTER ANNUALS
AT ONA AND IMMO 9 7 ia


P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, R. D. Barnett and D. W. Jones'/


Winter annuals can provide an important source of forage production

throughout the winter months in south central Florida. This importance cannot

be overemphasized, since the growth of most perennial grass varieties are

greatly reduced during this time of the year. Winter annuals such as small

grains, ryegrasses and clovers have the ability to produce 2 to 4 tons of

highly digestible dry matter over a 6-month period. These species grow

rapidly and generally will provide good grazing 40 to 60 days following seeding.

However, winter annuals like most other annual crops required good fertilization

practices and superior management.

The purpose of these experiments were to determine forage yield and

quality performance of several small grains, ryegrasses and ryegrass-berseem

clover mixture at One and Immokalee.


Materials and Methods


The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with four

replications. The experiments at Ona were seeded on October 20 and at

Innokalee on December 5. Seeding rate for the small grains was 3 bu/A,

ryegrasses 20 lb/A and ryegrass-berseem clover mixture at 10 lb and 20 lb/A,

respectively.


1/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center,

Ona); Professor (Soil Chemist); Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee;

Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist) Agricultural Research and

Education Center, Quincy; Professor (Agronomist), Agricttural Extension

Service, Gainesville.






-2-


Fertilization practices at One and Immokalee locations were 40-50-100

plus 10 pounds Frits 501 per acre and 35-70-140 plus 14 pounds Frits 501 per

acre, respectively, at seeding. However when plants were 2 to 4 inches tall

an additional 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre was applied on all experiments.

Following each harvest 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre was applied on small

grains and ryegrasses. No nitrogen was applied on the berseem clover-rye-

grass mixture after the initial application. All harvests of small grains,

ryegrasses, and the berseem clover-ryegrass mixture were analyzed for in

vitro organic matter digestion (IVOMD). This procedure provides an indication

of the amount of organic matter which is digestible by ruminants.

Management practices imposed on small grains (Tables 1 and 2) involved

removing the initial harvest when plants attained a height of 12 to 18 inches.

The growing point at this stage of development ranged from .5 to 1.0 inches

above the soil surface. Generally under adequate moisture conditions and

good fertility plants will attain this stage in approximately 43 days. Regrowth

was removed each time plants attained a height of 10 to 14 inches. Plants at

this height had developed additional tillers that were 1 to 3 inches tall.

Ryegrasses were harvested at both locations each time plants attained

a height of 12 to 16 inches tall.


Results and Discussion


Significant differences in small grain forage production were observed

at One (Table 1). Both Elan and Florida 501 oat varieties produced significantly

higher yields when compared with all other small grains, with the exception

of Wakeland wheat. Both oat varieties contributed a fairly uniform seasonal

distribution of forage, from early December through early May. Fourth harvest

results of all small grains were hindered by excessive moisture in late









January (4.2 inches in 7 days). Florida Black rye production was significantly

lower than any other small grain. This variety produces forage over a very

short period of time and heads earliest of all varieties.

Forage production of small grains at Immokalee were higher than at Ona

(Table 2) with Balbo and Wrens Abruzzi rye producing significantly higher

yields. This may be due to better water control at the Immokalee location.

Florida 102 barley was the lowest yielder of all small grains at this location

producing 1.7 tons of dry matter per acre.

All ryegrass varieties at the One location (Table 3) outyielded all

small grains. Gulf and Wintergreen ryegrass produced significantly.higher

yields, when compared with NK tetrablend 444 and Common ryegrass. Rust was

observed in early March on both Common and Kinderlou ryegrass, with Common

containing rust throughout the spring. All varieties were heading as early

as mid March with the exception of NK tetrablend 444, Gulf, Magnolia and

Common ryegrass.

Forage production of ryegrasses in Immokalee (Table 4) were quite similar

to results at Ona ranging from 3.9 tons per acre for Wintergreen to 2.9 tons

per acre for Common. With the exception of Common ryegrass, yields of all

other varieties were quite similar differing by 0.5 tons per acre or less.

Again, as in Ona, Common ryegrass was rust infested by early March.

Berseem clover-ryegrass mixture (Table 4) produced significantly less than

the pure ryegrass varieties. However, forage production was quite uniform

over a 5-month period.

In vitro organic matter digestion (IVOMD) of small grains at both Ona

and Immokalee (Tables 5 and 6) are quite similar. The IVOMD of all small

grains in harvest 1 and 2 at Ona average 767. and 77% digestibility, respectively.

In Immokalee IVOMD of all small grains in harvest 1 and 2 were slightly higher








averaging 80,% However, as the growing season progressed and plants began to

head, digestibility decreased averaging 657. and 697. at One and Immokalee,

respectively, for Harvest 5.

The IVOMD of ryegrass varieties at both Ona and Immokalee were generally

higher at harvest 1 and 2 when compared with small grains (Table 7). Again

similar to small grains the digestibility of ryegrasses decreased in harvest

5 averaging 70% and 677 at Ona and Inrokolea, respectively.

Digestibility of the berseem clover-ryegrass mixture at Immokalee

(Table 7) was similar to small grains, however, lower when compared with the

ryegrass varieties.


Conclusion


There are definite differences in the production of small grain varieties

within and between locations. Ryegrass production among varieties was quite

uniform with the exception of Common which produced significantly lower due

to rust infestation.

Generally the digestibility of ryegrasses was higher than small grains

throughout most of the growing season. However, by April and May the

digestibility of both species was quite similar.





--5--


Table I. Forage production of small grains at ARC, Ona 1972-73.


Dry matter yields (T/A)

Harvests
Varieties 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

Oats
Florida 501 .4 .4 .7 .2 .6 .2 2.5
Elan .5 .4 .7 .2 .5 .3 2.6
Wheat
Coker 68-19 .3 .5 .5 .3 .3 1.9
Wakeland .4 .5 .7 .2 .5 2.3
Barley
Florida 102 .4 .4 .6 .1 .2 1.7
Rye
Florida Black .3 .2 .4 .2 1.1
Wintergrazer 70 .4 .2 .5 .1 .3 1.5
Wrens Abruzzi .3 .2 .5 .2 .4 1.6
Gator .3 .3 .5 .2 .4 1.7
Vita-Graze .3 .3 .6 .2 .4 -- 1.8
Balbo .4 .2 .5 .2 .3 -- 1.6
Tetra Petkus .4 .:2 5 .1 .2 -- 1.4

LSD (.05) .3




Table 2. Forage production of small grain varieties at ARC, Immokalee, 1972-73.


Dry matter yields (T/A)

Harvests
Varieties 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

Oats
Florida 501 .6 .4 .4 .8 .2 -- 2.4
Elan .6 .4 .3 .7 .4 -- 2.4
Wheat
Coker 68-19 .7 .4 .6 .3 .3 2.3
Wakeland .5 .4 .5 .5 .6 .1 2,6
Barley
Florida 102 .5 .3 .3 .3 .3 -- 1.7
Rye
Wintergrazer 70 .7 .3 .3 .4 .6 -- 2.3
Wrens Abruzzi .7 .3 .4 .5 .7 .1 2.7
Vita-Graze .7 .3 .3 .4 .4 .1 2.2
Balbo .7 .3 .4 .6 .7 -- 2.7
TetraPetkus .4 .4 .4 .4 .6 .1 2.3

LSD (.05) .3




-6-

Table 3. Forage production of ryegrass varieties at ARC, Ona 1972-73.


Varieties

NK tetrablend 444

Gulf

Florida Rust Resistant

Magnolia

Wintergreen

Common

Kinderlou

BRU reseeding (select)

LSD (.05)


yield (T/A


4 5 6


Table 4. Forage production of ryegrass varieties and berseem clover-ryegrass
mixture at ARC, Immokalee, 1972-73.


Varieties

NK tetrablend 444

Gulf

Florida Rust Resistant

Magnolia

Wintergreen

Common

Berseem clover-ryegrass

LSD (.05)


Dry matter yield (T/A)

Harvests
2 3 4 5 6


1.0

1,4

1.3

1.2

1.2

.6

.5


Dry matter

Harvests
2 3

.5 .7

.6 .7

.6 .8

.5 .7

.7 .8

.6 .6

.6 .5

.6 .7


Total

3.4

3.7

3.8

3.7

3.9

2.9

1.8

.4


Total

2.9

3.5

3.4

3.2

3.5

2.8

3.3

3.3


I


"` "


iii i


"II-~---


--


- --








Table 5. In Vitro organic matter digestion of small grains at ARC, Ona, 1972-73.


IVOMD (7.)______
Harvests
Variety I* 2 3 4 5


Oats
Florida 501
Elan
Wheat
Cokcr 68-19
Haleland
Barley
Florida 102
Rye
Florida Black
Hintergrazer 70
I!rens Abruzzi
Gator
Vita-Graze
Balbo
Tetra Petkus


79.6
80.2

76.3
78.3

78.7

75.1
69.0
69.7
76.7
76.2
71.1
75.0


81.2
80.8

70.6
75.9

76.3

74.4
77.9
77.7
76.4
77.4
79.6
78.6


78.5
77.7

73.2
77.1

76.5

75.4
76.1
74.4
74.7
76.2
77.5
78.6


77.8
78.3

71.3
75.1

77.5

72.4
77.0
77.9
75.2
75.5
79.1
79.8


70.6
67.7

59.1
65.2

64.8


67.6
64.1 ."
64.2 '
65.3
,.^ 65.3
62.3


* average of 4 replications.


Table 6. In Vitro organic matter
1972-73.


digestion of small grains at ARC, Immokalee,


IVOMD s 7.
Harvests


Variety 1* 2 3 4 5


Oats
Florida 501
Elan
heat
SCoker 68-19
SIak land
Barley
Florida 102
Rye
Wintergrazer 70
-Urens Abruzzi
Vita-Graze
Balbo
Tetra Petkus


81.4
81.8

79.5
78.9

78.1

80.1
79.1
80.0
80.9
81.9


81.3
80.2

78.2
79.9

78.1

80.5
80.2
77.9
80.4
81.1


74.5
74.5

69.2
75.3

74.4

72.7
70.8
70.2
74.3
76.4


71.7
74.8

74.4
78.5

75.6

76.2
75.3
76.6
76.4
77.4


70.9
70.1

66.5
69.0

69.6

67.1
67.5
67.9
68.1
69.6


* average of 3 replications.


6






68.7


;.
64.2
61.2

63.1


I- `' '-


I .- ,IU, -~.---I---------~







Table 7. In Vitro organic matter digestion of ryegrass varieties at ARC, Ona
and Immokalee and berseem clover-ryegrass mixture at the latter
location 1972-73.


IVOMD (7.)
Harvests
Variety 1* 2 3 4 5 6

--------------------Ona---e--------e----------------

NK tetrablend 444 84.3 84.9 83.3 82.2 75.0 67.7
Gulf 83.1 82.4 84.1 81.8 74.3 63.4
Florida Rust Resistant 83.3 83.0 82.1 79.3 66.5 62.3
Magnolia 83.6 84.4 84.1 81.1 74.0 65.8
Uintergreen 85.5 82.4 82.2 79.4 67.8 63.5
Common 84.1 83.5 83.0 81.2 68.4 65.2
Kinderlou 85.9 83.5 83.3 78.1 66.8 66.3
BRU reseeding (select) 84.6 83.5 82.7 77.3 67.8 64.6

------..------ ----- Immokalee --- ------------

NK tetrablend 444 84.6 80.0 84.0 78.6 70.9 62.2
Gulf 83.6 78.7 82.5 78.9 66.4 66.7
Florida Rust Resistant 84.5 76.9 82.3 78.2 65.8 65.4
Magnolia 84.5 78.6 82.7 79.9 67.4 66.6
Uintergreen 84.3 79.3 81.4 74.9 64.4 66.4
Common 84.3 78.5 78.7 69.9 69.1 65.2
Berseem clover-ryegrass 78.8 75.1 69.3 71.5 66.3 59.5

* average of 4 replications.





RC-1973-9-850 copies



This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $72.25 or 8k per
copy to inform Florida livestock producers about forage variety tests at the
Ona Agricultural Research Center.




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