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Group Title: Research report - Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1982-2
Title: Evaluation of sorghum x sundangrass and pearlmillet hybrids for forage production at Ona ARC, 1981
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074254/00001
 Material Information
Title: Evaluation of sorghum x sundangrass and pearlmillet hybrids for forage production at Ona ARC, 1981
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 10 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Wright, D. L ( David L )
Martin, F. G
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1982
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher, D.L. Wright and F.G. Martin.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 1982."
Funding: Research report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074254
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85824496

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC-1982-2


February 1982


EVALUATION OF SORGHUM X SUDANGRASS AND PEARLMILLET HYBRIDS
FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA ARC: 1981

R.S. Kalmbacher, D.L. Wright and F.G. Martin1/

Sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids are extremely
rapid growing sumner annual grasses. They are ready for harvesting
70 to 75 days after seeding and even earlier for grazing. Both types
of hybrids may be green chopped, harvested as hay, or grazed by beef
and dairy cattle.

In order to determine adaptability and productivity of new
hybrids, which are continually being released, it is necessary
that these forages be tested under south-Florida conditions. The
purpose of this publication is to present comparative data on
sorghum x sudangrass and pearlmillet hybrids tested at the hl "
Agricultural Research Center (ARC). Where trade names are used,
no discrimination or endorsement is intended H
h'UE LUBRARY
Experimental Proce re JUL 1 985

Fourteen sorghum x sudangrass hybrids eAS4d it 6 lb
in rows 30 inches apart on March 9, 1981, and fourteen so -
sudangrass and one true sudangrass were drilled in rows 6" apart
on March 26, 1981 at a seeding rate of 8 Ib/A. The field Dlot
designs for both experiments were four replications of a randomized,
complete block.

Fertilization for the sorghum x sudangrasses seeded in 30 inch

1/ Associate Agronomist, Agricultural Research Center, Ona, Florida;
Extension Agronomist, AREC Quincy; Associate Statistician, University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL.




-2-


rows was as follows: 40-120-240 Ib/A of N-P205-K20 plus 24 lb/A
of TEM! (trace elements) disked into the seedbed prior to seeding.
When plants were 18 to 24 inches tall 100 Ib/A of N was applied.
After harvest 1, 40-45-90 Ib/A of N-P205-K20 was applied when
regrowth was 12 inches tall. When plants were 20 to 30 inches tall,
120 lb/A of N was applied. After harvest 2 when plants were 6 inches
tall, 50-35-70 was applied. Sorghmn x sudangrass, the true
sudangrass and the pearlmillets that were drilled in 6 inch rows
were fertilized as follows: 40-45-90 Ib/A plus 10 Ib/A TEM
disked into the seedbed. When plants were 8 to 10 inches tall,
55-28-28 lb/A was applied, and after harvest 1, 40-20-20 lb/A
was applied. After harvest 2,30-15-15 was applied.


To control weeds in sorghum x sudangrasses drilled in 30
inch rows, atrazine was applied post-emergence at a rate of 2 Ib/A
active ingredient. No herbicide was applied on the sorghum x
sudangrass, millet and sudangrass drilled in 6 inch rows. Paraouat(R)
was broadcast at 0.25 lb/A active over the stubble, immediately
after harvest of sorghum x sudangrasses seeded in 30 inch rows.
Furadan(R) 10 G was applied in the row at 2 lb/A active when seeding
the sorghum x sudangrasses seeded in 30" rows. No herbicide or
insecticide was used on forages drilled in 6 inch rows.

The experiment was irrigated with an overhead system and 6.3
inches was applied to the sorghum x sudangrass drilled in 30 inch
rows. Sorghum x sudangrass, pearlmillet and the true sudangrass
drilled in 6 inch rows received 7.4 inches of irrigation.


The sorghum x sudangrass hybrids drilled in 30 inch rows were
harvested three times at the dough stage of maturity. Those hybrids
drilled in 6 inch rows were harvested in the vegetative stage of
maturity when they grew to a height of 24 to 30 inches, and all
entries were cut to a stubble height of 8" inches.







Results and Discussion

Sorghum x sudangrass: 30 inch rows (dough stage of maturity).


There were significant differences in the dry matter yields of
the fourteen sorghum x sudangrass hybrids cut at the dough stage of
maturity (Table 1). These yields would approximate yield if managed
for silage production. Yields averaged 12.6 tons/acre and ranged from
a high of 17.9 T/A with Gold Kist FFR 80 to a low of 3.9 T/A with
Gold Kist FFR 78 A. Best yields were found at harvest 1 (6-17-81)
when 65% of the production from the 259 day growing season was obtained.
Harvest 3 was small because growth was terminated by killing frost
on 11-23-81.


Average dry matter yields of sorghum x sudangrass grown during
the past five years are presented in Table 2. It is best to consider
several year's data when selecting a hybrid because of the variation
that can occur. For silage production all of the hybrids have proven
to be well adapted, higher yielding entries. The five year average
dry matter production for sorghum x sudangrass managed for silage
production (with these respective management practices) is 11.5 T/A.


Average height at harvest 1, 2, and 3 was 9.9, 8.9 and 4.7 feet,
respectively (Table 3). There was little or no disease at harvest
1, and there was no lodging. Sorghum x sudangrass has less problem
with lodging than the grain-heavy forage sorghum. At harvest 2, all
entries had some lodging except Fla Feed and Seed,Gator Grazer.
Incidence of lodging was slight and averaged 5%. Disease was rated
as "8" at harvest 2 when Helminthosporiwn leaf spot was responsible
for reducing all the leaves to a dried-dead condition at harvest. No
anthracnose (ColZetotrichwn) was isolated. At harvest 3 disease
was less of a problem.


At harvest 1 and 2 most of the sorghum x sudangrasses were in
the hard dough stage of maturity. No grain yields were taken, but
visual, observation indicated that Northrup King, Sordan 79 and







Pennington Summer Grazer -3 were good grain producers, and in contrast
Cold Kist FFR 74 A and Fla Feed and Seed Gator Grazer were very poor grain
producers. Sorghum midge damage to the first harvest of February
or March seeded sorghum is usually no problem at harvest 1. There was
little or no damage to the grain from the sorghum midge, but at harvest
2 damage was severe. All entries were vegetative at harvest 3.


Sorghum x sudangrass: 6 inch drills (vegetative maturity)


There were significant differences in the yields of the sorghum x
sudangrass and one true sudangrass cut when they attained a height of
24 to 30" (Table 4). Yield ranged from 3.5 T/A to 2.6 T/A and averaged
2.8 T/A after three harvests. Average yield was 0.9, 1.0 and 0.9
T/A at the three respective harvests.


There was no disease incidence in these forages cut at the vegetative
stage. The greatest problem was competition due to weeds, namely
crabgrass, goosegrass and signalgrass. Frequent cutting keeps the nlant
canopy open, and this, combined with good fertility and water, is
conducive to invasion from weeds. A fourth harvest was taken, but the-
data was discarded because of the excessive contamination from weeds.


Pearlmillets


There was no significant difference in yield among the eight millets
tested (Table 5). Yield averaged 3.5 T/A and ranged from 3.9 to 3.2 T/A.
There were great differences in the relative "leafiness" of the millets.
'Tifleaf' tillered profusely and produced most of its dry matter as leaf
tissue.


There were no disease problems with the millets, but weeds were
a problem. Like sorghum x sudangrass, frequent cutting at the vegetative
stage fosters weed growth which crowds-out the millets.






Both sudangrass and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids have HCN
prussicc acid poisoning) potential. Immature forage (under 36"),
when under periods of stress (cold, drought, etc) have the most
potential. If these grasses are heavily fertilized with N and are
not growing rapidly due to moisture stress, keep the cattle off
the pastureuntil after a rain or irrigation which will allow the
plant to grow, diluting and chemically changing the potentially
dangerous chemical within the plant. If immature, well fertilized
grasses are frosted, keep the cattle out of the pasture until plants
turn brown and dry out.

Conclusion


1) High yield and long-stand life are possible when sorghum x
sudangrass hybrids are harvested at the dough stage (as for
silage). There were significant differences among the 14
hybrids tested in this manner. Recommended hybrids for silage
are listed in Table 2.


2) When sorghum x sudangrass hybrids are cut in the vegetative stage
(24 to 30") short stand life results. There were significant
differences in the 14 hybrids managed in this manner, but the
differences were slight. Yield ranged from 2.6 to 3.5 T/A.


3) There was no difference in the yield of eight pearlmillet varieties
cut when attaining a height of 24 to 30". Yield ranged from 3.2
to 3.9 T/A and averaged 3.5 T/A.





Table 1. Dry matter yield of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids cut at the
dough stage of maturity. Ona ARC. 1981

Harvest
1 2 3
Brand Hybrid 6-17-81 9-3-81 11-23-81 Total

------------tons/acre-----------

Gold Kist FFR 80 11.8 6.0 0.1 17.9 at
McCurdy Sweet M-2 10.2 4.6 0.2 15.0 ab
N.K. Sordan 79 8.8 5.5 0.7 15.0 ab
McCurdy Sweet M 9.9 3.7 0.3 13.9 bc
Gold Kist Uni-Graze 9.1 4.0 0.4 13.5 bc
Acco Paymaster Sweet Sioux IV 8.6 4.0 0.4 13.0 bc
Pennington Sunnmer Grazer -3 7.4 4.8 0.6 12.8 bc
Gold Kist FFR 66 8.4 4.1 0.3 12.8 bc
Asgrow Grazer N 8.3 4.0 0.3 12.6 bc
Conlee Do Mor 7.8 3.9 0.7 12.4 bc
Pennington Summer Grazer 7.5 3.5 0.3 11.3 c
Dekalb SX 17+ 6.5 4.5 0.3 11.3 c
Fla Feed & Seed Gator Grazer 7.7 3.1 0.5 11.3 c
Gold Kist FFR 74 A 2.6 0.9 0.3 3.9 d

Average 8.2 4.0 0.4 12.6

means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Duncan's
LSD, K=100).

Date seeded: March 9, 1981

Seeding rate: 16 lb/A seeded in 30" rows

Fertilization: 1) at seeding diskedd in) 40-120-420 Ib/A of N-P20,-K20,
respectively plus 24 Ib/A TEM 300 (trace elements).
When plants were 18 to 24" tall, 100 Ib/A of N was applied.

2) After harvest 1 when plants were 12" tall, 40-45-90 Ib/A
of N-P,05-K 0 was applied. When plants were 20 to 30" tall,
120 lb7A of.N was applied.

3) After harvest 2 when plants were 6" tall, 50-35-70 Ib/A of
N-P205-K20 was applied.

Herbicide: Aatrex at 2.0 Ib/A active was applied post emergence.
When plants were 8 to 10" tall a post-directed spray of
paraquat at 0.25 lb/A (active). After harvest 2 and 3
paraquat was broadcast over the stubble at 0.25 Ib/A active

Insecticide: Furadan 10 G @ 2 lb/A active in the row at seeding.

Irrigation: Over head with 6.3" applied from March to May.







Table 2. Average dry matter yields of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids grown
at the Ona ARC. 1976 to 1981.


Brand Hybrid


19764 1977T


1978 1980 1981 Average


---------------tons/acre-----------


Grown for 5 years


Dekalb SX 17+


Grown for 4 years


Taylor Evans Haygrazer
McCurdy Sweet M
Fla Feed and Seed Gator Grazer

Grown for 3 or 2 years

Gold Kist FFR 66
N.K. Sordan 70 A
Pennington Suimer Grazer


10.9 10.8 8.0 8.9 11.3 9.9


Average


'1979 was not included because
vegetative stage.


12.2 12.2 9.6 11.2 12.1 11.5


all sorghun x sudans were harvested in the


Seeded in 18" rows all other years seeded in 30" rows


Seeding dates: 1976, 3-12; 1977, 3-4;, 1978, 3-20; 1980, 3-14; 1981, 3-9.


12.5

13.2


13.6
12.5


14.7
10.5
10.3


11.8


9.2
9.7
9.4


10.5
10.9


13.9
11.3


12.8

11.3


12.6
11.7
11.1


12.3
11.4
11.3


12.3
11.7







Table 4. Dry matter yield of sorghum x sudangrass hybrids cut in the
vegetative stage (24 to 30") Ona ARC. 1981.


Harvest

Brand Hybrid 4-27-81 5-11-80 5-28-81 Total
--------- ons/acre----------
Dekalb SX 17 + 1.2 1.2 1.1 3.5 a
Pennington Summer Grazer 3 1.2 0.9 1.2 3.3 ab
Acco Paymaster Sweet Sioux 1.0 1.3 0.9 3.2 abc
Asgrow Grazer N 0.9 1.2 1.0 3.1 abcd
Go d:Kist FFR 74 A 0.9 1.1 1.1 3.1 abcd
Taylor Evans Haygrazer II 1.0 1.0 1.1 3.1 abcd
N. King Trudan 8f 1.0 1.1 1.0 3.0 abed
McCurdy Sweet M-2 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.9 abcd
McCurdy Sweet M 1.0 1.0 0.9 2.9 abcd
Gold Kist FFR 80 0.8- 1.1 1.0 2.8 bcd
Gold Kist Unigraze 0.8 1.0 1.0 2.7 bcd
Pennington Sunner Grazer 0.7 1.1 0.9 2.7 bcd
Gold Kist FFR 66 1.0 0.9 0.8 2.7 bcd
Conlee Do Mor 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.7 cd
N. King Sordan 79 0.8 0.9 0.9 2.6 d
Ave. 0.9 0.9 0.9 2.8


means followed by the same
K=100).


letter are not significantly different (Duncan's LSD,


Trudan 8 is not a sorghum x sudangrass, but a true sudangrass.


Date seeded:


March 26, 1981.


Seeding rate: 8 Ib/A, drilled in 6" rows.


Fertilization:


1) at seeding diskedd in) 40-45-90 Ib/A of N-P, 0-K 0s
respectively, plus 10 lb/A TEM (trace elements. ?4hen
plants were 8 to 10" tall, 55-28-28 Ib/A N-P205-K20
was applied.


2) after harvest 1, 40-20-20 lb/A N-P205-K20

3) after harvest 2, 30-15-15 Ib/A N-P205-K20

Herbicide: none

Insecticide: none

Irrigation: Overhead system applying 7.4 inches from 3-12-81 to 5-21-81.




-10-


Table 5. Dry matter yield of pearlmillet
stage of maturity (24 to 30").


hybrids cut in the vegetative
Ona ARC. 1981.


1


Harvest
2


3


Brand Hybrid 4-27-81 5-11-81 5-28-81 Total

------------tons/acre------------
Ga AES Gahi 3 0.8 2.2 0.9 3.9 a
Ga AES Tifleaf 1 0.7 2.1 0.9 3.7 a
NK Millex 24+ 0.8 2.1 0.8 3.7 a
Ala Farm. Coop. Ala-Flo AFG 100 1.0 1.8 0.6 3.4 a
Conlee Milhy 100 0.8 1.9 0.7 3.4 a
Fla Feed and Seed Big Favorite 0.9 1.8 0.7 3.4 a
R.A. Millet 99 I 0.6 1.9 0.6 3.4 a
Gold Kist-Coffey G.S. 500+ 0.8 1.7 0.7 3.2 a
Average 0.8 1.9 0.7 3.5


means followed by the same letter are not
LSD: K=100).


significantly different (Duncan's


Date seeded: March 26, 1981.


Seeding rate:

Fertilization:


8 lb/A, drilled in 6" rows.

1) at seeding diskedd in) 40-45-90 lb/A of N-P 0 -K20
respectively plus 10 lb/A TEM (trace elementsY.
When plants were 8 to 10" tall, 55-28-28 lb/A N-P205-
K20 was applied.


2) after harvest 1, 40-20-20 lb/A N-P205-K20

3) after harvest 2, 30-15-15 lb/A N-P205-K20

Herbicide none

Insecticide: none

Irrigation: Overhead system applying 7.4 inches from 3-12-81 to 5-21-81.


t NK=Northrup King, RA= Ring Around.


_




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