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Group Title: Research report - Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1975-2
Title: Commercial grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sorghum x sundangrass hybrid-millet variety testing in south central Florida, 1974
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074255/00001
 Material Information
Title: Commercial grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sorghum x sundangrass hybrid-millet variety testing in south central Florida, 1974
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 11 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mislevy, P ( Paul ), 1941-
Green, V. E
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Forage plants -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: P. Mislevy and V.E. Green.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January 29, 1975."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074255
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85824561

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Agricultural Research Center, Ona -
d Research Report RC-1975-2 January 29, 1975


COMMERCIAL GRAIN SORGHUM, FORAGE SORGHUM, SORGHUM X SUDANGRASS HYBRID-
MILLET VARIETY TESTING IN SOUTH CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1974.

P. Mislevy and V. E. Green-/


Grain and forage production in South Central Florida can play an important
role in cattle feeding programs. As more livestock men decide to hold weaned
calves until higher weights can be obtained, additional high quality forage
will be required. To obtain maximum yields of quality forage it may be
necessary to harvest high producing crops as green chop, hay or silage. Regard-
less of how the forage is utilized, sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and
pearlmillets can provide high yields of quality forage in a relatively short
time. These species may follow a winter vegetable crop or be used in a pasture
renovation program to provide timely forage in late April and early May in
South Central Florida. Grain sorghums with their short stiff stems and good
yielding ability, when managed properly can also provide grain for supplement.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a selected number of forage
sorghum, sorghum x sudangrass hybrid, pearlmillet and grain sorghum varieties
in South Central Florida.

Experimental Procedure

Three variety tests were conducted at the Agricultural Research Center (ARC),
Ona, in addition a forage sorghum variety study was conducted on reclaimed,
phosphate mined land (phosphate spoil) in Polk County. The grain and forage
sorghum experiments each contained 11 commercial varieties. The third
experiment contained 5 sorghum x sudangrass hybrids, 5 pearlmillet varieties and
1 hybrid sudangrass. Each experiment 'Iesign was a complete randomized block
with four replications. I /

Fertilization practices at seeding wer 5 -s 40o Ib/A of Nitrogen (N) -
Phosphorus (P205) and Potassium 20K0). 4n addi 0ttbA Frits FTE 5032/
were applied. When the grain, forage sf hbum and pe' 1iet plants attained
a height of 8-10 inches, an adfional 100 A, of N was -pplied. When grain
and forage sorghum reached a jg4th.of 2 feet t.i 3 feet respectively, an
additional 50 lb/A N was applied -'th rain sorghum ad 100 lb/A N to forage
sorghum. Following the initial harv-s '6 forage sorgum 100 Ib/A N was applied
in two applications at both locations. ? /k/A of was applied after each
harvest of sorghum x sudangrass hybrid and t.


1/ Assistant Professor (Assistant Agronomist) Agricultural Research Center,
Ona and Professor (Agronomist) Department of Agronomy, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

2/ Micronutrients having the following elemental content: Iron 18.0%;
Zinc 7.0%; Manganese 7.5%; Cppper 3.0%; Boron 3.0% and Molybdenum 0.2%.







-2-


All experiments at the ARC, Ona were seeded on Iarch 6 at a rate of 16 Ib/A,
with the exception of pearlmillet at 8 lb/A. The forage sorghum study in Polk
County was seeded March 11 also at a rate of 16 lb/A. Row spacing in all
experiments was 36 inches. A preemergence treatment of the herbicide Aatrex
was used at a rate of 2.5 ib/A actual material. No cultivation was employed.
In late April one application of malathion was applied to control bud worms.
The experiments were irrigated at both locations as needed during the 1974
growing season.

The initial harvest of the forage sorghum experiment was removed when the
grain was at the hard dough stage. The second harvest was removed during the
vegetative stage. All harvests of the sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and pearlmillet
varieties were removed when the plants were at the early flowering stage.
Agronomic characteristics such as plant height, lodging, disease and etc. were
recorded for all varieties.

Results and Discussion

Differences in dry matter production were not significant among commercial
forage sorghum varieties grown at the ARC, Ona (Table 1). However Acco FS-531
produced the highest yield in harvest 1 averaging 6.1 ton/A dry matter.
Harvest 2 results were quite low averaging only .4 tons/A for all varieties.
The main reason for the low second harvest yields was due to the excessive
moisture obtained during the latter part of June. Approximately twelve inches
of rainfall was received in the latter fifteen days of June. Forage sorghum
like most other summer annual grasses do not tolerate supersaturated soil
conditions. Considerable lodging existed among the forage sorghum varieties
in harvest 1 (Table 2). Four varieties (Dekalb FS 4, Acco FS-531, Dekalb FS-24
and Dekalb FS-1B) averaged less than 107 lodging while six other varieties
averaged 46 to 597. lodging. Disease was not a problem in harvest 1 with all
varieties containing less than 30%.

Yield differences were observed in dry matter production of commercial
forage sorghum varieties, grown on reclaimed phosphate mined land in Polk
County (Table 3). First harvest yields averaged 3.4 tons/A dry matter, with
Taylor-Evans Milkmaker producing the highest yield of 4.6 tons/A. Second harvest
yields of sorghum varieties were quite uniform averaging 1.8 tons/A. This
was a much higher second harvest yield than that obtained at Ona, mainly due
to the better summer drainage found on this reclaimed phosphate land as compared
to flatwoods soils. Total dry matter yield ranged from a high of 6.5 tons/A
for Taylor-Evans Milkmaker and Funk 102-F to a low of 3.8 tons/A.

Significant differences existed between dry matter production of sorghum x
sudangrass hybrids and pearlmillet varieties (Table 4). In harvest 1 the yield
of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids was almost doubled averaging 4.0 tons/A when
compared with pearlmillet varieties which averaged 2.6 tons/A. In harvest 2
the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids outyielded the pearlmillets by 74%. The same
trend was observed in total dry matter yields, with the sorghum x sudangrass







-3-


Table 1. Dry matter production of forage sorghum varieties at the ARC,


Ona. 19741-


Dry Matter Yield (T/A)

Brand Variety Harvest I Harvest II Total

Acco FS-531 6.1 .3 6.4 a-
Haile-Dean Cow Vittles 5.9 .4 6.3 a
Dekalb FS-1B 5.9 .3 6.2 a
Funk 1-02-F; 5.7 .4 6.1 a
Taylor-Evans Milkmaker 5.3 .6 5.9 a
Excel Silofill 33A .5.7 .2 5.9 a
Dekalb FS-4 5.6 .3 5.9 a
Dekalb FS-28A 5.2 .6 5.8 a
Acco FS-401-R 4.6 .4 5.0 a
Dekalb FS-24 4.2 .3 4.5 a
Funk G-650-S 3.7 .6 4.3 a
Average 5.3 .4 5.7


/ Harvest dates: Harvest I June 12, 1974; Harvest II October 7, 1974

2/ Treatment means in each column not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 57 level according to Duncan's Multiple
Range Test.


hybrids out yielding the pearlmillets and hybrid sudangrass by approximately 60%.
Dekalb Sudax SX 16 provided the most consistent yielding pattern among the sorghum
x sudangrass hybrids producing the highest yield which averaged 8.1 tons/A.
Lodging was not a problem among the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and pearlmillet
varieties in harvest 1 or 2 (Table 5). Disease was not a problem in harvest 1,
however in harvest 2 considerable amounts of Helminthosporium sp. and anthracnose
was observed on the sorghum x sudangrass hybrids and hybrid sudangrass. The
disease ranged from a low of 24% for Dekalb Sudax SX-16 to a high of 64% for the
hybrid sudangrass. Only two harvests were obtained during the 1974 growing
season due to the early arrival of summer rains. Millets like sorghums and sorghlm
x sudangrass hybrids will not tolerate supersaturated soil conditions and there-
fore will die when grown on extremely wet soil conditions.

Differences in grain production were not significant among commercial grain
sorghum varieties (Table 6). However, Funk G-516 BR, Pennington Penngrain BR and
Asgrow Dorado M were among the highest yielders. Lodging and disease was not a
problem among commercial grain sorghum varieties in 1974 (Table 7). However bird
damage of 10 and 12% was observed on Asgrow Dorado M and Dekalb F-64 respectively
both of which are non-bird resistant varieties.












Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum varieties grow at the ARC, Ona. 19741/


Harvest I

Brand Variety Plant ht. Lodging Disease Maturity at harvest
inches 7.

Acco FS-531 86 5 <30 LM2
Haile-Dean Cow Vittles 72 55 <30 MG
Lekalb FS-1B 60 9 <-30 MG
Funk 102-F 67 19 <-30 MG
Taylor-Evans Milkmaker 77 46 <30 LM
Excel Silofill 33A 66 46 -30 MG
Dekalb Fp-4 83 2 30 MG
Dekalb FS-28A 70 46 <30 LM
Acco FS-401-R 63 59 < 30 MG
Dekalb FS-24 58 6 : 30 MG
Funk G-650-S 56 54 < 30 MG


1/ average of four replications
2/ LM= late milk stage; MG =mature grain stage










Table 3. Dry matter production
Polk County, 1974.


of commercial forage sorghum varieties grown in


Dry Matter Yield (T/A)-/


Brand

Taylor-Evans
Funk
: Acco
Acco
Haile-Dean
Dekalb
Funk
Dekalb
Dekalb
Excel
Dekalb
Average


Variety


Milkmaker
102-F
FS-531
FS-401-R
Cow Vittles
FS-28A
G-650-S
FS-1B
FS-4
Silofill 33A
FS-24


Harvest T


4.6
4.0
4.0
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.4
3.1
3.3
2.9
2.6
3.4


Harvest II


1.9
2.5
1.8
2.3
2.3
2.0
1.4
1.6
1.3
1.4
1.2
1.8


1/ Harvest dates:


Harvest I July 4, 1974; Harvest II October 11, 1974


2/ Treatment means in each column not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 57. level according to Duncan's Multiple
Range Test.


Dry matter production of forage sorghum hybrids, sorghum x sudangrass
hybrids and pearlmillet varieties grown three consecutive years (1972-1974) or
any two of the last three years at the ARC, Ona are shown in Tables 8, 9 and 10.
Production of commercial grain sorghum varieties grown any two of the last three
years are shown in Table 11.


Total


2/
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a


6.5
6.5
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.0
4.8
4.7
4.6
4.3
3.8
5.2


- ---------- ------- ------ --- ------ ----- --


_ __ __._ ____ __1--- ---












Dry matter production of selected sorghum x sudangrasses, pearlmillet
and a sudangrass hybrid grown at the ARC, Ona. 1974


.Dry Matter Yields (T/A)


Harvest/
A I -


Variety


Harvest
2


Total yield


Sorghums x Sudangrasses


Dekalb
Funk
Pennington
Taylor-Evans
Bingham


Millets
Funk
Dorman
Pennington
Excel
Dekalb


Average


Average


Sudangrass Hybrid
Farmers Forage Research


Sudax SX-16
83 F
Summergrazer
Haygrazer
Grofast


Millet III
Mil-Hy 100
Southgraze
Mill-Hy 99
X-001


FFR 74


1/ Harvest dates: Harvest

2/ Treatment means in each
significantly different
Range Test.


I May 17, 1974; Harvest II July 11, 1974

column not followed by the same letter are
at the 5% level according to Duncan's Multiple


STable 4.


Brand


a
a
ab
a-c
ab


3.5
3.6
3.2
3.1
3.2
3.3


2.1
2.1
2.3
1.4
1.6
1.9


4.6
3.8
4.4
3.7
3.6
4.0


2.9
2.8
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.6


2.7 cd


8.1
7.6
7.4
6.9
6.8
7.4


5.0
4.9
4.8
4.1
3.9
4.5


d
d
b-d
d
d


2.2 cd


4.9 b


----- ---












Table 5.'. Agronomic characteristics of selected sorghum x sudangrasses, pearlmillets and a sudangrass
hybrid grown at the ARC, Ona. 1974-i


2/
Harvest I- Harvest II

Brand Variety Plant ht. Lodging Disease Plant ht. Lodginf Disease
Sgorhums x Cudangrasses inches % inches -.
Dekalb Sudax SX-16 -85 0 0 91 0 24
Funk 83 F -/83 0 0 91 0 43
Pennington Summergrazer 85 0 0 94 0 29
Taylor-Evans Haygrazer 83 0 0 88 0 43
Bingham Grofast 81 0 0 83 0 52

Millets
Funk Millet III 62 0 0 64 0 0
Dorman Mil-Hy 100 63 0 0 72 0 0
Pennington Southgraze 62 0 0 71 0 0
Excel i Mill-Hy 99 62 0 0 64 0 0
Dekalb i X-001 55 0 0 62 0 0

Sudangress .Hybrid
Farmers Fiorage Research FFR 74 72 4 0 85 0 64
--- [i ....----------------------------------....-------------


1/ average of four replications

2/ Harvest dates: Harvest I May 17, 1974;


Harvest II July 11, 1974











Table 6. Grain sorghum yields ARC, Ona. 1974
1/


Brand

Funk

Pennington

Asgrow

Funk

Dekalb

Taylor-Evans

ARK-AES

Dorman

Excel

Acco

McNair


Variety

G-516 BR

Penngrain BR

Dorado-M1

G-459

F-64

Y-101

ARK 663

BR-100

Bird-Go 68

R-1029

654


Average


Grain production (lb/A)-

5260 a2

5212 a

5125 a

5064 a

5024 a

4919 a

4868 a

4501 a

4476 a

4226 a

4004 a

4789


I/ Harvest date: June 17, 1974

2/ Treatments means in each column not followed by the same letter are
significantly different at the 5% level according to Duncan's
Multiple Range Test.











Table 7. Agronomic characteristics of grain sorghum varieties at the ARC, Ona. 19741/ -2/


Brand


Funk
Pennington
Asgrowr
FunkI
Dekalb
Taylor-Evans
ARK-AES
Dorman
Excel
a Acco
S McNair


Variety


Plant ht.
inches


G-516 BR
Penngrain BR
Dorado-M4
G-459
F-64
Y-101
ARK 663
BR-100
Bird-Go 68
R-1029
654


Lodging Disease
--7 -


<30
L30
<30
<30
<30
<,30
<30
<30
c 30
<30
<30


Head type


3/
0


CO

EQ
Lo
0
0


CO
.0
so
so
SO


Bird damage
------7,-------


I/ average of four replications

2/ Harvest date: June 17, 1974

3/ 0=open; SO=semi-open; EO=extremely open





-10-


Table 8. Dry matter production of forage sorghum varieties groxm
at the ARC, One, 1972-1974.


Dry matter yield (T/A)
Brand Variety 1972 1973 1974 Average
Grown during the three years 1972-1974
Dekalb FS 4 10.2 10.4 5.9 8.8
Taylor-Evans Milkmaker 6,3 9.3 5.9 7.2

Grown any two years 1972-1974
Pioneer 931 16.1 13.9 15.0
Pennington Pennsilage 14.2 9.1 11.7
Funk 102F 10.1 6.1 8.1
Rudy-Patrick 55F 7.6 8.1 7.9
Acco FS 531 8.9 6.4 7.7
Acco FS 401R 10.2 5.0 7.6
Excel Silofill 33A 7.6 5.9 6.8
Dekalb FS 24 7.5 4.5 6.0




Table 9. Average dry matter production of sorghum x sudangrass
varieties grown at the ARC, Ona, 1972-1974.


Dry matter yield (T/A)
Brand Variety 1972 1973 1974 Average
Grown during the three years 1972-1974
Dekalb Sudax SX 16 9.7 10.1 8.1 9.3

Bingham Grofast 8.2 9.0 6.8 8.0

Grown any two years 1972-1974
Dorman Sure-Graze 10.1 8.4 9.3

Pennington Summergrazer 9.1 7.4 8.3

Taylor-Evans Haygrazer 9.2 6.9 8.1





-11-


Table 10. Average dry matter production of pearlmillet varieties
grown at the ARC, Ona, 1972-1974.


Dry matter yield (T/A)

Brand Variety 1972 1973 1974 Average
Grown any two years 1972-1974

Pennington ygrazer 5.9 5.5 5.7

Rudy-Patrick Pearlex 21 5.1 5.6 5.4

Funk Millet III 5.8 5.0 5.4

Excel Mill-Hy 99 5.6 4.1 4.9





Table 11. Average yields of grain sorghum varieties grown at the
ARC, Ona, 1972-1974.


Grain production (Ib/A)

Brand Variety 1972 1973 1974 Average
Grown any two years 1972-1974

Dekalb BR-64 6446 5499 5973

Acco R 1093 6002 5699 5051

Excel Bird-Go 68 5830 4476 5153

Asgrow Dorado M 5115 5125 5120

Acco R 1029 5826 4226 5026

Dorman BR 100 5227 4501 4864




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