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Group Title: Research report - Agricultural Research Center ; RC-1979-8
Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1978-79
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074249/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1978-79
Series Title: Research report
Physical Description: 8 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kalmbacher, R. S
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Grain -- Varieties -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Forage plants -- Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.S. Kalmbacher ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1979."
Funding: Research report (Agricultrual Research Center, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074249
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 85822410

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Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




Research Report RC-1979-8 OA/A September 1979



SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA A EDHLMA&EiEBiARY


R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, R. D. Barnet G. Ma tin-

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),
oats (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (T. hexaploide Lar., a cross between rye
and wheat) are cool-season annuals. In south-central Florida these grasses
may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program, or
may be overseeded under certain conditions in perennial grasses, thus extending
the grazing season through the winter. With good management small grains can
provide high quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro organic matter digestibility)
and substantial dry matter yields (2 to 4 tons/A).

Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen fertili-
zation. However, their management differs from that of ryegrass. When seeded
in prepared seedbeds, initial small grain growth should be grazed or clipped
about 45 days after seeding or when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall. Deferring
the first grazing much later than 45 days may be detrimental to regrowth.
Rotation grazing of regrowth is recommended when plants reach 12 to 15 inches
tall, and new developing tillers are one to six inches tall.

New small grain varieties are continually being released from public
,and private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are interested in testing
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for yield,
quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south-Florida conditions.


Experimental Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) two oat, six wheat, one
triticale, six rye, one oat/ryegrass mixture, one oat/red clover mixture and
one oat/alfalfa mixture were seeded on November 6, 1978. At Immokalee ARC,
three oat, six wheat, two triticales, six rye, and one oat/ryegrass mixture,
were seeded on November 2, 1978. The experimental design at both locations
was four replications of a randomized, complete block.

Seeding rates for rye, wheat and triticale was 2 bu/A; oats, 3 bu/A.
The oats/ryegrass mixture was seeded at a rate of 45 and 10 Ib/A, respectively
at Ona and 32 and 15 Ib/A at Immokalee. The 'Fl 501' oats/red clover and
Fl 501 oats/alfalfa mixtures were seeded at a rate of 1.5 bu and 10 lb/A and
1.5 bu and 15 Ib/A, respectively.


1/ Assistant and Associate Professors, Agricultural Research Center, Ona;
Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee; Associate Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida; Associate
Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville.








!-.

Fertilization at Ona prior to seeding consisted of 475 lb/A of an 0-10-20 2
(N-P205-K20) .fertilizer. At Immokalee 300 Ib of 0-10-20 plus 15 Ib/A of FTE 503-
micronutrients and 40 Ib/A of N was applied prior to seeding. Nitrogen was
applied:at,40 lb/A 10 days.after seedling emergence at Ona.

Fertilization after each harvest at Ona consisted of the application
of 47 Ib/A of N on all pure stands of small grains. Other small grain/legume
mixtures received 47 Ib/A of N after the first harvest only. At Immokalee
300 Ib/A of 18-0-25 was applied after harvest 1 (Jan. 17), but after harvest
2 and 3, only 50 Ib/A of N was applied.

All entries were irrigated with an over-head system at Ona where a total
of 4.5 inches was applied. At Immokalee a seepage system with laterals on
40 foot centers was used.

Most entries were harvested five times at Ona and four times at Immokalee.
At Immokalee all plots were mowed 41 days after seeding to remove warm-season
grass weeds, and the first of four harvests was taken 35 days later. At Ona
the first harvest occurred 42 days after seeding, prior to elevation of the
growing point above the soil surface.


Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Significant differences in total dry matter production were obtained
among the small grain entries and small grain mixtures (Table 1). Highest
dry matter production was obtained for the mixture of 'F1 70Q 1153 oats/
'Gulf' ryegrass mixture (3.9 T/A) and 'Coker 227' oats (3.6 T/A) grown alone.
The oats/ryegrass mixture appeared to provide a uniform supply of forage
from mid-December (42 days after seeding) to mid-May. The oats in the
mixture had good seedling vigor and provided early forage (Table 1) followed
later by the ryegrass production from February to May. Seeding Coker 227
oats alone provided excellent early forage production, however, forage yield
dropped rapidly after the mid-March harvest.

Both rye and wheat varieties followed a similar pattern to oats, producing
good yields early (mid-December) and continuing through mid-April. From the
practical stand point, little differences were obtained between the rye and
wheat varieties tested.

'Beagle' triticale had the lowest yields of all small grains or small
grain-mixtures. This variety produced one good initial harvest followed by
four, poor harvests (January through April), resulting in a total dry matter
yield of 2.1 T/A. Additional testing of triticale varieties must be conducted at
Ona, to determine if the performance of triticale is equal to other small
grains or small grain mixtures.


2/ FTE 503= iron, 18%; zinc, 7.0%; manganese, 7.5%; copper, 3.0%; boron, 3.0%;
molybdenum, 0.2%.










Two treatments containing oat/legume mixtures were tested in 1978-79.
The mixtures consisted of Fl 501 oats and 'Florie' red clover and Fl 501
oats and 'Dekalb 185' alfalfa. Since nitrogen was applied after seedling
emergence and after the initial;harvest on both mixtures, December and
February harvest yields were quite good. After the initial harvest 66 days
were allowed for regrowth, before the oat/legume mixtures were reharvested
since legumes required additional time for regrowth after clipping at the
early developmental stages.

Dry matter production of small grains tested over a 4 to 5 year period
at Ona are presented in Table 2. The oat/ryegrass mixtures produced the
highest dry nmtter yield during a four-year period, averaging (3.4 T/A).
Generally, when grown alone, the oat varieties were the highest yielding
small grains, followed by similar yields between wheat and rye.

Immokalee ARC

Coker 227 oats and the Fl 70Q 1153 oat/ryegrass mixture produced
significantly more forage than other varieties tested (Table 3). During
the past five years these entries have consistently been the highest yielding
entries (Table 4). Coker 227 oats appears to be well adapted to the Immokalee
area and, being a late maturing oat, gives full cool season production.
Fla 70Q 1153 oats is a very early oat and does well in a mixture with ryegrass
which provides forage after the oat dies in March. Alone, Fl 70Q 1153
produces low yields (Table 3).

Better yielding rye varieties were McNair 'Vita Graze', 'Wrens abruzzi',
Gurley 'Grazer 2000' and NAPB 'SR 80' (Table 3). There are generally little
differences in rye varieties (Table 4). If maturity differences are not
important, then the selection among the rye varieties in table 4 could
best be made using cost per pound of pure, live seed as the major criterion.

Wheat is generally lower yielding in the Immokalee area. The six
varieties tested averaged 1.4 T/A vs. 1.7 T/A for oats and rye (Table 3).
McNair '1003' and 'Omega 78', which are new varieties, appear to yield better
and stay in production longer than McNair '1813', which has been tested for
the past 6 years.

Triticale entries were among lowest yielding entries tested (Table 3).
Neither entry tillered and filled-out within their plot areas, thus producing
poor yields even in mid-season when other entries reached a yield peak. Both
triticales died in March.

Warm temperatures in November and December (average high and low was
81 and 60, respectively) were conducive to the growth of warm season grass
weeds, especially goosegrass. Therefore, plots were clipped on December 13,
1978 to remove the grassy weeds and consequently there was about 0.3 to 0.4
T/A of small grain forage removed with the weeds. This portion of the annual
yield is not shown in table 3 because weed contamination would have impaired
comparisons between entries.











Conclusion


Ona ARC

1) From the practical basis small differences existed between the dry
matter production of most small grains grown at Ona during the 1978-79 cool
season. Therefore, with the exception of Coker 227, which clearly appears
to be a superior forage-oat variety for south central Florida, one should
consider the cost of seed per acre when comparing many of the adapted small
grain varieties. Mixing small grains and ryegrass may lengthen forage produc-
tion during the cool season, since small grains are ready for utilization
about 42 days after seeding, (provided water and fertilization are adequate)
whereas ryegrass develops more slowly in the Fall, but produces forage over a
longer period of time.

Immokalee ARC

1) The highest yielding (P-0.05) oat variety was Coker 227 (2.1 T/A).
Highest yielding rye varieties were McNair Vita-Graze (1.9 T/A), Wrens abruzzi
(1.9 T/A); Gurley Grazer 2000 (1.6 T/A) and NAPB SR 80 (1.6 T/A). Highest
yielding varieties of wheat were McNair 1003 (1.8 T/A) Omega 78 (1.8 T/A)
and Coker 76-2 (1.7 T/A). The mixture of Fl 70Q 1153 oats and Gulf ryegrass
out-yielded all other entries except Coker 227 oats, McNair Vita Graze rye,
and Wrens abruzzi rye.

2) Results from testing during the past 5 years has indicated that Coker
227 oats is the best yielding oat variety. Better rye varieties are McNair
Vita-Graze, Wrens abruzzi, Gurley Grazer 2000 and Pennington Wintergrazer 70.
The best criterion for selection among these rye varieties is probably cost
per pound of seed.




5




S Table 1. Small grain forage production at the Ona ARC, 1979.

Harvest
1 2 3 4 5 6
Entry 12/18 1/23 2/22 3/14 4/14 5/14 Total
- (Dry matter yield tons/A)- - -
Oats
Coker 227 0.9 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.3 0.3 3.6at
F1 501 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.4 0.0 2.8cd
Average 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.2 3.2
Rye
NAPB SR 80 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.0 3.1b
Gurley Grazer 2000 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.0 3.0b
Pennington Winter Grazer 70 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.0 3.0b
Vita-Graze 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.0 2.9b
Wrens abruzzi 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.0 2.8cd
Fl Gator ES 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.0 2.8cd
Average 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.0 2.9
Wheat
Coker 76-22 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.0 3.1b
McNair 1003 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.0 2.9b
Omega 78 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.0 2.9b
McNair 1813 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.0 2.9b
Fl 71100A 29-3 109t 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.0 2.6cde
Average 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.0 2.8
Mixtures
F1 70Q 1153f + Gulf ryegrass 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 3.9a
501 oats + Florie red clover 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.5def
501 oats + Dekalb 185 alfalfa 0.8 0.0 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.2 2.4ef
Average 0.8 0.1 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 2.9
Beagle triticale 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.0 2.1f

tMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Duncan's
least significant differences test, K=100).
tExperimental entry, seed not available.
Date seeded: November 6, 1978.
Seeding rate: rye, wheat and triticale 2 bu/A; oats, 3 bu/A, F1 70Q 45 lb/A
+ Gulf ryegrass 10 Ib/A; Fl 501 oats 1.5 bu/A + Florie red clover
10 Ib/A and Fl 501 oats + Dekalb 185 alfalfa 15 lb/A.
Fertilization: 1) At seeding, 475 Ib/A 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20).
2) At seedling emergence 40 lb/A N.
3) After harvest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (except legume mixtures) 47 Ib/A N.
Irrigation: Overhead system, applied 4.5 inches throughout growing season.












Table 2. Average small grain forage production: 1975-1979 Ona ARC


Year
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Av.
- - Dry matter yield T/A- -


Variety


Oats
Coker
Fl

Wheat
McNair
Holley


1813


Rye
Pennington Winter Grazer 70
Wrens abruzzi
McNair Vita Graze
Gurley Grazer 2000

Mixtures
Fl 70Q 1153+ + ryegrass


3.4
2.3


2.2
2.1

3.0
2.5
2.3
2.7


Variety not seeded
tExperimental entry, seed not available.


3.5
3.2


3.2
3.4

3.1
3.2
3.5
3.5


t 3.7


3.1 2.3
2.7 1.8
Average


2.4
2.7

3.0
2.4
2.3
2.2


Average
1.3
1
1.4
1.3
Average


3.6 3.2
2.8 2.6
2.9

2.9 2.7
t 2.4
2.6
3.0 2.7
2.8 2.7
2.9 2.5
3.0 2.5
2.6


3.4 2.9 3.9 3.4


a






7




Table 3. Small grain forage production at the Immokalee ARC, 1979.

Harvest
1 2 3 4
Entry 1/17 2/14 3/8 4/7 Total
- -Dry matter yield (tons/A)- -
Oats
Coker 227 0.2 0.4 0.5 1.0 2.1at
Fl 501 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.8 1.9ab
Fl 70Q 1153t 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.0 l.Ofgh
Average 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.7
Rye
McNair Vitagraze 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.9 1.9ab
Wrens abruzzi 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.9 1.9ab
Gurley Grazer 2000 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.7 1.6bcd
NAPB SR 80 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6bcd
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.8 1.5cd
Fl Gator ES 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.7 1.4de
Average 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.8 1.7
Wheat
McNair 1003 0.3 0.2 0.3 1.0 1.8bc
Omega 78 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.9 1.8bc
Coker 76-2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.9 1.7bcd
McNair 3069 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 l.lef
Fl 71100 A29-3-109+ 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.0 1.Ofg
McNair 1813 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.7gh
Average 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 1.4
Mixtures
Fl 70Q1153t + Gulf ryegrass 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.9 2.2a
Triticale
Beagle 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.6gh
6TB 227 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.6h
Average 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.6

tMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different (Duncan's
least significant difference test, K=100).
tExperimental entry, seed not available.
Date seeded: November 2, 1978.
Seeding rate: oats, 3 bu/A; rye and wheat, 2 bu/A; triticale, 112 Ib/A,
oats/ryegrass mixture, 1 bu/A oats/15 Ib/A ryegrass.
Fertilization: 1) At seeding: 300 Ib/A of 0-10-20 plus 15 Ib/A FTE 503,
40 lb/A of N.
2) After harvest 1: 300 Ib/A 18-0-25
3) After harvest 2 and 3: 50 Ib/A of N
Irrigation: Seepage with laterals of 40' centers.











Table 4. Average small grain forage production: 1975-1979, Immokalee ARC.

Year


Variety


1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
- - dry matter yield T/A-


2.6 2.4
2.2 1.4


1.8 1.5
t 1.0


2.1
1.9
average


Av.


2.1
1.6
1.9


2.3 2.1 2.2 1.7 0.7 1.8
1.8 1.6 1.7 1.4 t 1.6
Average 1.7


Vita Graze


Gurley Graze 2000
Pennington Wintergrazer 70

Mixtures
Fl 70Q 1153t oats and ryegrass


2.1
2.2
1.9
1.7


2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9


1.8
1.9
2.1
2.1


2.0 1
1.6 1
1.4 1
1.8 1
Average


t 2.6 2.7 2.9


tVariety not seeded.
tExperimental entry, seed not available.


0


Oats
Coker
Fl

Wheat
McNair
Holley


227
501


1813


Rye
McNair
Wrens abruzzi


.9 2.0
.6 1.9
.9 1.9
.5 1.8
1.9


2.2 2.6




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