• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Technique of computation of the...
 Computation of national income
 Computation of capital formati...
 A: Tables
 B: Nutrition
 C: Characteristics of power facilities...
 D: Water and sewer facilities,...
 E: Sources of municipal revenues,...
 F: Public finance
 G: Money and credit
 H: Balance of international...
 H: Multiple rates of exchange,...
 J: Statistical bases for trends...






Group Title: The basis of a development program for Colombia : appendix A-J.
Title: The basis of a development program for Colombia
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074143/00001
 Material Information
Title: The basis of a development program for Colombia appendix, A-J
Physical Description: 1 v. (various pagings) : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: World Bank
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Washington ?
Publication Date: 1950 ?]
 Subjects
Subject: Economic policy -- Colombia   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Colombia -- 1918-1970   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074143
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000131449
oclc - 29383202
notis - AAP7475

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Technique of computation of the national income and the gross national product
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Computation of national income
        Page 3
        Computation of national income
            Page 3
            Volume of production
                Page 4
            Value of production
                Page 5
                Page 6
                Page 7
                Page 8
                Page 9
            Value added in agriculture
                Page 10
                Page 11
        Value of industrial production
            Page 12
            Breakdown of value (ex-factory) of industrial production in 1945
                Page 12
                Page 13
                Page 14
            Index of the value of industrial production
                Page 15
            Value of the handicraft production in 1945
                Page 15
        Mining
            Page 16
        Transport
            Page 16
            Railroads
                Page 16
            Computation of revenues and expenditures of other forms of transportation
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
        Construction
            Page 19
        Commerce and distribution
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Public utilities
            Page 21
            Electric power
                Page 21
            Other public utilities
                Page 22
        Banking, finance and government
            Page 22
    Computation of capital formation
        Page 23
        Imported capital goods
            Page 23
        Domestic production of capital goods
            Page 24
        Construction costs
            Page 24
        Other items of capital formation
            Page 25
        Gross capital formation
            Page 26
        Government contribution to national accounts
            Page 26
            Page 27
    A: Tables
        A 1
        A 2
        A 2a
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
        A 9
        A 10
        A 11
        A 12
        A 13
        A 14
        A 15
        A 16
        A 17
        A 18
        A 19
        A 20
        A 21
        A 22
        A 23
        A 24
        A 25
        A 26
        A 27
        A 28
        A 29
        A 30
        A 31
        A 32
        A 33
        A 34
        A 35
        A 36
        A 37
        A 38
        A 39
        A 40
    B: Nutrition
        B 0
        B 0a
        B 1
        B 2
        B 3
        B 4
        B 5
        B 6
        B 7
        B 8
        B 9
        B 10
        B 11
        B 12
        B 13
        B 14
        B 15
    C: Characteristics of power facilities of principal cities
        C 0
        C 1
    D: Water and sewer facilities, by departments and in various cities
        D 0
        D 1
        D 2
        D 3
    E: Sources of municipal revenues, 1946
        E 0
        E 1
    F: Public finance
        F 0
        F 1
        F 2
        F 3
        F 4
        F 5
        F 6
        F 7
        F 8
        F 9
        F 10
        F 11
        F 12
    G: Money and credit
        G 0
        G 1
        G 2
        G 3
        G 4
        G 5
        G 6
        G 7
        G 8
        G 9
        G 10
    H: Balance of international payments
        H 0
        H 1
        H 2
        H 3
        H 4
        H 5
        H 6
        H 7
        H 8
        H 9
        H 10
        H 11
        H 12
        H 13
        H 14
        H 14a
        H 15
    H: Multiple rates of exchange, mid-1949
        I 0
        I 1
        I 2
        I 3
        I 4
    J: Statistical bases for trends and projections
        J 0
        J 0a
        J 1
        J 2
        J 3
        J 4
        J 5
        J 6
        J 7
        J 8
        J 9
        J 10
        J 11
        J 12
        J 13
        J 14
        J 15
        J 16
        J 17
        J 18
        J 19
        J 20
        J 21
        J 22
        J 23
Full Text












THE BASIS OF


A DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR COLOMBIA





APPENDIX A







NATIONAL ACCOUNTS, INCLUDING NATIONAL INCOME

AND CAPITAL FORMATION


by


Jacques Torfs


INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRIUCTON AND DEVELOPMENT








CONTENTS

Page
I. Technique of Computation of the National Income and the
Gross National Product. . . . 1


II. Computation of National Income. . . . 3

A. Agricultural Production . . . . 3

Volume of Production .... . . .
Value of Production. .................... 5
Sugar Cane and Subproducts. . ... .
Sugar and Miel. ..... . . .... 6
Panels. . . . . ... 7
PCotton.... ..................... 7

Oilseeds............... ........ 8
Fruits, Vegetables and Others . . . 8
Small Agricultural Enterprises. . . . 9
Cattle and Livestock. . . . . 9
Dairy Products ....... ..... .... 9
Total Value of All Forms of Agricultural Production.. .10
Value Added in Agriculture. . .. . 10

B. Value of Industrial Production . . 12

Breakdown of Value (ex factory) of Industrial Production
in 1945. . . . . .12
Depreciation. . ......... .13
Gross Profits .... . ..... .13
Distributed Profits . .. ..... .13
Income Tax .. . ..... ..... .13
Other Taxes .............. ....... ..1
Index of the Value of Industrial Production. . .15
Value of Handicraft Production in 1945 . . .15

C. mining. ... . . . . . 16

D. Transport . . . . . . .16

Railroads. ......... . ... .16
Computation of Revenues and Expenditures of Other Forms of
Transportation . .. .16
Traffic Study . . . .17
Rates per Transport Units .. . . .17
Expenditures in Operation of Bases, Trucks, Public
Automobiles and Streetcars . . 17
River Transport . . . . .19
Air Transport . . . . . .19

Construction. . . . 19

P. Canerce and Distribution . . . .. 19









page
G. Public Utilities . . . . 21

Electric Power .. . . . . 21
Other Public Utilities . . . .. 22

H. ranking, Finance and Government . . . 22


III. Computation of Capital Formation ... . .. 23

Imported Capital Goods ....... ....... 23
Domestic Production of Capital Goods. . ... .... 24
Construction Costs ... .... .. ... 24
Other Items of Capital Formation . . . .. 25
Gross Capital Formation .................. 26
Government Contribution to National Accounts. . .. 26


-11-








TABLES


A-i Gross national product and components, 1939-47
A-2 Volume of agricultural production 1934, 1938-48
A-3 Essential coffee statistics, 1938-48
A-4 Unit prices of major agricultural commodities, 1938-48
A-5 Agriculture: value of processed crops, 1938-48
A-6 Agriculture: estimated value of production, 1938-48
A-7 Value added in small agricultural industries, 1939-48
A-8 Unit prices of animals, 1938-47
A-9 Value and number of animals slaughtered, 1938-48
A-10 Value of sales of animal subproducts, 1938-48
A-11 Estimated breakdown of value of industrial production in the
Census year, 1944-45
A-12 Industrial production indices, 1939-48
A-13 Value and index of industrial production (f.o.b. ex factory), value
added in industries, 1939-48
A-l4 National income at factor cost, 1939-48
A-15 Value of mining production and breakdown of costs, 1945
A-16 Value of mining production and contribution to national income
1939-49
A-17 Railroads: revenues and expenditures, 1939-47
A-18 Structure of costs in transport industries, 194.
A-19 Value added by transport industries, 1939-48
A-20 Railroads: operating statistics and basic freight rates, 1939-47
A-21 Electric power and other public utilities, 1938-48
A-22 Public utilities: services rendered and gross revenues, 1937-48
A-23 Income, profits and value added of banks and insurance companies,
1939-49
A-24 Capital formation: value of imports of construction materials,
1940-47
A-25 Capital formation: value of imports of agricultural equipment,
1940-47
A-26 Capital formation: value of imports of transport equipment,
1940-47
A-27 Capital formation: value of imports of industrial equipment,
1940-47
A-28 Value of steel imports, (c.i.f.), 1938-47
A-29 Capital formation: national production of capital and durable
goods according to 1944-45 Census
A-30 Gross capital formation and cost of public works and building
1939-47
A-31 National income: value of building construction, 1939-47
A-32 Gross capital formation: value of government investment, 1939-47
A-33 National government investments, 1939-47
A-34 Capital formation; investments by departments, 1939-40/1947-48
A-35 National accounts: total value of construction, 1939-47
A-36 Depreciation, 1938-48
A-37 Balance of government accounts (national, departmental,aunicipal)
for the purpose of national aggregates computation, 1939-47
A-38 Estimate of actual total government expenditures, 1939-48
A-39 Government sales of goods and services, 1939-47
A-40 Taxes and transfers by government, 1939-48


-iii-








I. TECHNIQUE OF COMPUTATION OF THE NATIONAL INCOME
AND THE GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT



The national accounts of Colombia have never been studied in
detail. An estimate, reported in 1940 by the National Bureau of
Economic Research (U.S.), set the national income at Ps.$1,097.6
million in that year. Preliminary estimates by the staff of the
International Bank indicated that this figure might have grown to
Ps.$2,327 million in 1945. Such data, however, cannot be safely
extrapolated and conclusions based thereon are at best sketchy.
In order to make a more accurate appraisal of the nature of
Colombia's economy, the Mission had to secure better and more recent
information. While a Colombian committee on national income, using
the facilities of the Banco de la Republica, has undertaken a study
of national accounts, in all probability it will not be completed
before 1951 or 1952. The Mission therefore embarked upon a tenta-
tive study of these problems. In appraising the data in this study,
one should at the outset realize that statistical material in
Colombia is scant and, in general, unreliable. Although some
attempts were made to complete or correct available statistical
series, the results were by no means entirely satisfactory. In
addition, it is unlikely that better estimates will be available
until the statistical organization of Colombia has been completely
transformed.

Since no data were available on the size and volume of consump-
tion expenditures, or on the number of workers employed (except in a
very few cases), or on their wages and salaries, or on the income by
major social groups, it was felt necessary to take as the starting
point for our computation of national accounts an estimate of the-net
national income at factor cost, i.e. the sum total of all incomes
accruing to the factors of production, or the total value of produc-
tion of all goods and services, excluding depreciation allowances and
indirect taxes but including direct taxes, entrepreneurial and owners'
incomes, wages, salaries, retained earnings, payments for social
security and rents.

In general, the technique used for the computation of the com-
ponents of Table A-l1/ was to calculate the gross value of production
at f.o.b. points for each major economic group, and to deduct from
this value the cost of raw materials, fuels, energy, indirect taxes,
depreciation and service of capital, etc., so as to obtain the "value
added." The sum total of all value added is equal to the net national
income at factor cost.




1/ This table appears as Table 1, p.26, Comprehensive Report.








-2-


Although the series on f.o.b. values of production obtained for
agriculture, animal husbandry, government, industries, transports,
construction and mining do not satisfy the requirements of scien-
tific accuracy, they are approximately reliable in indicating
orders of magnitude. Series on dairy products, handicrafts, small
agricultural industries, commerce, banking, finance, and real
estate are likely to be more reliable for certain base years for
which data is relatively abundant (such as 1945 or 1947, for in-
stance) than for the years 1938 or 1939 to 1944. Finally, data on
services and others can only be sustained by a considerable amount
of background information.

Once a reasonable estimate of the value of production of goods
and services was obtained, it became necessary to determine which
proportion of the total value participated to 7alue added. In the
fields of industry, construction, commerce, services, government,
scattered information was available which made possible an estimate
of the breakdown of the cost or price of production for one or
several years. In the other fields it proved necessary to estimate
value added by deduction of operating costs from value of production,
or to assume that certain specific ratios had to be applied to the
value of production in order to obtain value added.

In making these assumptions, comparisons with cost breakdowns
in other South American countries proved useful. Also, it was possible
to check some of these assumptions with rough estimates of the number
of people employed in these activities and of their average income.

The gap between net national income and gross national product
was bridged by relatively reliable estimates of the size of indirect
taxes, subsidies, profits of government enterprise, and depreciation.

It remained, however, to determine the size of consumers' expendi-
tures which, in our opinion, may be the most useful and meaningful
data provided by a study of national accounts. This could be accom-
plished in two ways: either by deduction of government expenditure
(non-investment) from gross capital formation (public and private)
and net exports; or, by deduction of retained earnings, income tax,
personal savings, and government transfers from the national income.
Of the two methods, the first seems more reliable. It involves only
one major difficulty i.e., the calculation of gross capital forma-
tion, which is discussed below. The other method is likely to broaden
the margin of error, as it involves computation of retained earnings
and personal savings, on which practically no reliable data are avail-
able. Despite the lack of precision of the whole method described
above, the results were found remarkably coherent, although this should
not be construed as an indication of too great reliability.

The net exports figure was taken from the monthly International
Financial Statistics of the International Monetary Fund.








-3-


Retained earnings were estimated at Ps.$150 million in 1947 on
the basis of information provided by the Superintendent of Corpora-
tions, and other official sources. However, only scattered fragments
of information existed for other years, and the series provided in
Table A-i are at best tentative.

Personal savings were obtained by the deduction of consumers'
expenditures from disposable income. Needless to say, the figures
for retained earnings, consumer expenditures and personal savings
are least likely to be reliable of the whole of the national accounts
data.

Three characteristics of the Colombian economy caused us to modi-
fy the usual presentation of national accounts as follows:

1. Though a large part of the agricultural community in
Colombia operates within the money economy because of the existence
of specialized regional crops, nevertheless perhaps 20 percent of all
rural families subsist mostly on their own products. The value of the
output consumed on the farm has been considered a source of income as
well as the income yielded by products sold at the market.

2. A non-financial type of capital formation occurs constantly
as a result of the unremunerated work of the farmers on land improve-
ment and the unremunerated work of city-dwellers on household repairs
and improvements. This was not included in our computations, either
as capital formation or production of services, mainly because an
estimate of the values involved is impossible at the present time.
It is recommended that Colombian authorities engage in a serious study
of these non-financial elements of national accounts which may prove
to be of great significance in further national planning.

3. The steady inflation of the last 5 years in Colombia has
caused huge and repeated revaluations of capital assets. These move-
ments dwarf and obscure actual inventory revaluations, which by
right should be included in capital formation. Since these two ele-
ments could not be separated, our figures on capital formation exclude
inventory revaluation.


II. COMPUTATION OF NATIONAL INCOME

A. Agricultural Production

The volume of agricultural production is defined as all that
is produced minus the crops wasted prior to distribution thus, all
that is made available for human or animal consumption. The value
of production corresponds to the amount which this volume of produc-
tion would yield if it were sold at the first available rural market
place. It is not the value at the farm, which cannot be estimated,








-3-


Retained earnings were estimated at Ps.$150 million in 1947 on
the basis of information provided by the Superintendent of Corpora-
tions, and other official sources. However, only scattered fragments
of information existed for other years, and the series provided in
Table A-i are at best tentative.

Personal savings were obtained by the deduction of consumers'
expenditures from disposable income. Needless to say, the figures
for retained earnings, consumer expenditures and personal savings
are least likely to be reliable of the whole of the national accounts
data.

Three characteristics of the Colombian economy caused us to modi-
fy the usual presentation of national accounts as follows:

1. Though a large part of the agricultural community in
Colombia operates within the money economy because of the existence
of specialized regional crops, nevertheless perhaps 20 percent of all
rural families subsist mostly on their own products. The value of the
output consumed on the farm has been considered a source of income as
well as the income yielded by products sold at the market.

2. A non-financial type of capital formation occurs constantly
as a result of the unremunerated work of the farmers on land improve-
ment and the unremunerated work of city-dwellers on household repairs
and improvements. This was not included in our computations, either
as capital formation or production of services, mainly because an
estimate of the values involved is impossible at the present time.
It is recommended that Colombian authorities engage in a serious study
of these non-financial elements of national accounts which may prove
to be of great significance in further national planning.

3. The steady inflation of the last 5 years in Colombia has
caused huge and repeated revaluations of capital assets. These move-
ments dwarf and obscure actual inventory revaluations, which by
right should be included in capital formation. Since these two ele-
ments could not be separated, our figures on capital formation exclude
inventory revaluation.


II. COMPUTATION OF NATIONAL INCOME

A. Agricultural Production

The volume of agricultural production is defined as all that
is produced minus the crops wasted prior to distribution thus, all
that is made available for human or animal consumption. The value
of production corresponds to the amount which this volume of produc-
tion would yield if it were sold at the first available rural market
place. It is not the value at the farm, which cannot be estimated,







-4 -


nor the "market" value which would emerge in urban centers.

The term "agricultural production" covers a great number of re-
lated activities. The most important of these in Colombia are: (1)
crop production; (2) production of small agricultural industries;
(3) production of livestock; and (4) production of dairy products.

In order to calculate the participation of agriculture in the
national income it was necessary to study the fluctuations in the
value of agricultural production. So far the only official attempts
at estimating this value were made in 1934, 1946 and 1948. The
results obtained are not completely reliable. Major reasons for
inadequacy are:

1. In the studies made thus far, no attempt was made to dis-
tinguish between the value of agricultural production, the value of
the output of small rural industries engaged in processing agricul-
tural products, and finally, the value of the output of large-scale
industries which utilize agricultural products as raw materials.

2. Statistics of volume are debatable in many cases and those
of value in most. It was thus necessary to revise and complete
available data and to construct series on the value of production.

The technique used was essentially simple: hypotheses were made
on the basis of partial data available as to the physical volume of
production of major commodities by years since 1938; and unit prices
(in small rural centers to which agricultural products are first
transported) were secured. The value of production was obtained by
multiplying the former data by the latter.

Volume of Production

The sources for statistics on volume of agricultural production
are:

(a) The studies issued by the Ministry of Agriculture, and
made by Paul Varela Martinez, Director of the Statistical Division
of the Ministry of Agriculture; Atlas Geographico de Produccion Agri-
cola, 1946; Produccion Agropecuaria de Colombia, 1948. These studies
contain estimates based on reports from official sources (mainly
reports by agronomists and the major users of agricultural raw
materials). The volumes reported seem roughly.comparable with
figures on consumption cited in studies of the standard of living in
.major Colombian cities by the Contraloria General.2/ However, statis-
tics on the volume of production of platano, bananas, yucca, name and
panels seem definitely untrustworthy.



2 See Appendix B, Nutrition.








-5-


(b) A study by the Instituto Nacional de Abastecimientos (INA,
or National Supply Institute) on the volume of production of cereals,
(Estudio sobre la Conservacion de Alimientos).

(c) The statistics of the Coffee Growers' Federation on coffee.
Although their data on export volumes are likely to be accurate, the
estimates of national production in Bulletin 28 of the Association are
probably understated.

It is impossible to determine which statistics on crop volumes
are most likely to be representative of the true picture. For
instance, a detailed study on rice by the Ministry of Agriculture seems
to indicate that I.N.A. statistics on rice crops are erroneous. On the
other hand, I.N.A. statistics on corn may be more precise than those of
the Ministry. Data on coffee production by the Coffee Growers' Feder-
ation conflict with those of the Ministry. However, the latter seem to
have been interpolated from the former. It is hoped that the situation
may be clarified by the agricultural census of 1950. Pending this
verification, it has been arbitrarily decided to adopt as valid the
statistics of the Ministry for all crops except panela and coffee (see
Tables A-2 and A-3).

Value of Production

Although the statistics on output provided by the Ministry of
Agriculture seem to indicate orders of magnitude fairly satisfactorily,
its statistics on the value of production are generally less reliable.
In certain cases, volume statistics, by department, are multiplied by
unit price statistics, as reported by local agronomists in the field.
In other cases, volumes of production are multiplied by the wholesale
prices of agricultural raw materials, at major market places, as
reported by the Contraloria in the Anuario General de Estadistica.
Checks indicate that the two interpretations often clash.

In order to calculate the value of crop production, it was there-
fore decided to utilize, in most cases, the figures on volume of pro-
duction provided by the Ministry, and the figures on unit prices pro-
vided by the Contraloria General. However, the Contraloria does not
attempt to estimate the average prices prevailing for a given crop in
Colombia. It provides average monthly prices of important commodities
in most market places, rural or urban. It was therefore necessary to
set up new series on the average yearly prices in rural markets by
weighting market prices by the relative importance of each market as a
production outlet for a given commodity (see Table A-4). The value of
most crops was estimated on this basis.

It was necessary, however, to depart from this technique in the
case of some commodities such as sugar cane, cotton, oilseeds, vege-
tables and fruits, and their treatment is therefore discussed more
extensively below.







- 6-


Sugar Cane and Suboroducts, All available statistics indicate
that the value of production of sugar cane is the sum total of the
value of panel, miel, sugar, and even alcohol, but it is obvious
that sugar cane is only a raw material in the preparation of these
products, which should be classified as "industrial." From the
analysis of scanty data on the relations between sugar cane and its
subproducts, it was estimated that, on the average, the value of
sugar cane was 23 percent of the aggregate value (ex-factory) of its
subproducts.

Statistical evidences are:


1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 Total
(millions of pesos)
A. ANUARIO GENERAL DE ESTADISTICA

(1) Value of sugar cane 1.5 1.5 2.6 2.0 2.0 3.8 13.4
(2) Value of:
(a) Centrifugated sugar 6.5 6.8 8.6 11.3 8.1 9.7 51.0
(b) Miel 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 2.2
(3) Total 6.8 7.3 8.9 11.8 8.4 10.0 53.2
(4) Ratio of (1) to (3) 22 20% 29 17% 23% 26% 23%

B. INDUSTRIAL CENSUS -- 1944-1945 (millions of pesos)

(1) Value of sugar cane 1.93
(2) Value of sugar 10.50
(3) Value ol miel 0.30
(4) Total 10.8
(5) Ratio of (1) to (4) 18%

The ratio prevailing in 1944-1945 is slightly lower than the
1938-1943 average. Since the average ratio for 1938-43 involves a
greater number of years and no estimates, but actual figures only,
it is considered preferable.

The volume of production of sugar cane is unknown. It, however,
can be estimated to amount to 11.2 times the combined volume of produc-
tion of sugar, miel and panel. (The 1944-1945 census indicates that
888 thousand tons of cane were needed in order to produce 67.4 thousand
tons of sugar, 11.2 thousand tons of miel, and 0.1 thousand tons of
panela) Given these elements, it was necessary to obtain a more re-
liable ex-factory value for all sugar subproducts.

Sugar and Miel. Our estimate of the total (market) value of
sugar has been made on the basis of available volume and unit price
series. This estimate was found to be 22 percent above the price ex-
factory for the years 1938 to 1943. Estimated market values for 1944-

2/ Cost of production Sugar (million) 7.9 ) The value of production
Niel (million) C.2 ) (ex-factory) is assumed
) to be 33 percent higher,
) or Sugar 10.5 and Miel 0.3







-7-


1948 were thus reduced by 22 percent in Table A-5 in order to ob-
tain ex-factory values for those years. The same technique was
applied to miel.

Panel. The same technique could have been applied to panel
but, unfortunately, it became evident that volume series on it were
unsatisfactory. From statistics on the area in panel cultivation,
it was deduced that panel output had only increased by 21 percent
per year, instead of by more than 8 percent, as indicated by the
Ministry of Agriculture. New volume series were constructed on the
base year volume of 620 thousand tons in 1946. (It is recognized
that this results in a more smoothly changing series than is likely
to have occurred, but for most years the general order of magnitude
appears to be correct, and any remaining error would have little
effect on the total value of agricultural production.) Average unit
prices found in Table A-4 were applied to these new volume data
(which correspond closely to information provided by the Ministry of
Industry and Commerce, as well as U.S. Government studies of Colombian
agriculture) and the new figure on "market value" was reduced by 22
percent in order to obtain the value of panel ex-factory, or rather
"ex-trapiche." Once new ex-factory values had been found for sugar
subproducts, the determination of sugar cane value became possible
by applying the percentage cited above (see Table A-5).

Cotton. Official statistics on cotton are also somewhat con-
fused in that the value of raw cotton is described as being the sum
of the values of cottonseed and lint cotton. The value added through
an industrial process -- namely, cotton ginning -- is ignored. Accord-
ing to data provided by the 1944-1945 industrial census, the total
value of lint and seed is 120% of the value of raw cotton, as illus-
trated below:


Thousands Value
Millions of Pesos of Tons per Ton

Lint used in production 4.84 5.57

Cottonseed used in production 0.64 8.62 -

Total 5.48 14.19 Ps.$385

Raw (seed) cotton used by mills 3.48 10.79 Ps.$322


Series on raw cotton were modified on these bases. These series,
however, are not deemed entirely satisfactory because figures reported
for local production of raw cotton by the Ministry of Agriculture con-
flict with statistics on raw materials used by the textile industry.







- 8 -


Unfortunately, it is impossible at this time to determine with
greater precision the actual magnitudes involved. In any event,
the margin of error resulting from the use of the volume data of
the Ministry of Agriculture is small (Table A-5).

Oilseeds. Data on oilseed production values provided by the
Ministry of Agriculture seemed unreliable. The following figures
were obtained on the basis of careful estimates made by U.S. Embassy
experts:



1944. 1945 1946. 1947
(millions ol pesos)
Sesame 0.3 0.5 1.0 1.5

Copra 1.8 1.6 1.0 1.3

Tamaco/Palma de Vino 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.5

Noli 0.02 0.02

Total 2.22 2.25 2.2 3.32


These figures were adopted as an indication of the importance of oilseeds
in Colombian agricultural production, but they are probably understated,
as they refer only to those seeds which are purchased by vegetable oil
plants. Cottonseed is excluded from these statistics, as it evolves from
an industrial process (and thus is accounted for in the value of raw
cotton and the value added by cotton ginning).

Fruits. Vegetables and Others. There is no reliable source of
information on the production of these commodities. In order to ob-
tain a rough appraisal of their importance relative to the total
value of Colombian agricultural production, estimates of value were
made for the years 1946 and 1948 based on statistics of the Ministry
of Agriculture (*) and modified by our findings on nutrition and
land use (rectified figures marked **), as follows:


1946


FRUITS
VEGETABLES
Peas
Onions
Chickpeas
Garden Vegetables
Lentils
OTHER
Rubber
Anis
Divi Divi
Ricin -
URnl *


1948
(millions of pesos)
16.2r
18.2**


4.5
3.5
2.4
2.0
1,6

1.6
0.4
0.4
0.3
0 1 l


5.0**
5.2*
3.0"*
3.0*
2.0**


1.8*
0.7'
0.6**
0.4**
S 0.1*


0 1







- 9-


The value of production of these crops was extrapolated back to 1938
on the assumption that its relative position in the total value of
agricultural production had remained unchanged. The value of agricul-
tural production proper (Table A-6) was computed on the basis of
Tables A-2 and A-4, and the considerations contained in the preceding
paragraphs. But this calculation omitted the value of many other farm
products.

Small Agricultural Enternrises. A number of farm commodities
should be included in industrial, instead of agricultural, statistics
as they result from manufacturing processes. The most important of
these is panela4/, but the category also includes alcoholic beverages,
such as guarapo and chicha, and fiber (fique) bags.

We have made a distinction between these products of small agri-
cultural industries and handicraft products. Agricultural industries
differ from handicrafts, which also exist in Colombia, in that they
are primarily rural and can be considered an extension of the activity
of the farmer into the partial processing of his own crop. Handicrafts
(manufacture of potteries, hand-woven rugs and cloth, panama hats,
etc.) consist rather of specialized industrial activities which are
confined to one or two members of a rural or urban low-income family.

The value of panela, and the amount of income derived from its
production, could be estimated without difficulty once the value of
sugar cane had been calculated. However, no data were available on
the value added by the production of guarapo. In Table A-7, it was
tentatively estimated at 25 percent of the value added by panela. (The
effort here is obviously to obtain a value of approximately the correct
order of magnitude rather than an indication of exact changes from year
to year; the partial displacement between panel and guarapo may in fact
make for greater, rather than less,accuracy in the year-to-year changes.)

Cattle and Livestock. Statistics of cattle slaughter and sales
are more reliable than other agricultural data. Unit prices of
animals were collected from official statistics, and averages for each
year are shown in Table A-8. The number of heads slaughtered in major
categories (beef, hogs, sheep, goats) are recorded in Table A-9. Out-
put figures, multiplied by unit prices, provided the values shown in
Table A-9.

Dairy Products, Table A-10 contains an estimate of the value of
dairy products output and of the wool clip. However, statistics on

'/ In Colombian statistics, panel and other cane products (sugar, alco-
hol) are included in agricultural statistics. Sugar and alcohol are
also included in industrial statistics, where they belong, but panel
does not appear in industrial statistics and should thus be accounted
for separately.
3/ The industrial census, however, includes guarapo and chicha production
in some departments only.







- 10 -


milk, eggs, butter, chickens, other dairy products, and wool clip
are not reliable. The estimate of the Ministry of Agriculture for
1947 was reduced, because milk production data indicated approxi-
mately three times the consumption level reported by studies of the
nutritional status of Colombia. The ratio of the adjusted total for
these items to the value of animal husbandry production is assumed
to have been maintained in all years between 1938 and 1948.

Total Value of all Forms of Agricultural Production. Tables
A-6, A-7, A-9 and A-10 set forth series on the total value of differ-
ent types of agricultural production. These totals are summarized
below:
1946 1948
(millions of pesos)
Agriculture proper 803.7 1,142.7
Agricultural industries (164.0) (203.0)
Livestock 230.2 351.4
Dairy Products 56.7 86.5


Total

Value Added in Agriculture


1,254.6 1,783.6


The calculation of the value added, or the sum total of income
accruing to the economy of the country as a result of agricultural
production, entailed further estimates. Unfortunately, data on this
subject are practically non-existent, and our estimates therefore are
the result of scattered observations checked with the records of
neighboring countries.

The total value of production is not returned to the farmers.
Deductions must be made principally for the cost of fertilizers and
fuels, the interest paid on machines and on bank loans, the cost of
maintenance and depreciation, and the use of seeds. The list below
describes the closest approximation to these expenses for the year
1947. It has not been possible to separate operating costs of agri-
culture proper, small agricultural industries, animal husbandry and
dairy production in this estimate, and the total value of the agri-
cultural production to which these expenditures apply is Ps.$1,783.6
million, or the total of these three items. The list below is tenta-
tive many items may definitely be understated but it indicates
that operating expenses amounted to Ps.$303.0 million, or 17 percent
of the total value of the agricultural production in that year.



BREAKDOWN OF OPERATING COSTS IN AGRICULTURE

(millions of pesos)

A. Interest on loans by Caja Agraria (all loans)
6% interest on one-year loans 87.0 million pesos 5.2

B. Interest on loans by Commercial Banks
a. Agriculture (6% interest- 6 months loans 40 m.p.) 1.0
b. Cattle (6% interest, 1 yr. loans 83.8 m.p.) 5.0







- 11 -


(millions of pesos)


C. Interest on loans by village lenders
a. Agriculture (15% interest 6 months on assumed 200 m.p.) 15.0
b. Cattle (15% interest 12 months on assumed 50 m.p.) 7.5

D. Depreciation of farm installation and buildings
(Total value assumed at 1,000 m.p. 2%) 40.0

E. Depreciation on imported equipment and materials
(Amortization in 10 years on a stock estimated at 80 m.p.) 8.0

F. Depreciation on equipment purchased locally
(Amortization in 5 years on a stock estimated at 10 m.p.) 2.0

G. Purchase of fertilizers, pesticides .15.0

H. Purchase of feeds, insecticides (cattle) 10.0

I. Retention of seeds and animals (5% of value of agricul-
tural production) 50.0

J. Capitalization of total value of land and animals
Total value of cattle livestock poultry 1981.3 m.p.
Total value of agricultural land 310.0 m.p.
(2.37 million has. at 130p/ha)
Total value of pasture land 510.0 m.p.
(51.0 million has. at lOp/ha)
Total 2801.3 m.p.

Assumed capitalization: 1% per year 28.0

K. Cost of rope, cordages, bags (1% of production value) 17.0

L. Cost of fuels:
(1) at the farm; (2) used for implements; (3) for
transport vehicles to market (15 million gallons) 10.0

M. Cost of maintenance and operations
(1) Farm buildings and installations 20.0
(2) Implements 20.0
(3) Transport equipment 10.0

N. Indirect taxes, rentals, various 40.0

GRAND TOTAL OF OPERATING COSTS 303.7


Comparison with a breakdown of costs in Chile in 1943 indicates
that these crude estimates are reasonably reliable, but are likely to
be underestimated. It will, therefore, be assumed tentatively that







- 12 -


the operating costs in agriculture amount to 20 percent of the
gross value of production (at factor cost) and that value added is
thus 80 percent of gross value.

B. Value of Industrial Production

It is difficult to estimate the value of industrial production
and the value added by manufacturing. The Anuario General de
Estadistica provides some interesting data on values and costs for
the years 1938 to 1943. Unfortunately, they cover only a small part
of industrial production. Data for only 1378 plants were reported
for 1939 but it is known that there were at least 5000 manufacturing
plants at that time. The Industrial Census of 1944-1945 provides a
better picture of the costs of production but, as also discussed
below, it does not give f.o.b. values, which are relevant to thts
calculation. Some unpublished statistics of the Contraloria General
expand the series started in 1944-1945 and the reports of the Super-
intendent of Corporations also provide some indications of costs for
1947 and 1948, but information is sketchy and sometimes inaccurate
and no estimate of the value of industrial production or a reliable
index of production is available for any one year.

The Mission thus had to make independent estimates. In order
to obtain a reliable base for the projection of trends in industrial
production, an attempt was made to estimate the total value of pro-
duction for 1944-1945, the Census year. Then indices of unit prices,
volume and, finally, value of production were constructed and values
for each year were obtained by applying this index to the value of
production calculated for 1944-1945. The share of factors in indus-
trial production was indicated by the cost breakdown for 1944-1945
and the ratio of value added to total value of production thus
obtained was applied to values obtained for all years.

Breakdown of Value (ex-factory) of Industrial Production in 1945

Table A-11 indicates that the value of industrial production in
1944-1945 has been estimated at Ps.5830 million. Value added was
estimated at Ps.$245.5 million, or 29.5 percent of the total. This
total was obtained as follows:

(a) In the 1945 industrial census, Ps.$641.4 million covered
the "cost of production ex-factory," or the value of raw materials,
fuels, wages, salaries, social security, insurance, rents, excise
taxes. The value of fuels reported in our own calculation of costs,
however, differs somewhat from the total reported officially. The
census indicates Ps.$11.94 million as the total value of fuels. How-
ever, it provides the following breakdown:
(thousands)
Fuel used in production ................ Ps.$8,404
Fuel used in transport................. 912
Value of energy used ................. 5.076
Total .......................... Ps.,4392







- 12 -


the operating costs in agriculture amount to 20 percent of the
gross value of production (at factor cost) and that value added is
thus 80 percent of gross value.

B. Value of Industrial Production

It is difficult to estimate the value of industrial production
and the value added by manufacturing. The Anuario General de
Estadistica provides some interesting data on values and costs for
the years 1938 to 1943. Unfortunately, they cover only a small part
of industrial production. Data for only 1378 plants were reported
for 1939 but it is known that there were at least 5000 manufacturing
plants at that time. The Industrial Census of 1944-1945 provides a
better picture of the costs of production but, as also discussed
below, it does not give f.o.b. values, which are relevant to thts
calculation. Some unpublished statistics of the Contraloria General
expand the series started in 1944-1945 and the reports of the Super-
intendent of Corporations also provide some indications of costs for
1947 and 1948, but information is sketchy and sometimes inaccurate
and no estimate of the value of industrial production or a reliable
index of production is available for any one year.

The Mission thus had to make independent estimates. In order
to obtain a reliable base for the projection of trends in industrial
production, an attempt was made to estimate the total value of pro-
duction for 1944-1945, the Census year. Then indices of unit prices,
volume and, finally, value of production were constructed and values
for each year were obtained by applying this index to the value of
production calculated for 1944-1945. The share of factors in indus-
trial production was indicated by the cost breakdown for 1944-1945
and the ratio of value added to total value of production thus
obtained was applied to values obtained for all years.

Breakdown of Value (ex-factory) of Industrial Production in 1945

Table A-11 indicates that the value of industrial production in
1944-1945 has been estimated at Ps.5830 million. Value added was
estimated at Ps.$245.5 million, or 29.5 percent of the total. This
total was obtained as follows:

(a) In the 1945 industrial census, Ps.$641.4 million covered
the "cost of production ex-factory," or the value of raw materials,
fuels, wages, salaries, social security, insurance, rents, excise
taxes. The value of fuels reported in our own calculation of costs,
however, differs somewhat from the total reported officially. The
census indicates Ps.$11.94 million as the total value of fuels. How-
ever, it provides the following breakdown:
(thousands)
Fuel used in production ................ Ps.$8,404
Fuel used in transport................. 912
Value of energy used ................. 5.076
Total .......................... Ps.,4392








- 33 -


We have therefore used the total of these three items as the actual
value of fuels used.

(b) Profits, taxes, depreciation, interest paid and received,
which were not included in the Census, were estimated on the basis
of data provided by the Superintendent of Corporations (Sociedades
Anonimas) and the Contraloria General.

Depreciation. According to a statement of the Superintendent
of Corporations, depreciation = 2.2 percent of sales, or Ps.$20.9
million.
According to data provided by the Contraloria, depreciation
represents the following percentages of the capital value:
(millions)
Land (Ps.$118.2 million)............ 3.3% Ps.$3.90
Machines (Ps.$118.5 million)........ 10% 11.85
Rolling Equipment (Ps.$6.6 million). 20% 1.32
Other Assets (Ps.$44.3 million)..... 10% 4.43
Total depreciation.................. Ps.$21.5

Therefore, depreciation figures have been based on data supplied
by the Contraloria.

Gross Profits. According to data provided by the Superintenden-
cia de Sociedades Anonimas, interest transfers and gross profits in
1945 were
(Percentage of Gross
Value of Sales of
Corporations)

Interest received................. 0.3049
Interest paid ............. ....... 0.444
Gross Profits..................... 16.9

Distributed Profits. It was assumed that, on the average, divi-
dends, or net profits, of 10 percent were returned to the owners of
industrial plants. This is consistent with studies of the capital
invested in industries, and the yield of shares in 1944-1945.

The value of special items such as selling costs, patents,
royalties and maintenance, also omitted in the census, was, on the
basis of some spot checks, assumed to be equal in size to the allow-
ance for depreciation.

The problem of taxes had to be given special attention.

Income Tax was not included in the census because: (a) in the
case of Sociedades Anonimas, the income tax is levied on the gross
profit of the corporation. Dividends received by shareholders are
deducted from their income tax returns; and (b) in the case of all
other corporations, the gross profit accrues to the income of owners








-14-


and is taxed as a part of the individual owner's income. As it was
thus not possible for the cenus takers to obtain a clear account of
the total amount of income taxes levied on the total of profits made
by manufacturing enterprises, whether or not distributed, no attempt
was made to secure partial records.

In order to close this gap, the Mission estimated the combined
yield of income, patrimony and excess.profit taxes in 1944-1945 as
follows:
(thousands)
1/2 1944 yield............. Ps.$24,322
1/2 1945 yield............. 29.598

Total...................... Ps.$53.920

It seems impossible to determine what part of this sum results from
taxes on the income of agricultural properties, services, real estate,
etc. The more informed guesses set it at approximately 60 percent.
If this figure is used tentatively, direct taxes of about Ps.$21.6
million were levied on industrial production.

Other taxes, Other national, departmental and municipal taxes
on industrial goods have been recorded in the Census, and have been
classified as follows:

Incident on Incident on Incident on
Cost of Production Consumers Sales Price.
National
Matches X
Gasoline Undefined Undefined
Lubricants "
Tires "
Cattle Hides X
Departmental
Tobacco I
Beer, Chicha, Guarapo X
Municipal
On Motors Installed X
On Registration X

The reasoning behind this classification is not clear. Inasmuch
as it seems that all these taxes are levied on industries, and not on
distributors, it seems evident that their total amount, or Ps.$35.98
million, reflects itself in the value of production ex-factory.

On the foregoing bases, admittedly only rough estimates, the total
value of industrial production, ex-factory, was estimated at Ps.$830
million in 1944-1945. This figure was discussed with Colombian statis-
ticians and experts who engaged in the industrial census, and was
deemed to be approximately correct.









- 15 -


Index of the Value of Industrial Production

While data on the total output of Colombian industries is incom-
plete for any one year, it has been possible to compile from the
sources just described relatively reliable time series of unit prices,
and output of important commodities such as oleomargarine, soft drinks,
shoes, cement, beer, cigarettes, cigars,-chocolate, sugar, soap,
candles, liquors and wheat flour. From this information, an index of
industrial production has been constructed, which is presented in Table
A-12. It will be seen that the weighting of reported commodities is
made on the basis of their importance as a percentage of total value of
production. Since all industrial products are not included, this may
cause some distortion and present an inaccurate picture. The index
indicates that the volume of industrial production has been increasing
at a rate of 11-12 percent per year from 1939 to 1948, while unit
prices grew by about 8-1/2 percent annually. Most of the increase took
place starting in 1944. While these rates of increase seem high, they
are by no means incompatible with other information on price behavior,
or trends in output in other industries, for which data were only col-
lected for 1945 to 1948.

The value index is applied to the absolute value of industrial
production in Table A-13. It has been assumed that the value of out-
put in 1944-1945 was mid-way between the value of output in 1944 and
in 1945. Also, Table A-13 presents the value added in industries from
1938 to 1948. It was assumed that the ratio of value added to the
total f.o.b. value prevailing in 1944-1945 applies to other years and
there is evidence to support this assumption.

Value of Handicraft Production in 1945

The 1945 census only covers plants producing more than Ps.$6,000
worth of products per year. These plants employed only. 115,517 workers.
However, the 1938 population census reports 450,000 industrial workers
(full and part-time) and it has been estimated that this was egqivalent
to 95,000 industrial and 145,000 handicraft full-time workers.2/ By
1944-1945, the number of full-time workers engaged in handicrafts may
have been 185,000. While most of these workers are owners or part
owners of their shops, their output is small and of little unit value.
They manufacture pottery; they make and mend clothes, repair shoes,
quarry stones, gravel, etc. It therefore is very doubtful that the
income of these industrial owner-workers exceeds that of urban workers,
or an average of Ps.$575 per year in 1944-1945.

Furthermore, as handicraft workers have little knowledge of account-
ancy, it is probable that they estimate their output as an industrial
worker would value his i.e., for labor alone, without taking into
consideration their operating costs as well as depreciation, amortiza-
tion and maintenance of equipment and the purchase of small amounts
of raw materials. Actual value added in handicrafts is thus smaller

/ See Appendix J, Statistical Bases for Trends and Projection.









- 15 -


Index of the Value of Industrial Production

While data on the total output of Colombian industries is incom-
plete for any one year, it has been possible to compile from the
sources just described relatively reliable time series of unit prices,
and output of important commodities such as oleomargarine, soft drinks,
shoes, cement, beer, cigarettes, cigars,-chocolate, sugar, soap,
candles, liquors and wheat flour. From this information, an index of
industrial production has been constructed, which is presented in Table
A-12. It will be seen that the weighting of reported commodities is
made on the basis of their importance as a percentage of total value of
production. Since all industrial products are not included, this may
cause some distortion and present an inaccurate picture. The index
indicates that the volume of industrial production has been increasing
at a rate of 11-12 percent per year from 1939 to 1948, while unit
prices grew by about 8-1/2 percent annually. Most of the increase took
place starting in 1944. While these rates of increase seem high, they
are by no means incompatible with other information on price behavior,
or trends in output in other industries, for which data were only col-
lected for 1945 to 1948.

The value index is applied to the absolute value of industrial
production in Table A-13. It has been assumed that the value of out-
put in 1944-1945 was mid-way between the value of output in 1944 and
in 1945. Also, Table A-13 presents the value added in industries from
1938 to 1948. It was assumed that the ratio of value added to the
total f.o.b. value prevailing in 1944-1945 applies to other years and
there is evidence to support this assumption.

Value of Handicraft Production in 1945

The 1945 census only covers plants producing more than Ps.$6,000
worth of products per year. These plants employed only. 115,517 workers.
However, the 1938 population census reports 450,000 industrial workers
(full and part-time) and it has been estimated that this was egqivalent
to 95,000 industrial and 145,000 handicraft full-time workers.2/ By
1944-1945, the number of full-time workers engaged in handicrafts may
have been 185,000. While most of these workers are owners or part
owners of their shops, their output is small and of little unit value.
They manufacture pottery; they make and mend clothes, repair shoes,
quarry stones, gravel, etc. It therefore is very doubtful that the
income of these industrial owner-workers exceeds that of urban workers,
or an average of Ps.$575 per year in 1944-1945.

Furthermore, as handicraft workers have little knowledge of account-
ancy, it is probable that they estimate their output as an industrial
worker would value his i.e., for labor alone, without taking into
consideration their operating costs as well as depreciation, amortiza-
tion and maintenance of equipment and the purchase of small amounts
of raw materials. Actual value added in handicrafts is thus smaller

/ See Appendix J, Statistical Bases for Trends and Projection.









- 16 -


than total apparent gross receipts of the "factor of production."
We have estimated it at 65 percent of these receipts. Value added
in handicrafts in the census year, calculated on this basis, is
Ps.$73.5 million. This figure was projected from 1939 to 1948 in
Table A-14, on the assumption that output was increasing at a rate
of 2 percent per year, while prices followed the fluctuations of the
industrial unit price index.

C. dining

Tables A-15 and A-16 provide a breakdown of the cost of mining
production in 1945 and series on total value of mining output and
value added per year from 1939 to 1949. Major sources of statisti-
cal material were the bulletins of the Banco de la Republica, the
Ministry of Mines, reports from foreign oil companies and the Anuario
General de Estadistica.

The profits exported abroad of the petroleum and gold companies
are not included as part of the value added to the country in these
tables. Clearly their influence upon the economy of the country
manifests itself only through the "net exports" item in the national
accounts. Statistics on coal production are also unreliable, because
output data provided by the Anuario General de Estadistica covers
only that part of production which is transported by railroads. To
obtain the total volume of production, this figure was increased by
40 percent on the basis of estimates of the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum.

Data on the value of production of limestone, minerals and
metals exploited in very small quantities is scant. However, estimates
of value and output and value added were made on the basis of data
provided by the Banco de la Republica and private sources, and seem
reasonably accurate.

D. Transport

Railroads

Value added in railroad transport can be estimated almost
directly from available statistics. Table A-17 presents a breakdown
of revenues and expenditures of the Colombian Railroads year by year
from 1939 to 1947. Statistics on revenues, expenditures, wages, etc.
of national, departmental and private railroads were provided by the
Anuario General de Estadistica. Estimates of depreciation charges
have been made by the staff of the Banco de la Republica. A break-
down of cost structure will be found in Table A-18, and value added
is shown in Table A-19.

Computation of Revenues and Expenditures of Other Forms of Transportation

Data on other forms of transport are practically non-existent.
In the case of trucks, buses, airlines, inland shipping and streetcars,









- 16 -


than total apparent gross receipts of the "factor of production."
We have estimated it at 65 percent of these receipts. Value added
in handicrafts in the census year, calculated on this basis, is
Ps.$73.5 million. This figure was projected from 1939 to 1948 in
Table A-14, on the assumption that output was increasing at a rate
of 2 percent per year, while prices followed the fluctuations of the
industrial unit price index.

C. dining

Tables A-15 and A-16 provide a breakdown of the cost of mining
production in 1945 and series on total value of mining output and
value added per year from 1939 to 1949. Major sources of statisti-
cal material were the bulletins of the Banco de la Republica, the
Ministry of Mines, reports from foreign oil companies and the Anuario
General de Estadistica.

The profits exported abroad of the petroleum and gold companies
are not included as part of the value added to the country in these
tables. Clearly their influence upon the economy of the country
manifests itself only through the "net exports" item in the national
accounts. Statistics on coal production are also unreliable, because
output data provided by the Anuario General de Estadistica covers
only that part of production which is transported by railroads. To
obtain the total volume of production, this figure was increased by
40 percent on the basis of estimates of the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum.

Data on the value of production of limestone, minerals and
metals exploited in very small quantities is scant. However, estimates
of value and output and value added were made on the basis of data
provided by the Banco de la Republica and private sources, and seem
reasonably accurate.

D. Transport

Railroads

Value added in railroad transport can be estimated almost
directly from available statistics. Table A-17 presents a breakdown
of revenues and expenditures of the Colombian Railroads year by year
from 1939 to 1947. Statistics on revenues, expenditures, wages, etc.
of national, departmental and private railroads were provided by the
Anuario General de Estadistica. Estimates of depreciation charges
have been made by the staff of the Banco de la Republica. A break-
down of cost structure will be found in Table A-18, and value added
is shown in Table A-19.

Computation of Revenues and Expenditures of Other Forms of Transportation

Data on other forms of transport are practically non-existent.
In the case of trucks, buses, airlines, inland shipping and streetcars,









- 16 -


than total apparent gross receipts of the "factor of production."
We have estimated it at 65 percent of these receipts. Value added
in handicrafts in the census year, calculated on this basis, is
Ps.$73.5 million. This figure was projected from 1939 to 1948 in
Table A-14, on the assumption that output was increasing at a rate
of 2 percent per year, while prices followed the fluctuations of the
industrial unit price index.

C. dining

Tables A-15 and A-16 provide a breakdown of the cost of mining
production in 1945 and series on total value of mining output and
value added per year from 1939 to 1949. Major sources of statisti-
cal material were the bulletins of the Banco de la Republica, the
Ministry of Mines, reports from foreign oil companies and the Anuario
General de Estadistica.

The profits exported abroad of the petroleum and gold companies
are not included as part of the value added to the country in these
tables. Clearly their influence upon the economy of the country
manifests itself only through the "net exports" item in the national
accounts. Statistics on coal production are also unreliable, because
output data provided by the Anuario General de Estadistica covers
only that part of production which is transported by railroads. To
obtain the total volume of production, this figure was increased by
40 percent on the basis of estimates of the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum.

Data on the value of production of limestone, minerals and
metals exploited in very small quantities is scant. However, estimates
of value and output and value added were made on the basis of data
provided by the Banco de la Republica and private sources, and seem
reasonably accurate.

D. Transport

Railroads

Value added in railroad transport can be estimated almost
directly from available statistics. Table A-17 presents a breakdown
of revenues and expenditures of the Colombian Railroads year by year
from 1939 to 1947. Statistics on revenues, expenditures, wages, etc.
of national, departmental and private railroads were provided by the
Anuario General de Estadistica. Estimates of depreciation charges
have been made by the staff of the Banco de la Republica. A break-
down of cost structure will be found in Table A-18, and value added
is shown in Table A-19.

Computation of Revenues and Expenditures of Other Forms of Transportation

Data on other forms of transport are practically non-existent.
In the case of trucks, buses, airlines, inland shipping and streetcars,









- 16 -


than total apparent gross receipts of the "factor of production."
We have estimated it at 65 percent of these receipts. Value added
in handicrafts in the census year, calculated on this basis, is
Ps.$73.5 million. This figure was projected from 1939 to 1948 in
Table A-14, on the assumption that output was increasing at a rate
of 2 percent per year, while prices followed the fluctuations of the
industrial unit price index.

C. dining

Tables A-15 and A-16 provide a breakdown of the cost of mining
production in 1945 and series on total value of mining output and
value added per year from 1939 to 1949. Major sources of statisti-
cal material were the bulletins of the Banco de la Republica, the
Ministry of Mines, reports from foreign oil companies and the Anuario
General de Estadistica.

The profits exported abroad of the petroleum and gold companies
are not included as part of the value added to the country in these
tables. Clearly their influence upon the economy of the country
manifests itself only through the "net exports" item in the national
accounts. Statistics on coal production are also unreliable, because
output data provided by the Anuario General de Estadistica covers
only that part of production which is transported by railroads. To
obtain the total volume of production, this figure was increased by
40 percent on the basis of estimates of the Ministry of Mines and
Petroleum.

Data on the value of production of limestone, minerals and
metals exploited in very small quantities is scant. However, estimates
of value and output and value added were made on the basis of data
provided by the Banco de la Republica and private sources, and seem
reasonably accurate.

D. Transport

Railroads

Value added in railroad transport can be estimated almost
directly from available statistics. Table A-17 presents a breakdown
of revenues and expenditures of the Colombian Railroads year by year
from 1939 to 1947. Statistics on revenues, expenditures, wages, etc.
of national, departmental and private railroads were provided by the
Anuario General de Estadistica. Estimates of depreciation charges
have been made by the staff of the Banco de la Republica. A break-
down of cost structure will be found in Table A-18, and value added
is shown in Table A-19.

Computation of Revenues and Expenditures of Other Forms of Transportation

Data on other forms of transport are practically non-existent.
In the case of trucks, buses, airlines, inland shipping and streetcars,









- 17 -


the Mission made a study of: (a) traffic flows in tons, kilometers,
or passenger kilometers; (b) freight per ton or passenger kilometer;
(c) gross revenues (a) multiplied by (b); and (d) cost structure.
Value added was obtained for these fields and railroads (Table A-19)
and it was then estimated that the value added by all other forms of
traffic (human, animal, pipelines, coastwise and international ship-
ping, public automobiles, etc.) amounted to 19 percent of the value
added in the major transport fields. Further verification may prove
this an understatement.

No attempt will be made to describe in detail the procedure
through which revenues were calculated. Substantially, this compu-
tation took the following form:

traffic study. Truck and bus traffic was calculated on the
basis of the number of conveyances available, their gross and net
capacity, consumption of gasoline and tires, records of number of
trucks moving on roads, etc. Scattered data provided by transport
firms were also used.

Airlines traffic for 1938-1948 was extrapolated from data pro-
vided for 1944-1947 in the Anuario General de Estadistica.

Data on tons transported by inland shipping were available and
it was assumed that,on the average, freight was moved over 350 kilo-
meters.

Data on passengers transported by streetcars were available.

Rates per transport units. A study of data provided by major
firms indicated that, by and large, truck rates were double, bus
rates equal to, and inland shipping rates half, the rates charged
by railroads for .similar services. Data on air rates and streetcar
fares were available. Series were then constructed and are shown
in Table A-20.

The matching of these two classes of information provided an
estimate of revenues. It remained to calculate the breakdown of
expenditures in order to obtain the value-added ratio for 1945.

Expenditures in Operation of Buses. Trucks. Public Automobiles
and Streetcars.. A survey of statistics provided by private sources
indicates that in 1945 the use of 100 vehicles of more than two tons
implied the employment of 100 drivers earning wages of about
Ps.$105 monthly, and 100 assistant drivers earning average wages of
about Ps.$60 monthly. In addition, 25 employees were needed, earn-
ing an average of Ps.$150 monthly. In the case of light buses and
trucks, only 100 drivers and 25 employees were used.







- 18 -


In 1945 there were 10,062 trucks, of which 6,510 had a capacity
of less than two tons. The wage bill could be assumed to be:

(millions)
10,062 drivers................. Ps.12.7
3,552 assistant drivers...... 2.1
2,500 employees ............... 4.5

Total wages and salaries....... Ps.$19.3

Managerial income and earningswere estimated at 12 percent of gross
revenues on the basis of data provided by the Superintendent of Cor-
porations. As shown in Table A-18, therefore, value added was
assumed to represent 45 percent of gross revenues.

Applying the same reasoning to the 3,738 buses in existence in
Colombia in 1945, we obtain the data indicated in Table A-18.

There were in 1945, 4,414 public automobiles. From statistics
provided by the owners of taxicab fleets, drivers were earning
Ps.$60 per month and employees Ps.$145 per month. There were four
drivers per employee. The rate of profit is unknown; however, it
can be assumed to be close to that prevailing in truck and bus trans-
port.

Only Bogota, Pereira and Medellin have streetcar services. They
are owned and operated by the municipalities. Of great importance
twenty years ago, the streetcars are progressively being replaced by
buses, mostly privately owned. Bogota, however, is acquiring new
streetcar equipment; the great length of lines and the heaviness of
traffic seem to justify even further expansion.

The growth of urban streetcar traffic is remarkable; in Bogota,
56,463,000 passengers were carried in 1947 as against 37,545,000 in
1943. In Medellin, traffic was 16,411,000 passengers in 1947 against
12,234,000 in 1943.

The Anuario General de Estadistica provides the following
operating statistics for 1945:
(thousands)
Revenues Expenditures
Bogota Ps.$2,569 Ps.$2,017
Medellin 803 598
Pereira 73 6
Monzerrate (Cable Car) 719
Ps. 515 Ps,$2.699

According to this table, gross profits may have been ?s.$0.8 million.
This is confirmed by private sources. By comparison with other
transport activities, the total of wages and salaries is estimated at
Ps.$1.12 million. Value added is thus assumed to be 60 percent of the








- 19 -


total value of services (see Table A-18).

River Transport. According to an important river transport
firm, the total of payments for salaries, wages and social security
was Ps.$0.01468 per ton-kilometer in 1945. According to the Super-
intendent of Corporations, gross profits of river transport cor-
porations amounted to 13.6 percent of gross revenues in the same
year. The value added by river transport shown in Table A-19 was
calculated on these bases.

Air Transport. Revenue, calculated as outlined above, matched
with data provided by the Superintendent of Corporations, indicated
that the total revenue of three airlines in 1945 amounted to Ps.$15.9
million. The staff of the Banco de la Republica estimates that the
total wage bill of these three airlines was Ps.$5.36 million, and
their gross profits were estimated at 10 percent of gross revenue,
according to private sources. Value added thus amounted to 44 per-
cent of gross revenues.

E. Construction

A full discussion of value added in construction will be found
in the discussion of gross capital formation estimates.

F. Commerce and Distribution

The underlying causes for the current shortcomings of commerce
and distribution in Colombia may be found in the history of the
economic development of the country in the last thirty years.
Colombia, up to the late twenties, was largely a "colonial country."
The mainstay of the economy was coffee. The exchange proceeds from
coffee were mainly used for the purchase of equipment by the Govern-
ment, and of consumers' goods by the small privileged class.

Trade was thus organized primarily for-the importation and ex-
portation of goods to which the commercial and managerial ability of
the country was dedicated. Importers were also wholesalers and often
retailers, and a multiplicity of small merchants sold imported goods.
In contrast to this organization, a primitive marketing system existed
for locally produced goods.

Rural areas were for all practical purposes a close economy.
Towns were small and supplied with foodstuffs by neighboring farm
areas. The lack of adequate roads, the small size of the consuming
market and the low price of foodstuffs defeated any attempt at large-
scale organization of food distribution. Farmers went every day to
the town and sold their own products at the market place.

Since the crisis of the thirties, the economy of Colombia has
"de-colonialized" itself, perhaps because it became evident that








- 19 -


total value of services (see Table A-18).

River Transport. According to an important river transport
firm, the total of payments for salaries, wages and social security
was Ps.$0.01468 per ton-kilometer in 1945. According to the Super-
intendent of Corporations, gross profits of river transport cor-
porations amounted to 13.6 percent of gross revenues in the same
year. The value added by river transport shown in Table A-19 was
calculated on these bases.

Air Transport. Revenue, calculated as outlined above, matched
with data provided by the Superintendent of Corporations, indicated
that the total revenue of three airlines in 1945 amounted to Ps.$15.9
million. The staff of the Banco de la Republica estimates that the
total wage bill of these three airlines was Ps.$5.36 million, and
their gross profits were estimated at 10 percent of gross revenue,
according to private sources. Value added thus amounted to 44 per-
cent of gross revenues.

E. Construction

A full discussion of value added in construction will be found
in the discussion of gross capital formation estimates.

F. Commerce and Distribution

The underlying causes for the current shortcomings of commerce
and distribution in Colombia may be found in the history of the
economic development of the country in the last thirty years.
Colombia, up to the late twenties, was largely a "colonial country."
The mainstay of the economy was coffee. The exchange proceeds from
coffee were mainly used for the purchase of equipment by the Govern-
ment, and of consumers' goods by the small privileged class.

Trade was thus organized primarily for-the importation and ex-
portation of goods to which the commercial and managerial ability of
the country was dedicated. Importers were also wholesalers and often
retailers, and a multiplicity of small merchants sold imported goods.
In contrast to this organization, a primitive marketing system existed
for locally produced goods.

Rural areas were for all practical purposes a close economy.
Towns were small and supplied with foodstuffs by neighboring farm
areas. The lack of adequate roads, the small size of the consuming
market and the low price of foodstuffs defeated any attempt at large-
scale organization of food distribution. Farmers went every day to
the town and sold their own products at the market place.

Since the crisis of the thirties, the economy of Colombia has
"de-colonialized" itself, perhaps because it became evident that








- 20 -


coffee could not be relied upon to support the entire population.
Cereals and other food crops acquired an increasing importance in
agricultural income. Also, industries started growing, perhaps
because the shortage-of exchange of the thirties gave an impetus to
local production. Towns developed rapidly as a result of the
progressive industrialization of the country.

New industries, unhampered by institutional obstacles, started
developing their own marketing system. They regarded with distrust
the sales organizations of importers who were accustomed, owing to
the smallness of their markets, to small sales and large profits, and
started opening distributing branches all over the country.

Little progress was made, however, in the distribution of agri-
cultural products. Most crops are still marketed in a quasi-primitive
fashion.

This is not true, however, of some industrial crops, often grown
on large properties, which the government decided to support through
prices and quotas in a pursuit of self-sufficiency. Starting in the
forties, large-scale purchases of oil seeds, cotton and wheat were
made. Purchasers were either Colombian industry or the Government,
through the Instituto Nacional de Abastecimientos.

But food crops, whether their wholesale marketing is modern or
not, are still distributed retail in a most inefficient fashion,
either through unhealthy and inadequate market places, or through very
small stores.

The small store remains an-institution. It still serves to dis-
tribute imported products, processed foodstuffs of local origin, and
even local industrial products when their nature is such as to neces-
sitate more than a small number of retail outlets (as in the case of
beer, cigarettes, etc.). Lack of mobility of the urban population
hampers development of large retail units.

Chain stores are still-unimportant, but are vigorously promoted.
Currently their sales are still small compared to the bulk of trade.

The implications of such a microcosmic organization are obvious.
Almost nothing has occurred to modify the "importers and small traders"
mentality. Very large profit margins are charged because of the small
turnover and also because of the need to carry large inventories. The
spreads between c.i.f. imported prices, or farm prices, and retail
prices are enormous. Tariffs, transport costs and consumers taxes of
course account partially for these spreads, but large profit margins
are responsible for most of the mark-up.

Inasmuch as no careful investigation has been made of mark-ups
in the major categories of goods in Colombia, it was necessary to
estimate them on the basis of conversations with trade associations,
exporters and importers, visits to market places, deductions from
certain sporadic wholesale and retail price statistics, and indices








- 21 -


recently established by the Contraloria on the commercial prices of
principal cost-of-living goods. The general conclusions reached were
that the mark-ups (including importer or exporter, wholesaler, semi-
retailer and retailer by major activities) were in the general ranges
shown below:

Industrial Production: 15 to 25 percent of value of product,
f.o.b. factory
Agricultural Production: 7 to 12-1/2 percent above value at
first rural market
Agricultural Industries, Handicrafts, Animals and
Subproducts, Dairy Farming: 10 to 20 percent above value at
first rural market
Mining: 10 percent above value f.o.b. mine
Imports: 20 to 35 percent above cost delivered ocean harbor
Exports: 5 to 10 percent above cost delivered ocean harbor.

The total value of service rendered by commerce was estimated on these
conservative bases.

In the computation of capital formation, however, higher markups
were utilized to express the spread between the cost of goods delivered
to the businessman and the price of the goods to the purchaser. It was
assumed that the mark-up of the importers was on the average 30 percent
above the cost of the goods delivered to them, while in the case of
locally-produced capital goods it was 20 percent above such delivery
costs. Machines and, in general, all categories of goods with a high
unit cost (and these were "capital formation goods") are submitted to
higher mark-up ratios than all other goods.

According to the Superintendencia de Sociedades Anonimas, gross
profits in commerce were in 1945 approximately 6.2% of total sales.

An analysis of some balance sheets of Colombian firms also reveals
that payments for interest, warehousing, financing, depreciation, etc.
amounted in 1945 to about 30 percent of the total mark-ups. The total
value of wages and salaries, enterpreneurial profits, direct taxes,
retained earnings, or the value added by commerce was thus 70 percent
of the total value of services rendered. Admittedly, this estimate is
unsatisfactory and needs revision and rectification. However, the figures
it provides for'value added (about 15 percent of national income) do not
substantially deviate from estimates for other neighboring countries.

G. Public Utilities

Electric Power

There are no reliable statistics on revenues, wages, salaries and
profits of electric power producers in Colombia. We had thus to study
consumption, compute revenues, and estimate the value-added ratio.








- 21 -


recently established by the Contraloria on the commercial prices of
principal cost-of-living goods. The general conclusions reached were
that the mark-ups (including importer or exporter, wholesaler, semi-
retailer and retailer by major activities) were in the general ranges
shown below:

Industrial Production: 15 to 25 percent of value of product,
f.o.b. factory
Agricultural Production: 7 to 12-1/2 percent above value at
first rural market
Agricultural Industries, Handicrafts, Animals and
Subproducts, Dairy Farming: 10 to 20 percent above value at
first rural market
Mining: 10 percent above value f.o.b. mine
Imports: 20 to 35 percent above cost delivered ocean harbor
Exports: 5 to 10 percent above cost delivered ocean harbor.

The total value of service rendered by commerce was estimated on these
conservative bases.

In the computation of capital formation, however, higher markups
were utilized to express the spread between the cost of goods delivered
to the businessman and the price of the goods to the purchaser. It was
assumed that the mark-up of the importers was on the average 30 percent
above the cost of the goods delivered to them, while in the case of
locally-produced capital goods it was 20 percent above such delivery
costs. Machines and, in general, all categories of goods with a high
unit cost (and these were "capital formation goods") are submitted to
higher mark-up ratios than all other goods.

According to the Superintendencia de Sociedades Anonimas, gross
profits in commerce were in 1945 approximately 6.2% of total sales.

An analysis of some balance sheets of Colombian firms also reveals
that payments for interest, warehousing, financing, depreciation, etc.
amounted in 1945 to about 30 percent of the total mark-ups. The total
value of wages and salaries, enterpreneurial profits, direct taxes,
retained earnings, or the value added by commerce was thus 70 percent
of the total value of services rendered. Admittedly, this estimate is
unsatisfactory and needs revision and rectification. However, the figures
it provides for'value added (about 15 percent of national income) do not
substantially deviate from estimates for other neighboring countries.

G. Public Utilities

Electric Power

There are no reliable statistics on revenues, wages, salaries and
profits of electric power producers in Colombia. We had thus to study
consumption, compute revenues, and estimate the value-added ratio.








- 22 -


The only firm basis for a study of Colombian consumption of power
is the series on output of the Bogota, Medellin and Barranquilla plants,
issued by the Banco de la Republica. Our first task was to extrapolate
consumption figures from suoply data. This was made on the basis of
statistics provided by municipalities which indicated that consumption
of electric power in main centers was 82 percent of production (30 per-
cent of the power consumed went to industries in 1945 as in 1948).
Also, on the basis of data on electric power consumption in major munic-
ipalities, it was possible to determine that the total sales of electric
power in twelve major centers were approximately 25 to 33 percent above
sales of power in Bogota, Barranquilla and Medellin.Z/ An estimate of the
total consumption of power in the country was then obtained by assuming
that the ratio of power consumption in the small municipalities to power
consumption in the large ones was proportional to the installed generating
capacity.

Data for 1938-1940 were extrapolated. To these figures on total
consumption were applied average kwh. rates as reported by the Instituto
de Aprovechamiento de Agua y Fuerzas Electricas and hypothetical revenues
were thus computed. Value-added ratio was estimated at 80 percent on the
basis of information provided by private sources, and Table A-21 summa-
rizes these estimates.

Other Public Utilities

Table A-22 presents series on gross revenues of telephone, tele-
graph and radio services. Value-added ratio is estimated at 80 percent.

H. Banking, Finance and Government

The Superintendent of Banks and the Banco de la Republica provide
accurate and complete data on the revenues of banks and payments to per-
sonnel and owners, and the total value of services provided by banks,
insurance companies and stock exchange has been computed by the staff of
the Banco de la Republica. Data given in Table A-23, therefore, may be
a close approximation to value added in these fields. There is no useful
information on the value of services and others. The series presented in
Table A-14 is based on the assumption that these residual items represent



2/ These statistics correspond quite closely to data provided by the
Contraloria on public utility sales from 1941 to 1943. In making these
statistics the Contraloria utilized data provided by approximately one-
third to two-thirds of the total public utility plants of the country -
presumably the most important ones, located in the major centers.
The data on power from 1941 to 1943 provided by the Contraloria (Anuario
General de Estadistica) does not seem to correspond with the series pro-
vided for 1938-40. It was assumed that this was due to faulty statistics
and that only the series presented for 1941-43 should be considered
reliable.








- 22 -


The only firm basis for a study of Colombian consumption of power
is the series on output of the Bogota, Medellin and Barranquilla plants,
issued by the Banco de la Republica. Our first task was to extrapolate
consumption figures from suoply data. This was made on the basis of
statistics provided by municipalities which indicated that consumption
of electric power in main centers was 82 percent of production (30 per-
cent of the power consumed went to industries in 1945 as in 1948).
Also, on the basis of data on electric power consumption in major munic-
ipalities, it was possible to determine that the total sales of electric
power in twelve major centers were approximately 25 to 33 percent above
sales of power in Bogota, Barranquilla and Medellin.Z/ An estimate of the
total consumption of power in the country was then obtained by assuming
that the ratio of power consumption in the small municipalities to power
consumption in the large ones was proportional to the installed generating
capacity.

Data for 1938-1940 were extrapolated. To these figures on total
consumption were applied average kwh. rates as reported by the Instituto
de Aprovechamiento de Agua y Fuerzas Electricas and hypothetical revenues
were thus computed. Value-added ratio was estimated at 80 percent on the
basis of information provided by private sources, and Table A-21 summa-
rizes these estimates.

Other Public Utilities

Table A-22 presents series on gross revenues of telephone, tele-
graph and radio services. Value-added ratio is estimated at 80 percent.

H. Banking, Finance and Government

The Superintendent of Banks and the Banco de la Republica provide
accurate and complete data on the revenues of banks and payments to per-
sonnel and owners, and the total value of services provided by banks,
insurance companies and stock exchange has been computed by the staff of
the Banco de la Republica. Data given in Table A-23, therefore, may be
a close approximation to value added in these fields. There is no useful
information on the value of services and others. The series presented in
Table A-14 is based on the assumption that these residual items represent



2/ These statistics correspond quite closely to data provided by the
Contraloria on public utility sales from 1941 to 1943. In making these
statistics the Contraloria utilized data provided by approximately one-
third to two-thirds of the total public utility plants of the country -
presumably the most important ones, located in the major centers.
The data on power from 1941 to 1943 provided by the Contraloria (Anuario
General de Estadistica) does not seem to correspond with the series pro-
vided for 1938-40. It was assumed that this was due to faulty statistics
and that only the series presented for 1941-43 should be considered
reliable.








- 23 -


from 15 to 18 percent of the total value of all economic services. The
fluctuation between 15 and 18 percent reflects a judgment passed on the
relative over-estimation or under-estimation of other items of the
"service" category. It is in substance a slight correction of the esti-
mates for transport, commerce, public utilities, etc. All evidence
points to the fact that our estimate for the item "services and others,"
set at Ps.$100 million in 1945, is too small. Profits, wages and salaries
in real estate, and wages and salaries for'domestic servants and for the
liberal professions alone would account for that amount. If to these
totals are added entertainment enterprises, imputed or actual rentals,
the value added would certainly exceed ?s.$100 million. It is, however,
impossible to make any coherent approximation of the total sought, and
the matter will have to be investigated further.

Table A-14 describes the payments to personnel employed by the
national, departmental and municipal Governments, as reported in the
Anuario General de Estadistica, and the Anuario Fiscal y Administrativo.


III. COMPUTATION OF CAPITAL FOPRATION

Gross capital formation as defined in this study is based on im-
ports and local production of durable and capital goods, payments for
trade and transport in the delivery of these goods, payments to factors
of production participating in construction of buildings and dwellings,
payments to maintenance and installation crews and farm labor.

Imported Canital Goods

Series on the value of imports which contribute to capital forma-
tion will be found in Tables A-24, A-25, A-26, A-27 and A-28. The selec-
tion of items was made on the principle that in underdeveloped countries
any durable goods which can be applied to productive processes and which
lead to higher production levels over the short- or.long-term can be
considered capital equipment. Therefore, animals used for reproduction
purposes, seeds used for improving crops or introducing new crops, rubber
tires for trucks, cement, bricks, glass, iron fixtures, etc. are all con-
sidered capital goods.

Statistics give the c.i.f. value of imported equipment, but this is
not actually the" price of the equipment when delivered to the consumer
(or rather the investor). In order to obtain an idea of the cost of
capital formation through imported goods, it was necessary to estimate
the relation between c.i.f. prices and prices delivered to the investor.
For one ton of imported capital equipment a conservative breakdown of
mark-up charges in 1947 follows:








- 23 -


from 15 to 18 percent of the total value of all economic services. The
fluctuation between 15 and 18 percent reflects a judgment passed on the
relative over-estimation or under-estimation of other items of the
"service" category. It is in substance a slight correction of the esti-
mates for transport, commerce, public utilities, etc. All evidence
points to the fact that our estimate for the item "services and others,"
set at Ps.$100 million in 1945, is too small. Profits, wages and salaries
in real estate, and wages and salaries for'domestic servants and for the
liberal professions alone would account for that amount. If to these
totals are added entertainment enterprises, imputed or actual rentals,
the value added would certainly exceed ?s.$100 million. It is, however,
impossible to make any coherent approximation of the total sought, and
the matter will have to be investigated further.

Table A-14 describes the payments to personnel employed by the
national, departmental and municipal Governments, as reported in the
Anuario General de Estadistica, and the Anuario Fiscal y Administrativo.


III. COMPUTATION OF CAPITAL FOPRATION

Gross capital formation as defined in this study is based on im-
ports and local production of durable and capital goods, payments for
trade and transport in the delivery of these goods, payments to factors
of production participating in construction of buildings and dwellings,
payments to maintenance and installation crews and farm labor.

Imported Canital Goods

Series on the value of imports which contribute to capital forma-
tion will be found in Tables A-24, A-25, A-26, A-27 and A-28. The selec-
tion of items was made on the principle that in underdeveloped countries
any durable goods which can be applied to productive processes and which
lead to higher production levels over the short- or.long-term can be
considered capital equipment. Therefore, animals used for reproduction
purposes, seeds used for improving crops or introducing new crops, rubber
tires for trucks, cement, bricks, glass, iron fixtures, etc. are all con-
sidered capital goods.

Statistics give the c.i.f. value of imported equipment, but this is
not actually the" price of the equipment when delivered to the consumer
(or rather the investor). In order to obtain an idea of the cost of
capital formation through imported goods, it was necessary to estimate
the relation between c.i.f. prices and prices delivered to the investor.
For one ton of imported capital equipment a conservative breakdown of
mark-up charges in 1947 follows:










Value of 1 ton capital equipment, c.i.f. (1947).......... Ps.4622
Duties (according to Tarifa de Aduanas 1949 ).......... 15
Transports (average for 1 ton steel Buenaventure to
Medellin or Barranquilla to Bogota).................... 80
Cost delivered plant site................................ 717
Importers mark-up (30 percent on cost) including insurance
of 1 percent on c.i.f. (according to conversations with
importers and FENALCO) ............................... 215
Total price delivered plant site (150 percent of c.i.f.
price).......... 6 .... ...... .......................... 932
Installation expenses (for industrial equipment only)
= 10 percent of value of material, according to several
engineering firms...................................... 93
Total price of 1 ton of industrial equipment installed
(165 percent of c.i.f.).................................Ps.$1023

Domestic Production of Capital Goods

Colombian production of capital or durable goods is small. Except
in the case of cement, data on production is only available for 1944-
1945, and values are given at "factory costs" (excluding gross profits).

Table A-29 describes "factory-costs" of the national production of
capital and durable goods, according to the industrial census of 1944/45.
An f.o.b. price for these goods has been estimated by adding 20 percent
to factory costs. Total estimated value of production was thus Ps.$33.5
million. Applying the index of the value of industrial production
(Table A-12) to this figure, we have computed the series shown in Table
A-30.

Considering the low unit values of capital goods manufactured locally,
the nearness of plants to the markets, the absence of import duties, and
the control which the producers are able to assume on distribution costs,
it was estimated that the spread between f.o.b. prices snd delivered
prices in the case of construction material did not exceed 25 percent.
The same ratio was applied to other capital and durable domestic goods,
although it is obvious that this technique implies an understatement.
Improvement of the technique clearly awaits improvement in Colombian
f.o.b. price statistics.

Construction Costs

As shown above, transport and trade absorb an important part of the
investment in equipment; but the major local recipients of expenditures
on capital formation are undoubtedly the construction workers and owners
of construction enterprises. Their mode of participation can be classi-
fied in two major categories namely, construction of buildings and
dwellings and construction and improvement of roads, railroads, ports,
harbors, and irrigation works.

Official statistics are available on both government and private


- 4 -










Value of 1 ton capital equipment, c.i.f. (1947).......... Ps.4622
Duties (according to Tarifa de Aduanas 1949 ).......... 15
Transports (average for 1 ton steel Buenaventure to
Medellin or Barranquilla to Bogota).................... 80
Cost delivered plant site................................ 717
Importers mark-up (30 percent on cost) including insurance
of 1 percent on c.i.f. (according to conversations with
importers and FENALCO) ............................... 215
Total price delivered plant site (150 percent of c.i.f.
price).......... 6 .... ...... .......................... 932
Installation expenses (for industrial equipment only)
= 10 percent of value of material, according to several
engineering firms...................................... 93
Total price of 1 ton of industrial equipment installed
(165 percent of c.i.f.).................................Ps.$1023

Domestic Production of Capital Goods

Colombian production of capital or durable goods is small. Except
in the case of cement, data on production is only available for 1944-
1945, and values are given at "factory costs" (excluding gross profits).

Table A-29 describes "factory-costs" of the national production of
capital and durable goods, according to the industrial census of 1944/45.
An f.o.b. price for these goods has been estimated by adding 20 percent
to factory costs. Total estimated value of production was thus Ps.$33.5
million. Applying the index of the value of industrial production
(Table A-12) to this figure, we have computed the series shown in Table
A-30.

Considering the low unit values of capital goods manufactured locally,
the nearness of plants to the markets, the absence of import duties, and
the control which the producers are able to assume on distribution costs,
it was estimated that the spread between f.o.b. prices snd delivered
prices in the case of construction material did not exceed 25 percent.
The same ratio was applied to other capital and durable domestic goods,
although it is obvious that this technique implies an understatement.
Improvement of the technique clearly awaits improvement in Colombian
f.o.b. price statistics.

Construction Costs

As shown above, transport and trade absorb an important part of the
investment in equipment; but the major local recipients of expenditures
on capital formation are undoubtedly the construction workers and owners
of construction enterprises. Their mode of participation can be classi-
fied in two major categories namely, construction of buildings and
dwellings and construction and improvement of roads, railroads, ports,
harbors, and irrigation works.

Official statistics are available on both government and private


- 4 -








- 25 -


investment in all forms of building and dwelling construction (factories,
houses and hotels, commercial buildings, schools, etc.). A considerable
amount of adjustment of these statistics is called for because they cover
only investment in major towns, seem to disregard low-cost workers'
dwelling construction and do not include rural housing.

Table A-31 provides an estimate of the total value of buildings and
dwelling construction from 1939 to 1947. These figures were obtained as
follows:

(a) An estimate was made of the number of houses built each year for
each major income group.

(b) An estimate of the size of houses was also made, and the total
amount of square meters of dwelling built yearly in each category com-
puted.

(c) Average unit costs for the construction of various types of
dwellings were applied to these area data.

In the case of other buildings, resort was made to official statis-
tics kept by the Contraloria General and the Banco de la Republica.

Investment of the Nation, the departments, and the municipalities
in new projects and in the maintenance of old projects is presented in
Tables A-32, A-33, A-34, in two functional breakdowns: namely, by end use
(railways, harbors, buildings, hydroelectric plants, agriculture, commun-
ity services or municipal improvements, highways) and by types (buildings,
maintenance, public works).

Once the total value of construction was obtained, as shown in Table
A-35, a deduction was made of all "delivered" costs of equipment and
material of imported or local origin, which were calculated by resorting
to Tables A-24 to A-30. The residual indicated was, by necessity, approx-
imately equal to value added in construction. It will be seen that this
residual is roughly equivalent to 50% of the total value of construction,
a ratio which has also been indicated by builders and contractors.

Other Items of Capital Formation

Three major. categories of items participating in gross capital forma-
tion remained to be estimated. Installation costs, as we have seen,
amount to 10 percent of the delivered costs of equipment. In Table A-30,
series are calculated for these two items from 1939 to 1947. Maintenance
costs relate mainly to maintenance of highways and railways and maintenance
of private rolling stock (motor cars and trucks). Table A-32 describes
total investment in maintenance for public railroads and roads. Half of
this total, it was assumed, would represent payments to maintenance workers
while the other half was already accounted for, under the item "delivered
value of equipment." In addition, the labor costs of maintenance of private









- 26 -


rolling stock were estimated at Ps.$5 million in 1947, and those costs
for other years were assumed to be proportionate to those of govern-
ment maintenance. Finally, provision was made for the work of the
farmer in the opening of new lands. This value was estimated on the
assumption that the investment in the opening of land is equal to the
capital value of the land opened each year.

Gross Capital Formation

Series on gross capital formation shown in Table A-30 are believed
to be underestimated. Net capital formation can be calculated by the
deduction of depreciation allowances from the gross. Table A-36 breaks
down these allowances into major categories. These series (for dwell-
ings, buildings, rolling stock, railways and industries) were calcu-
lated as follows:

1. Depreciation of houses was calculated by assigning a replace-
ment cost to the square meter area depreciated for each type of dwelling.

2* The same technique was applied to buildings.

3. The numbers of vehicles in operation each year were matched with
imports to calculate depreciation. Value imputed is the average value of
imports for a given year.

4. Depreciation for industries has been estimated for 1944/45 as
a percentage of the total value of production, and this percentage is
assumed to have remained constant in the last decade.

5. Depreciation in railways has been estimated by the staff of the
Banco de la Republica.

Depreciation in other fields is tentatively assumed to have
amounted to 10 percent of the total value of items cited above.

Government Contribution to National Accounts

Government expenditures and government revenues play an important
role in the structure of national accounts. In the calculation of
gross national income on the income side of the accounts, they deter-
mine the size of items such as transfers, income tax, indirect taxes,
subsidies, and deficit or surplus of government enterprises.

In the calculation of gross national expenditures, they control
the items of Government investment, and expenditures of the Govern-
ment on current goods and services.

In order to obtain an estimate of these items, it was necessary to
present the accounts of national, departmental, and municipal govern-
ments in a specialized form. This is done in Tables A-37, A-38, A-39
and A-40, based mainly on documents of the Contraloria General.









- 26 -


rolling stock were estimated at Ps.$5 million in 1947, and those costs
for other years were assumed to be proportionate to those of govern-
ment maintenance. Finally, provision was made for the work of the
farmer in the opening of new lands. This value was estimated on the
assumption that the investment in the opening of land is equal to the
capital value of the land opened each year.

Gross Capital Formation

Series on gross capital formation shown in Table A-30 are believed
to be underestimated. Net capital formation can be calculated by the
deduction of depreciation allowances from the gross. Table A-36 breaks
down these allowances into major categories. These series (for dwell-
ings, buildings, rolling stock, railways and industries) were calcu-
lated as follows:

1. Depreciation of houses was calculated by assigning a replace-
ment cost to the square meter area depreciated for each type of dwelling.

2* The same technique was applied to buildings.

3. The numbers of vehicles in operation each year were matched with
imports to calculate depreciation. Value imputed is the average value of
imports for a given year.

4. Depreciation for industries has been estimated for 1944/45 as
a percentage of the total value of production, and this percentage is
assumed to have remained constant in the last decade.

5. Depreciation in railways has been estimated by the staff of the
Banco de la Republica.

Depreciation in other fields is tentatively assumed to have
amounted to 10 percent of the total value of items cited above.

Government Contribution to National Accounts

Government expenditures and government revenues play an important
role in the structure of national accounts. In the calculation of
gross national income on the income side of the accounts, they deter-
mine the size of items such as transfers, income tax, indirect taxes,
subsidies, and deficit or surplus of government enterprises.

In the calculation of gross national expenditures, they control
the items of Government investment, and expenditures of the Govern-
ment on current goods and services.

In order to obtain an estimate of these items, it was necessary to
present the accounts of national, departmental, and municipal govern-
ments in a specialized form. This is done in Tables A-37, A-38, A-39
and A-40, based mainly on documents of the Contraloria General.








-27 -



It was first necessary to obtain an adequate picture of expendi-
tures by the Government, and thus to eliminate the transfers from
nation to departments and departments to municipalities. This is done
in Table A-38.

Also, the business account of government (expenditures and receipts
incurred in the sale of goods and services by government enterprises)
had to be estimated. A summary statement is found in Table A-39.

Total taxes and transfers are shown in Table A-40 in a way which
may depart from usual practice. These elements are brought together in
Table A-37, with figures on capital formation by the government sector.
Two important residuals emerge, namely, the current expenditures on goods
and services (total expenditures in Table A-38 minus transfers, Table
A-40; minus business expenditures, Table A-37; minus Government capital
formation) and Government deficit (expenditures minus receipts).







Table A-li GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT AND COMPONENTS, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)

Item 19, __"1....1__ 1 .,942 19,--' 194 1
Item1ear
...1929 1940 1941 1942 124 194L 1945 1926 1947


Expenditure components 1,236,0
Government expenditures, on
S goods and services, current 97.0
Government expenditures on
goods and services, capital 50.8
Private gross capital formation 102.5
Net exports (+) ) -47.0
Net imports (-)
Consumer expenditures 1,032.7


Income components
-Depreciation
-Indirect taxes and profits of
government enterprises


1,236.0
38.1


1.196.5 1.239,2 1.342.1 1.525.1 1.878.4 2.366.6 2.906.2 3.673.8


102.1 88.1 113.6 139.9 162.4 154.3


66.5 65.0 81.0
98.2 112.5 75.7


212.2 269.4


78.5 76.7 97.7 130.8 165.0
81.3 110.2 203.0 324.2 447.0


- 20.0 36.0 + 66.0 + 72.0 + 52.0 35.0 51.0 193.0
949.7 1,009.6 1,005.8 1,153.4 1,477.1 1,946.6 2,290.0 2,985.4


1,196.5
33.6


1,239.2
33.7


1.342.1
46.5


1,525.1
37.5


1,878.4
38.8


2,366.6
87.1


2,906.2
110.8


3,673.8
128.5


148.9 129.9 142.5 134.6 148.6 179.6 217.5 258.4 306.3


National income
+Transfer payments
-Retained earnings

Personal income
-Income taxes

Disposable income
-Consumer expenditures
Personal savings


1,049.0
14.6
10.0

1,053.6
21.6

1,032.0
1,032.7
.7


1,033.0
21.7
20.0

1,034.7
24.3

1,010.4
949.7
60.7


1,063.0
18.4
20.0

1,061.4
24.7

1,036.7
1,009.6
27.1


1,159.0
23.9
20.0

1,162.9
33.2

1,129.7
1,005.8
123.9


1,339.0
28.8
20.0

1,347.8
49.1

1,298.7
1,153.4
145.3


1,660.0
26.2
50.0

1,636.2
55.3

1,580.9
1,477.1
103.8


2,062.0
38.5
50.0

2,050.5
67.1

1,983.4
1,946.6
36.8


2,537.0
39.0
140.0

2,436.0
87.6

2,348.4
2,290.0
58.4


3,239.0
42.0
150.0

3,131.0
130.1

3,000.9
2,985.4
15.5


- --


- ---











Product
| ---


Pare 1


____________e2f- ar--


19 1938 1939 1940 1941 142 1943 194 1945 16 1947 194
(a) a) M (bh ) (a (b (a () ) aa ab l ) () (a ) (b ((a) (b) (a) (() (a) (b) (a) (b) (a)


Rice

Corn

Wheat

Barley


Potatoes

Tuoca/rea

Plantains

: ananas

sugar
Panel

Niel

Cacao

Coffee

Cotton (Fibro)

Tobacco

Fibres (Tiq.ue)

See footnotes c


54 75 ... 75 .. 77 .54 87 61 87 61 68 79 88 84 83 98 118

500 491 ... 550 ... 61o 491 578 471 548 535 564 525 617 568 615 749 620

98 91 ... '126 ... 125 91 142 64 108 118 91 102 81 :113 82 90 119

4 6 ... 7 ... 9 9 19 11 10 10 6 11 10 12 18 11 26

30 36 ... 35 ... 33 30 32 31 33 34 41 37 49 37 57 60 60

225 371 ... 459 ... 444 ... 398 ... 418 ... 345 ... 402 ... 448 ... 460
400 437 ... 474 ... 511 ... 548 .. 585 ... 622 ... 659 ... 696 ... 730

960 955 ... 955 ... 955 ... 955 ... 955 955 955 ... 955 ... 955 ... 951

185 ... 195 ... 184 ... 128 ... 77 ... 7 ... ... 12 ... 30 ...

36 47 ... 46 ... 48 ... 58 ... 64 ... 67 ... 72 ... 76 ... 76

506 553 ... 565 ... 578 639 591 ... 604 618 618 630 632 649 646 ... 661

67 77 ... 70 ... 63 ... 56 ... 49 ... 49 ... 49 50 ... 50

11 11 ... 12 ... 14 ... 12 ... 12 ... 9 ... 9 ... 10 ... 11

210 268 268 265 265 267 267 286 286 329 329 317 317 332 332 333 328 325

3 6 ... 7 ... 2 .. 3 ... 5 ... 4 6 ... 5 ... 5

11 14 ... 15 ... 16 ... 18 ... 16 ... 15 .. 15 ... 16 ... 19

10 10 ... 10 ... 10 ... 10 ... 10 .. 10 10 ... 10 .... 10


77 113 93 182
528 620 618 635

72 120 89 118

24 25 ... 29

60 55 45 60

237 460 343 486

... 767 ... 775

... 950 ... 918

41 ... ... 83

... 83 ... 109

... 676 ... 691

... 50 ... 50

o.. 8 ... 11

346 347 369 368

... 6 ... 6

... 19 ... 20

... 10 ... 11


n' following page.


Table A-2Z VOLUKB OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, 1934, 1938-1948
(In thousand tons)


I -I----------------


- --








Table A-2s Continued


General notes
Statistics nmder (a)




Statistics under (b)


from Economia Agricola de Colombia by Raul Varela Martinez.
For ucca/yams, plantains and fique, series projected on basis of 1934 and 1946 volumes of production.
For beans, miel, series projected on basis of 1934, 1938, 1942, 1946 volumes of production.
Statistics for 1947 estimated on basis of series 1944-46 (except for rice, barley, sugar, cotton fibre, for which
statistics are reported).

from Estudio sobre la Conservacion de Alimentos by Instituto Nacional de Abastecimientos, for rice, corn, wheat,
barley, beans (1940-1947) and for potatoes (1946-1947).
from Alimentos, a publication of the Ministry of Commerce and Industries, for panel (1940-42-43-44).
from the Boletin of the Coffee Growers Association, for coffee (these statistics cover the coffee years from the
1st of October of the preceding year to the 30th of September of the current year ).
from the Anuario de Comeroio Exterior, for bananas (non export bananas are reported as plantains).


L/ Less than 50 tons.

3/ Panelat Statistics under (a) projected on a basis of a yearly growth of 2 1/4% from an estimated base figure of 661,000 tons in 1946.


i I I r"r~glls~Pi~s~%l~8ii~gs~--


--P- ------ --







Table A-3 ESSENTIAL COFFEE STATISTICS, 1938-1948


Average Average Average Total f.o.b.
Total value price per f.o.b. price f.o.b. price value
Year Total production a/ as Total exports ton paid per ton per bag
paid to farmer to grower (All coffees) of 60 K.

Bags of Thousand Bags of Thousand
60 K. tons Million pesos 60 K. tons Pesos Million pesos
1938 4,460,000 268 67.00 4,262,366 255.74 250 380.0 22.80 97.18

1939 4,417,000 265 70.76 3,773,652 226.42 267 402.8 24.17 91.20

1940 4,450,000 267 51.53 4,456,852 267.41 193 278.6 16.72 74.50

1941 4,760,760 286 80.94 2,911,505 174.69 283 506.0 30.36 88.40

1942 5,487,626 329 97.06 4,309,472 258.57 295 559.6 33.58 144.70

1943 5,282,659 317 101.76 5,250,922 315.06 321 558.0 33.48 175.80

1944 5,533,080 332 128.82 4,923,305 295.40 388 557.5 '33.45 164.70

.1945 5,478,391 328 142.35 5,149,389 308.96 434 592.6 35.56 183.10

1946 5,761,779 346 207.60 5,661,464 339.69 600 807.7 48.46 274.38
1947 6,158,605 370 283.78 5,338,866 320.28 768 1,076.4 64.58 344.76

1948 5,529,263 332 261.71 5,587,535 335.25 789 ......

I/ Production shown for coffee years, from slt of October of past year to 30th of September of year indicated*


Sources Boletin de la Asociacion Naoional de Cafeterosb


I Car~lllsnuPm~rrPg~m~DI~~-n~-~,-li






Table A-4s UNIT PRICES OF MAJOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, 1938-1948
(Price at rural market in pesos per arrobae/)


Year
Commodity 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948

Panela 1.47 1.70 2.01 1.43 1.65 2.05 2.80 3.18 2.95 3.42 2.87

Sugar 2.02 2.29 2.56 2.25 2.69 2.30 2.53 3.22 3.58 3.87 3.91
Corn 1.06 1.28 1.08 0.89 1.29 1.80 2.12 2.19 2.32 2.50 3.40
Wheat 1.65 2.35 1.85 1.79 2.58 3.22 2.82 4.15 4.70 3.70 5.40
Rice 2.53 2.68 2.50 2.58 3.28 3.89 4.30 4.58 4.58 7.43 7.28

Yucca 0.53 0.63 0.43 0.40 0.71 0.88 0.92 1.08 1.15 1.78 1.78

Potatoes 1.27 1.47 1.11 1.09 1.59 2.30 3.10 3.04 3.17 3.40 3.50
Plantain o 0.60/ 0.65 0.51 0.46 0.60&/ 0.609/ 0.79 0.84 1.09 0.59 0.70
Beans 2.89 3.07 2.84 3.18 3.61 6.00 5.52 4.80 8.64 8.29 10.40

Cacao 8.45 8.37 7.07 8.41 9.35 12.66 12.67 11.97 16.42 17.43 25.96

Barley 2.08 2.49 2.15 2.08 2.83 3.53 4.43 4.45 4.83 4.60 5.46


]/ Arroba a
2/ Assumed.


12.5 kilograms


Source: Weighted average of prices given by Anuario General de Estadistica and Banco de la Republica.


~ IIIBPPI~Y~g~IYBilR1W~iSL(llliB~m~7;r'







Table A-fs AGRICULTUREt VALUE OF PROCESSED CROPS, 1938-1948
(Whether or not included in industrial statistics)


(In million pesos)

Year
Product 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948

Lint cotton 2.66 2.66 1.78 2.23 2.12 2.78 5.50 4.801/ 5.50 11.90 18.30
Sugar cane derivatives
Sugar
Market price 7.60 8.40 9.80 10.40 13.80 12.30 14.60 19.60 21.80 25.70 33.80
Mill price 6.50 6.80 8.60 11.30 8.10 9.70 12.00 16.10 17.90 21.10 27.70
Panela
Market price 65.00 76.80 92.90 67.60 79.70 101.40 141.60 164.30 160.00 185.00 198.30
Mill price 2/ 53.30 63.00 76.20 55.40 65.40 83.10 116.10 134.70 131.20 151.70 162.60
Miel
Market price 3.40 3.20 2.90 2.60 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.50 5.00 7.50
Mill price 2/ 2.80 2.60 2.40 2.10 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.10 6,00

Total mill price 62.60 72.0 8720 68.80 5.0 480 130.10 1520 151.10 176.90 196.3

Sugar cane s / 14.40 16.70 20.10 15.80 17.40 21.80 29.90 35.10 34.80 40.70 45.10
Cottonseed 0.34 0.41 0.26 0.44 0.29 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.40 0.70 1.90

Lint and cottonseed 4/ 3.00 3.07 2.04 2.67 2.41 3.28 6.10 5.20 5.90 12.60 20.20

Raw cotton 2.50 2.56 1.70 2.23 2.01 2.73 5.08 4.33 4.90 10.50 16.83


S1944-1945.
S82% of market price.
S23% of total mill price of sugar cane derivatives.
S120% of raw cotton.


11-I rmm~nrmmh~nn~-----







Table A-6


AGRICULTURE: ESTIMATED VALUE OF PRODUCTION, 1938-1948
(In million pesos)


Year
Product 193- 1939 1940 191 1942 1943 1944 1945 19.i6 1947 19Mu


Cacao
Coffee 2/
Raw (seed) cotton,
Corn
sugar cane
Aice
wheat
Barley
Beans
Bananas (Exports)
Plantains
Potatoes
Yucca/Yams
Tobacco


Total


Oilseeds
Fique
Fruits
Vegetables
Others

Total l/

Grand total

Value added 2/


7.4
67.0
2.5
41.6
14.4
15.2
12.0
0.1
8.3
8.9
45.8
37.7
18.5
9.2


8,0
70.7
2.6
56.3
16.7
16.1
23.7
0.1
8.6
8.8
49.7
54.0
23.9
9.9


7.9
51.5
1.7
52.7
20.1
15.4
18.5
0.6
7,4
5.6
39.0
39.4
17.6
8.1


8.0
80.9
2.2
41.1
15.8
17.9
20.3
1.5
8.1
2.9
35.1
34.7
17.5
9.7


9.0
97.0
2.0
56.5
17.4
22.8
22.3
0.8
9.5
0.3
45.8
53.2
33.2
9.7


9.1
101.7
2:7
81.2
21.8
21.2
23.4
0.5
19.7
0.0
45.8
63.7
43.8
8.3


9.2
128.8
5.1
104.6
29.9
30.3
18.3
1.7
21.6
0.5
60.4
99.9
48.5
8.8


9.6
142.3
4.3
107.7
35.1
30.4
27.2
4.0
26.0
1.9
64.2
108.9
60.1
9.4


14.4
207.6
4.9
115.1
34.8
43.2
44.7
3.8
24.8
3.4
82.9
116.6
67.2
11.2


11.2
283.8
10.5
124.0
40.7
67.2
35.5
9.2
36.5
7.9
44.8
125.1
109.2
13.5


288.6 349.1 285.5 295.7 379.5 442.9 567.5 631.1 771.6 919.1
** ** 2.2
4.1
** *** *** *** *.* 16.0
o. o* e* ** *** **.* *** *** 14.0 0
o0* *o ** *** *** *** ** 2.8 .

11.0 13.3 10.8 11.2 14.4 16.8 21.6 24.0 29.1 34.9

299.6 362.4 296.3 306.9 393.9 459.7 589.1 655.1 803.7 954.0

239.7 289.9 237.0 245.5 315.1 367.8 471.3 524.1 643.0 763.2


i/ ougnt rrom warmer.
2Where details by commodity are
/ 80% of grand total.


not available, total is 3.8% of total major products.


22.8
300.0
16.8
172.7
45.1
105.4
51.0
12.7
49.9
10.3
56.0
136.1
110.4
15.9
1105.1

3.6
4.5
6,5
20.0
3.0

37.6

1142.7

914.2


--









Table A-7: VALUE ADDED IN SMALL AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES, 1939-1948
(In million pesos)



Industry Year
1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 19" 1945 1946 1947 1948

Value of panel
at mill 63.0 76.2 55.4 65.4 83.1 116.1 134.7 131.2 151.7 162.6
Value added
by panel I/ 48.5 58.7 42.7 50.4 64.0 89.4 103.7 101.0 116.8 125.2
Value added by
fique bags
guarapo 2/ 12.1 14.7 10.8 12.6 16.0 22.4 25.9 25.3 29.2 31.3
Total value
added 60.6 73.4 53.5 63.0 80.0 111.8 129.6 126.3 146.0 156.5


1/ 77% of total mill price.

2/ 25% of value added by panel.







Table A-8S UNIT PRICES OF ANIMALS, 1938-1947
(In pesos per head)

Year
T1pe 193 1939 19W 1 91- 192 1953 1944 1945 1946 197T
Beef cattle
Animals slaughtered for
meat la 82.20 79.90 78.40 79.80 71.60 83.40 103.00 132.90 138.30 228.50
Animals traded ./ 48.50 51.00 46.00 48.00 53.00 64.00 75.00 92.00 105.00 110.00
Hogs
Animals slaughtered 16.90 21.70 24.10 22.80 22.10 46.60 73.00 74.00 82.00
Animals traded 2/ 16.90 22.00 24.50 19.70 19.00 28.00 38.00 49.00 53.00 59.70
Sheep / 9.00 7.00 6.50 5.50 6.50 10.00 14.00 17.80 14.55 22.30
Goats 3/ 4.50 5.00 5.00 3.00 4.00 5.70 7.50 8.32 8.65 14.00
Horses 57.00 54.00 53.00 50.00 65.00 87.50 110.00 123.00 152.00 140.00
Mules 72.00 68.00 63.00 65.00 83.00 117.00 152.00 176.00 210.00 199.00
Donkeys 17.50 21.00 19.50 25.00 25.00 35,00 45.00 60.00 68.00 .


I/ Riqueza Pecuaria de Colombia 1947.


Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia.


2/ On the basis of average price of sales in Caldas, as representative of an average Colombian market
price. (Anuario General de istadisticas)

Source: Averages of prices for all Departments given by Anuario General de Estadistica, except when otherwise
Indicated,







Table A-9: VALUE AND NUMBER OF ANIMALS SLAUGHTERED, 1938-1948


Animals slaughtered _
Year Value (In million pesos) Value Number (In thousands)
Cattle Hogs Sheep Goats Total added I/ Cattle Hogs Sheep Goats
i i i i ii | i , ,q .. . .. .


1.00

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.70

0.84

1.63
1.40

2.00

1.80


11.30

13.00

13.50

13.90

14.90

31.90

42.10

50.20

54.50

70.50

71.50


75.19

73.91

73.11

74.84

72.05

102.63

133.47

168.46

184.19

305.23

281.68


993

982,

983

990

1,042

1,145

1,202

1,198

1,259

1,352

1,315


666

601

562

610

673

684

574

566

664

613

570


106

110

109

109

70

71

60

92

99

89


L/ Assumed to be


80% of total value.


Sources Cattle and hogs, Raul Varela Martinez Riquesa Pecuaria de Colombia; hog prices, average for
fat hogs; sheep and goats, Anuario General de Estadistica.


1938

1939

1940

1941

1942

1943

1944

1945

1946

1947

1948


81.60

78.50

77.10

79.00

74.60

95.60

123.80

158.60

174.20

308.90

278.10


0.09 93.9

0.09 92.3

0.09 91.39

0.05 93.2

0.06 90.06

0.09 128.29

0.10 166.84

0.15 210.58

0.14 230.24

0.14 381.54

. 351.40


- ---I


0 *





Table A-10s VALUE OF SALES OF ANIMAL SUBPRODUCTS, 1938-1948


(In million pesos)

...... ..----------Sub u .r.duc.. t. _
Year Value Subroct Value added /
Milk Eggs Skins Wool Total Milk Eggs Skins Wool Total

1938 14.58 10.64 3.56 .15 28.93 11.66 8.51 2.85 .12 23.1

1939 14.34 10.46 3.50 .15 28.44 11.47 8.37 2.80 .12 22.75
1940 14.18 10.35 3.46 .14 28.13 11.34 8.28 2.77 .11 22.50
1941 14.51 10.59 3.54 .15 28.79 11.61 8.47 2.83 .12 23.03
1942 13.97 10.20 3.41 .14 2772 11.18 8.16 2.73 .11 22

1943 19.91 14.53 4.86 .20 39.2 9 15.93 11.62 3.89 .16 27.59
1944 25.88 18.89 6.31 .26 51.3 20.70 15.11 5.05 .21 41.08

1945 32.67 23.84 7.97 .33 6A.82 26.14 19.07 6.38 .26 5186
1946 35.72 26.07 8.71 .36 70.87 28.58 20.86 6.97 .29 56.70
1947 59.20 43.20 14.44 .60 117.A4 47.36 34.56 11.55 .48 93.95

1948 54.52 39.79 13.30 .55 108.16 43.62 31.83 10.64 .44 86

1/ 80% of total value.
General notes:
Value of milk estimated by V.M. for 1947 is divided by three, in accordance with findings of the
National Nutrition Institute, Figures for other years are extrapolated in proportion with values
given for sales and production of animals.

Sources Ministry of Agriculture. Raul Varela Martines Riquesa Peouaria de Colombia 1947.
Various other sources.





Table A-lls ESTIMATED BREAKDOWN OF VALUE OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE CENSUS YEAR 19--1945
(Value in million pesos f.o.b. ex-factory)
Total
Item Cost value of
of production Value
production 1/ (f.o.b. factory) added
Raw materials 484.36 h84.30
Fuels 11.94 14t.1o
Wages 66.17 66.17 66.47
Salaries 30.85 30.85 30.85
Social security 8.23 8.23 8.23
Sub-total 601.85 601.25 105.55
Insurance 1.57 1.57 ...
Rents 3.90 3.90
Depreciation ... 21.50
Patents, royalties, propaganda,
selling costs and maintenance ... 21.50
Interest paid ... 4.20
Interest received ... -2.90 ..
Excise taxes 35.98 35.98
Sub-total 1i.5 85.75 ..
Income taxes ... 23.80 23.80
Distributed profits ... 70.50 70.50
Undistributed profits ... 15.70 65.70
"Liquid Profit" 1... lo.o0 140.00
Not Described -1.90 ...
Grand total 611.40 830.00 215.50


1/ Sources Industrial Census, 194-19h1 Contraloria General




Table A-12s INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INDICES, 1939-1948

(1939 100)

Year
Product Weights 1939 190 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948


Volume
Margarine
Soft drinks
Men's shoes
Women' shoes
Children's shoes
Cement
Beer
Cigarettes
Chocolate
Sugar
Soap
Stearic candles
Liquors

Weighted average
Arithmetic mean
Median


Unit Price
Beer
Soft drinks
Men's shoes
Cement
Cigarettes
Chocolate
Soap
Liquors


5.0
4.0
2.0
1.0
0.5
6.0
21.0
24.0
8.0
8.0
3.5
2.0
15.0


25.0
5.0
2.0
7.0
29.0
10.0
4.0
18.0


100 109
100 104
100 118
100 149
100 156
100 100
100 102
100 104
100 108
100 105
100 75
100 140
100 118


100
100
100


100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100


113
137
118
126
142
126
115
108
110
139
78
152
125


67
152
106
112
103
119
119
111
110
147
62
44
163


107 118 107 120
114 122 106 107
108 126 115 112


106
102
85
115
102
99
129
101


107
104
93
107
105
104
127
90


103
111
146
156
108
111
277
93


78
211 259
213
... \ 320
.. 4499
173
140 160
125 139
149
144
.. 78
.92
268


115
317
224
386
488
189
200
162
158
160
94
121
257


153
375
235
452
527
205
240
185
166
177
110
150
246


122
380
245
493
519
214
306
207
148
217
146
161
302


138 170 191 213 24
159 194 221 248 266
140 160 189 205 217


142
149

173
134


131


180
187
206
233
159
208
488
178


Weighted average
Arithmetic mean
Median


100 104
100 105
100 102

100 111


103 110 115 123 Q0 160
105 127 138 125 146 170
105 107 124 123 142 161


123 215
230 259
197 225


522


M122 118 18306 l


Value








Table A13t VALUb AND INDEX OF IiDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION (f.o.b. EX-FACTORB),
AND VALUE ADDED IN INDUSTRIES, 1939-1948



In million nesol Production index
Tear Value of Value (1939 = 100)
productt ion added

1939 407 120 100
1940 452 133 111
1941 496 147 122
1942 480 142 118
1943 562 166 138
1944 692 204 170
1945 968 286 238
1946 1,245 367 306

1947 1,673 494 411
1946 2,124 627 522








Table A-14 NATIONAL INCOME AT FACTOR COST, 1939-1948
(In million pesos)


Industry 1939 i940 1941 1942 1943 1944 i2S 194 1Year947 19-48
_____1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948


Agriculture
Animal husbandry
Small agricultural industries
Dairy products, poultry


Total agriculture


Mining
Manufacturing industries
Handicrafts
Construction

Total non-agriculture

Transportation
Commerce
Government
Public utilities
Banking/finance
Services and others

Total services

Total national income


.290 237
74 73.
61 73
23 22

448 405
40 46
120 133
50 53
42 55
252 287

56 54
145 139
61 64
13 13
20 19
54 52

34 31
1,049 1,033


245 315
75 72
53 63
23 22


368 471 524, 643 763 914
103 133 168 184 305 282
80 112 130 126 146 156
27 41 52 57 94 86


22.6 472 578 757 874 1, 1 308 1,438


34 35
142 166
58 62
94 72


48 47
204 286
68 79
67 111


52 70 83
367 494 627
92 113 128
154 140 162


22Z. 32.1 32 665 81 1.000
60 61 75 87 101 131 154 176
148 141 174 214 281 358 497 552
63 62 69 85 130 156 200 229
16 16 18 20 23 26 29 33
20 21 21 22 30 37 44 46
53 58 69 88 100 154 190 216

&36 359 426 516 665 862 ,114 1,252

1,063 159 1,339 1,660 2,062 2,537 3.239 3,690
1 0630 537 3


1/ Projected.





Table A-15s VALUE OF MINING PRODUCTION AND BREAKDOWN OF COSTS, 1945


Values (in million pesos)
Costs
Total
Total (value added
Mineral Output value of Gross Taxes to national
Unit Volume production Salaries Wages profits 1/ income)

Gold oz. fine 506,695 31.0 3.1 5.1 1.72/ 1.5 11.4
Silver oz. fine 168,699 0.1)/.
) 0.2 0.3.2/ 0.5-2/ 1.o& /
Platinum oz. fine 34,757 1.7)

Petroleum 000 bbls. 22,825 45.7 10.7 8.7 4.5

Salt metric tons 105,072 5.4 ... ... ... 2.7

Coal tons 870,000 8.9 0.3 3.1 2.2-2 .6

Limestone tons 303,000 2.0 ......... -)

Others -- 3.0 ..... ... -)

Total 97.8 47.L

y/ Taxes, instead of gross profits, are entered for foreign enterprises, inasmuch as it is the only part of the
gross profits which remain in the country.
SGross profit of national mines only (28% of their value of production).
Assumed to be proportional to gold mining.
SPreliminary estimates.
/Gross profits Z 23.8% of sales.
Sources Volume ) Anuario General de Estadistica ) Except for coal and limestone.
Total values ) Bulletin, Banco de la Republica )

Salaries, wages, gross profits = Studies by Colombian National Income Committee.








Table A16 VALUE OF MINING PRODUCTION AND CONTRIBUTION TO NATIONAL INCOME, 1939-1949
(In million pesos)


Product
Gold Silver Platinum Petroleum Salt Coal Other Total
Value Value Value Value Value Value Value Value
Value added Value added Value added Value added Value Added Value added Value added Value added
(36.7%) (54.6%) (54.6%) (52.3%) (50.04) (62.0%) (51.7%)

1939 34.9 12.8 .16 .09 1.10 .60 38.2 20.0 4.20 2.10 2.9 1.8 4.40 2.3 85.86 39.69

1940 38.7 14.2 .16 .08 1.70 .93 48.3 23.7 4.20 2.10 4.3 2.7 4.96 2.6 99.27 46.31
1941 40.2 14.8 .16 .09 1.70 .93 45.1 23.6 3.20 1.60 4.0 2.5 4.96 2.6 99.32 46.12

1942 36.5 13.4 .16 .09 2.20 1.20 20.3 10.6 0.50 2.50 6.7 4.2 3.70 1.9 74.56 33.89

1943 34.7 12.7 .16 .09 1.90 1.00 24.7 12.9 4.80 2.40 6.4 4.0 3.80 2.0 76.46 35.09

1944 33.9 12.4 .15 .08 1.40 .76 45.8 24.0 6.30 3.60 7.8 4.8 "5.00 2.6 100.35 48.24
1945 31.0 11.4 .14 .08 1.66 .93 45.7 23.9 5.39 2.69 8.9 5.5 4.89 2.5 97.78 47.00
1946 26.8 9.8 .21 .12 1.68 .93 52.4 27.4 6.70 3.30 11.9 7.4 5.30 2.7 104.99 51.65

1947 23.5 8.6 .13 .07 3.70 2.02 83.4 43.6 7.80 3.90 12.8 7.9 6.90 3.6 138.23 69,70

1948 20.5 7.5 .14 .07 3.20 1.74 105.9 55.4 11.40 5.70 13.5 8.8 8.10 4.2 162.74 83.41

1949 26.1 9.6 .15 .08 ... ... 143.3 74.9 13.60 6.80 .13.5 8.8 10.40 5.4 207.05 105.58


Sources Boletin Mensual, Banco de la Republica.
Anuario General de Estadistica.


cj,





Table A-17: RAILROADS: REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)


Itm 199 1940 1941 9 1942 1944 1945 1946 194'
NATIONAL RAILROADS
Gross income 13.5 13.6 13.5 16.7 21.2 23.6 30.3 34.7 35.6
Gross expenditures 11.4 11.7 11.7 12.2 16.0 18.9 24.3 27.2 36.8
Depreciation 1.0 1.1 1.7 2.4 1.8 1.5 2.0 2.2 2.6
Profits 2.1 1.9 1.8 4.5 5.2 4.7 6.0 7.5 -1.2
DEPARTMENTAL RAILROADS
Gross income 7.5 5.2 5.4 5.9 7.5 8.2 12.7 11.9 11.4
Gross expenditures 4.6 3.7 3.5 4.3 3.9 5.6 7.7 11.3 9.6
Depreciation .6 .4 .7 .9 .6 .5 .8 .8 .7
Profits -2.9 1.5 1.9 1.6 3.6 2.6 5.0 .6 1.8
PRIVATE RAILROADS
- Gross income 1.1 2.3 2.2 1.8 2.1 2.6 3.1 2.4 2.3
Gross expenditures 1.0 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.2 2.4 1.5 1.7
Depreciation .1 .2 .3 .3 .2 .2 .2 .2 .2
Profits .1 .2 .1 .3 .1 .4 .7 .9 .6
ALL RAILRADDS
Gross income 22.1 21.1 21.1 24.4 30.8 34.4 46.1 49.0 49.3
Gross expenditures 17.0 17.9 17.5 18.6 21.9 26.7 34.4 40.0 48.1
Wages 6.6 5.4 5.7 5.5 7.1 8.4 10.0 14.5 17.5
Salaries 4.1 3.5 3.7 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.9 9.0 10.9
Depreciation 1.7 1.7 2.7 3.6 2.6 2.2 3.0 3.2 3.5
Other 4.6 7.3 5.4 5.5 7.2 10.1 14.5 13.3 3.1
Net income 5.2 3.2 3.6 5.6 8.8 7.8 11.7 9.0 1.2
Profits 5.1 3.2 3.6 5.8 8.9 7.7 11.7 9.0 1.2
VALUE ADDED 15.9 12.1 13.0 15.1 20.9 22.2 28.6 32.5 29.6

L/ Total of wages, salaries and net income of all railroads.







Table A-18: STRUCTURE OF COSTS IN TRANSPORT INDUSTRIES, 1945
(In million pesos)


Total
Total value of
Industry Wages Salaries Grofs value services
profit added (Gross
___ revenue)

Railroads 10.00 6.90 11.70 i 28.60 46.10
Trucks 14.80 4.50 7.10 26.49 58.90
Busses 6.90 1.60 4.50 1/ 13.17 37.60
Public automobiles 3.20 1.10 2.00 / 6.30 ..
Inland shipping .6.20 0.36 1.10 3/ 7.66 11.79
Pipelines 0.70 2/ 4.30 / 5.00 ..
Airlines 0.80 4 4.50 Y 1.60 2/ 6.90 15.90
Streetcars 1.00 0.12 0.80 i/ 2.12 3.50
Total 43.60o 19 33.1o 96.24 17,3.72
Other ... ... ... 4.70 .

L/ Before tax.
2/ Estimated.
3/ Liquia.
/ Total wages and salaries known. Breakdown estimated.
j/ Human and animal transport, merchant fleet, etc.








Table A-19t VALUE ADDED BY TRANSPORT INDUSTRIES, 1939-1948

(In million pesos)


Industry

Railroads

Trucks

Buses

Airlines

Inland shipping

Streetcars

Total


19392
15.90

14.68

6.78

2.32

6.44

1.35

47.47


All other
transportation/ 8.97

Grand total 644


-1940
12.10

15.62

7.67

2.78

5.83

1.29

AL5.2


8.56

53.85


1941
13.00

17.69

8.98

3.33

5.88

1.29

50.17


9.48

59.65


1942
15.10

18.72

6.69

3.99

5.15

1.31

50.96


9.63

6AQLU$


Year
1943
20.90

19.02

10.36

4.79

6.07

1.55

62.69


11.85

74.54


SFigures reached on progression basis.
SPublic automobiles, pipelines, animal transport, and


merchant fleet.


1944
22.20

24.69

12.16

5.75

6.88

1.80

73.48

13.89

87.37


1945
28.60

26.49

13.17

6.90

7.66

2.12

8.94


16.06

101.00


1946
32.50

42.57

16.45

8.28

8.16

1.91

109.87

20.77

130.64


1947
29.60

59.74

19.56

9.94

8.97

2.06 ./

129.87


24.55

154.42


1948
33.70 2/

70.72

23.74

11.93

5.92

2.22 1/

148.23


28.02

176.25


i -








Table A-20 RAILROADSt OPERATING STATISTICS AND BASIC FREIGHT RATES, 1939-1947

Item nitYear
Item Unit 199 1940 1941 1942 194 1944 1945 1946 1947

Paid freight Ton KM (000) 295,840 309,134 312,974 369,427 449,959 458,532 552,674 579,259 546,000
Free freight Ton Em (000) 32,531 30,743 25,808 25,794 28,464 26,159 29,927 33,491 ...
Cattle Oattle-Km (000) 37,682 24; 367 25,440 40,006 46,879 52,596 44,254 62,983 ...
Income and Gross income
expenditures (000 pesos) 22,100 21,073 21,144 24,349 30,880 34,388 46,045 48.951 49,306
Income and Net income
expenditures (000 pesos) 5,474 5,401 5,497 7,940 10,788 9,548 13,930 9,067 .
Workers Value (000 pesos) 6,624 5,356 5,707 5,491 7,083 8,409 9,970 14,496 ..
Employees Value (000 pesos) 4,074 3,524 3,703 3,957 4,978 5,999 6,851 9,014 ...
Paring Passen ers Em
passengers (0ooo 486,879 456,651 462,160 565,483 650,568 727,016 782,103 850,596 814,000
Non-paying Passenger m
passengers (000) 40,280 36,556 34,719 33,843 33,305 30,544 35,028 40,745 ...
Freight income (000 pesos) 15,882 15,273 15,363 16,907 21,431 23,201 29,388 32,639 32,887
Passenger income (000 pesos) 5,477 4,568 4,705 6,066 7,750 9,239 10,953 11,635 11,735
Freight rate per
ton kilometer Pesos .054 .049 .049 .046 .048 .051 .053 .056 .060
Passenger rate per
ton kilometer Pesos .011 .010 .010 .011 .012 .013 .014 .014 .014
Truck freight rate
per ton kilometer Pesos .108 .098 .098 .092 .096 .102 .106 .112 .120
Inland shipping
freight rate per
ton kilometer Pesos .027 .025 .025 ,023 .024 .026 .027 .028 .030

Notes It is assumed that truck freight rates are twice the railroad rate, and that inland shipping rates are half.


Sources Anuario General de Estadistica, years 1939-1947, for railroad statistics.






STable A-21s ELECTRIC POWER AND OTHER PUBLIC UTILITIES, 1938-1948
(Consumption, gross revenues and value added)


t __ _e__________________Y _
Year
,193 199 1940 19 2 9 .... 199 192T 6 47 .19T8-


CONSUMPTION
(million KWR)
Bogota, Barranquilla
and Medellin 175.00
Major municipalities
(other than above) 62.95
Subtotal 237.95
Small municipalities 75.97

Grand total 313.92
GROSS REVENUES
Rate per KWH (Pesos) .031.
Qrose revenues of
electric power plants 9*73
(million pesos)

VALUE ADDED
millionn pesa)
Value added 7.78
Value added 3/ 3.70
Total value added by
public utilities 11.48


206.00

73.06
279.06

89.09
368.35

.030

11u.0


215.20

80.34
295.54
94.35
389.89

.029

11.31


229.80

64.00
293.80

93.80
387.60

.037
14.34


235.80

65.90
301.70
96.32

398.02

.037

14.73


253.90
88.60

342.50
109.35
41.85

.037
16.72


291.40

91.60
383.00
122.28

505.28

.034
17.18


330.20

100.40
130.60

137.47
568.07

.034
19.31


386.20

94.80
481.00

153.56
634.56

.034
'21.58


430.60

107.4o
538.00
171.76

709.76

.034
22.13


452.90

149.50
602.40
192.32

794.72

.036

28.61


8.83 9.05 11.47 11.78 13.38 13.74 15.45 17.26 19.30 22.89
4.00 3.92 4.24 4.64 5.12 6.24 7.28 8.56 9.51 10.57


12.83


12.97


15.71 16.42 18.50


19.98 22.73 25.82 28.81


I 75.8% of total consumption.
80% of gross revenues of electric power plants*
80% of other public utilities revenue.


33.46









Table A-22t PUBLIC UTILITIES: SERVICES RENDERED AND GROSS REVENUES, 1937 1948

(Revenue in million pesos)


Telephones
Number
If- *LftjhrAla l aarn..


Telegrams
Number
IT i 4 114n DRevanue


Cables
Number
(TIn m4i14,nna Ravanri


Radiograms Toital
Number gross
(Tn ml itons Revenuei eAvnnuaa


[T n~lea Revenu -revennuesn


33.99
39.20
41.20
42.20
44.98
47.20
47.00
49.70
53.60
55.00
58.03
61.22


1.96
2.13
2.40
2.40
2.70
2.90
3.10
4.00
4.10
5.00
5.55
6.16


3.90
4.30
4.40
4.20
4.20
4.50
5.20
5.60
6.40
6.80
7.24
7.71


1.40
1.50
1.50
1.40
1.40
1.50
1.80
1.90
2.30
2.60
2.78
2.97


0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.20
0.10
0.20
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.43
0.47


0.50
0.60
0.60
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.80
1.00
1.30
1.70
1.95
2.23


0.20
'0.30
0.40
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
1.00
1,50
1.60
2.02
2.55


0.40
0.40
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.90
1.40
1.40
1.61
1.85


4.26
4.63
5.00
4.90
5.30
5.80

7.80
9.10
10.70
11.89
13.21


1/ Assumed to be 80% of gross revenues.

Sources Anuario General de Eatadiatica.


Year


1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948


Value
added
1/-

3.41
3.70
4.00
3.92
4.24
4.64
5.12
6.24
7.28
8.56
9.51
10.57






Table A.-23:


INCOME, PROFITS AND VALUE ADIED OF BAXKS AED INSURANCE COMPANIES, 1939-1949
(In million pesos)


yTear
1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 194 196 1947 1948 1949
Banks

Total income 16. 163 18.1 1 2 2 24.0 2 4 424
Gross profits 10. 9. 10.0 10.2 10.0 9.7 13.3 15.1 18.
Wages and salaries
(including special
income) 4.3 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.8 8.2 11.3 13.3 16.3 16.8 18.7
Other 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.6 3.7 5.0 3.0 6.6 13.7 9.1 10.2
Insurance companies

Grose profits 2.A 2.1 2.1 2. 2.2 30 2. .1 3.
Total
Total income 22.4 2 23 24 26 4 2g 62.7 64A8
Gross profits 13.8 13.4 13.7 14.0 13.4 12,0 14.1 18.7 21.0 22.9 25.2
Wages and salaries 5.9 6.0 6.7 7.3 7.9 9.8 16.4 18.7 22.7 23.3 25.6
Other 2.7 2.9 3.2 3.6 5.1 6.0 4.4 9.3 19.1 12.7 14.0

value added. 3/ 12.. 129.4 4 21.Q 21 .3 21.8 3. 3.4 24. 46.2 5.8_

Methodology1 Data from Banking Superintendent and from Banco de la Republica indicate that profits of Banco de
la Republican are 14.4% of total profits all banks. Also data for 1945 indicate that wages and salaries of
Banco de la Republica are about 14 of wages for all banks. This ratio is applied to known figures of profits,
wages, and other expenditures of Banco de la Republica to provide all data on banks. Similar method was used
to obtain total income of banks, insurance companies and stock exchange, on basis of known figure of profits
in 1944/47.

T/ Totals include stock exchange which is not shown.

V/ Total of gross profits and wages and salaries of banks, insurance companies and stock exchange.





Table A-24s CAPITAL FORMATION: VALUE OF IMPORTS OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, 1940-1947
(In thousand pesos)


Material Year
..t...l __940 1941 1942 19 3 1944 195 1946 1947

Cement 495 100 36 49 1,152 1,376 3,090 5,776
Bricks '300 424 291 348 230 598 893 1,490
Stone and rubber tile 3 13 4 7 9
Glass tile 30 55 26 26 57 117 147 151
Buildings in copper or
bronze 37 60 31 22 172
Sand and gravel 86 4 3 3 13 14 22 67
Marble 21 7 13 15 3 12 32 122
Wooden buildings 48 13 167
Hydraulic lime 85 106 4 1 3 8 58
Wood 420 141 42 17 78 173 499 545
Bathroom fixtures 739 893 372 1,430 1,087 2,127 1,830 2,323
Asbestos tile 55 27 20 46 54 22 37
Cement and asphalt blocks,
plywood for ceilings 1 3 1 46 31 130
Pitch roofing 4 2 1 1 4 4* 4 4
Cement "Sorel" 1 1 1 1 11 20
Glass 372 530 411 719 622 1,241 743 2,418
White cement 71 129 96 418 47 321 179 616
Waterproof cardboard for
floors and ceilings 142 181 81 75 226 331 601 589
Steel mesh for construction 91 86 29 15 48 83 211 370
Materials of zino, lead
and antimony 103 368 43 6 1 90 514 3
Wooden doors and windows 19 4 14 1 1 6 29 84
Iron fixtures 3 1 9 2 19

Total 3.12 3.13 3129 3.630 6.606 8.897 15.107


Sources Anuario de Comercio Exterior.




Table A-2-S CAPITAL FOMATIONt VALUE OF IMPOFRS OF AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT, 1940-1947
(In thousand pesos)

Year
Equipment194 1941 1942 19 4 1944 194 1946 1947
Tractors 1,271. 1,318 338 511 1,518 2,170 2,513 4,702
Accessories 217 135 85 92 1,180 999 1,905
Total 1.8 1453 4123 511_1 3L30 3,512 6,607

Plows 158 158 53 99 163 177 167 422
Mechanical pumps 803 660 219 180 536 1,287 2,035 3,658
Insecticides 442 546 313 632 449 960 801 1,000
Unclassified mech. equip. 3 99 3 25 23 22 123 789
Mechanized equipment for
sugar cane 504 799 504 559 130 363 937 2,002
Cultivators 217 135 217 60 92 338 353 541
Woodworking mach. 169 152 169 .46 93 413 599 1,155
Grain mills 179 36 179 24 19 27 427 403
Small agricultural
equipment 63 252 79 170 120 186 725 985
Rastros 49 65 49 24 19 27 427 248
Cutters 45 50 45 63 24 38 87 231
Seeders 17 25 17 16 33 16 16 65
Cane sugar 33 26 187
Sugar mills 151 442 151 39 39 199 457 579
Threshing machines 14 15 14 11 52 56 44 107
Subtotal 4.302 4,887 2,435 2,459 3,402 7.492 10 736 18,979

Seeds 86 64 119 125 138 244 224 275
rertiliersa 432 377 277 210 147 667 585 1, 615
Animals 290 347 662 263 502 990 725 725
Subtotal 808 788 1.058 598 77 1.901 15 2.615
Total of above subtotals 5.110 675 43 305 4.189 393 12.270 21.594

I/ Some equipment not included, such as milk pasteurizers,
A/ 50% of imports of cattle considered for reproduction.


Souroet Anuario de Comercio Exterior.







Tabal A26 CAPITAL O AT IONs VALUE OF IMPORTS OF TRAUSPORT EQUIPMENT, 1940-1947
(In thousand pesos)


4 Y .4.1 1942 3 19- lno4 17_18
^- ^' *' ^ -- -* ^ ^ n

Trucks
Oars
Airplanes
Acoessories for airplanes
Batteries
LIfts
Busses
"Autoierros
Bicycles
ships interior navigation
Chassis for oars and buses
Dredges
Locomotives
Rubber tires
Motorcycles
Diesel motors
Gasoline motors
Road building equipment
Trailers
Wheels
Rails
Wagon ,
Ships (sea) '
Trailer trucks
Cylinders
Passenger wagons


Total.


9 10 2.9 819 QJ19 J,~.J 3iJW


4,058
685
480
261
119
518
6
144
82
1.447
741
24.
2.984
27-
1.155
173
2
14
96
389
244


155
17


738
216
135
125
12
397
17
36
467
.214
16
444
32
554
42

6
6
23


183
160
532
330
199
62
9
9
216
26
429
-
5,704
-
503
120
-
-
75
-
S89
12


5.392

379
336
260
197
949
90
199
2,306
1,265
28
4,165
23
1,547
149
26
6
48
401
190
-

95
402


228
346
1,073
367
147
92

36
205
1,387
106
498
5,234
8
1,012
200
53

161
124
720

33
16
M


325
352
1,186
253
433
27
-
62
138
2,413
333
3,336
3,247
21
2,696
460
298
135
114
59
792


31
16


7,323
3,325
2,739
546
702
468
2
496
1,481
6,537
378
345
9,835
91
5,517
861
317
650
60
979
565
87
199
160


5, 17
-


14, 765
4,380
2,14 3
1,123
1,776
1,779
2
912
1,083
9,937
871
2,475
6,247
160
7,452
1,297
489
1,092
79
2,399
790
421
364
452
44


15,840 ,298 9,494 13,311 19,430 54 405 73.665


Souroel Anuario de Comeroco Exterior.


----------





Table A-27: CAPITAL FORMATION: VALUE OF IMPORTS OF INDUSTRIAL qIUIPMEN, 1940-1947
(In million pesos)

equipment 19 2 Year -
Uipment1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 194$ 1946 1947


Petroleum refineries
Soft drinks manufacturing
Leather and skins mfg.
Printing presses
Beer manufacturing
Tobacco manufacturing.
Mining and construction
Paper manufacturing
Manufacturing of food pastes
Petroleum wells
Textile industry
Milk indus ry
Milk pasteurization
Mechanical pumps
Air compressors
Presses
Water purifiers
Tire manufacturing
Metal work
Rubber manufacturing
Cement manufacturing
Lumber manufacturing
Stone and glass mfg.
Pulleys
Transmission belts
Lifts and derricks
Capstans
Cement mixers
Windmills
Wrdraulio motors
Rydraulic turbines
Electric generators
Electric transformers
Electric motors

Total


37
90
54
469
215
65
764
27
134
753
2,822
12
18
803
112
2


136
51
368
286
185
953
22
312
145
3.191
20
31
660
134
4
128

183


152
371
38
199
50
90
65
7
3
30
443
379
487


1
18
27
101
82
85
320
31
45
226
1,761
1
14
219
15

33
68


71
130
9
118
28
7
14
12
11
134
351
220
177


2,

1
I


.


1

2





2
1
2


4
31 45
30 148
169 168
16 45
19 30
329 1,373
6 37
62 87
176 1,064
657 1,674
3 5
30 6
L80 536
41 61
1
58 32
359
91 264

46 93
.99 494
4 14
i93 213
10 24
3 14
15 6
25 40
2
60 18
01 175
49 213
26 257


1.2 91 U29 5&M 7.500 20.636 32.202 67.054


SoUrce Anuario de Comero o Exterior /47.
S8urtres Anua 'o deamea O~eo IZxtertor 11O/l,?.


3
183
332
473
128
116
1,419
643
436
4,103
3,870
7
41
1,287
149
12
181
656
1,470
173 '

414
1,509
105
487
196
87
144
49

167
646
474
676


10
776
304
914
563
140
1,358
276
737
5,118
8,167
22
20
2,035
598
19
109
49
1,986
88

599
2,342
136
457
578
197
337
9
.5
279
1,929
760
1,285


119
1,383
252
1,881
5,106
780
1,208
395
932
6,962
16,886
94
175
3,658
1,240
57
193
42
4,443
475
3,868
1,155
965
248
843
1,534
368
647
46
49
1,982
4,375
2,309
2,384








Table A-28s VALUE OF STEEL IMPORTS (c.i.f.), 1938-1947
(In thousand pesos)


Product r 938=Yggr 939l4" "7"l^ -l9it 9935 19146 1/ 19-7

Steel tubes (5 cm. or -) 769 1,176 1,129 1,180 278 500 929 1,655 1,092 (340) 2,073
Steel tubes (5 c. or or) 669 1,170 2,597 1,859 777 1,538 4,815 6,162 7,135 (260) 10,980
Steel tanks 566 354 30 105 3 101 313 549 842 (330) 1,848
Galvanized wire 429 421 314 417 190 191 147 824 816 (290) 1,057
Wire for nail 499 479 346 257 44 287 306 160 165 (170) 760
Barbed wire 750 1,603 1,168 996 59 500 565 594 2,358 (260) 4,311
Nails 140 130 129 155 70 122 328 592 361 (440) 1,403
Steel buildings 455 618 1,144 267 56 35 37 223 858 (710) 2,976
Pig iron 23 47 16 32 18 160 272 71 (80) 281
Galvanized sheets (roofs) 1,700 2,108 1,358 635 199 513 433 520 817 (260) 1,567
Steel sheets 1/16 to
1/4th inch 359 473 359 129 47 240 305 748 1,299 (190) 788
Steel ingots, shares 1,232 964 887 1,157 165 1,049 1,162 2,705 709 (170) 2,789
Steel bars 706 1,243 1,398 2,000 333 1,058 3,727 2,780 "5,107 (170) 8,208
Tin plate 1,068 907 792 185 931 27 6 62 (250) 1,313
Steel implements 568 391 422 581 269 349 203 810 1,644 (248) 1,791
Bridges 444 142 248 123 6 76 101 161 (280) 266
Rails 164 159 389 401 6 124 59 979 (130) 2,399
Total 9,473 1$556 1e2, 841 11, 2,681 7.e8 13,958 18,60 2,76 4,81

Unit prices per ton in parenthesis in pesos.
Sources Anuario de Comercio Exterior*









Table A-29: CAPITAL FORMATION: NATIONAL PRODUCTION OP CAPITAL AND
DURABLE GOODS ACCORDING TO 19441945 CFZSUS

(In million pesos)


Product Cost of production

Transportation materials

Tires 1.6

Other 1.6

Total 3,2

Construction materials

Cement 8.5

Bricks, adobe, asbestos
products and other 12.8

Total 21.3

Agricultural equipment 1.1

Industrial equipment

Grand total 27.9







Table A-30t GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND COST OF PUBLIC WORKS AND BUILDINGS, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)


Year


19L0O


19542


19-45


LY406


A. Material and equipment-imports
B. Payments to trade and'transport
for same

U. Material and equipment local
production
D. Payments to trade and transport
for same
E. Total delivered cost, material
and equipment
F. (Of which material
G. (Of which equipment
H. Installation costs equipment
I. Installation costs material
J. Cost of public works and
buildings
K. Land added
L. Maintenance
U. Total Gross Capital Formation


49.8


47.1


50.1


16.3


28.3


42.6


74.8


132.2


222.2


25.0 23.6 25.1 8.2 14.2 21.3 37.4 66.1 111.1

16.4 18.2 20.1 19.4 22.6 27.9 39.2 50.2 67.5

4.1 4.6 5.0 4.9 5.7 7.0 9.8 12.6 16.9


95.3
37.3
58.0
5.8
42.0

(19.3)
2.5
7.7
153.3


93.5
36.8
56.7
5.7
54.8

(91.6)
3.1
7.6
164.7


100.3
36.7
63.6
6.4
60.2

(91.9)
2.7
7.9
177.5


48.8
23.1
25.7
2.6
93.9

(117.0)
3.0
8.4
156.7


70.8
35.2
35.6
3.6
72.3

(107.5)
3.5
9.6
159.8


98.8
L7.9
50.9
5.1
66.8

(114.7)
4.9
11.3
186.9


161.2
68.7
92.5
9.3
110.5

(179.2)
5.3
14.4
300.7


261.1
90.14
170.7
17.1
153.8

(241.2)
6.h
16.6
h5.o0


417.7
142.7
275.0
27.5
139.5

(282.2)
7.0
20.3
612.0


B is 50% of A
U is 25% of C
F includes all materials used in Public Works,
buildings, dwellings.
F plus 0 equals E


H is 10% of G
J is equal to F plus I
M is equal tos E plus H plus I plus K plus L,
of G plus H plus J plus K plus L.


Item


1334


1939


1941


1944


1947










Table A-.31 NATIONAL INCOME: VALUE OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION, 1939-1947


(In million pesos)


Year
1939 1940 1941 .1942 194 1944 194' 1946 1947

Dwellings, rural 16.9 15.1 17.4 18.9 17.8 22.3 39.8 54.1 56.7
Dwellings, ur'an 19.1 17.5 19.6 20.9 20.2 24.6 44.9 58.8 66.3
Commercial buildings 2.8 2.8 4.6 6.1 2.4 4.7 13.1 16.4 17.2
Factories 1.1 .6 1.1 1.2 1.6 2.0 4.4 8.6 7.5
Government offices 10.1 10.6 8.7 7.9 10.4 11.0 16.0 18.2 22.3
(Ion-dwelling buildings I) (14.0) (14.0) (14.4) (15.2) (14.4) (17.7) (33.5) (43.2) (47.0)
Total 50.0 46.6 .4 50 52.4 64.6 118.2 56.1 170.0


STotal of last three items,





Table A-32:


GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION: VALUE O GOOVEYRMET INVESTMENT, 1939-1947
(Equipment, material, construction, and maintenance)
(In million pesos)


Item19 1940 19 1942 9 199197
tem 19-39 1-9-46 19.71 1902 19 194_4 5 1W 19?-?


GROSS INVESTMENT
Nation Roads
Ports
Buildings
H.B. plants
Agriculture
Municipal improvements
Railroads
Departments Roads
Buildings
Agriculture
Municipal wks.
Railroads Vj
Municipalities (Public works)


Total


50. 66.5 65.0 81.0 85 762 7. 130.8 165.0


INVESTMENT IN BUILDINGS
Nation
Departments
Municipalities

Total


INVESTMENT IN
Nation

Departments -

Total


MAINTENANCE
Roads
Railroads
Roads
Railroads .


6.9 7.0 5.1 3.2 3.3 3.8 6.5
2.3 2.5 2.2 2.7 4.2 4.8 6.3
.9 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.9 2.4 3.2


10.1 10.6 8.7 10.4 a1.0 16.0 18.2 2 2.3


4.4
4.3
1.6
1.1
11.4


3.8
4.2
1.7
1.1
1.82


4.0
4.2
1.5
1.1
10.8


4.1
4.5
1.4
1.1
11J.


4.2
6.2
1.1
1.5
13.0


5.5
7.0
1.3
1,8
ILA


8.0
9.1
1.3
2.3
a9..z


INVESTMENT IN PUBLIC WORKS


29. 45.1 45.5 62.0 5.1 0.1 61.0 88.2 112.2


1/ Assumed to be one-fourth of


10.9
1.8
6.9
.0
5.1
2.6
6.5
7.1
2.3
.8

1.6
5.2


13.4
.7
7.0
.1
16.9
.9
8.4
7.1
2.5
.9

2.1
6.5


11.2
.8
5.1
.0
21.6
1.1
4.6
7.7
2.2
1.2
.2
1.2
8.1


11.8
1.6
3.2
.4
30.7
3.8
5.8
6.0
2.7
1.2
.4
1.5
11.8


13.1
.6
3.3
.1
24.7
1.3
7.3
5.4
4.2
1.2
.1
1.8
15.4


18.2
.7
3.8
.0
10.9
1.7
8.6
8.4
4.8
2.4
.8
2.2
14.2


21.9
2.1
6.5
1.4
5.8
6.7
14.0
7.1
6.3
2.4
.6
3.5
19.4


30.9
3.2
8.1
.0
12.1
22.3
15.1
8.4
7.4
2.4
1.2
3.8
15.9


38.3
5.0
9.0
7.0
8.1
18.0
22.3
9.3
8.3
3.2
1.4
5.6
29.5


8.1
7.4
2.7


9.1
11.3
1.2
2.8
24.4


10.7
13.8
2.5
3.5
32.5


- ~ ----


investment by nation.









Table A-33t NATIONAL GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS, 1939-1947

(In million pesos)


m 1919 1940 1941 1942 1941 1944 1: 1946 1-
_______ tea_________199 .1940, 19^l 1942t 1943' 19^Y 194~L__~i'; 1946 1947


6.59 9.66 7.18 7.74 8.89 ,11.80
4.35 3.73 4.03 4.10 4.19 5.50
S .86
.08
10.94 13.39 11.20 11.84 13.08 18.23


Railroads
Construction, equipment, machinery,
repair of machinery and contracts
Maintenance and equipment
Total


Ports and rivers
Seaports
Riverports
Dredging and canalization
Total


Buildings

Agriculture


2.21
4.30
6.51


4.21
4.20
8.41


.36
4.20
4.60


1.27
4.50
5.80


1.12
6.20
7.30


1.61
7.00
8.60


11.44
7.98
2.27
.17
21.86



4.90
9.10
14.00


-- -
- .27 1.18
1.84 .70 .78 1.61 .60 .43 .90
1.84 8 .6 .60 70 2.08


19.66
9.07
1.77
.43
30.93



3.81
11.30
15.10


1.29
.57
1.37
_3.24


22.93
10.66
3.59
1.13
38.31


8.52
13.80
22.30


2.94
.66
1.37
-L


6.89 6.98 5.10 3.22 3.35 3.77 5.69 8.12 16.02

5.12 16.86 21.59 30.67 24.73 10.95 5.73 12.12 8.15


Note: Some totals do not add up due to rounding


Roads
Construction
Maintenance
Paving
Bridges
Total


-- ---


of figures.










Table A-34: CAPITAL FORMATIONs INVESTMENTS BY DEPARTMENTS, 1939-40 1947-48
(In pesos)


Year
Department 1939-1940 1940-1941 1941-1942 1942-1943 1943-1944 1944-1945 1945-1946 1946-1947 1947-1948

Hiighway
Construction 5,415,150 5,878,004 4,444,999 3,885,449 6,742,738 5,360,248 6,760,708 6,763,642 4,976,117
Conservation 1,682,782 1,508,888 1,358,193 1,123,535 1,310,490 1,296,626 1,237,767 2,518,145 2,112,760
Paving 354,611 -- 84,288 2,500 -
Bridges -- 236,930 355,617 257,712 467,577 390,731 341,508 430,838
Total 7.097.932 7.741.503 6.040.02 5.364.601 8.395.228 7.124.451 8.391.706 9.349.534 7.519.715
Building 2,495,659 2,203,351 2,698,143 4,160,844 4,805,889 6,261,199 7,418,762 8,251,255 5,361,318

.Agriculture 865,992 1,175,360 1,230,633 1,181,615 2,442,078 2,393,958 2,394,932 3,222,483 3,835,172
Municipal
Development 239 242,543 374,946 94,674 829,887 629,321 1,176,351 1,373,666 1,392,572
Grand total 10.459.822 11.362.757 10.343.744 10.801.734 16.473.082 16.408.929 19.381.751 22.196.938 18.108,777










Table A-35t NATIONAL ACCOUNTS: TOTAL VALUE OF CONSTRUCTION, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)


Item

Public Works 3

Buildings

Total /

Labor costs

Delivered cost of material
and equipment

Delivered cost of material
for buildings

Total cost delivered of all
material and equipment

Total cost, delivered of
all equipment W.


1939
29.3

50.0

79.3
12.0


37.3


1940
45.1

46.5

91.6

51.8


36.8


1941
11W.S
45.5

51.4

96.9

60.2


36.7


62.0

55.0

117.0

93.9

23.1


1903

55.1

52.4

107.5

72.3


35.2


1944
50.1

64.6

114.7

66.8


17.9


1945
61.0

118.2

179.2

110.5


68.7


(23.4) (23.2) (25.7) (27.5) (26.2) (32.3) (59.1)


95.3

71.9


93.5 100.3


70.3


74.h


18.8

21.3


70.8

44.6


1946
88.2

156.0

244.2

153.8


1947
112.2

170.0

282.2

139.5


90.4 142.7


(78.0) (86.3)


98.8 161.2 261.1 117.7


66.5 102.1 183.1 331.4


&/ Government expenditures


at the exclusion of maintenance ad buildings.


2/ Also total of labor costs and delivered cost of material and equipment.

/ Total cost delivered of all material and equipment minus delivered cost of material for buildings.


-- -L ----------


- 4


`----


II


I


-










Table A-36: DEPRECIATION, 1938-1948

(In million pesos)


- -- -- I-- Y


1 O~O 1 OLIA I OLLI 1 QU.~ 1 QLL9 I-'~LM.j,
11~I4~ J-wI


Urban dwellings

Rural dwellings

Urban non-dwelling
construction
(private and public)

Cars, trucks, buses
and airplanes

Manufacturing industries

Railways

Subtotal

Other 11

Grand total


7.1

9.2


8.0

10.0


7.5

9.4


8.2

10.3


8.7

11.2


8.4

10.6


10.4

13.2'


19.0

23.6


24.8

31.5


24.0

30.2


31.3

38.1


2.6 2.9 2.7 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.7 7.0 9.1 8.6 11.6


4.8

3.3.

1.7

28.7

2.9

31.6


8.1

3.9

1.7

34.6

3.5

38.1


5.0

4.2

1.7

30.5

3.1

33.6


1.3

5.0

2.7

30.6

3.1

33.7


12.3

5.2

3.6

44.1

4.4

48.5


3.6

5.8

2.6

34.1

3.4

37.5


-1.5

7.3

2.2



3.5

38.8


7.8

18.8

3.0

79.2

7.9

87.1


4.2

27.9

3.2

o100.7

10.1

110.8


18,5

32.0

3.5

116.8

11.7

128.5


25.6

38.9

3.5



14.9

163.9


2/ Agricultural equipment, etc., assumed-at 10% of subtotal.


Item


1 Q'R


I-- QJJ I? J J-W ^ -J ^. J -- ^ .^ --L I*-- ,


earn


1o 17


019/2


19QUL


L944


1946


197


19WW


1i2Q4


1 QLn


1 0.I1









Table A-37: BALANCE OF GOVERNIWINT ACCOUNTS (NATIONAL, DEPARTMENTAL, AND MUNICIPAL)
FOR THE PURPOSE OF NATIONAL AGGREGATES COMPUTATION, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)


Year
Item 1939 1940 191 192 10943 1944 1i945 1946 1947

RECEIPTS


Direct taxes
Indirect taxes and
excise taxes
Receipts from sales
and rents of goods
Government deficit

Total

EXPENDITURES


21.6 24.3 24.7 33.2 49.1


55.3 67.1 87.6 130.1


144.7 129.5 136.2 131.9 144.2 171.5 219.4 256.7 315.5


11.2
- 3.3


9.6
43.3


22.0
10.4


10.9
58.6


27.6
59.1


33.1
39.1


36.5
18.7


38.6
49.0


52.6
54.0


174.2 206.7 193.3 234.6 280.0 299.0 3L1.7 431.4 552.2


Expenditures on goods
and services
Expenses incurred in
selling goods and services
Investments
Transfers (A) to country
(B) abroad


97.0 102.1 88.1 113.6 139.9 162.4 154.3 212.2 269.4


7.0
50.8
14.6
4.8


9.2
66.5
21.7
7.2


15.7
65.0
18.4
6.1


8.2
81.0
23.9
7.9


23.2
78.5
28.8
9.6


25.0
76.7
26.2
8.7


38.4
97.7
38.5
12.8


36.9
130.8
39.0
13.0


174.2 206.7 193.3 234.6 280.0 299.0 341.7 431.9


61.8
165.0
42.0
14.0

552.2


Total





Table A-38: ESTIMATE OF ACTUAL TOTAL GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURES, 1939-1948
(In million pesos)


Account

NATION

Total

Minus "Aportes",
"Auxilios", "Partici-
paciories" to Depart-
ments, Intendencias
and Comisarias )
)
Municipalities )

Actual expenditures

DEPARTMENTS

Total

Minus all types of par-
ticipations to munici-
palities

Actual expenditures

/MUNICIPALITIES

Actual expenditures

TOTAL ACTUAL EXPENDI-
TURES

i Estimated


1939


1940


19Lw


1942


1943


Year


1944l


1945


1946


19h7


191B


103.8 131.7 112.3 150.8 180.4 178. 199.2 281.9 363.9 4J1.6


3.9

98.8 126.7 107.3 .140.6


52.0


6.6

45.4


30.0


56.9


6.8

50.1


29.9


57.7


6.6

51.1


34.9


60.0


6.6

53.4


40.6


174.2 206.7 193- 234.6


3.7

2.0

174.7



06.8


6.9

58.9


46.4


5.5

7.9

165.1


8.0

10.2

181.0


7.6

20.0

254.3


8.9

21.8

333.2


81.8 101.6 111.2 136.2 145.9


8.5

73.3


60.6


10.3

91.3


69.4


11.0

100.2


15.2

121.0


98.0 130.2


280.0 299.0 41.7 431.9


Source: Anuario General de Estadistica, and Estadistica Fiscal y Administrative, 1939-1947.


- I-,;~t3' "~~"~'"' '''''"'~ -- ------"U'~ :="C`"OI~ --


I --


c------ --c~---~l--i----r--iiic~---, -i~ii~--- __


~


6.3


5.0 Y/ 5.011 5.0 11


0O.


*_*








Table A-391 GOVERNMENT SALES OF GOODS AND SERVICES, 1939-1947
(In million pesos)


Year
Item 4 11939 l95 T91 919-- 9S" 4l96 1907

NATION
Expenditures (national services) 6.0 8.2 6.7 7.2 7. 9.4 17.2 18,8 29.0
Revents (properties and services) 9.8 8.4 9.6 9.3 10.3 11.0 14.2 15.8 21.4
Balance /3.8 / .2 /2.9 /2.1 /2.8 /1.6 -3.0 -3.0 -7.6
DEPARTMENTS
Expenditures 1.0 1.0 .9 1.0 1.2 1. 1.8 2.2 3.3
Revenues 1.4. 1.2 1,3 1,6 1.9 2.0 3.4 3.1 6.7
Balance / / 2 / /.6 / .7 / .6 /1.6 / .9 /3.
MUNICIPALITIES
Expenditures ... 8.1 ... 14.5 14.2 19.4 15.9 29.5
Revenues ... ... 11.1 ... 15. 20.1 18.9 19.7 24.5
Balance /3.0 ... / .9 /5.9 .5 /3.8 -5.0
TOTAL
Expenditures 7.0 9.2 15.7 8.2 23.2 25.0 38.4 36.9 61.8
Revenues 11.2 9.6 22.0 10.9 27.6 33.1 36.5 38.6 52.6
Balance 1.2 / .4 /6.3 /2.7 /4. /8.1 -1.9 1.7 -9.2


Source* Anuario General de Estadistica, and Estadistica Fiscal y Administrativa, 1939-1947.









Table A-40: TAXES AND TRANSFERS BY GOVERNMENT, 1939-1948
(In million pesos)


e- Year
Item 1939 190o 191 11942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948

Direct taxes
National 21.6 24.3 24.7 33.2 49.1 55.3 67.1 87.6 130.1 125.0

ExNaCional 58.6 43.4 48.0 42.6 43.4 51.8 75.9 93.9 123.5 98.6
Department 52.3 52.1 54.4 56.3 67.3 78.1 47.5 104.2 112.0 120.8
Municipal 33.8 34.0 33.8 33.0 33.5 41.6 46.0 58.6 80.0 110.0
Total 144.7 129.5 136.2 131.9 144.2 171.5 219. 256.7 315.5 329.4
Total transfers I 19.4 28.9 24.5 31.8 38.4 34.9 51.3 52.0 56.0 .
Transfers to country 14.6 21.7 18.4 23.9 28.8 26.2 38.5 39.0 42.0 .


/ Anuario General de Estadistica for
returns for other years.


1942, p. 425 (for 1938-1941), for 1946, p. 773 (for 1942-1946), and budget


2/ All departmental taxes except extraordinary. Sources as in i/. For 1947-1948, data from Finance Ministry.
SAll municipal taxes except extraordinary. Sources: for 1939-1940-1941-1946, Anuario General de Estadistica; for
1943-194L, sFtadistica Fiscal; for 1948, Ministry of Finance; for other years, Estimates by Mission.
V Anuario General de Estadistica, Estadistica Fiscal y Administrativa, Bulletins of the Banco de la Republica.

















THE BASIS OF


A DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR COLOMBIA







APPENDIX B







NUTRITION


by


Jacques Torfs


114TERNATIONAL SAWE FOR RECONSThJCTION AND DOEVELOFM4T












CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ................ ........ 1

Statistical Analysis of Food Production and Availability of
Food to the Consumer . . . 1

Study of Waste and Losses between the Production and Consump-
tion of Food .. ............ 2

Losses between Grower and Market . . . 2
Eggs and milk .................. .. 2
Bananas, platano, yucca, arracacha, name . 2
Panela miel . . . 2
Fruits and green vegetables . . ..... 2
Fish ........... ..... 2
Meats ..... ... 2
Corn ........................ 2.
Other commodities .. . .. 3
Losses between Market and Consumer . ...... 3

Study of the Chemical Composition of Colombian Foodstuffs 3

Study of the Colombian Consumer and Requirements of the Popu-
lation ....................... 5

Per Capita Food Input and Requirements . .. ... 66

Chemical Contents of Diets ....... ... ........... 6

Major Constituents of the Diet . . . .. 7




TABLES

B-1 Food consumption in Colombia, 1946
B-2 Availabilities of foodstuffs after losses and wastes, 1946
B-3 Nutritive value of 100 grams of selected Colombian foods,
edible portion
B-4 Percentage distribution of the total population of Colombia
by age and sex groups, 1946
B-5 Level of nutrition compared with requirements, 1946
B-6 Analysis of workers' diets in four important cities and
Colombia, 1946









Introduction


That dietary deficiencies exist in Colombia would not be denied
even by the most superficial observers. Workmen and farmers are
handicapped by lack of energy and vitality, poor vision, skin ailments,
slow reflexes, and general susceptibility to infections and diseases
in which malnutrition is the underlying cause. Unfortunately, little
is known about the precise nature of the deficiencies and, therefore,
of what can be done to correct them.

The National Institute of Nutrition is in charge of research and
coordination of activities connected with food standards, propaganda
and education of the masses. It is a small organization, with small
resources, and is primarily concerned with the clinical aspects of
malnutrition. Thus far, it has made important contributions only in
the field of goiter. The Institute has little information on the
actual composition of Colombian diets and foodstuffs, and no data on
the nutritional balance sheet of the nation. It has, however, reached
some preliminary conclusions as to the nature of major dietary defi-
ciencies, which unfortunately are based on a small number of samples
and therefore cannot serve as a foundation for a concrete nutritional
program.

A few Colombian scientists have also given some thought to the
problem; their contribution has been small, however, since they not
only lacked the necessary statistical information to reach clear-cut
conclusions but also encountered little public interest in their
endeavors. These circumstances prompted the Mission to attempt an
independent study of the status of nutrition in Colombia, and our
research was so oriented as to serve as a basis for economic and agri-
cultural planning. Fundamentally, we endeavored to formulate a nutri-
tional balance sheet, and to check it against regional studies based
on substantial samples. In this work we have benefitted from the col-
laboration of experts of the Colombian Nutrition Institute. It is
recognized at the outset that much of the data on which our analysis
is based needs careful reexamination and that, therefore, our conclu-
sions are at best tentative.

A description of the.major steps in the study of the Colombian
diet and an evaluation of the data used are given in the following
pages.

Statistical Analysis of Food Production and Availability of Food to
the Consumer

Data on production volumes were provided by the study of
national income statistics. Food available to the consumer-was ob-
tained by deducting exports and adding imports. Data for foods of a
low cost per unit of volume (corn, yucca, name, platano) are likely
to require major revision. The national consumption of food thus
obtained is set forth in Table B-1.








-2-


Study of waste and Losses between the Production
and Consumotion of Food

Table B-2 describes as a percentage of the volumes of foodstuffs
initially available the amount remaining after losses and wastes incurred
between (1) the grower and the market place; (2) the market place and
the consumer; and (3) the grower and the consumer. Distinction is
made between these three categories because both the food balance
sheet of the nation and the diets based on consumer purchases will be
analyzed. Losses under (2) are a complex of losses through both han-
dling and storage and actual preparation and cooking. Since national
income statistics describe only that part of the production actually
available for consumption, losses and wastes on the farm are not
taken into consideration.

Losses between Grower and Market

Many of the ratios in Table B-2 have been suggested by studies
made in other South American countries. However, further modifications
were introduced because of some characteristics peculiar to the
Colombian market.

Eggs and milk. Losses are estimated at 10 percent. While great
care is taken in the preservation of these commodities, they are apt,
respectively, to break or to be spoiled by the heat.

Bananas, platano, yucca, arracacha, name. Losses also estimated
at 10 percent. Few precautions are used in handling these goods be-
cause of their very low unit value.

Panel miel. The estimated loss of 10 percent indicated expresses
a diversion to industrial uses (not ultimately related to nutrition).

Fruits and green vegetables. Losses are estimated at 20 percent.
These commodities are likely to spoil rapidly in tropical countries,
especially when not harvested in time or when exposed to all kinds of
weather before or during transportation to the market.

Fish. Lack of refrigeration and small market outlets affect the
handling of fish as well as meat. Losses of fish are estimated at
26 percent.

Meats These commodities are processed by the slaughterhouses
between the producer and the market. The percentage of losses between
cattle on-the-hoof and meat for sale is 40 percent and was indicated
by studies of the Ministry of Agriculture.

Corn. Losses were estimated at 50 percent on admittedly limited
information: (1) Production statistics seem overstated, for reasons
explained in the discussion of the national income. (2) While corn
is not extensively used as animal feed, some of it is diverted to
hogs and chickens. (3) Industries absorb some corn for non-food uses,
and (4) some corn is shucked before reaching the market. The volume








- 3-


of production of unshucked corn has thus to be reduced to describe
availabilities, shucked or unshucked, at the market level.

Other commodities. Losses for all other commodities were
tentatively estimated at 5%. This ratio represents in most cases
provision for seeds. In other cases it applies to commodities which
are very perishable (such as butter) but which are usually produced
by the wealthier, and more educated, farmers who take reasonable care
of them.

Losses between Market and Consumer

We have distinguished two different types of losses.

(a) Losses in handling and storage between the market or retail
shop and the kitchen. We have assumed that losses would be small --
5 percent -- on most goods which do not require a great amount of
refrigeration; that they would be slightly larger than 10 percent on
goods with a low unit value, such as yucca, platano and bananas, or
those which require refrigeration, such as meats end milk. Finally,
losses for perishables, such as fruits and vegetables, were estimated
at 20 percent.

(b) Losses through preparation. The highest ratio of loss was
estimated for such vegetables or fruits which have a hard core and a
thick skin. The ratio was reduced for foodstuffs with thinner shells
and is smallest for goods available at the market in edible form. In
all cases, however, allowance was made for inedible leftovers.

Study of the Chemical Composition of Colombian Foodstuffs

The conversion of the foodstuffs balance sheet into chemical
equivalents cannot be made on the basis of the yardsticks used in the
United-States. The nutritive velue of foods is apt to vary consider-
ably from one part of the world to another. Even in the same region
of the same country, the chemical composition of leaves, berries,
stalks and fruits grown from identical seeds nlanted in different
soils will vary. Additional changes in climate, in exposure to the
sun, and in rainfall will, of course, intensify these changes. Also
there are thousands of varieties of seeds for each of the principal
cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables. There are also thousands of
varieties of cattle feeding on nutrients which in turn have different
chemical compositions according to soil and climate.

It is therefore not surprising that the food value of apparently
similar foodstuffs varies widely, and it would be misleading to assume
that data on the average composition of food values in one country can
be utilized in other countries. It should also be kept in mind that
data recorded scientifically for one country, such as the United States,
is no more than average data based on a selection of goods deemed to










be most representative of the essential diet in one community. All this
indicates that, ideally, an important prerequisite to the study of nu-
trition in Colombia should be a thorough study of the average composi-
tion of Colombian foodstuffs. Even this could be misleading as
Colombia may be the one country in the vorld here differences in
climate, soils and precipitation may be widest. Perhaps only regional
or local studies will be needed before a fully satisfactory picture
can be obtained.

However, it has not been possible to enter into such refinements
in the computation of the average Colombian diets. The Colombian Nutri-
tion Institute has made some specific studies of the nutritional value
of some Colombian foodstuffs. Where these studies were made with a
sufficient number of samples, we have adopted the Colcmbian standards
instead of the standards provided by U.S. tables. Also, Colombian
nutritionists have been able to determine that certain of their food-
stuffs are more similar in nature to Chilean, Argentinean, or Brazilian
products than to United States products. Mhen this occurred and when
the chemical study of such foodstuffs had been undertaken by other Latin
American countries, the standards reported for these South American
foods were adopted. When no data at all except U.S. data were available,
it has been assumed that they could be used, provided that the similar-
ity of foodstuffs was sufficiently well established. Finally, when no
comparison could be made, the food values assigned to each and every
foodstuff could only be determined by averaging data on food composition
for similar groups of products. The chemical composition of 100 grams
of selected Colombian foods shown in Table B-3 was established on these
bases by experts of the Nutrition Institute in collaboration with mem-
bers of the IBRD Mission.l/

Some spectacular differences in food values between the United
States and Colombia are illustrated below:


Per 100 Grams Edible Portion

Calories Calcium (rilli rams)
U.S. Colombia U.S. Colombia

Peef 201* 156 11 10
Corn 365 338 18 14
Dry Kidney Beans 350 264 348 22

*Equivalent to thin, utility grade "C".




SIn the elaboration of Table E-l, it was decided to substitute the
values given in the U.S. for wheat for those provided by the Institute,
which gave only an analysis of unmilled wholewheat. No mention is made
of Carotene, or Vitamin A, values, since data provided by the Institute
seem unsatisfactory and U.S. standards do not seem to apply.







-5-


Study of the Colombian Consumer and
ReQuirements of the Population

The description of per capital food availabilities has little
meaning if not matched against per capital food requirements and these,
in turn, vary from nation to nation. Food requirements depend upon a
great number of physiological variables such as age, weight, height,
sex and other circumstances, such as habitat, activitities, etc. The
per capital food requirements of a nation-are an average of -ec ,irements
of groups of individuals of various ages, sexes, activities, etc. They
may, therefore, differ widely from one nation to another. Even if the
age structure is exactly similar for the population of two countries,
food requirements will vary according to average weights. If the
country is young and growing fast, its per capital food requirements
will be lower than those of another country where population is stable
or on the decline, even if all other conditions are similar. Having
estimated the distribution of Colombian population by age and sex
groups, as sown in Table B-4, we have adopted the method recommended
by the FAW / in order to compute average calorie requirements. In so
doing, it was necessary to compute the average temperature (weighted by
population distribution by climate zones) which was fourd to be 220
Centigrade, and the average weight and height of the adult male of 25
years, estimated at 58 kilograms. It was also assumed that the average
Colombian is not more active than the average European or North Ameri-
can.

The method applied by the FAC for calories was extended to require-
ments in other essential materials. U.S. standards2/ were applied and
modified according to age, sex and activity. On these bases Table 6-54/
was devised, which summarizes the theoretical per capital food require-
ments for Colombia in the year 1946. We want to state here explicitly
that the major merit of this approach is that it has been accepted
widely, is used by international institutions, and lends itself to com-
parisons with standards which have been devised for other countries.
However, while we believe that, properly qualified, it could roughly
describe a "health standard of nutrition," it needs considerably deeper
analysis. It may be said that, in general, all requirements are thus
overstated, some of them critically. This is recognized however by
the protagonists of the method, who admit the existence of wide safety
margins. It was tentatively assumed that the standard which actually
would come close to the description of a health nutrition standard for
Colombia in 1946 would amount to 80 percent of the requirements as cal-
culated and shown in Table P-5. Also, it was tentatively assumed that
no major changes would occur before 1955.


2/ Report of the Committee on Calorie Requirements, FAC, September 12-
16, 1949 (unpublished).
3/ Recommended Dietary Allowances (revised 1948) National Research
Council, Reprint and Circular Service, Number 129, October, 1948.
/ This table also appears as Table 126, p.364, Comprehensive Report.
/







-6-


Per Capita Food Input and Requirements

Table B-5 summarizes all of our findings on the consumption of
food in Colombia, by matching per capital input with minimum health re-
quirements. It appears clearly that while needs in food energy, iron
and thiamine were more than fulfilled, deficiencies were marked in
proteins and ascorbic acid, while the supply of essential minerals,
such as calcium and phosphorus, and essential vitamins, such as niacin
and riboflavin, was barely half the necessary level. Though data are
lacking on Vitamins "A" and "D," -the lack of yellow vegetables and of
fats in the diet indicate that the shortage of these nutrients may
likewise be acute.

In short, the Colombian diet in 1946 lacked most of the protective
elements. Moreover, the excess in food energy was not such as to per-
mit sudden increases of economic activity which automatically would
bring about increases in the need for calories. Doubtless these conclu-
sions are not based on very reliable data. They are, however, singularly
reinforced when compared, in Table E-6,3/ with analysis of the diets of
workers in four important cities, based on well documented studies of
the standard of living and monthly purchases of these groups by the
Contraloria General.6S

Chemical Contents of Diets

Table B-5 seems to indicate that the food energy intake of city
dwellers is generally lower than the country average, and lower than
requirements. This does not affect the validity of our findings. That
urban dwellers in general consume fewer calories than the national aver-
age is logical, when it is remembered that much of the agricultural
labor lives on the cheapest products of the farm, mostly cereals, and
thus is likely to have a better "energy" diet but an even worse "protec-
tive" diet than the city dweller.

Figures on the intake of proteins of animal origin, which are a
more significant yardstick in diet adequacy, indicate that Honda and
Barranquilla are way above the national average and above minimum health
requirements, while Manizales and Bucaramanga are below. That this
pattern corresponds to that of income levels is not surprising, inas-
much as animal proteins are the most expensive of all types of nutrients.



~/ Workers' diets are compared with average per capital requirements.
Results may differ slightly if they were compared with requirements for
their own group structure.
/ These four cities are representative of four distinct types of ur-
ban centers in Colombia: Barranquilla is an industrial center and a
sea harbor in the hot zone. Its workers are wealthier than average, as
are those of Honda. Manizales is a small industrial center in the tem-
perate zone, in the middle of a coffee area, where workers' incomes are
averaged Bucaramanga is a small agricultural and industrial center in
a depressed area where workers' incomes are below average.








-7-


Deficiencies in calcium indicated for the four cities are even more
marked than those assumed to exist for Colombia as a whole, which might
indicate some overstatement of the milk production in national income
statistics. Deficiencies in fats, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus
ascorbic acid and adequacy in iron and thiamine, indicated in the anal-
ysis of the Colombian diet, are also confirmed by analysis of local
conditions. In general, studies of the nutritional conditions of
workers in urban centers confirm and reinforce the conclusions derived
from analysis of nationwide conditions. Colombia suffers severe defi-
ciencies in animal proteins, fats, calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin,
niacin and ascorbic acid. Questions thus arise as to how these elements
can best be provided, the current sources of nutrients, and how the
diet can be improved.

I'ajor Constituents of the Diet

While it is generally believed that the Colombian diet does not
vary considerably from one zone to another, this is not sustained by
analysis of the three major sources of main chemical nutrients in five
typical diets as given in Table B-6. While panel is definitely the
major source of calories, and thus the foundation of Colombian diets,
supplementary sources of energy nutrients vary according to local cir-
cumstances. In the Atlantic coast region, rice is the secondary
staple. In Caldas, it is corn; in Santander, a depressed area, it is
yucca. For the country in general, where diet compositions are in-
fluenced heavily by farm consumption, platano is the staple.

Panel, the mainstay of the diet, is also most important as the
source of calcium and iron, and in this function it is ahead of milk
products and meats, which would be more adequate sources. This is the
reason why great care should be taken to avoid a too swift shift from
panel to sugar. As long as the production of protective nutrients
will not have reached ideal standards, and as long as they will be out
of the reach of many consumers, panel should be relied upon to make
up for important deficiencies in the Colombian diet. As seen also in
Table B-3, the complex corn beef rice ie essential in the securing
of niacin, phosphorus and proteins and is also an important provider
of iron, thiamine (corn, rice) and riboflavin. However, these commodi-
ties are far from being the best providers of these elements and in
order to make up for the deficiencies in niacin, riboflavin and phos-
phorus, their intake should be stepped up considerably.

The Colombian diet is thus inadequate in many ways; the major sup-
plier of calories is an expensive sugar product, and protective elements
are supplied in inadequate volume by the cheaper cereals. While calorie
deficiencies could easily be overcome by the introduction of a better
storage system, which would make possible a greater intake of those food-
stuffs already important as energy providers, it would be impossible to
rely, on a simple increase in production for the satisfaction of other
dietary requirements. The nature of the production itself must change.









-8-


While relatively small increases in cattle and fish production might
satisfy the need for more fats, proteins, and niacin, greater efforts
will have to be made in order to step up the output of dairy products
which are essential for supplying calcium, phosnborus and riboflavin
requirements. Finally, a major educational campaign may be necessary
to introduce into diets the vegetables and fruits required to make up
for deficiencies in ascorbic acid.










Table B-1: FOOD CONSUIPTfM N IN COLOMBIA, 1946


Calories Proteins Fats


Carbo-
hydrates


Calcium Iron


Ascorbic
Acid


Thiamine


Ribo-
flavin


Niacin Phosphorus


Coffee
Sugar
Panela
Miel
Alcohol
Corn
Potatoes
Yucca and Name
Rice
lWheat
Plantains
Beans
Chocolate
Barley
Hops
Fruits
Peas
Garlic and onions
Vegetables
Lentils
Chick peas
Bananas
Fish
Milk
Eggs
Cheese
Butter
Lard and tallow
Vegetable oils
Beef, meat,-edible portion
Hogs, meat,-edible portion


Total consumption per capital


25,585
85,770
670,000
50,000
3,600
620,003
160,609
730,000
112,247
146,845
952,000
60,096
18,468
26,023
245
20,000
25,004
22,370
40,000
L, 223
5,000
2,253




12,000'
12,000"
251,800
39,900


2.480
8.312
64.932
4.846
.349
60.087
44.639
70.747
10.878
14.231
92.262
5.824
1.790
2.522
.024
1.938
2.423
2.168
3.875
.409
.485
.218

36.500


1.163
1.163
24.403
3.867


81.00
81.00

42.75
76.71
56.70
90.25
76.71
48.60

85.74
81.23
90.00
51.20
80.00
90.00
51.20

90.25,
48.60
43.35
81.00
72.90
90.25
90.25
90.25
90.25
81.00
81.00


2.480
8.312
52.595
3.925
.349
25.687
34.243
40.114
9.817
10.917
141.839
5.824
1.535
2.049
.022
.992
1.938
1.951
1.984
.409
.438
.106

29.565


1.140
1.050
19.766
3.132


6.794
22.772
14-.095
10.753
.956
70.375
93.816
109.900
26.896
29.909
122.845
15.956
6.205
5.614
.060
2.718
5.310
5.3h5

1.121
1.200
.290
13. 00
81.000


3.123
2.877
54.153
8.581


9.036
86.534
511.537
38.173
3.39h
237.868
95.69
146.167
86.8j
106.177
135130
k44124
20,899
20.042

L359
11.912
2.673
1.090
3.397
1.116

13.936
50.220


28.451
26,209
84.479
31.836


.023
.720
.054
.005
5.630
1.698
.978
2.604
3.230
1.467
1.915
.908
.499

.033
1.221
.080
.080
.235
.224

3.404
2.592




10.831
1.210


.984 .045
21,633
.101 126.804
.008 9.463
.001 .841
2.498 47.946
.122 20.640
.659 32.970
1.237 18.359
.269 22.701
.737 27.026
.239 7.978
1.215 -
.089 3.705

.003 .299
.037 2.177
.021 .551
.010 .175
.011 .671
.048 .696

.040 .134
2.835 3.615


3.061
2.819
4.332
3.003


.542
-
-


1,801.33 39.65 24.38 349.00


100.119
13.41i
1.195
9.853
32.836
43.960
5.379
5.683
36.854
3.510
4.710
.393
.514
1.487
1.817
2.065
1.099
1.080

3.618
99.630
.


.w

.686


2.882
.215
.019
1.! 08
.938
1.099
1.345
.209
.737
.957
.114
.112

;014
.106
.021
.0040
.093
.085

.134
.089


1.408
16.887
12.309


11.056



1.196
.069
.572
.870
.084
.024


3.159


047
.0143
1.625
.180


L5537 51.2 47.63


Total~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cosmto e osuu n t,6. p41 33 7.0 62.51.0.1 .


Food


Total
consump-
tion

TT T


per
capital
consump-
tion
(Kg.)


Correc-
tion
factor


Net per
capital
consump-
tion
(Kg.)


per
capital
consump-
tion
(Grams)


.001

.014
.001

.422
.113
.077
.073
.021
.061
.080
.006
.025

.002
.024
.003
.005
.003
.004
.032
.032


.001
.007
.115
.009
.001
.111
.038
.030

.009
.036
.022


.002
.017
.002
.005
.002
.002


.155
,m


.087
.015


.272

.014
.001

.563

.659
.484
.239
.307
.287

.174

.019
.138
.005
.020
.021
.017

.057




1.895
.326


-
-


194.24
52.54

81.50
27.52
34.40/
73.88/
10.61


21.08
2.35


4.50
29.21
75.33




109.93
13.04


730.13

997.71


4027
.076


1.07


Grose Dai-'


_ ill[Rvraimsa)


TO ---s ---


--~o.. _,,,,,.,,~- _-----~T -'


-` -~'~~r?~._~:,~'---------


. -


.910 17.5


Total consumption per consumer unit


2,461.7 18 33.31 7690 22.2 17.10












Table B-2: AVAILABILITIES OF FOODSTUFFS AFTER LOSSES AND WASTES, 1946

(Percent)


Availabiliti s to the Availabilities to the
Availabilities at the ultimate consumer in ultimate consumer
market place in per- percentage of avail- in percentage of
Foodstuff centage of availabilities abilities at market availabilities at
at the farm place tle farm

Coffee
Sugar
Alcohol -
Miel 90.00 90.00 81.00
Panela 90.00 90.00 81.00
Corn 50.00 85.50 42.75
Potatoes 95.00 80.75 76.71
Yucca 90.00 63.00 56.70
Rice 95.00 95.00 90.25
Wheat 95.00 80.75 76.71
Plantains 90.00 54.00 48.60
Beans -
Lentils -
Peas 80.00 80.00
Barley 95.00 85.50 81.23
Hops 90.00 90.00
Bananas 90.00 54.00 48.60
Onions 90.00 90.00
Chick peas 95.00 95.00 90.25
Cacao 95,00 90.25 85.74
Fruits 80.00 64100 51.20
Green vegetables 80.00 64.00 51.20
Beef 60.00 81.00 81.00
Pork 60.00 81.00 81.00
Fish 74.36 58.30 43.35
Milk 90.00 0.00 81.00
Eggs 90.00 81.00 72.90
Lard 1 9500 95.00 90.25
Butter 95.00 95.00 90.25
Cheese 95.00 900 95. 0.25
Vegetable oils 95.00 95.00 90.25








Table B-3: NUTRITIVE VALUE OF 100 GRAMS OF SELECTED COLOMBIAN FOODS, EDIBLE PORTION

(Value per 100 grais)


Food energy
in
calories


Carbo-
Proteins Fats hydrates
(Grams)


Ascorbic Ribo-
Calcium Iron Acid Thiamine flavine Niacin Phosphorus
--------Mi grms^^" ___ ~ ____


FOODSTUFFS OF
ANIMAL ORIGIN
Milk
Butter
Cheese (average)
Beef
Pork
Lamb
Eggs
Chicken
Lard-shortening
Fish

FRUITS (average)

VEGETABLES (average)
Cabbage
Lettuce

CEREALS
Rice
Wheat
Corn
Barley
Oats
Coffee
Cacao


3.20
0.60
26.00
20.00
14.10
18.00
13.50
20.00

25.40


3.50
81.00
13.00
8.00
35.00
17.00
10.50

98.00
0.30


4.50
0.40
0.50
1.00


1.00


1.00


1.20 0.10 11.00


20
29
22


323
355
338
357
396
133
197


1,50
1.40
1.20


9.68
10.80
8.00
8.89
14.20

21.60


0.15
0.20
0.20


0.46
0.90
3.55
1.59
7.190

28.90


3.20
5.30
2.90


68.26
75.90
68.13
66.00
65.00
0.66
-


123
16
71a
10
8
15
55
2

27


0.11
0.20
0.75
3.00
2.10
3.00
2.80
1.90
1.50
1.00


20 0.53 44.0


0.70
0.70
2.80


5.00
0.70
2.00
2.00
5.00

2.70


16.0
55.0
17.0



2.0


.039

.030
.050
.890
.250
.116
.250


.191
.010
.487
.160
.180
.280
.500
.100


0.07
0.10
0.10
3.50
3.80

0.08
-


.062 .059 0.69


.052
.0145
.0541


.270
.070
.600
.450
.550
.010
.150


.081
.038
.1347
.L7



.030
.158

.150
.020


0.37

0.20


1.80
0.80
0.80
3.10

4.00


Foodstuff


Page 1


93
16
610
203
152
184
210
218

218


31
20


303
92
276
189
000
*00
* *


__ 1_~5----------
L -- ---- --
- -~--L~ --


--


---- --






Table B-3 (continued) Page 2


Food energy
Foodstuff in Carbo- Ascorbic Ribo-
calories Proteins Fats hydrates Calcium Iron Acid Thiamine flavine Niacin Phosphorus
,. (Grams) ( .Milligrams ) '

STARCHES (average) 100 2.40. 0.07 23.00 12 0.50 21.0 .068 .036 0.99
Potatoes 102 1.81 0.13 22.00 35 1.00 18.0 .120 .040 56
Yucca 133 0.89 0.60 30.00 40 1.00 11.2 .070 .027 0.60 .
Plantains U10 1.20 0.60 22.00 30 0.60 9.0 .050 .029 0.25 28
Arracacha 108 2.10 0.48 21.00 35 1.00 16.0 ...
DRY GRAINS (average) 301 21.00 1.90 50.00 87 6.50 1.1 .418 .192 1.41
Kidney beans 264 12.00 1.50 50.00 22 6.00 .500 .138 1.80 463
Lentils 303 21.00 1.00 59.90 98 8.30 7.5 .290 .140 1.90
Peas 262 23.00 0.70 41.00 28 2.00 1.3 .460 .315 2.60 397
Chick peas 343 18.70 4.00 58.00 90 7.10 2.0 .350 .150 1.40 375
GREEN BEANS AND
PEAS (average) 90 6.50 0.90 14.00 42 1.20 20.0 .264 .112 0.52 ...
String beans. 33 2.00 0.30 ... 130 1.60 15.0 .070 .090 .
Green peas 98 6.70 0.40 17.00 22 1.90 26.0 .382 .275 -122
Lima beans. 122 11.00 0.70 47.00 28 2.00 25.0 .300 .250 158
ONIONS 50 1.50 0.40 10.30 34 0.40 10.7 .053 .043 0.10 44
SUGAR 380 0.10 95.00 .032 .


0.50 0.07 88.00 125 2.00


PANEL


.010 .080 0.01










Table B-4l PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF THE TOTAL
BY AGE AND SEX GROUPS,

(Percent)


POPULATION OF COLOMBIA,
1966


Age group Male Female Total

0 to U ... ... 14.7

5 to 9 ... ... 12.7
10 to Il ... ... 11.8

15 to 19 5.6 5.2 10.8
20 to 35 12.0 12.3 _1 24.3

35 to 45 5.2 5.5 10.7
45 to 55 3.7 3.7 7.h
55 to 65 2.2 2.2 4.4
65 and over 1.5 1.7 3.2

100.0



1/ Including expectant mothers 2.14.

Source: Projection of 1938 Population census by Contraloria General,
revised in 1949 by staff of I.B.R.D.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs