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Group Title: Research report - University of Florida Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1974-2
Title: Commercial sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and pearlmillet variety testing in south central Florida, 1973
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074256/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and pearlmillet variety testing in south central Florida, 1973
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Green, V. E
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grain -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Paul Mislevy and V.E. Green.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 1974."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074256
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85824620

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Agricultural Research Center, Ona *
W -a Research Re~prt'RC-L 974 -27 January 1974
HU LBRf" .
"i "" '- '" "", .
-| ; COMMERCIAL SORGHUM, SOP.GHUtM -U 'St1iANGRASS.- HYBRID ,ANp
R ,I ET VARIETY TESTIHIG IN SOUMT CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1973

PaulMtslevy. )qnd V. E. Greenr-
ll.FJ.S. I --
umv..'~CrraV. '4 -
.-- ..or'e is .extremely valuable in a cattle feeding program. As

land, 'fertilizer and taxes continue to increase, livestockM.anagesment will be-

come'iaore intensified, As more cattle are carried oer' acre i.it: will. require

greater forage yields per unit of land area. To obtain maximum forage yields

iti ma: b.y necessary to harvest high producing crops as green ;chp,.hay or silage.

Regardless of how .the forage is utilized, sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids

aid pearImillets. can provide high yields of quality forage in a relatively

short time.,.:hese species may follow a winter vegetable crop and provide

timely forageiin ,late April and early May in south central Florida. Grain sorghums

with their short stiff stems and good yielding ability can also, provide grain

for supplement.

SThe purpose of this study was to evaluate a selected number of forage

sorghum, :sorghum-sudangrass hybrid, pearlmillet and .grainq, sorghum varieties in

'south central Florida.
.. Experimental Procedure,

:The variety tests were conducted at the Oia Agricultural Research Center on

Ona fine sand. Three experiments were conducted. The grain and forage sorghum

experiments each contained 10 commercial varieties. The thirdexperiment contain-

ed five sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and five pearlmillet varieties. Each experiment

'was'a:,randomied complete block design with four replications.

,' ^ .. ..- -.: .
1/ Assistant Professor (assistant Agronomist) Agricultural Research Center,
Ona, and Professor (Agronomist) Department of Agronoiy, University of
Florida, Gainesville. *'





-2-

Fertilization practices prior to seeding were 50-120-240 lb/A of Nitrogen

(N)-Phosphorus (P205)-Potassium (K20). All varieties were seeded March 13, at

a rate of 16 lb/A, with the exception of pearlmillet at 8. b/A. Row spacing

in all experiments was 36 inches. A preemergence treatment of the herbicide

Aatrex was used :at a rate of 2 lb/A of actual material. No cultivation was

employed. When the grain, .forage.sorghum and pearlmillet plants attained a

height of .8-10 inches, an additional 100 Ib/A of N was applied. When grain and

forage sorghum reached a height of 2 feet and 3 feet respectively, ah additional

50 Ib/A N was applied to the grain sorghum and 100 lb/A N to forage sorghum.

Following the initial harvest of forage sorghum 150 lb/A of N was applied in

two applications. Fifty pounds/A of N was applied after each harvest of sorghum-

sudangrass hybrid and pearlmillet. ,Followiig the removal of grain sorghum 50

1b/A N, was applied. The experiments were irrigated ah needed, receiving a total

of 3,3 inches of irrigation water during the 1973 growing season.

Both harvests of the forage sorghum experiment were removed when the

grain was at the dough stage. All-harvests of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid

and:pearlmillet varieties were removed when the plants were a tathe early flowering

stage. Following the harvest of the grain sorghum varieties, the plants were

allowed to regrow and the second harvest was then removed as forage. All plants

harvested for forage were analyzed for organic matter digestion. This in vitro

organic matter digestion (IV~;'.:) procedure is an indication of the amount of

organic matter which is digestible by rut-na'nts.

': .. Results and Discussion

Pioneer 931 produced significantly higher dry matter yields when compared

with 9 other forage sorghum varieties (Table 1), yielding an average of 13.9

tons of dry matter per acre. Considerable lodging existed among the forage

sorghum varieties in harvest 1 (Table 2).






1/
Table 1. Dry matter production of forage sorghum varieties (tons/acre)-


Brand Variety Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Total


Pioneer
Dekalb
Punks
'Golden Acres
Pennington
'Acco
Rudy-Patrick
Excel
Dekalb, -,
Asgrow


.;931
FS 4
102 F
T.E. Milkmaker
,Pennsilage
FS 531
55 F
Silo Fell 33 A
FS 24
Titan R


8.7 5.2


7.3
7.1
6.1
6.5
6.9
5.6
5.8
5.6
5.5


S.3.1
3.0.
3.2
2.6
2.0
2.5
1.8
1.9
2.0


13.9 2/
10.4 b
10.1 b
9.3 bc
9.1 bcd
S8.9 bcd
8.1 cd
7.6 d
7.5 d
7.5 'd


Harvest dates: 1 = 6/11/73; 2.= 9/13/73.
Means followed by the same letter are not significantly
5% level by Duncans Multiple Range Test.


different at the


Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum varieties.

Plant Maturity
height Lodging Disease- at 2/
Brand .. Variety (inches) (%) (%) harvest-


Pioneer
'Dekalb
- Funks
Golden Acres
Penning ton
Acco
.Rudy-Patrick
Excel
Dekalb
As$Bow
'-I

Pioneer
Dekalb
Funks
Golden Acres
Penniigton
Acco.
Rudy-Patrick
Excel
Dekalb
Asgrow


931
FS 4
10 F
T.E. Milkmaker,
Pennsilage
FS 531
55 F
Silo Fell 33 A
FS 24
Titan R

931
FS 4
102 F
T.E. Milkmaker
Pennsilage
FS 531
55 F
Silo Fell 33 A
FS 24
Titan R


Harvest 1 3/
94 3 D
85 13 LM
74 53 LM
72 43 D
76 12 LM
90 0 LM
76 73 D
74 26 D
66 37 LM
74 26
Harvest 2
103 0 33 B
69 0 66 M
68 0 66 D
80 0 33 LM
56 0 50 D
80 0 33 B
73 0 33 LM
63 0 "33 LM
66 0 33 LM
70 0 33 LM


All varieties,'of sorghum contained '430% disease
S= Boot, LM = late milk, D = dough and M =
Harvest dates:. 1 = 6/11/73; 2 = 9/13/73.


at time of harvest 1.
mature,, ...


2I!
2/


ml I


--


. ... .. l l II llll l ] ] L







An average of-73% of Rudy-Patrick 55 F lodged prior to harvest I. In harvest

2 no lo'd:;.rg was exhibited. Disease was not a problem in harvest 1, however,

in harvest 2 Dekalb FS 4 and Funks 102 F contained considerable amounts of

Helminthosporium p. and n.'thracnose.

ii vitro organic matter dig;rt'Ifon (r.0ID) in harvest 1 varied considerably

between forage sorghum varieties rar.in ;: from 51% for Pioneer 931 to 69%.for

Excel Silo Fell 33 A. (Table 3). In ha'rv.st 2 digestibility of all varieties

was lower averaging 49%. The yield of igestible forage'(IVD % xdry matter

yield) followed a pattern similar to total dry matter production. Pioneer

931 produced highest yields of digestible forage even though IVIMD was low.

This was due to the high dry matter yield produced by that variety.


Table 3. IVOMD percentage and yield of forage sorghum plants from two harvests.

Total
IVOMD (%)- IVOMD
Brand Variety Harvest 1 Harvest 2 yield
(tons/acre)

Pioneer 931 51 47 6.9
Dekalb FS 4 62 51 6.1
Funks 102 F 65 47 6.0
Golden Acres T.E. Milkmaker 65 '' 50 5.6
Penrington Per i'ialge 63 51 5.4
Acco FS 531 53 48 4.6
Rudy-Patrick 55 1' 62 49 4.7
Exc'l Silo Fell 33 A' 9 50 4.9
Dekalb FS 24 64 47 4.5
Asgrow Titan R 64 52 4.6


1/ Each figure was an average of four replications.



Significant differences existed in dry matter production between the

sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and pearlmillet varieties (Table 4). In harvest-

1 the yield of the sorghum x sudangrass hybrid varieties was doubled when

compared with pearlmillet varieties. However, in harvest 2 the production of





-5-

both species was quite similar averaging approximately.3 tons/acre. Following

the second harvest the pea:riiliCt vatarictis died, with the sorghum x sudangrass

.. varieties averaging 0.3 tons/acre in harvest 3. This low third harvest yield

was probably due to the supersaturated soil condition which exists..during July

and August in south central Florida. Total seasonal drymatter production of

sorghum x sudangrass hybrid varieties averaged 9.2 tons/acre as compared with

5.7 tons/acre for tha pcarlmillet varieties or a 61% increase. Dekalb Sudax

SX-16 produced 10.1 tons/acr. which was significantly higher than 8.4 tons/acre

produced by Dorman Sure-Grazrc. No 'ci;.if.icant differences existed in total

yield among the pearlmillet var-ctic.s. Lodging or disease was not a problem

among norghiim-eudangraco hybrids or pearlmillet varieties at the time of the

first harvest (Table 5).


Table 4. Dry matter production of srghur~m -:
(tonsacre)' .


sudangrass and pearlmillet varieties


Brand Variety Harvest 1 Harvest 2 Harvest 3 Total

S : orghums x sudng rass

Dekalb. -*, Sudax SX-16 6.6 3.3 .2 10.1 a
Asgrow Grazer A-i 6.6 3.0 .1 9.7 ab
Bingham Grb'fast 5.0 3.5 .5 9.0 ab
Acco Sweet Sioux II 5.5 2-9 .4 8.8 ab
Dorman Sure-Graze 5.3 2,6 .5 8.4 b
SAverage 9.2
Pearlmillets

Funk Millet iI 2.7 3.1 -- 5.8 c
Ga. CPES Tifton Gahi 1 j.3..2 2.6 -- 5.8 c
Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 21 3.1 2.5 -- 5.6 c
Excel', Mill-Hy 99 .2.6 3.0 5.6 c
Pennington Hygrazer 2.8 2.7 -- 5.5 c
Average 5.7


I/ Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the,.
5% level by Duncans Multiple Range Test.
2/ Harvest dates: Sorghum x sudangrass: 1 = 6/1/73; 2 = 7/17/73; 3 = 9/19/73.
.Pearlmillet: 5/14/73; 2 = 7/6/73.





-
Table 5. Agronomic characteristics of so.ghuit x sidangrass and pearlmillet
varieties.!


1hidd:ht Lodir.g Disease Maturity at
Brand Variety (i-.:Cch-s) (, (7.) harvest2/

Sorhum x sudangrass

Dekalb Stidax SX-16 76 0 0 A
Arow Grazer A-1 83 0 0 A
Eingham Grof.st 82 0 0 A
Acco Sweet Sioux II 74 0 0 A
Dorman Sure-G:aze 76 0 0 A

Pearlmillets

Fu Millet III 57 0 0 EA
Ga. CPES Tifton Gahi 1 60 0 0 A
Rudy-iatruck P arlt: 21 58 0 0 A'
E'xcel Mill-Hy 99 53 0 0 LA,
Penm ington Hygrazer 57 0 0 A


Agronomic ch'sract-eristics were recorded for
Maturity at -hrvies;:: EA = early anthesis;
anthesis.


only the first harvest.
A = anthesis; LA = late


In vitro organic matter digestion of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids averaged

56% in harvest 1 as cowmared with the pearlmillet varieties which averaged 62%

(Table 6). At harvest 2, the IVOMD varied little, between grass species,

however the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids yielded slightly higher digestible

forage. This was surprising due to a higher leaf to stem ratio possessed

by the pearlmillets. The digestibility of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids in

harvest 3 were quite similar to harvest 2 averaging 55%.

Differences in grain production were not significant among commercial

grain sorghum varieties (Table 7). Hcrr-ever, Excel Bird-Go A and Niagara FMC

Oro-T produced 6,715 and 6,661 lb/acre of dry grain respectively. Following

grain harvest plants were clean owed and allowed to retiller. Significant

differences existed between grain sorghum varieties in harvest 2 which were





.. *-7-

removed as 'f6'age. DekalbBr-64 produced highest yields averaging 1.33 tons/acre

dry mrttav. Digestibility varied little among 9 grain. sorghum varieties har-

vented as forage averaging 48% however,IVOIM for NK- Savanna 3 was only 43%.

Lodging was not a problem among.'igrain sorghum varieties in 1973 (Table 8).

All varieties were infested with an average of 44% disease in the first harvest.

Very littlee bird damage was observed between varieties with.the exception of

Dekalb' BR-64 which suffered 13% damage. Head disease was also observed at

harvest, on several varieties, however percentage head disease was quite low.



Table 6. IVOMD of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and pearlmillet varieties
at three harvests (%)-.


Brand ''.Variety. Harvest 1 Harvest 2.- Harvest 3


Sorghum x sudangrass

Dekalb Sudax SX-16 54 54 58
Asgrow Grazer A-i 58 56 57
Bingham Grofast 59 53 53
Acco Sweet Sioux II 57 51 54
Dorman Sure-Graze 54 53 55

Pearlmillets

Funk .Millet III. 62 52 --
Ga. CPES Tifton Gahi 1 61 53
Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 21 61 48 --
Excel Mill-Hy 99 61 54
Pennington Hygrazer 63 50


1/ Each figure is an average of four


replications.




4AR 6 178

Table 7. Grain and forage yields and IVOMD of commercial grain sorghum
varieties./


Harvest 1
Grain yield
(Ib/acre)


Harvest 2


Forage yield
(tons/acre)


Ni,.* ,cara FMC
Funk
Exc;zel
Acco.
Acco
D&,a lb
Dikalb
Ar.grow
UK
DDi *-11


Bird-Go A
Oro-T
Br 79
Bird-Go 68
R 1029
R 1093
Br-64
E 59
Dorado M
Savanna 3


I Harvest dates: Grain = 7/6/73; Forage = 9/20/73.
2/ Ho s-ignificant differences among means was observed at the 5% level.
3/ ieans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5% level by Duncans Multiple Range Test.



Table 8. Agronomic characteristics of grain sorghum varieties.I/

Plant Foliage Bird Head
height Lodging Disease Damage Disease
B end Variety (inches) (%) (%) (7.) (%)

El:c-l Bird-Go A 49 0 58 2 0
Nirgj-ra FMC Oro T 56 0 38 1 3
Furk Br 79 55 0 44 3 -_1
Excel Bird-Go 68 50 0 43 0 .
Acco R 1029 51 0 59 Acco R 1093 48 0 48 0 0
Dehalb Br-64 52 0 39 13 4
Deki1.b E 59 42 0 45 0 3
Asgrow Dorado 14 51 0 38 1 3
NK Savanna 3 42 0 30 .l1 .1


II Each figure is an average of four replications.


Brand


Variety


IVOMD
%)


67152
6661
6266
5830
5826-
5699
5499
5401
5115
4908


.28
1.13
.54
.66
.97
.49
1.33
.77
1.02
.93


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ab
def
cdef
abc
ef
a
bcde
abd
abcd


49
49
51
47
47
47
51
48
47
43


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