• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 First part: Report of the director...
 First part: Report of the technical...
 Second part: General description...
 Third part: Brief historical...
 Fourth part: Political geograp...
 Fifth part: Progress and improvement...
 Sixth part: Population
 Seventh part: Analysis of this...
 Eighth part: Tables of populat...
 Appendix
 Index














Title: Census of the republic of Cuba 1919
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074068/00001
 Material Information
Title: Census of the republic of Cuba 1919
Physical Description: xii, 968 p. : incl. tables. front., ports., plates, diagrs., charts. ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Cuba -- Dirección general del censo
Betancourt y Miranda, Angel C., 1862-1925
Publisher: Maza, Arroyo y Caso, s. en c., printers
Place of Publication: Havana
Publication Date: [1920?]
 Subjects
Subject: Census, 1919 -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Most plates and all diagrams printed on both sides.
General Note: Published also in Spanish.
General Note: Angel C. Betancourt y Miranda, director general.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074068
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000054563
oclc - 23604467
notis - AAF9514

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    First part: Report of the director general
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
    First part: Report of the technical consultor
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Second part: General description of Cuba
        Page 27
        Physical geography
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 32a
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 40a
            Page 40b
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
        Natural resources
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 56a
            Page 56b
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 72a
            Page 72b
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
        Sugar industry and its derivations
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 88a
            Page 88b
            Page 89
            Page 90
    Third part: Brief historical review
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 96a
        Page 96b
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 104a
        Page 104b
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
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        Page 113
        Page 114
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        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 120b
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 128a
        Page 128b
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 136a
        Page 136b
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
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        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 152a
        Page 152b
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Fourth part: Political geography
        Page 155
        Political constitution and organization of public powers
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 160a
            Page 160b
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
        Territorial division
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
        Individual rights
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 168a
            Page 168b
        legislation
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
    Fifth part: Progress and improvement of the country
        Page 181
        Immigration
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
        Public works
            Page 184
            Page 184a
            Page 184b
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
            Page 188
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
            Page 192a
            Page 192b
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
            Page 200
            Page 200a
            Page 200b
            Page 201
            Page 202
            Page 203
            Page 204
            Page 205
            Page 206
            Page 207
            Page 208
            Page 209
            Page 210
        Mass of communication
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
            Page 216
            Page 216a
            Page 216b
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
            Page 223
        Public wealth
            Page 224
            Page 224a
            Page 224b
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
        Commerce
            Page 229
            Page 230
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 232a
            Page 232b
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
            Page 238
            Page 239
        Public education
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 248a
            Page 248b
        Beneficencia (charity)
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
        Public health
            Page 252
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 256a
            Page 256b
            Page 257
            Page 258
        Prisons
            Page 259
            Page 260
            Page 261
            Page 262
    Sixth part: Population
        Page 263
        Former censuses of Cuba
            Page 263
            Page 264
            Page 264a
            Page 264b
            Page 265
            Page 266
            Page 267
            Page 268
            Page 269
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            Page 271
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            Page 273
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            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 280a
            Page 280b
            Page 281
            Page 282
            Page 283
        Actual population
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 288a
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
        Density of population
            Page 293
            Page 294
            Page 295
            Page 296
            Page 296a
            Page 296b
            Page 297
        Centre of population
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
    Seventh part: Analysis of this census of population
        Page 301
        Sex, regarding color and nativity
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 312a
            Page 312b
            Page 313
            Page 314
            Page 315
        Age, with regard to sex, color and nativity
            Page 316
            Page 317
            Page 318
            Page 319
            Page 320
            Page 320a
            Page 320b
            Page 321
            Page 322
        Persons in the prime of life
            Page 323
        Population 21 years of age and over
            Page 324
        Citizenship
            Page 325
            Page 326
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 328a
            Page 328b
        Males of military age
            Page 329
        Elections
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
        Civil condition
            Page 340
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 344a
            Page 344b
            Page 345
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            Page 352a
            Page 352b
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            Page 360
            Page 360a
            Page 360b
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
        Illegitimate children
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
        Attendance to the schools
            Page 367
            Page 368
        Literacy
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
        Occupations
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 376a
            Page 376b
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
        Families and dwellings
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 384a
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
            Page 389
            Page 390
    Eighth part: Tables of population
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
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    Appendix
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        Census law
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        Presidential decrees
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        Instructions to enumerators and special agents
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        Supplemental instructions issued by the director general
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        Meetings of the national census board
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        Personnel of the census
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        Enumeration districst and enumerators of the census of 1919
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        Reports of the provincial inspectors
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        List of governors of the island of Cuba
            Page 957
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    Index
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Full Text






































































GENERAL MARIO G. MENOCAL,
President of Ihe Republic
















CENSUS OF THE
REPUBLIC OF CUBA
1919








CENSUS


OF THE.



REPUBLIC OF CUBA


1919


ANGEL C. BETANCOURT Y MIRANDA,
DIRECTOR GENE.RAL.


TOMAS BORDENAVE Y BORDENAVE.
SUBDIRECTOR GENERAL.


HAROLD E. STEPHENSON,
TECHNICAL CONSULTOR.


HAVANA
MAZA. ARROYO Y CASO, 5. en C..
Printers
22 y 24 O'Reiy. St.














CENSUS NATIONAL BOARD


i.


DR. JosE I. TRAVIESO,
President


DR. OCTAVIO AVERHOFF.
Secretary


ENG. FRANCISCO GAST6N,
Member of the Board


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


FIRST PART
Pages

Report of the Director General ....................... ... ...... .... 1-20
Report of the Technical Consultor .................................... 21-25

SECOND PART

General description of Cuba

Introduction ............................................... .... 27
CHAPTER I.- Physical geography .................................... 27-51
Location and area .......................... .................. 27
Topography ................................................... 29
Orography ................................................. ... 30
H idrography ......................................... ........ 31
G eology .............................................. ......... 31
F lora ................................................... ...... 32
F auna .............................................. .... ...... 32
Clim ate ....................... .... .......... ........... 33
Tem perature ................................................... 34
R ainfall .............................................. ...... 43
Direction of the wind ........................................... 45
Atmospherical pressure ............... .................... ...... 48
Sumshine .................................. ...... ............. 49
Atmospherical phenomenae.-Thunder storms, water spouts, hail and
eyclons ........................................ ...... 50
Earthquakes ........................................... ...... 51
CnAPT:E II.- Natural resources .... ................................. 52-82
Products of animal kingdom .................................... 52-54
Cattle ................... ......... .......... .............. ..... 52
H orses .............................................. .. ...... 53
Mules ............................ ................... ...... 53
Sw ine ............................................... ......... 54
Sheeps and goats ............................................... 54
P oultry .............................................. ........ 54
F ish ............................................... ........ 54
Products of the vegetable kingdom ................. ............. 54-73
Sugar cane .................................. ..... ........... 55
Tobacco ...................................................... 56
Coffee .............................................. ........ 57
Cocoanuts ............................................. ........ 58
Cacao ......................................................... 58
Textile plants .................................................. 59
Fruits: citrus fruits, grape fruit, pineapple, anon, zapote, tamarindo,
red mamey, bananas, aguaeate, guava ....................... 60-63









VI TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pages

Garden products .............................................. 63
F orange plants ........................................ ......... 63
Grams .................. ..................................... 64
Corn ................ .... ......................... ......... 64
M illet ......................................... .. ... .. ...... 64
Wheat ............... .... ........................ ... .... 64
R ico ............................................ ..... .. .... 64
Tubers and nourishing roots .................................... 65
Sweet potatoes .............. .................................. 65
Oleaginous plants .............................................. 66
M edicinal plants ............. .................................. 66
Gummiferons plants ........................................... 67
Forest and forest products ...................................... 67
Products of the mineral Lingdom ................................. 74-82
Extraction and exportation of minerals .......................... 77
Iron ................... .............................. ....... 77
C op p er ...................................... ...... .... ...... 78
Manganese ................. ....... ........................ 79
G old ................... .............................. ....... 80
Chromium ..... .......... .... .......................... 81
Asphaltum ............... ....... ......................... 8
Petroleum ....................................... .............. 82
CurAPTER III.-Sugar industry and its derivations ...................... 82-89
Cultivation area .......................... ................. 83
Sugar cane grinding ..................................... . .83
Sugar production ................................ .. ........ .. 84
Molasses production ............................................ 8
Rum and alcohol production .................................... 84
Total value of the crops ....................................... 84
Sugar exportation ............................................ 85
M classes exportation ............................................ 85
Exportation of other products .................................... 85
Total value of these exportations ................................ 85
Inmlortation of bags and machinery .............................. 85
Commerce of similar products in 1919 .......................... 86
Statistic tables ................................................ 86


THIRD PART

Brief historical review ................ ................... ........ 91-154


FOURTH PART

Political geography

CHAPTER I.-Political constitution and organization of public powu rs. ... 155-164
CHAPTER II.- Territorial division. .................................... 164-167
Province of Pinar del Rio ...................................... 164
Province of Havana .......................................... 165
Province of M atanzas .......................................... 165
Province of Santa Clar ....................... ....... ....... 165









TABLE OF CONTENTS VII


Pages

Province of Camagiey ......................................... 165
Province of Oriente ............................... ........... 166
CHAPTER III.-Individual rights ................................... 167-169
CHAPTFE IV.-Legislation ... ........................... .......... 169-179
Civil law ..................................... .......... ..... 170
Commercial la,-'s ............................................... 174
Penal laws ........................................ ........... 174
Civil procedure ...................................... ......... 176
Penal procedure ................................. .. .......... 177
Conteneioso administrative ...................................... 178
Political laws ................................ ............... 179
Administrative laws ................................. ........ 179

FIFTH PART

Progress and improvement of the country

CHAPTER I.-Immigration ......................................... 181-184
CHAPTER II.- Public works ......................................... 184-194
Plan of highways ............................................... 187
Central highway ............................................... 190
Highway system ................................................ 190
Care of highways ............................................... 191
B ridges .......................................... .......... 1 91
Highways under construction .................................... 191
Railroads ......................................... ............ 192
Municipal engineering.-Sewerage system ........................ 193
Cause of the floods ............................. .................. 194
Cost of the work ............................................... 195
Advantages to be obtained from the canal ........................ 195
Aqueducts ................................... ............. 195
Vento studies .................................................. 197
Reparing and paving of streets .................................. 198
Parks and promenades ....................................... 200
Sanitation .................................... .. .............. 201
Ports ......................................... ... .......... 201
Docks already finished ........................................ 202
Projects under construction ...................... ..... ..... 202
Port of Matanzas .............................................. 203
Port of CArdenas ............................. .............. 203
Port of Isabela de Sagua ...................................... 203
Puerto Padre ..................................... ... .... ... 203
Port of Nuevitas ............................................ 203
Puerto Esperanza ........................................ 204
Lighthouses .................................................... 204
Government buildings .......................................... 206
H hospitals ...................................................... 208
Care and repairs .............................................. 209
CuAPTFr III.-Means of comunications.-Mail and Telegraph Department 211-224
Telegraph service .............................................. 213








VIII TABLE OP CONTENTS


Pages

R ailroads ........................................... .......... 217
Steam ship lines .............. .................................. 223
CHAPTER IV.-Public wealth ........................................ 224-229
P public finance ......................................... ....... 224
Coin ............... ... ................................ 226
W eights and m measures .................................. ........ 227
Banks and banking operations .................................. 228
Institutions of business transactions and intervening commercial agents 229
CHAPTER V.- Commercc ........................................... 229-240
Forcing commerce ............... ............................... 229
Coasting trade ................... .................... ........ 230
CHAPTER VI.- Public education ................................ ..... 240-249
Professional education ...................................... ... 241
Education in the Institutes ...................................... 243
School of Painting and Sculpture ................................ 243
School of Arts and Trades ...................................... 244
School of Agriculture .......................................... 244
Normal Schools ................ ........................... 244
Primary education ........................................... 245
Libraries ............... ............................ ......... 247
Official academies and corporations .............................. 247
Archives and museums ............ ........................ 248
CHAPTER VIT.-Beneficencia (charity) ............................... 249-252
Asylums for orphans, foundlings and aged people .................. 249
Hospitals ..................................................... 250
The insane Asylum ............................................. 252
CHAPTER VIII.-Public health ........ .............................. 251-259
V ital statistics ............................................ .... 253
Vital statistic of Havana ..................................... 257
CHAPTER IX.-Prisions .......................................... 259-261

SIXTH PART

Population

CHAPTE.R L.---Floramr cnsuses of Cuba ............................. 263-284
Censuses of 176S and 1774 or 1775 .............................. 265
Censuses of 17S7 and 1791 or 1792 ............................. 266
Censuses of 1804 and 1810 ...................................... 267
Census of 1S71 ................. ..................... 267
Censuses of 1819, 1825 and 1827 ................................ 268
Censuses of 1830, 1841 and 1846 ................... ........... 269
Censuses of 1849, 1850, 1852, 1855, 1857, 1859, 1860 and 1861 ...... 270
Censuses of 1862 and 1867 .............. ....................... 271
Censuses of 1887 ............ ............................ .. 277
Censuses of 1899 ............................................... 278
Census of 1907 ...................................... ...... ... 281
CHAPTER II.- Actual population ...................................... 284-293
Population by municipalities .................................... 287
Urban population .............................................. 291
CHAPTER III.-Density of population ................................ 293-298
CHAPTrE IV.-Centre of population ................................. 298-299









TABLE OP CONTENTS


SEVENTH PART

Analysis of the census of population
Pages

CHAPTER I.-Sex, regarding color and nativity ................. .... 302-316
CHAPTER IL.-Age, with regard to sex, color and nativity ................ 316-322
CHAPTER 1II.-Persons in the prime of life .......................... 323
CHAPTER IV.-Population 21 years of age and over .................. 324
CHAPTER V.- Citizenship ........................................... 325-329
CHAPTER VI.-Males of military age ................................ 329
CHAPTER VII.- Eletors ............................................ 330-340
M ales of voting age ........................................... 330
CHAPTER VIII.- Civil condition ................................... ... 340-364
M carried ............................................. .. ...... 341
Consensually married ........................................... 352
W idow ed ...................................................... 359
Singles .............................................. ....... 36 1
All classes of conjugal condition ................................ 362
CHAPTER IX.-Illegitimate children .................................. 364-367
CHAPTER X.-Attendance to the schools .............................. 367-369
Children of school age .......................................... 367
A attendance .................................................... 36
CHAPTER XI.- Literacy ...................................... ..... 369-372
CHAPTER XII.- Occupations ......................................... 372-382
CHAPTER XIII.-Families and dwellings .............................. 382-380
Size of family ...................................... ........... :83

EIGHT PART

Tables of population

Table 1.- Population 1774 to 1919 ................................ :391
Table 2.-Population of provinces, 1887-1919 ...................... 3391
Table 3.-Population of municipalities .................. ........... 391
Table 4.- Population of barrios ................... ....... .......... 393
Table 5.-Population of the cities and towns of 1,000 or more inhabitants 403
Table 6.-Sex, general nationality and race, by provinces ............ 40(
Table 7.-Age and sex, by provinces .............................. 412
\Table 8.-Age, sex, race and nationality, by provinces ................ 418
Table 9.-Place of birth, by provinces ............................ 432
Table 10.-Place of birth according to sex and race, by provinces ....... 435
Table 11.-Citizenship, by provinces ................................ 440
Table 12.-Male population, 21 years and over, classified by .citizenship,
literacy and municipality ............................ 443
Table 13.-Citizenship, according to age, race and nationality, by
provinces ....................... ... ......... ... ... 458
Table 14.-Conjugal status, by municipalities ........................ 514
Table 15.-Conjugal status, according to sex, race and nationality, by pro-
vinces .............................................. 517
Table 16.-Conjugal status, according to age, sex, race and nationality,
by provinces ................. ......... .............. 522









I. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Table 17.-Illegitimate children, classified by age, sex, race and natio-
nality, by provinces .................................. 564
Table 18.-School attendance and literacy, by provinces .............. 569
Table 19.-Population of 10 years and over, classified by age, sex, race,
nationality and literacy, by provinces ................ 57
- Table 20.-School attendance, by months, sex, age, race and nationality,
by provinces .................................. ..... 606
Table 21.-General groups of professions, according to sex, race and na-
tionality, by provinces .............................. 626
Table 22.-General groups of professions, by municipalities ............ 628
Table 23.-General groups of professions, according to age, sex, race and
nationality, by provinces ............................ 632
Table 24.-Professions, arts and selected occupations, according to sex,
race and nationality, by provinces .................... 66
Table 25.-Professions, arts and selected occupations according to sex and
age, by provinces .................................... 689
Table 26.-Professions, arts and selected occupations, according to sex and
literacy, by provinces ... ............................ 699
Table 27.-Professions, arts and selected occupations, according to sex,
and conjugal status, by provinces .................... 717
Table 28.-Professionsn, arts and selected occupations, according to sex
and place of birth, by provinces ...................... 735
Table 29.-All professions, arts and occupation, by provinces.......... 75S
Table 30.-Number and size of families, by provinces ................... 756
) Table 31.-Number and average size of families, according to nationality
and race of the heads of families, by provinces.......... 761
~ 'tl!e 32.-Number of dwelling and families, number of persons in them
and of families in each dwelling by provinces .......... 762

APPENDIX

Ce(usu. Law .................................................... 767
Prc '-dntial Decrees ................................................ 780
T:!:tru :tions to enumerators and special agents ........................ 787
Si:; .l-inental instructions issued by Director General .................. 802
Meletin:s of the National Census Board .............................. 827
Personnel of the Census .......................................... 849
Enniuucnration districts and enumerators of the Census of 1919........... 859
Report of the Provincial Inspector of Pinar del Rio .................... 918
Report of the Provincial Inspector of Havana ........................ 917
Report of the Provincial Inspector of Matansas ...................... 921
Report of the Provincial Inspector of Santa Clara .................... 924
Report of the Provincial Inspector of Camagiley ...................... 939t
Report of the Protincial Inspector of Oriente ........................ 932
List of Governors of Cuba ....................................... 957

MAPS AND DIAGRAMS

Di.'tribution of population, by, age, sex, color and nativity ............ 264
Population of the provinces ...................................... 265
Density of population, by municipalities .............................. 280
Population by municipalities ....................................... 281









TABLE OF CONTENTS .2.1

Pages

Map of the Island of Cuba.--ailroad system ........................ 288
Total population, classified by sex, race and nativity .................. 296
Males of electoral age.-Literate and illiterate ........................ 297
Map of the Island of Cuba, showing per cent of increase of population.. 312
Map of the Island of Cuba, showing per cent males to females in total
population ..................................................... 313
Map of the Island of Cuba, showing per cent forcing white form of total
population .................................................. 320
Map of the Island of Cuba showing the mean size of families.......... 321
Map of the Island of Cuba showing per cent colored inhabitants form of
total population .............................................. 328
Civil status, by age and sex ....................................... 360
School attendance, by, sex, color and nativity .......................... 361
Per cent illiterates form of population at least ten years of age and over 376
Occupation, by sex, color and nativity ................................ 377

PICTURES

General Mario G. Menocal .................................... Frontispiece
Census National Board ............................................. V
Angel C. Betancourt y Miranda, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
and Director General of the Census Bureau .....................
Tomas Bordenave y Bordenave, Associate Justice of the Audiencia of Ha-
vana and Subdirector General of the Census Bureau .............. 14
Major Harold E. Stephenson, Technical Consultor .................... 18
Provincial inspectors ....................................... ...... 32
Havana.-Presidential Palace ....................................... 40
Central Park .............................. ........... .... 41
The Templete ................................................ 56
View of the City of Havana .................................. 57
Place where the students were shot in 1871 ..................... 72
Office of the Director General of the Census .................... 73
Former palace of the Captain Generals ........................... 88
Havana.-Statue of Don Jos6 de la Luz Caballero ................... 89
General Maceo 's monument .................................... 96
Old convent of San Francisco .................................. 97
Catholic Cathedral .......................................... 104
Terminal railroad station ..................................... 105
Proluce-exchange ................................ ........ 120
Angel Church ............................................ 121
Crist6bal Col6n, cemetery ................................... 128
San Francisco square and wharf ............................ 129
"Gonzalo de Quesada" Park .......................... ....... 136
Bridge over Almendares river ................................ 137
Highway from Havana to Bataban6 ............. .... ........... 152
Havana.-" Los Laureles", moat ................................... 153
Entrance to National University ............................... 160
National University (project of the Department of Public works).... 161
Quinta de los Molinos ......................................... 168
Interior view of Post Office ....................... ....... 169
Radiotelegraph station ...................................... .. 184
Dumping-plaee ..................... ..................... 185









XII TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pages

Pinar del Rio.- A school walk ...................................... 192
Tobacco plantation ........... ......... ................ 193
Vifiales valley .................................................. 200
The Park ...................................................... 201
Orange plantation in Isle of Pines ....................... ........... 216
Landscape in the province of Camagiiey .............................. 217
Camagiey.-Soledad church and Maceo street ........................ 224
Typical street of an old cuban town ................................. 225
Viaduct on the Cuban Central Raiload .............................. 232
Dwelling-house and gardens at the sugar central "Stewart" .......... 233
Camagiiey.-Model farm school "El Lngarefio" ...................... 248
Matanzas.-Country school ........................................ 249
Santa Lucia wharf.-Pinar del Rio .................................. 256
Matahambre mines.-Pinar del Rio ................................... 257
Primitive proceeding for grinding coffee ............................ 329
"Cunyaya," primitive method for pressing the sugar cane .............. 344
Primitive coffee mill ............................................... 345
Old sugar mill ............... ...... ...... ... .......... 352
Machinery of a modern central sugar mill ............................ 353
Modern central sugar mill in the province of Oriente .................. 384


'' C`


'L~T~i~n-~q;lQ~~7~)~~??i~?l~L~~~,-J;J~







































































ANGEL C. BETANCOURT Y MIRANDA,
Associate Justice of the Suprem Court and Director General of the Census














FIRST PART

REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

Hoaana, December 23rd. 1921.
To THE CENSUS NATIONAL BOARD:

After having finished the principal part of the work assigned by
the law to the office I am performing, I esteem it my duty to offer this
respectable Board a minute account of the organization of these labors,
the manner in which they have been carried on, the results obtained
and the observations which, in view thereof, have been suggested to me
after practically fulfilling this law; for although the.Board is acquainted
with everything that has happened, whereas while discharging the duties
of my office I have taken special care to proceed in perfect agreement
therewith, and when necessary, with its approval, owing to which cir-
cumstance it has been possible to bring this arduous task to an end,
without encountering greater difficulties, I have judged it convenient
to present a full description of the whole work, so that it may be used
as a base or as a complement of this Report after it is concluded, and
as a source of experience for the succeeding, analogous labors, which
are to be periodically done according to the precepts of the law.
The Board is acquainted with the purpose which determined the
unexpected drawing up of this Census, at the time it has been done and
the conditions and circumstances in which it has been accomplished; it
is important, however, to recollect them and state them down here, so
that the knowledge thereof may be used as a base for the opinions which
will be formed of this work and its consequences.
The general elections of 1916 produced a condition of intense po-
litical agitation in the country, which was ascribed to the result of the
former and, in turn, this was said to be owing to the deficiency, the errors,
or the undue application of the eleetoial legislation, and it was thought
convenient, in order to avoid the repetition of that phenomenon, to re-
form that legislation bearing in mind the experience of those events.
This is the parting point and the determining cause of this Census being
taken at the time it has been done.
The Legislative Power undertook the reform and for the study
thereof, profitted of the advices and the aid of General Enoch H.
Crowder, who had fulfilled the office of President of the Commission







2 REPORT OF THE DIBECTOB GENERAL

which had drawn up the law under whose sway the elections of 1916
had been accomplished. It seems that the Commission of Congrem,
setting to work, with the assistance of the Adviser, soon observed that
a mere legislative reform would not be sufficient for obtaining the end
proposed and that it was necessary, in order that the former should be
efficacious to establish a really solid base, depurating, and it might even
be said, creating the electoral Census, whereas the one then standing was
charged with being inaccurate, and even fraudulent. It seemed to the
legislators that the best means for obtaining that end, would not be the
rectification of the electoral Census by ordinary proceedings, but by
making a population census, taken with the greatest warranties of accn-
racy and impartiality possible, in order to derive therefrom the new
electoral census.
After being acquainted with this capital idea it is easy to under-
stand certain precepts of the law, and to appreciate exactly the proceed-
ings which have been followed in order to fulfill them. The first obs-
tacle encountered for realizing this purpose was that offered by the
limits placed on time whereas the dates for the elections had been esta-
blished by the law, on account of the periods for changing the Govern-
ment having been fixed by the Constitution, and therefore it was nece-
ssary to proceed with utmost speed and urgency, not only in all the
operations of the Census, but in the preparation thereof, for there was
nothing permanently organized to that end.
It was doubles owing to these circumstances, that the Honorable
President of the Republic, authorized Major Harold E. Stephenson,
Infantry United States Army, afterwards appointed Technical Consul-
tor of this Direction, to carry out the preliminary labours deemed conve-
nient, which labors are enumerated in the Report of the said Consultor,
with which the Board is already acquainted, and which according to
its decision, will be included in this Report.
The Law of the Census, dated july llth. of 1919, was published in
the Gaceta Oficial corresponding to the next day, the 12th., since which
it began to be in force. The Board was constituted on the 18th. of july
of 1919, and having included my name in the proposal presented to the
Honorable President of the Republic, as prescribed by the law, for
naming the Director General of the Census, he was pleased to appoint
me, by decree of the 24th. of the same month, to that office, of which,
I took possession the following day 25th of july.
My first care was to become acquainted with the preparatory labors
which had been going on and to appoint the Inspectors for the provinces
and the Chief Clerk, so that work could be started.
For the former appointments I had the purpose of going over to
the capitals of the provinces, in order to choose the personnel, after
having come directly in contact with persons capable of lending their







REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 3

aid to the task which was to be carried on, as had been done during the
previous censuses by those who then fulfilled this office, and likewise
with the idea of obtaining direct and exact knowledge of the conditions
of the country, before laying out the plan to which the accomplishment
of this service should be adjusted. But time was so pressing, that it
prevented me from realizing either of these ideas; I was obliged to make
my election of personnel, within the small circle of my former acquain-
tances, and although I have no reason for not being satisfied with that
election, notwithstanding that, I wish to have it stated here, that, in a
regular order affairs, that system is not the one best fit for labors of
this kind, which need to be prepared with calm and anticipation, just
because they have to be accomplished speedily.
On the 2nd. of august I appointed Chief of Inspectors, Dr. Carlos
Eleid and Balmaseda; a distinguished lawyer who had lent his services
to the Administration of Justice in the office of Magistrate of the Au-
diencia of Havana; and as Provincial Inspectors: Dr. Lorenzo Ponce, a
distinguished lawyer also, and possessing special knowledge of this pro-
vinee, for that of Havana; Mr. Carlos Trujillo, Chief of the Health
Department at Cienfuegos, for that of Santa Clara; Mr. Eduardo Escoto
Cavada, who had been for a long time employed in Public Adminis-
tration in the Mail Department, where he had obtained an excellent
reputation; for that of Matanzas, Mr. Jos6 Perez Arocha, employed in the
branch of Finance, for that of Pinar del Rio; Mr. Narciso Monreal Va-
rona, Inspector of Public Education and an old employee of this branch,
for that of Camagiley, and Mr. Jos6 Portuondo Tamayo, engineer, for
that of Oriente. This gentleman, shortly after being appointed and
before taking possession of this office, resigned on account of his health
and I replaced him with Mr. Ricardo Navarro, also an engineer, Profes-
sor of the Institute of the said Province of Oriente. The intelligence
and zeal displayed by these functionaries are so well known to the Board
that I need not stop to extol them, and the well deserved fame of honesty
and capability which they enjoyed, was the reason why these appoint-
ments were so well received by public opinion, which since that moment,
began to lend its aid to the labors of this Department.
After being informed of the steps taken by the technical Consultor,
I proceeded to accept and ratify them; I confirmed in their places, with
a provisional character, the employees he had appointed, so as not to
stop the impulse ha had given to the labors we were undertaking, I
formalized the contracts made on the rent of the house, seeing the im-
poesibility of finding another one in better conditions, and likewise
those regarding the purchase of office supplies, equipment and machines
which he had celebrated, and which were needed for the work which
was going to be done.
As to the plan, I accepted and approved that which had been already







REPORT OP THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


studied and prepared by the Consultor, taking into consideration, that
any fundamental alteration therein would have delayed the work or
produced confusion in the same, besides that it seemed good to me in its
principal features. These reasons likewise induced me to establish, as
a line of conduct, to let the Consultor personally carry out his plans,
supplying him with all the means necessary, which were within the
limits of my own authority. Thus the work of the Census has been
done without interruptions, without disagreements, and without great
inconveniences, there being two wills cooperating to that end, united by
the same purpose of attending to the public service with preference over
everything else. It is only just on this opportunity to recognize the
exceptional personal qualities of Major Stephenson, who took upon
himself, with my express consent, the direction of all the technical la-
bors, which I did with the object that his plan might find no obstruc-
tion, being developed by himself, and he devoted himself thereto with
praise-worthy assiduity, which proved fruitful, notwithstanding the
obstacles he encountered on account of his being unacquainted with the
country and with the language, but which he made every effort to
overcome.
As soon as the Inspectors were appointed, he called them to this
capital, where three meetings were held, with the assistance of the
Consultor, who gave them his instructions on his plan and the methods
they had to follow for carrying it out, supplying them with some maps
and data of their respective provinces and a list of a tentative division of
the enumeration districts which he had already prepared. They imme-
diately returned to their provinces, in order to rectify, upon the ground,
the divisions which had been theorically made, and to proceed to the
election and proposal of the enumerators. They were required to do all
this within a most brief lapse of time, for as the Electoral Law was
already standing, and it also marked out close terms for the approach-
ing elections, the Census had to be finished with due anticipation. The
labor of the Inspectors was most painful, they had to make the terri-
torial division with the data supplied to them, taking as a base the for-
mer Censuses, and without being enabled to go over their provinces, in
which subsequently to those censuses, some divisions of municipalities
and wards had been made, in an undefined way, and of which only some
insufficient data could be found in the respective central offices and
administrative centers. This circumstance, together with the lack of
maps and accurate topographic, plans, although compensated by the
zeal and personal expertness of the Inspectors, gave place to the neces-
sity of subdividing several districts after the enumeration had begun
rectifying certain limits and performing at the same time, different
operations which should have logically been done one before the other.
To all these difficulties must be added those arising from the elec-







RBEPOT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 5

tion of enumerators. The law provided that only persons who were
known to have no political signification could be appointed enumerators;
a certain degree of instruction is necessary to fulfill that office, the
remuneration established for the same was exiguous; the public was
allowed to impugn the appointments on any pretext, and the term
marked out was exceedingly short. For all these reasons the election of
the personal became the greatest preoccupation of the inspectors and
of this Direction; the Board knows it is so; many passions were excited
on account of those appointments, many suspicious were awoken, which
it was necessary to hush, in order to inspire full confidence in the work
which was going to be done, and thereby obtain the support of the
people. Moreover, on account of the prosperous condition of the country
at that time, provisional positions scantily rewarded, were not desirable
to those really fit for them, and in many occasions, the Chiefs could
only contrive to cover up the number of appointments necessary by
exciting their patriotism and prevailing on them by friendly persuasion.
As to this particular, I have the satisfaction of being able to say that
of nearly three thousand appointments made, scarcely five were protest-
ed, and of these, only three had any foundation.
The purpose had been to start enumeration on the 1st. of Septem-
be.; but when that day grew near the impossibility of doing so became
evident nmd by redoubling our efforts, at last the 15th. of theaame_
od be fixedas the day of the Census, and ithadtobe finished
an the 30th of october. On account o the h te with w h it had been
necessary to proceed, after the Census was going on, the impossibility
was seen of finishing it within that term, which was the same one grant-
ed during the proceeding Censuses, notwithstanding that this time two
censuses had to be taken, that of population and the electoral one; and
in order to avoid a postponement, which would have produced pertur-
bation and damages, many districts which had been theorically formed
according to a near estimate of their inhabitants, had to be subdivided
because when put in practise, the inconveniences arising from their
extent and lack of means of communication were touched, specially
in rural districts; and even this measure was not sufficient, for during
the last days the necessity was felt of appointing special agents for
cooperating with those enumerators who were behind time in their
work, for different reasons, among which the foremost were the precepts
of the law, in connection with the extent and the issue of the voting
cards (cedulas).
I am reminding these facts, because they, with others I omit, and
which have been forgotten by the majority on account of the success
obtained, may be a useful experience for the future, and in view of them
I feel authorized to affirm, without any fear of being contradicted, that
this Census has been the one carried through amid more adverse cir-


-p.~.~-----i--- i~lmi~i :







REPORT OP THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

lumstances and greater difficulties than all others taken until now. The
two former ones were drawn up under regimes in which it was easy to
overcome any obstacle, for there was no law previously regulating
them, nor anything pressing their conclusion. It is true that the present
law, in spite of its rigid precepts, invests this Board and this Direction
with ample autonomy, thanks to which it has been possible to solve
difficulties and overcome obstacles; otherwise, the task would have been
utterly impossible.
At the same time that I attended to the appointments of the enu-
merators and to the division of the districts, I was occupied in organiz-
ing the offices of this Direction. I divided the office into two large
sections, one for administration, occupied with the work in charge of
the Direction, and the other for statistics, for the operations of examin-
ing and computing the work of the Census, properly said; I placed the
former under the immediate direction of the Chief Clerk; for the
latter I named an employee of inferior rank and salary ($200.00) who
was to proceed according to the instructions given to him by the Con-
sultor, after they had been approved by myself; I placed the inspection
and direction of all the work in charge of the Subdirector, according to
the rules and instructions I should communicate to him. In the admi-
nistrative section I established a department for keeping the accounts
to which I committed the examination of all those presented by the
enumerators and those concerning office expenses; another depart-
ment for archives and one more for information and complaints. I kept
up this organization during the whole enumeration period; when this
expired I created another department of electoral registers, for this
kind of affairs, and this section was kept working day and night, its
employees being renewed by groups. The current labors were per-
formed in two sessions: one from eight to eleven in the morning, and
the other from one to five in the afternoon; the additional electoral
work was done from seven to eleven at night. The superior officers,
Director, Subdirector, Chief Clerk, as well as the Consultor, were in
constant attendance to these sessions. It was often necessary to take
advantage of the feast days to push on the work.
During the enumeration period there never were less than two
hundred employees at the office, number which was almost doubled
while the electoral registers were being made, for this was done simul-
taneously with the operation of classifying and forming the statistic
tables. It was necessary to compensate the lack of time with the exess
of personnel, and in this particular, as in all others, I followed the ad-
vices and suggestions of the Consultor.
In spite of all the difficulties presented as already stated, by the
prosperous condition of the country in order to obtain capable em-
ployees who would willingly fulfill provisional positions for short







REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 7

wages, it was endeavoured to have those of this department, established
on the same footing as those in other Offices of Public Administration,
but proportionally they were inferior to those of the latter. The largest
salaries paid were those of the Chiefs of the Sections and the Trans-
lator, who were assigned two hundred dollars; the Assistant of the
Chief Clerk, the interpreter, the secretary of the Director and the
archivist, were assigned salaries fluctuating from eighty three to a
hundred and twenty five dollars; ninety dollars the Subchiefs of statis-
tics, where the employees were divided into groups which never were
of more than ten persons, and the typewriters who knew english and
spanish also who scarcely numbered five; the remainder of the em-
ployees were assigned salaries of seventy five dollars, except those
belonging to the night section of the electoral registers who received
sixty dollars.
The difficulty of the small number of capable employees whe could
be appointed for these positions so modestly repaid, was obviated by
the great number of ladies and young ladies who presented themselves
aspiring thereto. The great majority of the employees of the Census
were women, and demands were so numerous that a conscientious
selection according to their ability was permitted. It is true that it was
necessary to instruct these employees, inexpert as they were in this
kind of work; but shortly they yielded an excellent success; to their
capability, which was previously comprobated by means of an examina-
tion, they joined unwearied assiduity in they work, a clear perception
of their duty, reliable docility and earnest interest in accomplishing
their task well-so remarkable as to call the attention of all the foreign
assistants employed in the Census, who more than once openly declared
so to me, praising them heartily. This not only made the work much
easier but it also allowed all the different labors of the Census, to be
done here, including even those operations which in the former ones it
had been necessary to have performed by machines and abroad, this
being of great profit to this country. It causes high satisfaction to
the writer to be enabled to make such a statement in this Report
whereas, while it is merely doing them justice, it greatly exalts the
women of Cuba, without any difference of races, for there were from
all of them among the employees of this Department, in which they
were chosen by taking into consideration only the capability they could
prove to possess, and they were maintained, regarding their behavior
alone, it being worthy of remarking on this particular that the Chief
Clerks as well as the Consultor and this Direction were subject to great
hesitation whenever it became necessary to reduce the number of em-
ployees on account of there being less work to do.
The enumeration was accomplished within the term marked out and
its results have corresponded to the computations which had been made







8 REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

by the technical advisers, in spite of the unfavorable circumstances in
which it was realized among which I must recollect a long, rainy spell,
which broke out just during those days, the difficulties for obtaining
employees and instructing them within the short lapse of time of which
they could dispose, and the condition of spirits in the country, disturbed
by the profound political agitation produced by the late electoral cam-
paign, a'nd mistrustful with the idea that the Census might be taken
with the purpose of a military conscription, on account of the european
war, in which Cuba had declared herself beligerant. This condition of
the country was one of the greatest difficulties which this Direction
encountered for starting its work, and it would have been the main one,
and almost insurmountable if the press had committed to fulfill its high
mission of illustrating and directing public opinion, not lending, as it
did lend, its unselfish and decided cooperation to this task. Since the
beginning I understood all the importance of that assistance and I con-
ceived the only means, efficacious and lawful of obtaining it, which were
no other than giving the acts and operations of the Census, the greatest
publicity possible and to pay immediate attention to the suggestions of
the newspapers and also to the demands of all the political parties in
the same measure, not minding certain legal precedents which although
they were required by the law, before proceeding to resolve complaints
or protests, have never been an obstacle for the complainants obtaining
in this Department all the explanations they needed for satisfying their
desires and even for dissipating their suspicious.
On this ground, as in all others, this Direction met more than with
the support, with the illustrated and prudent initiative of this respect-
able Board whose proceedings, laying aside, so that it may not seem
flattery, the respectability of its members, sufficient by this alone to
inspire confidene--strengthened the faith public opinion had imparted
us, to which contributed in a powerful way the constant intervention
in this Board, as members of the same, of the Delegate of the Liberal
Party, which was that of the opposition (Dr. Roberto M6ndez Pefiate),
since the first moments and later on, in the period of the works of the
electoral census, and also the delegate of the Conservative Party (Dr.
Francisco SAnchez Curbelo).
Both lent their help with sincerity and elevated ideas, but the
former is worthy of being specially mentioned on account of having
taken part in those labours for a longer time and of the difficulties of
the moment and conditions in which he began to fulfill them.
These observations may seem impertinent and exaggerated to those
who have formed the common and current idea of this Census, as being
a merely statistical work; but they will surely be justified to the eyes of
those who, with a knowledge of the circumstances under which the
country was suffering, may remember that really, the essential part of







REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL V

the work was to rectify the electoral census, as the necessary base and
foundation for carrying through the approaching general elections.
The statistical operations have been described in the information
of the Consultor, with which the Board is already acquainted, and
which is to be included in this Report; and the manner in which the
other labors were fulfilled may be seen in the Circulares -issued by
this Direction and approved by the Board, which are also included in
said Report, for which reason, I will not insist in expounding them
minutely, limiting myself to give an idea of the whole and its con-
sequences.
Simultaneously with the recopilation and classification of statis-
tical data, for making the tables of the population census, we proceeded
to examine the daily communications, and later on, the books of the
voting-cards, an important innovation in our system, not because the
voting-cards (c6dulas) had never been used before, but by the form
of issuing them.
This mission, which was committed to the enumerators, who were
obliged to deliver the c6dula at the same time they made the enumera-
tion and with the data, which could not be always obtained directly,
produced some delay, arising at first from the way of legally classifying
citizenship which gave occasion to a circular which was issued explain-
ing things better, in order to correct the errors committed by several
inspectors and enumerators, and later on they arose from the uncertainty
of the data obtained by reference and-for the same reason-from the
doubts as to whether the cedula issued had been received or not by the
person really enumerated, not to speak of certain cases in which it hap-
pened that they refused to receive it believing that the electoral right
could be renounced. These difficulties were attended to, providing that
all the cedulas issued and the names and directions of the persons to
whom they had been delivered should be published in the Gaceta Oficial
and by public notices posted on the bulletin boards of the Electoral
Offices, besides informing the elector by registered mail, of all these
particulars.
With the object of avoiding, as far as possible, any omission, dur-
ing the last days of the enumeration special agents were appointed who
went over the districts, not only to be sure that the work of the enume-
rators had been completely done, but also in order to finish it, if neces-
sary, they being authorized to that end, to enumerate and issue cedulas;
besides this the enumerating instructors of the terms were authorized
to do so also, three days before the term expired, which was made
known, in its opportunity, by means of notices, profusely distributed.
The manner in which the enumeration was done and the measures
taken to avoid any omissions would have allowed the office work of the
enumeration to be ended at the same time as that of the enumerators;







10 REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

but the reclamations founded on mistakes and on the issuing of the
voting cards and the task of putting in order all those documents made
it necessary to prolong the functions of the enumerators for some time
more, and longer still those of the provincial inspectors.
Towards the end of 1919, this Direction possessed the books of
voting cards and all other data of-the enumeration, referring to the
-electoral census, then proceeding to comprobate and examine the same
and to make the registers; for this labor, it became necessary, a0"
:stated above, to make use of an extraordinary number of employees
and to have the work going on during the whole day and part of the
night. Great inconveniences were encountered for fulfilling in a due
manner this part of the task in the small dimensions of the house
where the office was installed which made any distribution imprac-
ticable and there not being any other unoccupied building in the city
fit for that purpose. But this difficulty was overcome, thanks to the cir-
cumstances of there being at the time an old police station which was
going to be demolished and could be disposed of, situated at the corner
of Ignacio Agramonte and Refugio streets, and the Honorable Presi-
dent of the Republic had the generous idea of giving it up to the Census,
in order to solve the situation, and the offices were immediately moved
thereto. This building, though not fully covering all the requisites
needed, coud be sufficiently adapted to meet them, after making some
expenses amounting to much less than the rent which it would have
been necessary to pay for any other, in case it had been found, and
even inferior to the rent paid for the house wherein the offices had
been established since the beginning of the Census.
Complying with the terms of the law, the Central Electoral Board,
established the manner of making the registers and of correcting the
mistakes therein, in such a way that this work, which was long and
complicated anyhow, became still longer and harder to do. The registers
consisted in one hundred and twelve books previously bound, with
twelve hundred sections and more than four hundred and seventy seven
thousand and seventy hundred and seventy inscriptions, which were
to be taken from about sixteen thousand books of C&dulas, and this had
to be finished before the 28th of February, 1920, without it having
been legally nor materially possible to begin the work before the first
of January; thereby, a prorrogation of a month was requested and
obtained, and though really insufficient, it permitted the works to be
ended and to proceed to hand over the registers to the Central Board
in due time.
After the electoral registers were delivered, the number of em-
ployees could be greatly diminished, with the suppression of all those
who had been occupied in that work and many of those of the section
.of statistics, for the tables thereof were already finished. Then the study







REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


and comparison of these was begun and classifying and putting together
the scarce, official data which could be obtained by this Direction, by
means of continual efforts, and by appointing an employee consecrated
to this task, in order to offer this Board that information, imme-
diately proceeding to draw out this Report. The -information of the
Consultor has been taken into consideration for the observations con-
tained therein connected with statistics, and in regard to other par-
ticulars the study of official data, books and other printed matter which
could be obtained. This task has proved extremely painful because the
public archives are still being reorganized.
At this season the employees of the Consultor's office were also
reduced; they were all persons appointed by himself and their number
never reached the maximum authorized by the law and the salaries
always were kept within the limits fixed by the Honorable President of
the Republic.
Although all public Departments, in general, lent the Census the.
help demanded of them, in every way it was-possible for them to do so,
the Mail and Telegraph Department deserves to be specially mention-
ed, on account of the earnest help offered thereby, so becoming a most'
powerful auxiliary of this Direction, in everything connected with
either of these branches, for both always attended the. suggestions
made to them promptly and zealously and likewise the Chief of the
Navy, which Department helped in every way it could, in the enumera-.
tion of the keys and coasts of the province of Santa Clara.
After the statistical part of the Report had been finished, the
number of employees was again reduced only leaving those strictly
necessary for continuing the other chapters of the work. Then this
Direction devoted its attention to prepare the Report for being printed,
with the idea of having this work done, as the others had been, in this
country. The Board was pleased to decide that it should be published
by public bidding; but that, in view of the kind of work and its im-.
portance, attention should be paid to the warranty offered as to its
good appearance and exactitude, more than to the price. The high cost
of living, at that season, which brought therewith higher wages and
scarcity of paper, not only here, but in all foreign markets, and the
data personally gathered by this Direction, made it easy to. understand
that a bidding at that time, would have reached an excessively high
price, even though kept within the limits of those generally ruling the
market; according to some computations made, it may be affirmed that
had the bidding taken place then, the sum in which the work would
have been adjudged would have been no less than $100,000.00. This
circumstance, added to the conveniency, as the Board acknowledged,
of retaining the original matter of the work, of which only one copy
could be made and likewise of giving more length to certain chapters,







12 REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

allowed the bidding to be postponed without excessive cost for the
Treasury, considering that the number of employees had been greatly
reduced as well as the salaries assigned to them, while this step brought
on numerous advantages for as will be seen later on, it enabled the print-
ing of this Report to be stipulated in better conditions and with an
economy of about forty per cent on the price in which it would have
been done before.
The bidding for printing the Report took place the 20th of August,
1921; eight bidders presented themselves and their proposals fluctuated
from $50,000.00 to $62,000.00. Not only the price was taken in considera-
tion in order to decide, but also the means on which the aspirants could
rely, for obtaining the warranties which the Board had esteemed con-
venient to exact, and the latter, approving the proposal made by this
Direction having all the data and necessary information before them
adjudged the contract to the printing establishment of Maza, Arroyo
y Caso, S. en C., for the price of $57,000.00.
After the manuscripts were put in order, they were handed over
to the contractor, and, at present the spanish edition is almost finished,
for only the second correction of proofs remains to be done and it is
being accomplished by the employee appointed for that purpose, to
whom is also committed, according to the contract, the inspection of
the work. The english edition is likewise being printed, and soon both
will be concluded, and then the moment will come of dissolving this
Office, as a special one, and the Board also, if the latter, exercising
its legal functions, is pleased to do so.
As stated above, with the object of making easier the transition
of this Office, from a special one to another of a permanent kind, aeord-
ing to article XIII of the law, the personnel has been reduced to the
number of employees which the article quoted allows for discharging
the permanent functions of the new office, with a yearly budget of
$9,480.00 which does not exceed that of the former permanent Direc-
tion which was suppressed by the law when this one was created. While
the labors which are now being done last, and for attending to them,.
only two employees have been left; the printing inspector and proof
reader and an auxiliary who knows the English language; both of,
them had been employed by this Direction in different ways, having
always proved their expertness and zeal in all the tasks committed to
them. It has been likewise necessary to maintain the warden and two
men for house cleaning and errands, this being necessary on account
of the conditions of this building, until having organized the office in a
permanent manner, it may be moved to the premises designed by the
Secretary of Justice, under whose direction it will be placed.
In the course of the Report it has been repeatedly stated that the
greatest difficulties encountered for the work of the Census arose from









































































TOMAS BORDENAVE Y BORDENAVE,
Associate Justice of the Audiencia of Havana and Subdirector General of the Census







asPOwr oP TEE DlhECTOE GIENERALL


the want of previous organization and from the pressure of time. It has
been necessary to supply everything suddenly and to proceed with a
hurry unfit for obtaining the accuracy demanded by those operations,
bringing therewith great expenses, notwithstanding the efforts made
to do them economically, which although satisfactory for those who
have directed them on this occasion, does not prevent them from
acknowledging that the work could have cost less, if it had been prepar-
ed with due anticipation and order.
It is evident, that this has been impossible on this occasion, and
that therefore this observation might be deemed impertinent, if not
made with the purpose of pointing out this fact in connection with the
precepts of the law so that the fruits of this experience be gathered and
efforts made to prevent the same things happening again in successive
Censuses, as they surely will if the present law continues standing as
it has been promulgated, when the opportunity arrives to have them
taken again; when the moment comes it will be necessary to provide
things of a sudden again, and to proceed in a hurry.
The law was made with the purpose of establishing the system of
a permanent, periodical Census in Cuba, and of incorporating the
Republic to the number of nations who have established that work in
this way, as a means of obtaining international community, and it is
proved by the fact of having adopted the same decennial period and
having designed, except for this time, on account of the necessities
which had to be attended to by means of this Census, the same dates
established by those nations. But aside from the precepts which so
establish this, and there are no others in the law, conducing to insure
the efficaciousness of its fulfillment, all its dispositions, notwithstanding
the general sense of its terms, are eircumstancial, transitory, because
they are founded on the wrong presumption of there being some orga-
4&nization previously established, when there is none.
The necessities and increasing importance of the country, specially
in the economical order, has been for a long time requiring, and at
present it imperiously demands, a good statistical service, which can
only be obtained by means of centralizing it; experience has already
shown how imperfect and of scarce utility that service is when attended
to separately by the various departments of Administration under dif-
ferent plans, with no unity of idea, with diverse judgement and even
being fulfilled during periods not keeping any uniformity between
them. This system might be corrected establishing one which is evident-
ly the most practical and scientific, by installing a general centre of
statistics, autonomous, wiht ample powers, with the object of directing
and performing the labors thereto concerned, to which centre might
be added, forming part of it, a-section for the Population Census, this
being no obstacle for organizing within it, in due opportunity, the







REPOBRT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


provisional offices necessary for accomplishing the enumeration la-
bors. The development of this idea cannot be the object of this Report,
for it refers more to the administrative organization of the country,
than to the organization established for this special service, which is
the only one about which the law provides that suggestions may be
made, but those which have been lightly hinted at, are convenient, not
to say necessary, as a starting point for others which are to be made
hereafter complying with the legal precept.
The former Censuses were carried through somewhat more calmly
than this one, though not sufficiently so; no antecedent bas been left
by them, the Report was published containing the result of the work,
and nothing more. Consequently, they left no experience at all. En-
deavours have been made in this one to correct that deficiency, but it
cannot be attained by the means adopted, which only permit the
antecedents used as a base for the operation to be kept, but nothing else
that might prepare those which are going to be accomplished ten years
later, and for which those antecedents may only be useful as an
experience, but not as a base, which is what is most needed.
In effect, Article XIII of the law provides that after finishing the
operations of the decennial census, the Board will be dissolved and the
Director and Subdirector will cease in their charges and only the Chief
Clerk will remain with a short number of employees, whose duties are
only to take care of the Archive, for that of compiling data, attributed
to them by paragraph (inciso) 3, cannot be practically fulfilled for
the reasons which are going to be expounded.
The register of population (padr6n vecinal) was a traditional ins-
titution in our administrative legislation being an available document
for all acts of that kind and having extraordinary importance in elec-
toral matters, it was used in a suppletory way in many others, and it
was even useful in this sense when civil affairs were concerned. In our
national system it coexisted with the Census, as a merely statistical
document, independent from the former, as it has to be, considering its
object. But the importance of that document and the defects observed
therein were the cause of deciding that the enumeration labors of the
Census of 1907, should be availed of for having the register of popula-
tion made also by the Director of that office and handed over to the
Ayuntamientos as a base for those they were obliged to possess, some-
thing similar to what was then done and has been done now with the
electoral registers. The law of the Census invading a field strange to
its object by article XXXVIII derogates the 29th. and paragraph 10
of the 108 of the Organic Law of the Municipalities, which take for
granted the existence of registers of population, whereupon it seems
that the idea was to suppress the latter, which is what has practically
happened, for it derogates Chapter third, Title second of the law







REPORT OF THE DIBEOTOB GENERAL 1

quoted, which determined the manner of carrying on the register of
population.
However, article 27 is left standing slightly modified, and it difines
what is meant by resident, and exacts, as one of the requisites the
inscription as such, in the decennial census of population. Therefore,
this precept presumes that a register of population must be kept in the
offices of the Census, besides that of statistical data, and notwithstand-
ing this, there is not a single precept, among those enumerating the
object of the Census (articles IV and VI) not one referring directly to
the former; as, for example, Article XXVI, refers to the electoral
register. And if to what has been exposed is added that by the above
quoted article XXXVIII, the 31 of the municipal law is modified and
left standing as to the duty of the Alcaldes to declare that certain
inhabitants of the term are residents, it will be easily understood that,
in spite of the aforesaid derogations, the intention was not to suppress
the register of population but only to modify it, although the rules
indispensable to that effect have not yet been prescribed.
By the above mentioned pargraph 3, article XIII, there seems
to be no doubt that the legislator believes there is a register of popula-
tion and that it must be kept in the Ayuntamientos and in the offices
of the Census, but as already stated, there is nothing to regulate the
manner of making and carrying on these registers. All the dispositions
regarding those particulars having been derogated, the practical result
has been that those documents are not made at present, nor do they
legally nor authentically exist in any office of the Municipality, nor
of the State, this giving birth to real conflicts at every step. This is one
of the particulars to which it is necessary to attend with preference,
for as time goes on, greater difficulties will- be encountered for resta-
blishing normality. To that effect two proceedings may be followed:
to establish the registers in the Ayuntamientos, so that these may
send the statistical data to the Census, or to establish in the offices of
the latter a central register, to be the only official one, formed accord-
ing to the result of the last Census and to be rectified by the data
which the Ayuntamientos or Municipal Governments are to forward'
to them, proceeding in this case, as auxiliaries of that Centre. Whether
the first or the second system be adopted or any other which may be
preferred for that purpose the authority now ascribed to the Office of
the Census is, by all means, insufficient.
Article XXXVII of the law prescribes that the division of the
municipal terms in wards (barrios) can only be altered every ten years,
ascribing to each ward an average number of inhabitants, for which
division the Census realized during that period shall be taken into
consideration. This prescription is excellent, because it determines
certain conditions of stability in territorial division; but the way in


~F~;nq~p?~n~p~~







1b REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

which it was ordered to be executed, made it impossible to be fulfilled,
and it became necessary to leave it in suspense and so it was done, by
the law of December 18th., 1919; but, this is not enough, for while that
disposition remains in such a condition, it may be understood, and in
fact some persons have believed so, that article 24 of the Organic Law of
the Municipalities continues to be standing, and it permits those changes
to be made, within shorter terms, every two years. This affair of the
territorial division is of extraordinary importance to the Census; for
in many of the municipal terms, their limits have not been distinctly
defined, above all in those recently created, and the same confusion
may be observed in the division of the wards, and even in their names.
Both things have been practically seen in this Census; the former, in
the provinces of Oriente and Santa Clara, where it became necessary
to adopt certain conditional measures, so that the enumeration might
be performed; and the second, in the province of Matanzas, where
electoral cards had to be taken back for rectification, after the period
for making the registers had already begun, this being the opportunity
in which all the mistakes arising from wrong official information could
be observed. Nothing of this would happen, if the permanent office of
the Census were invested with greater authority, and if it were em-
povered to undertake the preparation of those labors.
Article III of the law provides that the branch offices of the
Census shall begin their organization during the first week of the
month of April of the year proceeding that of the enumeration, which
shall take place the first of January, every ten years, starting from
1930. This time seems to be sufficient for appointing the personnel who
are to perform that work, and even for the preliminary operations of
the same, and so it would be, if during the previous years all the data
required for those operations could be got together, but, for the aforesaid
reasons, it is evident that this is not possible; so it will be necessary
to do everything hurriedly, within the lapse of nine months, from the
conception of the plan, up to the material division of the territory,.
which occasions disorder and greater expenses to the Treasury. These
obstacles may be avoided by maintaining the Direction of the Census
and the Board, with a reduced personnel, like the one now assigned to
the permanent office, but giving them both sufficient authority for
preorganizing the different labors, such as to study the districts, 1'
exact the fulfilment of the law, so as to keep them duly defined; to
gather, the most accurately as possible the data regarding population;
in order to be enabled to establish the enumeration districts right and to
issue instructions concerning the work; and so, when the established
time comes on, the month of April preceding then year of the Census
it would only be necessary to attend to the appointment of personnel
and to the way of carrying out speedly, for then it would be possible,







REPORT OP THE DIRECTOR GENERAL 17

all that had been previously planned out and studied. It would be suf-
ficient for establishing this plan, to consign twenty thousand dollars a
year (the permanent office is estimated at present to cost about ten
thousand) which sum, during ten years would amount to $200,000.00
as a maximum, and would allow the Census, with all the operations
properly belonging to it, to be realized with a cost not exceeding
$300.000.00, while otherwise it would almost double that sum, as it
was estimated by the standing law, accurately enough, whereas in spite
of having done the work with the greatest economy possible, the expen-
ses have amounted to more than $850,000.00 and the labors are not so
ample and complete as those suggested in the foregoing paragraphs.
Nothing important is indicated here regarding the proceedings for
making the electoral registers and issuing the c6dulas, this being an
affair committed to another department; but the convenience is sug-
gested of not issuing the c6dulas until the comprobation has been done
and the register finished and that the latter should not be written in
books already made, as it seems to be prescribed by the law and so did
the Central Electoral Board, understand it, but rather that this be
done on separate printed sheets of paper, and after each Section is
completed, they may be bound, signed and sealed.
This will allow mistakes to be corrected more easily, avoiding
erasures and explanations in the original books, without any danger
at all, as these have no value until after they have been signed and
sealed.
As already stated, in this Census everything had to be furnished
as best could be done on a sudden and all the work carried on in a hurry.
It was necessary to furnish not only the equipment to be used, but also
almost all that which was to be permanent, for nothing had been left
by the preceding Censuses. It was necessary to buy counting and writ-
ing machines, tables, and even to have special tables made for the elec-
toral registers; also archives and even mail bags for conveying its own
correspondence, there not being a sufficient number of them in the
Mail Department for lending that service as quickly and safely as it
was needed.
In spite of all this and of the numerous personnel it was necessary
to employ, which constituted in reality three offices: that of the popula-
tion census, that of the electoral census and that of the Consultor, this
one with per diem expenses besides their salaries, the work of the
Census has been accomplished without spending all the credit which
was calculated necessary; and a superavit remained in behalf of the
Treasury of more than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
Complying with the law an extract of those expenses is hereafter
given.
From the credit of $1.000,000.00 granted by the law of the Census








REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


the following quantities were situated at the disposal of the General
Direction in different Fiscal Zones and the Central Office of the
Treasury of Hacienda.

By decree of the 1st. of August of 1919........................ $300,000.00
By decree of the 23rd. of October of 1919......................... 300,000.00
By decree of the 6th. of January of 1920........................ 200,000.00
By decree of the 22nd of April of 1921 ........................... 100,000.00

Total ................. ......................... $900,000.00


The expenses caused by making the population Census, the electoral
registers and maintaining the office of the General Direction were paid
from these quantities. Up to the 31st. of December of 1921 these ex-
penses amounted to the sum of $777,615.35 and they were paid for the
following purposes:


Personnel of the General Direction, including the Sub-
direction, the Office of the Chief of Inspectors and
special agents ................................
Expenses of the Office of the Technical Consultor......
Expenses per diem to the members of the National Board
Expenses per diem to the Technical Consultor and his
employees .....................................
Salaries of the employees of the Statistic Section......
Salaries of the employees of the Electoral Register
Section .......................................
Office supplies, stationery, and printed matter for the
General Direction and offices annexed thereto....
Expenses per diem and for travelling ................
Permanent equipment ..............................
Expenses for instlaling the offices ..................

Personnel of the provincial offices


$95,628.86
27,397.96
2,670.00

12,823.82
63,644.99

41,173.53

26,409.90
1,608.41
35,531.24
2,878.05


Pinar del Rio ..................................... 5,361.79
Havana ........................................... 14,554.56
Matanzas ........................................ 5,653.39
Santa Clara ........... ...................... 8,660.89
Cam agiley ........................................ 6,054.90
Oriente ........................................... 16,421.13

Expenses per diem of the provincial employees as follows I

Pinar del Rio .................................... 834.20
Havana .......................................... 710.75
Matanzas ......................................... 1,041.38
Santa Clara ...................................... 3,324.77
Camagiiey ........................................ 1,738.79
Oriented ........................................... 1,226.87

Forwarded ....................


$309,766.76


56,706.66








8,876.76

$ 375,350.18








REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL

Brought forwarded .............


Office Bent


General Direction ................................. 3,390.00
Pinar del Rio .................. ................... 249.30
Havana ......................................... 300.00
Matanzae ......................................... 40.00
Santa Clara ....................................... 273.41
Oamagiey ........................................ 429.06
Oriented ....................... ................... 274.00


Salaries of the enumerating instructors

Pinar del Rio .................................. 7,867.00
Havana .......................................... 10,155.00
Matanas ......................................... 8,088.00
Banta Clara .................................... 14,589.33
Camagiey ...................................... 3,434.00
Oriented ........................................... 11,897.00


Salaries of special agents

Pinar del Rio .................................... 67.00
Havana .............. ......................... 902.00
Matanzas ........................................ 1,098.00
Santa Clara ................................... .. 924.00
Camagiey ..................................... .... 672.00
Oriented ........................................... 1,081.00

Salaries earned by enumerators

Pinar del Rio .................................. 33,096.42
Havana ......................................... 68,592.04
Matanzas ........................................ 33,811.44
Santa Clara .................................... 81,075.13
amagey ................ ........................... 27,448.06
Oriented ......................................... 86,978.43


Equipment for the provincial offices


Pinar del Rio ....................................
Havana ......................................
MatasMa ........................................
Santa Clara .............. ... ...................
Camagiey .......................................
Oriented ............... .......... ... .........

Total .........................


163.36
1,647.10
173.14
1,183.74
266.21
2,100.00


$ 375,350.18


4,955.7T


56,030.33-


4,744.00-


331,001.52:


5,533.55.

$ 777,615.35.








REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR GENERAL


Summary of the expenses of the different offices


General Direction-all the expenses ............................... $270,264.98
Office of the Technical Consultor ............................... 40,22178
National Board .................................................. 2,670.00
Province of Pinar del Rio ...................................... 47,39.07
,, Havana ............................................. 96,86 45
,, Matanzas ........................................ 49,905.35
S Santa Clara ....................................... 110,03127
S Camagiley .......................................... 40,043.02
S Oriented .................. .......................... 119,978.43

Totality of expenses ....................... $ 777,615.35

which rested from the credit granted of ............................ 1.000,000.00
gives up a surplus in behalf of the Treasury of .................... 222,384.6
from which are to be taken the quantities needed for printing this
Report and maintaining the permanent office until the 30th. of
June of 1922, which are reckoned to be about .................. 71,760.04

and there remain a surplus of ................................... 150,624.1

If these expenses are compared with those of the preceding Cen-
suses, as far as it is possible, for some of these were never detailed and
others, unavoidable this time, were then unnecessary, such as to hire
and buy machines, it may be seen that, notwithstanding the excess
which now appears, if those circumstances are reminded, the present
Census has been accomplished with the greatest economy possible,
considering the circumstances and conditions, in which it was carried
out, which are here omitted to avoid repetitions, whereas on several
occasions they have been explained in the course of this Report. Yet it
must be insisted on the fact that an orderly organization of a per-
manent office would allow the next Census to be done with less waste
of money, otherwise it may be presumed that not only the amount
spended this time, but not even the whole allowance calculated and
authorized by the Law now, will then be sufficient for accomplishing
the task.
Respectfully,
ANGEL C. BETANCOURT,
Director General.












































































MAJOR HAROLD E. STEPHENSON,
Technical Consultor














REPORT OF THE TECHINCAL CONSULTOR


Havana, November 15, 1920.

THE HONoRABIB ANGEL C. BErANCOUWr,
Director General of the Ceosus.

SIR:
I have the honor to submit the following report in connection with
the Census of Cuba of September 15, 1919.
In the first half of 1919, Major General Enoch H. Crowder, Judge
Advocate General, United States Army, was sent to Cuba for the
purpose of assisting in the preparation of a new Code covering the
electoral program of Cuba. In the progress of this work, it was consider-
ed necessary to take a population census, and upon request of the
President of Cuba, war Department Special Order No. 133-0, dated
June 7th, 1919, was issued, as follows:

Major Harold E. Stephenson, Infantry, is relieved from his present duties and
will proceed without delay to Havana, Cuba, and report in person to Major
General Enoch H. Crowder, for assignment to duty in connection with the organiza-
tion of a population census of Cuba.

Upon receipt of this order, I spent several days in Washington,
D. C., in attempting to locate the records of the Census of 1907, but
without avail. On June 11th, I proceeded to Havana, via New York,
arriving in Cuba June 18th.
General Crowder was absent from Cuba upon my arrival, and in
his absence I immediately undertook a careful scrutiny of the draft of
the proposed Census Law, with the result that same was entirely rewrit-
ten to provide for the peculiar circumstances in which this census was
to be taken. This draft was presented to Congress by the Joint Par-
limentary Committee in charge of electoral reforms, and finally became
a law on July 19, 1919.
Article 52, provides that the President of Cuba may solicit from
the United States Government the sending of a Technical Consultor,
to be attached to the Office of the Director General. Under this authority,
the President, by letter of July 30th, appointed the undersigned Tech-
:nical Consultor.


F'Vsaqavgx '..^*TORB ^^iiawtlMWMPWUUiarl'IUffi9 -__ '' '_-Fi P 7B-7







22 REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL CONSULTOR

The Census was intended to be a step in the electoral progralThe
main object was to secure a correct list of the electors of Cuba. On this
account, time limits were placed upon it which necessitated all speed
possible in the accomplishment of the task) Under these circumstances,
it was decided tc eliminate the industrial and agricultural features
which usually accompany a population Census.
On July 2nd, I opened an office in the Quifiones Building, which
later became the National Headquarters of the Census. I employed a
personnel of seven persons, which was the organization up to July 25th,
the date on which you took your office. I had also made arrangements
to bring four experts from the United States. I proceeded with the
purchase of office supplies, equipment, the drawing up of forms for
the work of the census, the securing of bids for printing same, the
matter of free mail transportation, approval by the Central Electoral
Board of model 2 (voting card), the securing of maps of the provinces,
municipalities and barrios, and the preparatory work of dividing the
Republic into districts of enumeration.
Upon their appointment, the provincial inspectors were called to
Havana, and were carefully instructed in their duties. Each inspector
was given such maps of his province as were available, together with a
list of the tentative division of same into enumeration districts, in order
that he might check same. They were also given copies of the Instructions
to Enumerators, and lists of the asylums, hospitals, military posts, etc,
contained in their respective provinces. Thus equipped, the inspectors
proceeded to their provinces, completed the division of their territories,
and recommended persons for the positions of Instructor Enumerators.
Immediately upon the appointment of the instructor enumerators,
they were called to the Provincial Headquarters for instruction by
technical experts. Thus each municipality contained one representative
who received instruction direct from a technical expert.
The Republic was divided into 2,412 enumeration districts, which
was later increased to 2,765. In order to avoid duplicate enumerations,
due to overlapping of territory, each enumerator was required to post
a printed notice on all buildings visited by him. (See form 18 in the
appendix).
Enumeration started on September 15th. Each night the enumera-
tors took their forms 1 to the instructors, who revised and corrected
same, calling the attention of the enumerators to any errors or omis-
sions. These forms were then forwarded to the provincial inspectors,
who after a similar scrutiny, forwarded them to the National Office. The
voting cards were bound in books of fifty each, and as soon as a book
was filled it was turned in' to the instructor enumerator-, who checked
same and pointed out such errors and omissions as had been made.
Enumerators were required to submit a daily report (form 4),







REPORT OP THE TECHNICAL CONSULTORB -

which report set forth the number of enumerations made, the number
of voting cards issued and the number of hours employed. When check-
ed by the instructors, these reports were telegraphed to Provincial
Headquarters, which, in turn, telegraphed the result for the province
to the National Headquarters. These telegrams were confirmed by form
4 being forwarded to the National Headquarters through the same
channels. Thus, the Provincial and National Headquarters were in
constant touch with the field work and knew what progress was being
made throughout the Republic. This system enables this office to say
that the work was accomplished in an orderly manner, that the enume-
rators daily performed a uniform amount of work, and that the percen-
tage of voters is correct.
During the- period of enumeration, technical experts visited all
the Provincial Headquarters for the purpose of expediting the work
and settling any technical questions which had arisen. In the closing
days of the enumeration, it was necessary to visit several municipalities
to close the work within the legal period.
The census finished on October 30th, and the period from October
30th to December 31st was spent in the rectification of voting cards
improperly issued or containing errors, which were then forwarded to
the National Office.
The National Office contained, in addition to various executive
sections, two large divisions, namely, the Electoral Register Division,
which prepared the electoral registers, and the Statistical Division,
which compiled the population statistics.
The personnel of these two divisions was used interchangeably. The
sub-chiefs were trained in the Statistical Division, as that division was
organized before the Electoral Register Division.
On September 15th, the Statistical Division was organized. The
first sub-section of this division was the Receiving and Reporting Section,
whose duty it was to receive forms 1, check, record, and place them in
the files.
The first sorting of the cards divided the population into males and
females, and later the males were divided into electors and all others.
This permitted a check against the books of voting cards, and enabled
this office to prove mathematically the correctness of the- electoral data.
The sorting was performed by hand, which is a departure from accepted
census methods, but was necessary for the following reasons:
1. No time was available to forward the returns to the United
States prior to the writing of the electoral registers, and it was neces-
sary to have certain statistical data prior to the inauguration of the
register work.
2. No trained operator for tabblating machines were available in
Cuba, and the expense -of transporting them here was prohibitive.







Y2 REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL CONSULTOR

3. All of the companies which could undertake the compilation of
the statistical work of the census were engaged and could not perform
our work in a reasonable length of time, and especially was this true in
the case of the United States Census Bureau, which was busily engaged
with its own decennial census.
The employees who performed this sorting were carefully trained
and, in fact, the sub-chiefs were sent to school for a period of two weeks
before they were permitted to direct a section. Each sort was carefully
checked by a computer, who had previously been sent to a school of
instruction in the operation of computing machines. Two technical
experts were constantly overseeing this work and the sorting was en-
tirely finished on April 19th. The compiled statistics were available on
July 31st. The system employed produced very accurate results, the
work was performed in a comparatively short time, a trained personnel
was made available thereby for the writing of the electoral registers,
and the expense involved was about equal to that which would have
been necessary under the machine system. Thus it met all the situations
peculiar to the taking of this census, and especially that of time limit.
In November, 1919, the books of voting cards began to arrive in the
National Office. An organization of ten was selected from the Statistical
Division, and carefully trained in the Electoral Law and the work of
preparing the electoral registers. Each cedula was carefully checked,
and a record made of the books received, of which 22,000 had been
printed and distributed. In the last week of December, a thorough
check of all books received disclosed the fact that several were missing,
and immediately technical assistants made a journey to the defaulting
provinces and satisfactorily disposed of the matter. Out of 22,000, only
12 were lost, and these twelve were satisfactorily taken care of by issu-
ing duplicates and annulling the originals.
On January 1st, the work of preparing the electoral registers began
in earnest. This work was divided into six major operations. The first
step was the comparison of the census cards with the voting cards. The
census cards were next arranged in exact dictionary alphabetical order.
Lists of the serial numbers of the voting cards in their alphabetical
order were then made. These lists were then sent to the writers, who
copied the data from the original voting cards into the registers, in
accordance with the alphabetical sequence on the list. When the writing
was finished, the completed work went to a checking section, where each
entry in the register was compared with the original voting card. The
discrepancies were noted, and the registers with the forms containing
these discrepancies were sent to a rectification section which made such
corrections as were necessary, rechecked the books and forwarded them
to you for certification. Thus, each ceWula was checked seven times
before the registers were completed. The,fact that less than a dozen







REPORT OF THE TECHNICAL CONSULTOR


complaints as to the entry of names in these registers were received
during the past election, indicates the degree of accuracy obtained. The
total number of operations necessary was approximately 150.000,000.
The registers were completed on February 23rd, and the last of them
was nally certified and forwarded to the Central Electoral Board on
March 31st, 1920.
Taken as a whole, this census may be considered as unusually ac-
curate. Naturally errors crept into the field work, but these errors were
surely no greater than those found in other censuses. The cheeks made
against the work from time to time have invariably proved a degree of
accuracy which very nearly approaches statistical perfection.
I cannot help but direct attention to the economical administration
of the census. The. census will cost approximately $850,000.00. This
census found an increase in population of 41%, and was required to
issue some 500,000 voting cards (which was not necessary in the census
of 1907). This census paid $12,375.00 for equipment for other depart-
ments, was required to purchase new all its office equipment, and above
all was taken at a time when material and labor were double what they
were in 1907.
I desire to express my thanks to the various Departments of the
Government who so kindly cooperated from time to time in making
this work a success. I desire to thank also the employees of the General
Direction: they have exhibited a cheerfulness and willingness to attack
any work assigned to them and have labored well and faithfully: I also
desire to direct attention to the work of my assistants who came to Cuba
on account of personal obligations to me, and who labored faithfully
and conscientiously without thought of hours. Mr. P. H. Skinner,
was my Statistical Assistant during the war, and acted in the capacity
of Statistician here. Mrs. H. W. Cunningham, an expert in sorting
of cards, who was also one of my war employees, was charged with
the actual sorting of the cards here. Miss Frances M. Lind, who,
during the war, kept the controlling ledger account for man power
in the United States, has acted as a scanner of statistics, as well as cheek-
ed the voucher work of the office. I was fortunate in being able to secure
the services of Mr. Frank McMahon, whose activity, intelligence and
knowledge of Cuba have made him invaluable, and Miss Edith M. John-
son, who acted as my secretary. In addition I had eight other assistants
from time to time, whose names are shown in the list of employees of
the census.
Respectfully,
H. E. STEPHENSON,
Technical Consultor.













SECOND PART


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

INTRODUCTION

In the Report of the census of 1899, the first one taken since the
end of Spanish rule in Cuba, and which was compiled under the Mili-
tary Government of the United States in this Island, extensive geogra-
phical and historical data were included which, since then have been
generally accepted as exact.
In the Report of the census of 1907 these data were omited, through
reference was made to their having been published before. This method
is admisible in as much as otherwise if that data were reproduced in
each one, the periodical Reports of the Census would become too vo-
luminous.
In this book, the method of the immediately for going volume is
followed, some particulars having been silenced therein as they are
already included in the former and any one interested in knowing
them is referred thereto. Nevertheless the omission is not complete
since, as the purpose of these publications is to give a more or less exact
idea of the country to those who may apply to them in their investi-
gations, it is convenient and even necessary to establish certain histo-
rical antecedents as a foundation for explaining its present conditions;
and the same may be said regarding geographical data although nothing
new is here stated.
Complying with the above plan we afford in the first place a brief
sketch of the geographical situation, extent natural resources and
productions of the Island and later on we explain its administrative
divisions after giving some important historical informations and a
short exposition of the constitution and government of the country.

CHAPTER I

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Location and area.-Cuba is the largest, most populous and most
western island of the Antilles. Its figure is long and narrow. Shaped
like the are of a circle, extended from east to west, with its convex side













SECOND PART


GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

INTRODUCTION

In the Report of the census of 1899, the first one taken since the
end of Spanish rule in Cuba, and which was compiled under the Mili-
tary Government of the United States in this Island, extensive geogra-
phical and historical data were included which, since then have been
generally accepted as exact.
In the Report of the census of 1907 these data were omited, through
reference was made to their having been published before. This method
is admisible in as much as otherwise if that data were reproduced in
each one, the periodical Reports of the Census would become too vo-
luminous.
In this book, the method of the immediately for going volume is
followed, some particulars having been silenced therein as they are
already included in the former and any one interested in knowing
them is referred thereto. Nevertheless the omission is not complete
since, as the purpose of these publications is to give a more or less exact
idea of the country to those who may apply to them in their investi-
gations, it is convenient and even necessary to establish certain histo-
rical antecedents as a foundation for explaining its present conditions;
and the same may be said regarding geographical data although nothing
new is here stated.
Complying with the above plan we afford in the first place a brief
sketch of the geographical situation, extent natural resources and
productions of the Island and later on we explain its administrative
divisions after giving some important historical informations and a
short exposition of the constitution and government of the country.

CHAPTER I

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

Location and area.-Cuba is the largest, most populous and most
western island of the Antilles. Its figure is long and narrow. Shaped
like the are of a circle, extended from east to west, with its convex side







28 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

to the north it extends from 74" to 85" west longitude (Greenwich) and
from 19* 40 to 23" 30' north latitude, just at te entrance of the Gulf
of Mexico between North and South America. fIts farthest extensions
are: Maisi Point on the east, Cape San Antonio ol the west, Cape Hicacos
on the north, and on the south Cape Cruz, ending at Punta del Ingle
The outline on the north seabord from Point Maisi runs northward tb
Cape Hicacos, the northeast point of the Island, whence it descends south-
ward to the Cape of San Antonio (Saint Anthony). On the south coast
from Point Maisi westward it visibly affects a strait line to Cape Cruz
(Cape of the Cross), forming at its end, the said Cape, the vertice of an
angle, whose other side may be drawn from the south toward the north-
east, to the nort of Cauto River, from whence it again adopts the
curved line northwestward to Broa Cave, south of the Province of Ma-
tanzas in its limit with that of Havana, where it descends again to the
western end of the Island, Point San Antonio. (The boundaries of Cuba
are at the north the Gulf of Mexico. It is about 160 kilometers (100
miles) from Key West, Florida, being separatedd from it by the strait of
this name. On the northeast, the old Bahama Channel separates the
Island from the Great Bank of the same name. To the east, the Winds
Passage extending about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates it from
Haiti, or Santo Domingo, the second largest of the Antilles. To the
south the strait of Col6n, 135 kilometers (85 miles) in length separates
it from the island of Jamaica and the sea of the Antilles. To the west the
strait of Yucatan 200 kilometers (130 miles) separates it from that pe-
ninsula in the Republic of Mexico) Its length which is its greatest dimen-
sion is about 1,200 kilometers (730 miles); its breadth differs ranging
from 200 kilometers (130 miles), from Practicos Point at the entrance of
Nuevitas Bay on the north coast, Camagiey Province, to the little por of
Mota on the south coast, Oriente Province, to 40 kilometers (or 25 miles)
from the cove of Majana, on the south, to the port of Mariel, on the north,
along the boundary of Pinar del Rio Province with that of Havana.
The Island is surrounded by many smaller islands, islets and keys, sepa-
rated from it by straits of shallow water, the largest of which is the Isle
of Pines, to the south. Its total area is 114,524 square kilometers (44,164
square miles. Census of 1907) of which Cuba occupies 107,924 square
kilometers (41,634 square miles) ; the Isle of Pines about 3,100 kilometers
(1,180 square miles) and the other islands and keys 3,500 square kilo-
meters (1,350 square miles). As may be seen by the aforesaid, Cuba is
larger than several european countries such as Portug Belgium, the
Netherlands and others, and is approximately the same sze as Pennsyl-
vania or Virginia in the United States of America
From a military standpoint, Cuba occupies a strong strategic posi-
tion, lying between the two channels which constitute the only passage
to the gulf of Mexico, thus controlling the entrance thereof.






GENERAL DESCRIPON OF CUBA 2 I C 29

The recent opening of Panama Channel will be sure to increase its
strategic importance as it has been undoubtedly increased already from
a commercial point of view.

Topography.-Cuba, because of its long, narrow shape has a long
extension of coastline, which is estimated at 3,60-kilometers, of which
,700-rcorrespond to the north and 1f800 to the South coast. These coasts
are extremely sinuous; their capes and points are not numerous nor very
prominent, but they have plenty of bays and ample, safe and sheltered
ports, commonly with narrow entrances, like those of Bahia Honda, la
Habana, la Isabela de Sagna, Nuevitas, Nipe and Baracoa on the North;
and Guantanamo, Santiago de Cuba, Manzanillo, Cienfuegos and Bata-
ban6 on the South.
The north coast is generally high and steepy and the south one is
low and swampy. As has been stated already, the island is surrounded,
excepting the eastern part, by shoals, islets and keys, forming groups
and archipielagos, and on the north coast they occupy an extension that
is about half of all of it, and on the south they are equal to the two
thirds of its extension; the rest of the coast is on both sides clear and
approachable.
On the south coast, west of Cienfuegos, almost on the limit between
the provinces of Santa Clara and Matanzas, and penetrating into this
one, there is a low, marshy land called the Cienega of Zapata, at the
north of the peninsula of its name, with a length of about 190 kilmeers,
or 75 miles and in its widest part, approachingly also, 48&ilameters or
30 miles.
The surface of Cuba is very unequal and irregular, though its
mountains do not reach very high elevations. The western part, in the
neighbourhood of the north coast and the eastern part in the neighbour-
hood of the southern coast are the most mountainous regions of the
Island. On the latter part, which is much higher than the former one,
are found the most elevated mountains. On the rest, the ground is
broken by hills and heights of little elevation In the western part;
beginning at the middle of the province of Santa Clara towards Oriente,
up to the limit of this province with that of Camagiiey, the land is level,
forming extensive plains, denominated "sabanas," covered with natural
pasture, which were once dedicated, and even now are in part largely
dedicated to cattle breeding. In the mountainous regions, there are
large, picturesque valleys; the best known of all of them is that of
Yumuri, in the province of Matansas. These valleys are generally cul-
tivated. On the southern slopes of the mountains of Pinar del Rio are
found the famous "vegas" of the tobacco, known by the name of Vuelta
Abajo, which is the name commonly given to the part of the Island
comprised between Havana and the cape of San Antonio.







3U GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA

Forests were abundant in the island, and even now some remnants
of them are preserved in the central part and in Oriente, that may give
an idea of their luxuriancy and wealth; but the necessities of cultivation,
in many cases not reasonably understood, and the desire of immoderate
profit have been destroying that treasure, near to being extinguished,
if the proceedings that have been employed until now for making use
of it, are continued.
Rivers also abound in the Island, but almost all of them are of
short extension and scarce depth.
The keys, islets and islands that surround the Island of Cuba are
low, of madreporie formation; their principal vegetation is the mangrove-
tree and they contain but few inhabitants. The largest and most inhabit-
ed, and the only one in which there are regions with towns and villages is
the Isle of Pines, south of the province of Havana. This island is formed
in reality, by the approachment of two islets, separated by a marsh;
the northern one, which constitutes the larger part of the Island is
somewhat broken by hills of scanty elevation; the surface of the southern
one is low, flat and sandy.

Orography.-The mountain ranges of Cuba may be considered as
forming three large groups, separated from each other by two plains,
more or less extensive and rolling. The western group extends from
cape San Antonio to the hills of Camarioca, near Cardenas, in the pro-
vince of Matanzas, and is formed by several ranges of mountains parallel
to the coast, and nearer the north than the south coast. These mountains
form the Sierra de los Organos or the Guanignanico group, in the pro-
vince of Pinar del Rio, that goes lowering down until it enters the eastern
part of the province of Havana. The culminating point of this range
is the Pan de Guajaibon, southwest of Bahia Honda, 760 metres high.
In the province of Havana, the mountains do not form a continued
range, but three series of hills, the highest of them running towards the
south of that province, where they form the Sierra de Bejucal, and the
hills of Managua and Candela; the branches that run northward go into
the province of Matanzas, where the so-called Pan de Matanzas, south
of the capital of that province is the highest altitude. Among this
group of mountains, called the central group is extended a large and
fertile prairie that occupies the eastern part of the province of Ma-
tanzas; and a small portion of the west of Santa Clara. 'To this group
correspond the Sierra Morena, west of Sagua la Grandi those of Bam-
buranao and Matahambre, south of Yaguajay, and that of Jatibonico.
In the central part of that province, towards the south, there is a solid
mass of mountains, the highest of which form the Sierra del Escambray.
The culminating point of this region is the Pico de Potrerillo, 950 metres
high.







GnERoAL DzscsnTION OP cUBa


The province of Camagiley is commonly flat, and its heights are of
scanty altitude; towards the north may be seen the Sierra of Cubitas and
at the south that of Najasa.
After these level lands, and going into the province of Oriente the
most mountainous part of the Island is found, in which the ranges extend
themselves in every direction by means of a series of counterforts that
unite them to the principal range, denominated Sierra Maestra, which
runs at the South parallel to the coast, from Cabo Cruz to the eastern
end of the Island.
In this region are found the Sierra del Cobre; the Yunque, 850
metres high; the Ojo del Toro, with 1,000 metres; the Gran Piedra
with 1,500 and the Pico de Turquino, which is the highest mountain of
Cuba with 2,400 metres.

Hidrography.-Cuba has some 200 rivers, but although numerous,
they are short, narrow and of small depth end volume. Because of
its shape the island has only two watersheds; the northern and the
southern, the rivers of the former being shorter than those of the latter.
Among the most noteworthy of the navigable rivers are the Saa la
Grande and the Cauto The former, with a length of 150 kilometers,
(93 miles) of wlhch 30 are navigable, rises in the Sierra del Escambray
and empties into the port of Isabela: the latter, which is the largest of
the Island and carries more water than any other, rises in the Sierra del
Cobre and empties north of Manzanillo into the gulf of Guacanayabo;
its course, tortuous and irregular, is more than 250 kilometers (155
miles) long, of which are navigable only the 90 kilometers (55 miles)
from Cauto del Embarcadero to its mouth, where there is an obstructing
sandbar. The mouth of Sagua River is also obstructed, but dredging
and other clearance work is being successfully carried on there.
There are other rivers with outlets navigable by boats of small
draught only, for which reason and because their navigation is more
important at the outlet to the sea than along their upper course, these
may not be considered as lawful means of communication. In Cuba at
present there are no river routes.

Geology.-The island has a foundation of the pre-Tertiary sedi-
mentary rocks, in which cretaceous and probably jurasic fossils have
been found. Above this, along the coast there are beds of terrigenous
material, and over. these, others of great thickness of white limestone,
formed by organic substances derived from the ocean, that is what dis-
tinguishes it from the reefs and keys, dating from the late Eocene and
Oligocene age. Some of the transparent rocks may be very ancient,
but most of them correspond to the mid-Terciary age.
The Island must have issued from the sea after some great cataclysm


31







SZ GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

happening towards the end of the Tertiary period, by the accumulation
of the rocks on which it is founded. During the Quaternary period it un-
derwent series of subsidences and elevations, which affected its coastal
borders, producing elevated cliffs and the margin of innumerable rocky
reefs which border the coast in many places, as in the nieghbourhood of
the cities of Havana and Baracoa.
Some geologists sustain that the Island was once united to the con-
tinent, founding their assertion upon the identity of the remains of
certain vertebrate animals discovered in it and on the mainland; but the
investigations made until now, do not permit the affirmation of that
hypothesis with absolute certainty.
The caves of Bellamar, near Matanzas, are truly wonderful and
they are visited by all tourists; in Camagiiey the caves of Cubitas; in
Oriente near Banes, one called Cueva del Negro, and the caverns of
Mount Libano, near GuantAnamo, are also worthy of being quoted.
Flora.-The flora of the island is noted for its abundance and beau-
ty, and caused Cuba to be named the Pearl of the Antilles Over
3,350 native plants have been catalogued. Humboldt said: "We might
believe the entire island was originally a forest of palms, wild limes
and orange trees." The flora includes nearly all of the characteristic
forms of the other West Indies, the southern part of Florida, and the
Central American seaboard. Nearly all the large trees of the Mexican
"tierra caliente," (warm land) so remarkable for their size, foliage and
fragance, reappear in eastern Cuba. Over 30 species of palm trees, in-
cluding the famous royal palm (oreodoxa regia) abound, while the pine
tree, elsewhere characteristic of the Temperate Zone and the high
altitudes of the Tropics, is found associated with palms and mahoganies
in the province of Pinar del Rio and the Isle of Pines, both of which
take their names from this tree.
Among other woods are the guayacn, granadillo (red ebony),
mahogany and cedar.
Although more than a hundred years of cultivation have almost
exterminated the forests in the sugar lands of the central and western
parts of the Island it is reckoned that in the hills of those districts, in
the mountainous regions of the east and in the southern part of Cama-
giiey there are still more than 5.000,000 hectareas or 13.000,000 acres of
uncleared woods remaining.
Rich and nutritous grasses abound throughout the Island, specially
in Camagiiey, affording excellent pasture for stock and they might
become a profitable industry. The pineapple, sweet potatoes and Indian
corn are indigenous to the Island.

Fauna.-Throughout Cuba, game is abundant. Deer, though not
native, have flourished and multiplied greatly. Rabbits also are plenti-









PROVINCIAL INSPECTORS


JOSE PEREZ AROCIA, T)R. LORENZO PONCE,
Pinar del Rio Havana
DR. CARLOS ELCID Y BALMASEDA,
Chief of Inspectors


DR. CARLOS TRUJILLO,
Santa Clara


NARCISO MONREAL,
Camagiiey


EDUARDO ESCOTO,
Matanzas



RICARDO NAVARRO,
Orients


-i.I--. .-


;I






GENER"a DESCRIPTION OF COUBR


ful. The wild boar, the wild dog, .and the wild cat are simply domestic
animals run wild and are quite numerous in all parts of the island. Wild
fowl, especially ducks and pigeons, abound, the former crossing from
the United States during the winter season, the latter remaining in the
island the year round. Pheasants, quail, snipe, wild turkeys, and wild
guinea fowl are also numerous with several varieties of game birds, such
as the quail and different species of doves called tojosas, rabiches and
the guanaros.
Cuba has more than two hundred species of native birds; many
of them have beautiful feathers, but only a few sing.
The only distinctive native animal is the jutia or hutia, which is
rat-like in appearance, and grows to a length of from 16 to 18 inches,
not including the tail. Although edible, it is not specially palatable. The
curiel-a kind of rabbit-also called Indian rabbit is not eaten at all.
In swampy localities, crocodiles and American alligators are found,
and although these frequently grow to an enormous size they are not
dangerous, and little attention is paid to them by the natives. Cha-
meleons, small lizards, tree toads, and similar harmless reptiles all of
them very small are common, while occasionally the iguana and other
large varieties of the lizard species are seen.
There are few varieties of snakes in Cuba. One variety, the maja,
from 10 to 14 feet in length, is most frequently found around the huts,
farm houses, and small villages, its favorite living place being in the palm
leaf thatches of the older buildings, while its favorite food is poultry.
Another snake, named the jubo, is more vicious in disposition than the
maj., although never reaching more than one-third its size. It is not
poisonous. The other varieties are still smaller in size and are not ve-
nomous. There is indeed, no animal in Cuba, whose bite is poisonous,
nor liable to produce death nor even serious illness-or organic disorders.

Climate.-The climate of Cuba is warm and damp, as it corresponds
to its geographical situation in the Torrid Zone, next to the temperate
zone and on account of its prolonged rainy season. Excessive heat is
never felt, due to the prevailing trade winds and the narrowness of the
island. There are but slight changes of temperature between winter
and summer, and day and night. However in summer, localities on
the north coast are less warm than those of the south coast and of the
interior of the island, and the contrary happens with the cold in winter.
Cold is little intense, which makes winter agreeable, and it comprises
the months of november, december, january and february. This season
coincides with the period called "la seea," the dry weather, that com-
mences after the light showers produced by the "nortes," the north
winds, in the month of november and normally lasts till the month of
april. Summer eemprises from june to september, and.it is also the






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


rainy season. It generally begins to rain in May and it continues till
the month of october. The effects of the heat in summer are mitigated
on the north coast by the breeze that blows there from the east, and
on the southern coast from the southeast. The average yearly tempe-
rature is determined very nearly by the isoterm of 25.0" C. (77' F.),
which passes across the centre of the provinces of Pinar del Rio and
Camagiiey, and along the northern part of Oriente, to the coast between
Gibara and Banes.
The meteorological service of the Republic comes within the juris-
diction of the Secretary of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor. A Na-
tional Observatory has been established with several stations in diffe-
rent localities of the territory. anteR a
o nation cha ter e been written in view
of the r furnished by that department

Temperature.-The following tables contain a summary of the ob-
servations made on temperature in the twenty four stations established
in the Island. They will show the monthly and annual mean tempera-
ture as observed since they were created; the highest and lowest month-
ly mean maximum and minimum temperature; the ranges, between
the maximum and the minimum and between the highest and lowest
minimum; the highest and lowest temperature observed during the four
years from 1916 to 1919, and the difference between the highest and
lowest temperature up to the last year mentioned.
From the examination of all these tables together, the following
general conclusions may be drawn; that the observations made at the
stations situated on the coast do not reveal any difference worth appre-
ciating compared with those of the stations of the interior as to the
annual, maximum, minimum and mean temperature, nor as to the
monthly changes of temperature; for which reason it seems that the
location of the station whether it be on the coast or in the interior, has
no importance to the effect of fixing more or less exactly those tempe-
ratures and their ranges over the whole territory; that the changes of
climate in the Island are not very perceptible and that by the- data
obtained it cannot be affirmed that they are more felt in the localities
of the interior than on the coast, specially at the north where the trade
.winds greatly diminish the intensity of the heat.
Studying separately those tables it may be seen that the average
of the annual mean temperature of all the stations in Cuba was 24.9" C.
(77 F.) and that the largest range observed by those stations was
4.1' C. (7" F.) existing between 22.5" C. (73" F.) noted down at Rangel,
Taco-Taco, province of Pinar del Rio, and 26*"6 C. (80' F.) at Bata-
ban6, South of the province of Havana. The warmest mean temperature
for july, commonly the warmest month was 27.1' C. (81" F.) and for








GENERAL DESCIEPTMON OF CUBA


january, commonly the coolest 21"4 C. (70" F.). In the first case the
difference was 6.7' C. (12* F.) between 23.8" C. (75" F.) observed at
Casa Blanca, north of Havana, and 30.5" C. (87" F.) observed at Cien-
fuegos, south of the province of Santa Clara, and in the latter case the
range among the different stations was 5.7' C. (10" F.) from 18.8* C.
(66* F.) observed at the already mentioned station of Rangel, Taco-
Taco to 24.5" C. (76" F.) in "Santa Gertrudis," Banagiiises, east of
the province of Matanzas and also in Cienfuegos. The ranges in monthly
mean temperatures at the several stations vary from 4.4' C. (9 F.) to
8.9 C. (16" F.)
The highest mean maximum temperature was felt in almost all the
stations during the months of july and august. The highest temperature
was taken at Hormiguero, where it was averaged 37.2* C. (99" F.) for
july, august and september, and the lowest mean temperature corres-
ponds to Casa Blanca, where the monthly average was 27.8* C. (82' F.).
The lowest minimum is apparently at Hormiguero also where the mean
maximum was observed, for temperature in that locality was averaged
12.8' C. (55' F.) during the months of january, february.and march.
In examining the tables that contain the observations of those years,
from 1916 to 1919, it is remarked that the highest temperature there
recorded was at Cayo Mambi, Sagua de Tanamo, Oriente in 1917, when
the temperature reached 42' C. (108* F.). At Havana the highest tem-
perature of these four years was reached in 1918, when it got up to
35' C. (95' F.); in 1919 the maximum was only 33.4* C. (92' F.).
The lowest temperature during the expressed period was observed
at Quintana in 1917 and 1919, when it descended to 2.5" C. (36" F.).
Outside this case the lowest temperatures ever registered were 4' C.
(39" F.) at Rosario, Aguacate and 4.4' C. (40' F.) at Jatibonico. This
descense of temperature was a direct consequence of the cold waves
proceeding from the North. Havana is one of the coolest places in
Cuba, not only in regard to its maximum temperatures but as to its
mean temperature. In this city the lowest temperature has been 10.4' C.
(51" F.). At sixteen stations there have been observed lower tempera-
tures, and in two stations, higher ones, than the one just noted down.
There are unofficial data, stating that sometimes, during the
months of december and january, a cold wave has made the tempera-
ture go down to 8" and 10' C. (46' and 50' F.). It is also known by
them that from the 24th to the 26th of december of 1906, a cold wave
of unpreceded intensity, freezed the water contained in pitchers and
other small receptacles that had been left out of doors during the night,
and the surface of certain rivers, from Bataban6 on the southern coast,
to Sancti Spiritus, Santa Clara, and other localities, in the northern
part of the province of Matanzas. However, the Observatory of Havana
only registed 12.5" C. (54' F.) at five and seven o'clock of the morning








36 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

of the days from the 25th to the 28th of the same month and year,
giving an average temperature 0.7 C. (1.2 F.) lower than the nor-
mal one.
The last of the tables we are referring to, is confined to the year 1919
and only contains the records of nineteen stations. The difference
between the maximum and minimum temperatures during that year
ranged from 20' C. (36 F.) to 24.5 C. (44" F.) At Havana the dif-
ference was 21.9" C. (39 F.) a very low range; in sixteen stations a
larger one was recorded.










GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA 37


Mean Temperatures, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(Farenheit In Italics)


TArTION Year Jan. Feb. Mar.


Ap. May


June July


Aug. Sep. Oct. Jov.


VtIfile .................... 25.0 20.8 21.9 2.7 24.2 2.2 2. 27.2 28.0 27. 26.8 28.9
77 69 71 75 78 81 80 81 83 82 89 75
Pinar del Bio ............ 25.9 20.8 22.4 24.7 25.0 27.8 27.4 28.8 29.6 28.0 27.9 25.0
79 69 72 76 7. 82 81 84 85 82 88 77
Herradora ................ .1 22.1 21.7 23.7 24.4 26.7 2.8 27.4 28.3 26.9 28.8 23.6
77 72 71 75 76 80 8 81 88 89 89 7
Rangel, Taeo Tao ...... .5 18.8 19.5 21.1 21.1 2.9 24.2 25.2 25.8 24.9 24.2 21.4
78 66 0 70 70 75 76 7 78 77 76 70
Cass Blanca ............. 24.1 20.8 21.5 23.3 23.2 25.1 25.5 23.8 26.6 25.8 25.8 25.
75 69 71 74 74 77 78 75 80 78 78 78
Los Mameyes, A. Naranjo. 24.9 21.2 21.6 23.7 23.0 28.8 27.0 27.2 27.8 28.8 26.8 24.0
77 70 71 75 75 79 81 81 81 80 77 75
Puentes Grandes .......... 24.2 20.4 21.4 28.4 23.4 28.2 38.8 27.4 27.2 25.4 25.0 22.2
75 69 70 74 74 79 80 8 81 78 77 7
Santiago de las Vegas... 28.9 20.0 20.8 22.4 22.9 25.8 25.8 28.0 27.1 25.9 25.6 22.5
75 68 69 72 78 78 78 79 81 78 78 78
Bataban .................. 28.6 22.4 21.6 23.9 24.4 27.1 28.0 29.0 29.4 28.7 28.5 28.2
80 7S 71 75 76 81 88 84 85 84 88 85
Sta. Birbara, L of Pmma 25.8 22.2 22.8 24.4 25.0 27.8 28.8 27.8 28.8 26.7 26.1 28.7
78 72 73 76 77 82 83 88 81 80 79 89
IMadrga .................. 24.8 20.7 21.7 28.3 23.4 25.6 25.4 26.4 26.7 25.8 s2.1 28.4
76 69 71 74 74 78 78 80 80 78 79 74
Bosarlo, Aguacate ....... 23.3 19.5 20.2 21.8 20.9 25.0 25.9 25.7 28.4 25.4 25.6 22.0
74 67 68 71 70 77 7 78 80 78 78 78
Unl6n de Beyes .......... 24.4 20.8 21.1 23.1 23.3 25.7 26.3 27.1 27.8 28.0 28.0 22.8
76 69 70 74 74 78 79 81 82 79 79 73
San Vicente, Jovellanos.. 28.0 21.1 22., 23.9 24.8 2.7.1 2.0 28.2 28.6 27.4 27.0 27.2
79 70 72 75 76 81 8 8 88 88 81 8 81
Qulntana ................ 24.4 21.1 21.2 23.1 24.0 27.2 27.4 27.2 27.6 26.6 25.8 22.0
76 70 70 74 75 81 8 81 80 8 78 72
'Tinguaro" .............. 25.4 21.7 22.2 24.4 25.0 27.8 27.8 28.8 28.8 26.7 26.7 23.9
78 71 72 76 77 82 82 88 88 80 80 75
Sta. Gertrudie, Banagilises 25.3 24.5 24.5 24.4 24.4 24.6 25.6 26 2 28.2 28.9 27.0 27.2
78 76 76 76 7 76 77 79 79 80 89 81
WashingtonSg.O..Hatuey 24.9 22 .2 21.9 28.2 24.0 2.7 27.9 28.1 28.3 26.0 25.7 22.2
77 73 71 74 75 80 82 88 88 79 78 72
"Caracas," Lajas ....... 25.0 22.0 23.4 25.1 24.7 25.9 26,3 28.8 28.5 27.0 25.0 23.A
77 7 74 74 76 79 79 80 88 81 80 75
"Constanela," Olenfnego 24.6 22.2 22.8 28.9 21.O 27.8 26.1 26.1 25.6 24.4 24.4 24.4
7 72 7 75 7 81 79 79 78 76 75 76
Cleninegos ............... 28.1 24.4 25.0 28.8 27. 29.5 29.2 80.5 31.2 29.4 29.8 27.2
88 76 77 880 8 85 84 87 88 85 8 81
La Sierra, Clenfuegos..... 28.7 20.8 21.4 23.0 23.4 25.2 25.0 25.4 25.8 24.7 25.0 22.
75 69 70 78 74 77 77 78 78 76 77 73
Soledad, Belmonte ....... 24.4 20.7 20.8 22.7 24.1 26.68 2s. 27.0 27.5 28.4 28.0 22.4
76 69 69 73 75 80 0S 8 1 8 8 79 72
Hormlgero ............... 2.1 22.2 21.9 28.2 23.8 28.0 28.8 27.7 28.5 27.0 28.8 23.9
77 71 74 75 89 80 6 88 81 80 75
Jatlbonico ................ 24.5 21.1 21.7 28.3 23.9 28.1 25.6 28.7 27.8 2. 26.7 2. 2.8
7 70 7t 7 7 79 78 8 8s 8 89 78
Ceballos ................... 5.8 22.0 22.0 23.6 24.0 27.2 27.0 28.1 26. 27.4 27.5 24.4
78 72 72 74 75 81 81 8 88 8 81 7
CamagBey .................. 25.2 21.9 23.2 24.5 24.6 28.7 28.5 28.0 28.4 27.2 28.8 21.9
77 71 74 76 7 80 0 8288 81 80 71
La Gloria ................ 25.1 22.0 22.7 28.5 28.91 2.2 26.1 28.7 28.4 27.8 28.8 24.4
77 72 7" 74 75 79 79 80 88 82 80 76
Santa Luela, Nuevltas.... 25.3 21.9 22.6 236. 23.7 27.8 28.8 27.5 28.4 27.6 2. 2A4.s
78 71 78 74 75 82 80 81 88 82 80 76
Francisco, 8 Oruz del Sur. 25.8 28.1 22.5 24.2 25.7 27.0 27.0 28.3 29.0 27.6 27.2 24.1
78 74 72 7 78 81 82 8 84 82 81 75
Ensenada de Mora ....... 27.6 5. 25.6 21.7 27.2 26.8 28.9 29.4 30.0 28.9 28.8 27.2
82 78 78 89 81 82 84 85 86 84 88 81
Rio Canto ................ 25. 2.0 28.4 24.8 25.2 27.8 27.3 27.4 28.2 26.7 26.7 24.
78 78 74 77 77 82 8 1 8 s 8 8 89 76
Jobabo .................... .3 24.6 24.8 2. 2.4 27.5 27.4 28.4 28.4 28.5 27.8 25.
79 76 76 78 80 81 61 83 83 83 82' 78
Preston, ipe ............ 26.1 28.7 25.8 23.9 24.4 25.6 28.7 27.2 27.2 27.2 27.2 26.1
79 80 78 75 76 78 8 81 81 81 81 79
Santa COella ............ 2.6 28.3 28.9 2.1 9.6 28.7 24.4 24.4 27.8 27.8 27.8 28.T
78 74 79 75 80 76 76 8T 8 8 78


Dee. 1
22.0 7.2
78 13
$8.4 8.9
74 16
22.2 6.7
72 13
20.2 8.7
68 13
22.5 7.2
7 11
22.8 7.2
21.2 6.7
70 12
21.5 8.9
71 1S
27.8 8.9
88 I1
82 1.
28.8 7.2
74 11
22.5 7.2
72 11
70 13
22.6 8.9
78 18
28.9 8.9
80 1S
20.0 8.0
68 13
22.2 6.7
73 18
22.4 2.8
72 14
7.1 12
22.2 6.5
72 11

25.6 6.8
78 12
21.8 4.4
71 9
21.4 6.7
70 12
22.2 6.7
72 12
21.7 7.2
71 13




7 11
23.2 6.7
74 it
23.7 6.7
75 1!
25.8 4.4
78 8
24.1 5.6
75 10
24.8 3.9
77 7
24.4 3.3
76 1
28.9 6.1
75 u










38 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA


Monthly Mean Maximum Temperatures, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(Farenhelt In Italics)


STATION Jan. Feb. Mar. Ap.


Viiales .............................. 24.5 26.2 27.0 28.8
76789s 8 84
Pinar del Rio ..................... 2.1 2. 2.8 29.
75 79 88 85
Herradura ........................ 8.2 28.0 80.9 31.4
868o 88 89
.Rangel Taco-Taco ............... 22.0 22.7 24.1 25.8
73 78 T7 78
Casa Blanea ....................... 24.8 25.6 26.6 26.1
77 78 80 79
tos Mameyes, Arroyo Naranjo ... 2$.0 26.3 28.7 29.8
79 7 84 ,8
1Puentes Grandes ................. 28.2 2.9 27.0 27.1
74 77 81 81
Santiago de las Vegas.............. 4. 2.8 28.2 28.9
75 79 88 84
Bataban ............................ 28.9 28.2 81.2 80.8
8 84 88 87
Santa BArbara, Isle of Pines ..... 26.1 26.1 28.3 28.9
79 79 8 884
Madruga............................ 23.8 21.2 26.7 26.8
75 77 8 8so
Rosario, Aguacate ................ 28.5 25.2 27.1 27.
74 77 81 81
Uni6n de Reyes .................. 25.9 27.2 29.2 30.0
79 82 8 88
San Vicente, Jovellanos .......... 2.5 27.5 29.0 29.8
78 81 84 88
Quintana ......................... 26.8 28.8 80.5 31.7
80 8 87 89
"Tingiaro" .......................... 27.2 27.8 30.0 81.8
81 8 886 88
"Washington Sugar Co.", Hatuey. 28.6 28.4 29.5 30.1
8 88 86 88
"Caracas," Lajas ................ 2.8 28.5 29.0 30.7
89 80 84 87
Constanca. Clenfuegos ....... .... 28.9 80.0 31.7 32.8
84 88 89 91
Clenfuegos .................... ... 2.2 27.51 29.2 80.1
79 81 85 86
La Sierra, Olenfuegos ......... ...... 2.2 28.1 28.9
77 79 8S 84
Soledad. Belmonte ............... 24.. 9 26.2 28.7 80.0
77 79 84 88
Hormiguero ................. .... 31.2 81.8 88.8 84.2
88 88 a8 94
Jatibonico ....................... 26.1 27.8 20.4 30.0
79 8 8 86
Oeballos ............................. 26.7 28.8 30.1 81.
80o 8 86 89
OamagBey ................... 23.8 25.62 27.0 7.0
75 78 8i 81
La Gloria ....................... 27.6 29.8 0. 81.2
8) 88 87 88
Santa Lucia, Nuevitas ............. 28.2 80.7 31.8 31.7
8 87 89 89
Francisco, Sta. Cruz del Sur...... 27.5 27.4 80.8 81.5
81 81 87 89
Ensenada de Mora ................. 29.4 80.0 81.7 3.2
8 88 89 90
Wlo Cauto ........................ 28. 29.8 81.6 3.1
8o 88 893 1
Jobabo ............................... 80.0 80.4 31.3 81.7


May June.


31.6 30.8
89 87
81.5 80.8
89 87
88.1 81.7

82 81
27.2 27.5
81 81
81.1 81.5
88 89
80.4 81.1
87 88
81.4 80.4
89 87
81.8 80.4
88 87
88 88
29.2 28.4
86 81
30.2 80.8
88 87
82.5 31.9
90 89
83.0 81.5
90 89
88.6 83.5
33.9 88.9
98 98
32.2 38.8
90 98
31 0 80.9
88 88
84.9 35.0
94 95
31.4 81.0
89 88
80.0 28.9
8C 84
82.2 81.9
86.2 38.9
97 97
31.0 80.0
88 88
83.1 81.9
99 89
28.9 28.0
84 82
8.2 81.4
90 89
84.6 83.9
90 91
82.2 88.2

90 S
93 90
32.2 83.8
90 90


July


Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dee.


82.3 81.4 80.6 28.0 26.6
90 89 87 88
82.7 80.5 80.4 27.5 25.1
91 87 87 82 78
84.7 82.8 81.6 29.4 27.9
94 90 89 85 8a
29.0 27.8 26.8 246.8 2.8
84 88 80 78 72
28.3 28.6 27.2 26.9 26.8
8S 88 81 80
82.7 81.2 81.8 28.5 26.7
91 88 88 88 80
81.7 28.9 28.5 26.2 24.4
89 84 88 79 7
385.6 0.7 30.5 27.5 21.4
91 87 87 81 80
81.0 80.0.6 29.9 29.9
88 87 87 8a 88
31.7 80.0 28.9 29.4 26.5
89 86 81 P 79
30.3 28.7 29.1 2S.7 25.7
87 84 84 80 78
82.1 80.4 80.2 27.4 26.5
90 87 86 81 80
88.8 80.5 80.7 27.9 27.5
98 87 87 82 81
8.83 81.5 31.4 3.31 81.7
9 89 89 90 89
84.9 83.6 82.0 29.8 28.5
95 91 90 88 88
85.0 82.2 81.7 29.4 27.8
98 90 89 8a 88
34.8 81.3 29.8 26.6 28.3
94 88 86 80 88
34.1 81.3 81.0 29B.l 7.1
98 88 88 85 81
85.0 83.9 82.2 81.1 28.9
95 98 90 88 84
88.5 31.4 31.7 20.4 28.9
92 89 89 88 84
80.5 28.5 29.3 27.1 25.8
87 88 85 81 78
32.9 81.0 80.6 27.6 27.1
91 88 87 83 81
88.5 88.8 81.5 28.7 26.3
101 97 89 84 79
83.8 81.1 80.6 28.8 27.2
91 88 87 8l 81
84.7 32.7 83.1 29.8 28.8
94 91 90 88 88
80.6 209. 28.7 26.8 5.
87 87 84 88 78
85.7 84.6 83.4 81.0 28.6
of 9 90 88 81
35.0 35.1 83.5 81.5 29.0
958 9 90 89 8
34.9 32.2 81.9 29.0 28.8
f O 89 84 8a
85.0 88.8 83.8 31.7 0.4
95 92 of 89 8U
84.6 83.4 88.2 81.8 80.1
94 90 9 89 88
84.8 88.9 8.8 81.5 10.3
9 98 91 89 87








GENERAL DESa'OMPTON oF OUBA 39


Monthly Mean Minimum Temperatures, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(tarenbelt in Itaies)


STATION an. Mar.\


~I IfF T NI;II


June July Augt.Sep. t. v. Dec.


Viflals .............................. 1.2 17.6 1.5 19.5 22.7 22.9 28.0 28.6 23.9 28.0 19.8 17.6
a68 67 67 78 78 2 75 78 88 S
Piar del Blo ....... ............ 17.0 18.8 20.8 20.8 28.7 2 .4 2 26.5 2.4 2.5 22.5 21.
68 68 6 O 75 76 78 80 78 78 7 7'
Irerradara ............................ 18.9 15.8 16.5 17.8 2. 21.8 21 1.4 21.2 21.8 2.0 17.8 16.4
7 60 6 6S 71 71 71 71 72a s a
Range, Taeo-Taeo ................. 15.5 1.8 18.1 16.8 20.5 21.5 21.9 22.5 22.0 21.5 18.0 18.9
8o 61 65 6 6 71 11 72 7 71 65es 65
Case Blanea ........................ 16.1 15.5 18.6 19.9 20.5 22.6 20.9 21.0 U.5 28.0 20.0 17.9
61 0 65 68 7 7 7 70 7 72 73 68 64
Los Mameyee, Arroyo Naranjo ... 16.5 17.0 18.7 18.1 21.5 22.5 22.2 22. 2.8 22. 19.5 17.9
68 66 65 71 7 72 73 7 67 4
Puentes Grandes .................. 17.7 18.0 10.8 19.6 2.1 2.6 22.7 22.7 21.8 21.5 18.8 17.9
64 68s 67 7 78 7 7S 71 71 66 6
Sapntago de las Vegas ............15.2 15.8 18.6 18.9 20.2 21.1 20.9 21.5 21.2 20.8 17.8 16.
69 W8 62 6 68 70 70 71 70 69 64 6
Bataban6 ........................... 15.8 15.1 186. 18.1 22.9 28.7 27.2 9.7 28.7 26.4 28.6 25.7
69 S 6S 65 78 80 81 8 8 80 80 0 78
Santa BArbara, Isle of Pines ...... 19.4 20.6 21.1 28.9 25.6 24.4 25.0 28.9 28.8 28.8 20.6
s7 87 6 70 75 78 78 7 75 74 74
Madruga ............................. 17.8 18.2 15.9 19.9 22.1 22.8 22.4 28.8 22.9 28.1 20.1 19.4
b6 65 68 68 78 7 7 74 78 68 67
Sosarlo Aguacate ................. 15.4 1.8 16.6 14.8 19.7 21.1 20.2 20.7 20.4 21.1 17.7 15.6
60 w 62 68 67 70 68 68. 6 70 64 6
Unl6n de Reyes ..................... 1.6 15.0 17.0 16.8 18.9 20.7 21.2 22.2 21.5 21.2 17.8 17.8
s59 68 68 66 69 70 7 71 70 64 6
San Vcente, Jovellanos ............ 16.7 17.0 18.7 18.7 22.1 22.8 28.8 24.0 28.4 28.9 22.0 22.1
68 68 6M 66 72 78 75 75 74 75 72 72
Quintana ............................ 15.1 14.1 15.7 16.3 20.6 20.8 20.6 20.8 20.5 19.7 14.8 18.4
59 57 68 61 68 69 69 69 69 67 58 56
Tinguaro ......................... 10.1 16.7 18.8 18.9 21.1 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.7 21.1 18.8 17.2
61 68 6 66 70 71 71 71 71 70 65 3
"Washington Sugar Co.". Hatuey. 15.9 15.4 15.8 17.8 21.2 22.0 22.2 22.8 20.6 21.6 17.9 17.8
61 2 80 E 64 70 7 7 72 69 71 64 84
"Caracas", Lajas ............. ..... 17.2 18. 17.1 18.0 20.7 21.7 21.2 22.9 22.8 22.8 18.5 17.4
6s 6S 68 65 69 71 70 78 78 2T 65 68
"Oonstanea," Olenfnegos ......... 15.6 16.1 16.1 17.2 20.6 17.2 17.2 15.6 15.6 16.1 17.2 15.0
w 61 U1 63 69 68 6 60 6 61 6 59
Olenfuegos ....................... 22.6 22.4 24.4 25.0 27.5 27.4 28.3 28.8 27.8 27.8 24.9 22.6
78 73 76 77 81 84 8S 8P4 88 77 72
La erra, Oenfuegos ........... 1.7 16.6 17.8 17.9 20.4 21.0 20.9 21.0 20.9 20.6 18.6 17.6.
16 68 64 64 69 70 70 70 70 69 65 86
Soledad, Belmonte ................. 16.5 15.5 1 1. 8.2 20.9 21.4 21.8 22.1 21.8 21.4 17.2 15.7
6 60 6S 65 70 71 71 78 71 71 S SO0
Hormiguero ...... ............... 12.8 1.5 1.1 18.8 16.9 17.6 17.8 1 7 1.6 22.2 19.1 18.0
65 54 86 56 6 64 P6 65 84 7t 68 64
Jatibonico .......................... 15.0 15.0 16.7 17.2 20.6 21.7 22.2 22.0 21.7 22.2 17.2 16.1
60 59 68 68 6 71 7 7S 71 7 6 61
eballos ........................... 17.2 16.0 17.1 17.7 21.8 22.2 22.7 22.5 22.0 22.9 18.8 18.1
08 61 68 64 70 7S 78 7 7 8 78 66 65
OamagBey ......................... 20.0 20.7 22.0 22.2 24.6 2.7 25.4 26.1 25.1 24.8 22.8 20.
68 69 78 7 76 76 78 79 77 77 7 69
La Gloria ........................... 16.4 15.5 16.8 16.7 20.8 20.8 20.9 21.5 20.9 21.1 17.8 17.2
6s 0 61 6 69 69 70 71 70 70 68
Santa Luela, Kevltas ............ 15.5 14.4 15.4 15.6 2 0.6 20.6 20.9 21.9 20.1 20.8 17.1 17.4
60 58 60 60 69 69 70 71 68 69 63 68
Praelseo, Sta. O~r del Sr........ 18.7 17.6 18.1 19 8 21.8 22.1 22.6 23.2 22.0 22.6 19.2 19.1
68 6s 65 68 71 72 7S 74 7S 78 67 68
Ensenada de Mora .................. 21.7 21.1 21.7 22.2 24.4 24.4 24.4 25.0 24. 28.9 22.8 21.7
71 70 71 77 76 76 76 77 6 7 78 71
Ro Onto ......................... 17.8 17.1 18.0 17.4 21.3 21.9 22.2 21 .0 20.2 17.4 18.2
64 61 64 68 71 71 72 71 70 68 68 65
Jobabo ................... ........ 19.2 18.2 19.8 21.1 22. 6 28.4 22.5 28. 22.9 19.8 19.4
67 6 7 70 78 v 8 7 7 74 7s8 8 67


Ap. May








40 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Absolute Minimum Temperatures, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(Farenhelt in Italles)


Highest
monthly
maximum
minus
Range Range lowest
STATION of ma. of monthly
ilmum minimum minium


Viiales ........................... ...... ..................... 7.8 7 1 .0
14 At S
Pinar del Rio ................................................. 9.0 9.5 15.1
16 17 28
Herradura ........................................................ 6. 8.1 .1
1 IS St
Rangel, Taco Taeo .. ....................................... 7.0 7.0 18.8
1S t 84
Casa Blanca ............................................... 8.8 8.5 12.7
8 1A a
Los Mamcyes, Arroyo Narano .................................. .7 5.8 18.1
It 1a0 I
Puentes Grandes ... .......................................... 8.8 5.0 14.4
1S 9 M
Santiago de las Vegas ................... ................... 7.9 .8 17.8
Bataban6 .. ............................................... 8.1 12.6 16.1
Santa Barbara, Isle of Pines ........................... ... 5.6 8.2 1.2
w 11 U
Madruga ....................................................... 5.7 12.
is 10 It
"Rosario," Agnacate ....................... .. ..................... 8. .5 17.8
16 ta a
Uni6n de Reyes ........................................ .4 7.2 18.8
"San Vicente," Jovellanos .... ....... ..................... 7.8 7.2 1.7
14 is so
Quintana .... ...... ...................................... 81 6.8 1.1
s15 S8
"Tinguaro" .................................................. 7.8 5. 18.9
14 29 84
"Washington Sugar Co.", Hatney .............................. .7 .9 18.9
14 is 84
"Caracas," Laas ............................................... .8 5.7 1.7
18 10
"Constanela." Olenfuegos ......................................... 6.1 5. .0
Clenfuegos ........ ......................................... 7.8 8.5 11.1
IS It -
La Sierra, Olenfuegos ..................... ................ ... 5.6 4. 18.9
Soledad, Belmonte .......................................... 7.3 6.6 17.8
1 ft St
Hormignero .......................... .................. 12.8 9.7 28.1
a 18 47
Jatibonleo ..................... ................. ............. 6.7 7.2 17.8
a B ar
Ceaallos ............ .... ...................................... 8.0 6. 10.7
Camagiey ...... ..... ...... ........... ................ ...... 5.9 8.1 10.8
it If Mt
La Gloria ......................................... ............. .2 .1 .
Santa Lucia, Nuevitas ............................................. .9 7.2 .7
Francisco, Sta. Ous del 8nr ...................................... 0 17.8
Ensenada de Mora ................................................ 5.6 8.9 11.9
10 7 U2
Rio Canto ............................... ...................... .1 5.1 17.8
i ..9 81
Jobabo ......................................................... ....... 4. 5.1 18.1
8 9 -










pigS


EIt


IIAVANA.-PRESIDENTIAL PALACE


3~L-SF- CI









r-


SNAVANA.-OENTRAL lAPX


I.









GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA 41


Absolute HMaimms Temperatures, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(iarenbult In Itall)


SIATION 191 1917 1918 1919


Pnar el o ......... ......................................... 0 .8 33.2 85.0
95 94 92 95
ad a ................................................36.0 .0 35.2 8.0
97 97 95 99
"Yasieno", Bahia Honda ............................... ....... 36.0 38.5 29.0 38.0
97 101 108 100
San Antonio doe lo Blos. ........................... .......... 3.2 5.0 40.0 88.0
95 95 104 100
OCii Blanca, aban .............................................. .2 2.0 5.0o 3.
94 9S 95 92
Santiago de ls Vegas ............................................. 3.8 35.9 83.5 34.4
9S 97 93 94
91 90 88 90
earo" ... A. ae.te. ............................................. 3.0 53.0 4.0 38.0
Porsito"n, Aaaate .. ............................................... 3.0 .0 3t.0
97 97 98 93
"San Vieante", Jovellanos ......................................... 38.0 35.0 34.0 35.0
1M 95 93 95
intana ........... ................................................. 38.5 38.0 37.0 3.0
101 100 99 99
"Washington Sugar Co.", Hatoey ............................... 27.0 36.0 37.0 87.0
99 91 99 99
"Constancia", Olenfaegom ......................................... 87.2 86.0 37.2 87.8
99 97 99 1o
Jatebonco .......................................... 26.1 35.5 34.4 83.4
97 96 94 94
Oebaoe .............................. ........................... 36.0 35.5 35.0 3.0
97 96 96 97
La Gloria ........................................................... 37.0 87.0 388.0 28.0
99 99 0 100
Santa Lucia., N itas ............................................. 9.0 89.0 40.0 41.0
Preton, Ni ..................................... ................ .7 2.7 38.0 39.0
98 9W 100 1M
pirmneza ........................................... 36.1 35.6 38.0 85.7
97 96 100 98
Oayo MambI, Sagna do TAnamo................................ 81.7 42.0 35.0 38.0
189 mS 95 1









42 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Absolute minimum temperature, Degrees Centigrade and Farenheit

(Farenhelt in Italles)


STATION 1916 1917 1918 119


Pinar del Rio ................................................... .. 12.2 9.0 10.2 18.8
54 48 s M
Herradura ............................................................ 5.0 5.0 6.2 7.0
"Nazareno", Bahia Honda ........................................ 10.0 7.0 11.2 10.0
50 48 58 a
San Antonio de los Bafio ........................................ 18.2 12.0 11.2 10.0
-Casa Blanca, Habana ............................................... 19.2 10.4 10.4 11.
54 51 51 8
Santiago de la Vegas ............................................. 11.5 8.9 7.68 .9
a 48 48 44
Madrugs ............................................................. 12.0 10.0 10.0 12.0
54 m So 54
"Rosarlo", Auacate ................................................ .0 4.0 5.0 6.0
43 so 41 4s
San Vicente, Jovellanos.............................................. 12.0 8.0 6.0 10.0
54 48 43 so
Quintana .................................................... .0 .0 .0 2.
48 SS ST S6
"Washington Sugar Co.", Hatue ............................... 10.0 6.0 9.0 6.0
so50 48 48 48
"Constancia", COentuego ......................................... 12. 8.9 8.9 8.3
5a 48 4 4
Jatibono .....................................................w.- 5.0 5.6 4.4 8.8
41 48 40 47
Oeballo ............................................................. 8.5 7.5 5.5 9.0
47 48 43 48
La Gloria ............................................................ 9.0 7.0 .0 8.0
48 45 48 48
GSanta Lucia, Nuevitas ........................................... 6.0 8.0 5.0 7.0
4s 4i 41 4
Preston, Npe ........................................... ....... 18.8 15. 10.0 11.T
56 0 So 58
Flrmeza .............................................................. 18.7 15.0 15.0 16.1
63 69 59 &
Oayo Mambf, Sagna de Tanmo.................................... 8.0 11.0 12.0 18.0
46 B 54 S







GENSE & DESCRIPTION OF CUBA '-


Rangm between Absolute Mosimum and Minimum Temperatures, Degrees
Centigrade and Farenheit
(Farenhelt In Italles)

Maxi-
TMaXMON mim Minimum Range

P nar del .to ......... ....... ................. ............ i5.0 12.8 22.2.
9 s5 40
errad ra .................... ............... ............ ............ 87.0 7.0 80.0
99 45 54
"Nazreae". Bahia Honda .................................. ... 88.0 10.0 28.0
10 20 80
San Anteilo de los Baflos .. ................................... 88.0 10.0 28.0
109 0 S9
Casa Blmca, Habana ..... .................................. .. 8. 11.5 21.9-
Santiago 4e las Vegas .................................. ...... 84.4 6.9 27.
9t 44 0
Madruga ..................... ...................................... 2.0 11.0 20.0-
"Bom lo", Aguaeate ................. .............................. 84.0 6.0 28.0'
98 46 47
as ls W
"San W~ste", Jovellanos ....................................... 85.0 10.0 25.0'
9 SO 45
oQuitana ................... ..................................... 87.0 2.5 .84.
:99 OS
"Washlngton Sugar Co.". Matney ............................... 7.0 6.0 81
9s 48 SS
"Oonatanle", Olentuegos ......................................... 87.8 8.8 29.5
SM 47 67
Jatibonso ........................................................... 84.4 8.8 29.1
eballo ..................................... ......... .... 8 .0 9.0
87 49 49
La Gloria ................... ................................... 88.0 8.0 80
M0 45 56
Santa Lucia Nuevitas ............ .............................. 41.0 7.0 84
106 45 81
Preston, Nipe ................... ................................ ... 8.0 11.7 7.8
10U 58 40
Inanea ....................... .. ................................... 8 .7? 16.1 20.6
98 61 87
Clyo Mambl. .agua de Tlname............................. 88.0 18.0 25.0


Rainfa---As has been already said, when treating of climate in
general, in Cuba there are only two well defined seasons, called the rainy
season and the dry season. The exact duration of each cannot be pre-
cisely fixed, but the first is comprised between the months from may
to october and the second during the other six months of the year. This
classification does not imply that during that time the conditions of the
atmosphere must be exactly those inferred by their names, for during
the former season, there are more or less prolonged periods of drought
as there are others of raining during the latter. Rainfall, during the
rainy season is abundant, periodical and longlasting. From the obser-
vations made it results that to this season corresponds 78%/ of the
rainfall of a year. In spite of the usual regularity of these seasons
there is no proportion, kept in rainfall from one year to another, for
great differences are noticed in succeeding years at certain periods.
Rainfall also differs a great deal according to the locality and no
regular rule can be established; however it has been observed that it is
less abundant on the coast than in the interior. No difference worth







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


being appreciated is noticed between the eastern and western part of
the Island.
The following tables contain the summary of the observations made
in the sixteen stations mentioned therein, since their establishment till
1919. From the data they contain it results: that the minimum of rain-
fall is 899 mm. (35.5 inches) at Firmeza, and the maximum, 1665.4 mm.
(65.4 inches) at Quintana.
At Havana it was 1060.6 mm. (41.9 inches) inferior in quantity to
that observed in 12 other stations contained in these tables.
The annual average of rainfull on the northern coast was 998 mm.
(39.3 inches) on the southern, 1074 mm. (43.3 inches); and in the inte-
rior, that is to say, at the stations situated at more than eight kilometres
(5 miles) from the coast, 1458 mm. (57.4 inches).
For ending this subject, after the tables formed with the records
supplied by the National Observatory, another one is inserted, showing
the exceptional rain, according to the data offered by the Observa-
tory of Belen, comprising from 1908 to 1919.

Rainfall in Millimeters and Inches
(Inches in Italics)

STATION Year Jan. Feb. Mar. Ap. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dee.

Pinar del Rio ................ 1649.0 81.0104.0 28.0 19.0202.0549.0124.0104.0280.0114.0105.0 3.0
60.9 1.2 4.1 1.1 0.7 8.0 2.6. 4.9 4.1 9.1 4.5 4.1 1.5
Herradura .................... 1341.2 20.0 69.7 52.5 82.2205.7277.2 11.7140.5 19.7111.5 8.0 88.5
52.9 1.0 2.8 3.1 1.8 8.1 10.9 4.5 5.5 7.7 4.4 8.8 1.8
Oasa Blanec Habana ..... 1060. 40.1 .4 14.7 98.0 67. 208.8170.9 81.7210.8 8.5 81.8 87:1
41.9.7 1. 0. 8. .7 8. .
Santiago de las Vegas........ 1588.4 48.0 61.9 29.0 49.0146.2847.6289.8 16.0267.9 92.0 29.0 84.0
60.5 1.9 8.6 1.1 1.9 5.8 1t.7 9.4 6.6 10.6 .1 1.8
Madruga ...................... 1519.8 15.010 .0 7.0 27.021.828.82 51.7187.0218.0 80.0 47.0 18.0
59.7 0.6 4.2 3.0 1.1 10.1 1. 9.9 5.4 8.4 .1 1.9 0.7
Rosario. Aguacate .......... 1399.6 30.9 88.9 17.5 46 242.9217.0221.8 85.2199.8 85.5 50.1 88.8
55.0 1.2 8.5 0.7 1.8 18.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 7.9 8.6 1.9 1.8
San Vicente. Jovellanos....... 1235.8 5.6 36.5 0.0 81.3158.526.9180.2 78.0205.7 80.0 80.4 88.0
46.8 1.4 1.4 0.0 S.S 6.8 10.5 7.1 3.1 8.1 8.8 1.1 1.8
Quintana .................. 1885.4 44.1148.1 5.1 70.829.9 21.8 380.0 91.7222.9182.9 8.8 20.8
65.4 7.7 5.8 0.2 2.8 11.8 8.4 1.9 8.6 8.8 5.2 1.4 0.8
Washington Sugar O. Hatuey. 1589.6 58.8 18.4 6.8 54.5 27.8182.9191.8 7.8 425.5 98.6 26.7 67.2
63.0 2.8 5.5 0.3 S.S 10.6 7.2 7.6 2.9 16.8 8.8 1.1 2.7
Constancia. Olentuegos.... 128.7 19.8 79. 12.2 9.7 188.0 294.8 145.159.5 223.4 85.4 12.7 9.1
49.0 0.9 S.1 0.5 0.4 7.4 11.6 6.7 6.8 8.8 8.4 O.6 0.4
Jatibonleo ................. 1819.7 93.5 42.2 0.0 41.5 222.0 294.0179.0 48.0 81.0184.0 2.0 15.0
52.0 8.7 1.7 0.0 1.6 8.8 11.6 7.1 1.7 9.1 5.8 1.0 0.4
Ceballos ....................... 1512.1 74.4 17.7 14.0 64.4248.8322.9198.4146.2804.4 83.2 7.1 85.8
61.6 2.9 0.7 0.6 S.5 9.8 1S.7 9.6 5.8 18.0 8.8 0.8 1.4
La Gloria ................... 1285.0 173. 79.2 19.3102.4 2.0 207.2169.3 9.1 88.5 98.8 17.7 82.1
50.7 6.8 8.1 0.8 4.0 10.4 8.2 6.7 0.4 8.8 8.8 0.7 AXd
Santa Lucia, Nuevitas........ 981.5122.2 21.6 11.5 48.231.4111.145. 14.2 89.7 88.8 41.9 .7
38.8 4.8 0.9 0.5 1.9 9.1 4.4 5.7 0.6 3.5 38. 1.7 1 -8.8
Preston, Nipe ................ 943. 147.8 23.4 0.0 38.8149.2 18.9 12.4 5.5 29.8125.2 58.2 1.2
37.2 5.8 0.9 0.0 1.5 5.9 .7 0.5 0.2 1.2 4.9 .l
Firmeza ..................... 899.3 87.9 27.7 2.5 106.5299.4 52.9 93.8 5.9 2.7 92.2 19.8 180
85.5 3.5 1.1 0.1 4.2 11.8 2.1 .7 0.8 3.7 8.6 0.8 0.7
------------------ --I- -L *







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA 45


Per cent of monthly rainfall

MONTH Per cent MO xT Per ant

January ........................... 5 July ................................ 1
February ........................... 8 August ............................ 6
March .............................. 1 September .........................
April ............................... 4 October ............................ 7
May ................................ 1 November .......................... S
June ............................... 19 December ...................... ..



Per cent of annual rainfall


STATION Jan. Peb. Mar. April May. June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dee.


Pinar del Rio ............ 2 2 1 1 33 8 6 14 7 6 2
Herradura ............... 2 5 4 3 15 21 9 10 15 8 8 2
Casa Blana, Habana... 4 6 1 9 6 19 16 6 20 1 8 4
Santiago de las Vegas... 3 6 2 3 10 23 15 11 17 6 2 2
Madrug ................. 1 7 5 2 17 19 17 9 14 5 8 1
osarlo," Agacate .... 2 6 1 3 25 18 16 6 14 5 4 2
"Ban VIcente," Jovellano 8 3 0 7 13 22 15 7 17 7 3 8
Quintana ................. 3 0 4 18 13 23 6 18 8 2 1
"Washington Sugar Co",
Hatney ................. 4 0 3 17 11 12 27 6 2 4
"Oonstanea," Oaenfuegoa 2 8 1 1 15 24 12 18 18 7 1 1
Jatibonleo ................ 7 3 0 3 17 22 14 8 18 0 2 1
CebalDo ................... 1 1 4 16 21 16 9 20 5 0 2
La Gloria ................ 1 2 8 21 16 13 1 7 7 1 5
"Santa Lucia," Nuevltaa 12 2 1 5 24 11 15 2 9 9 4 6
Preston, Npe ........... 16 2 0 4 1 18 1 1 8 18 6 20
Firmeza ............. 10 3 0 12 83 16 11 1 10 10 2 2
______ 1___ lI_____


Record of Esceptional Bains, from Observations taken at Beldn College Observatory


Quantity Duration Milimeters
SIn mlimeters hours and min. per hour


October ......... 12 1M0 ...............:............. 15.0 0.10 90.0
June .............1 1909............................. 86.0 0.21 102.0
July ..............17 ......... ..................... 18.2 0.06 182.0
October ........... 9 ,, .......................... 28.0 6.15 92.0
December .........21 ,, .............................. 24. 0.20 73.2
June .............. 7 1910............................. 20.4 0.12 102.0
August ...........18 ,... ........................ 10.8 0.06 108.0
August ...........25 ,, ............................. 30.0 0.20 90.0
September ........12 ,, .............................. 42.0 0.20 126.0
October .........1..1 ,, .............................. 802.0 24.00 12.6
May ............... 6 1911.............................. 46.0 0.46 00.0
June .............25 ,, .............................. 15.5 0.10 98.0
November .........21 ............................. 18.0 6.05 30.6
June .............. 9 1912............................ 45.0 0.55 49.1
June .............24 ,, ............................. 41.8 0.23 109.0
August ...........20 ,, ........................... 70.0 1.12 58.8
August ...........21 ,, ............................. 41.0 0.25 98.4
September ........18 1915.............................. 84.0 0;16 17.5
April .............21 1916.............................. 30.0 0.13 188.5
April .............. 17 1919............................ 110.0 8.00 36.7
August .......... 8 1919............................ 41.0 0.20 128.0



Direction of the wind.-The prevailing winds in Cuba are the trade-
winds from the northeast, that blow all the year round, but specially
from october to may. From this month to october again, the prevailing
winds are from the southeast. In summer, when the sun is high, at





46 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

midday, the direction of the winds is almost straight from the east, while
in winter it rather comes from the northeast. On the coast or in places
near it, the conditions of the ground and the sea-breezes, alter their
direction. So, in Havana, in july the wind blows at night from the east-
southeast, and at day-time from the northeast; the change is observed
at about 10 a. m. and 10 p. m.
Hereafter two tables may be found: the first one, showing the
direction of the prevailing winds according to observations made in the
thirteen official stations expressed therein and the second referring only
to Havana, taken from data supplied by the Observatory of Bel&n
College.





Wind Direction


STATrIO Year January February March April May June July August Sept'ber October Nov'ber Dec'ber


Pinar del Blo .................... NE NNE N-SE NE NE 3-SE NE NE NNE NE NE NNE NNE
Casa Blanca ................... E NNE NE- E E E E E ESE E ENE E
Santiago de las Vegas ...........E NE-8 8 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Madruga ....................... NE-SE NE-BE NE-SE NE NE SE 8 E 8 NE-SE NE NNE
"Rosario," Agnaeate .............E E-BF NE NE ENE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Quintana ......................... NE N N NNE NE NE E NE NE NE NE NE NX
"Washington Sugar Co.", Hatuey E8E BE E E ESE SSE BE BE E8 BE EBB E B
Geballos ........ ............ NE NNE N NE NE NE E NE NE NE NE N NE
La Gloria ...................... NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE N E NE NE NE
Santa Lucia, Nuevitas............ N NE E NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
Bataban6 ........................ NE N NE N 8W SW SW SW SW SW SW SW NE
La Sierra (Olenfuegos) .......... N N-S SW S 8 B 8 8 a N N
Santiago de Ouba ............... BE E E SSE 8E BE BE BE SE 88B SE BE SE







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA


Relative Frequency of Wind Directions in Havana (from 1,000 observations
recently taken)

oDaaorTIO Jan. Feb Mar. April May. June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

N ......................... 147.0 101.5 87.0 98.2 55.9 40.0 29.2 54.6 54.8 104.5 81.8 121.9
NNE .................. 124.8 99.9 100.4 134.8 164.6 109.8 122.1 127.5 101.1 151 8 18.4 116.1
EE ........................ 99.1 84.8 11.2 129.4 149.5 140.5 148.1 136.1 111.2 148.7 167.5 124.4
ENE ...................... 114.8 110.5 168.5 165.1 198.5 162.8 200.8 150.2 182.8 14.2 200.2 155.6
S.......... ............... 120.8 108.2 187.6 183.7 150.7 187.3 231.5 17.0 188.2 108.8 129.5 141.6
EsE ...................... 76.1 74.2 75.9 75.5 62.4 88.0 82.0 88. 881.0 08.4 52.1 8.8
SE ........................ 67.6 76.5 71.8 64.7 61.8 98.0 76.5 91.7 119.7 82.9 48.8 68.7
SSE ....................... 54.4 97. 75.9 48.0 34.2 70.4 29.8 43.2 89.6 46.8 40.1 49.4
8 ....................... 87.3 78.5 58. 28.0 21.1 43.1 28.8 41.4 4 8.9 88.7 22.8 88.4
88W ...................... 20. 18.5 1.1 9.9 5.9 18.9 11.5 18.2 18.9 21. 8.8 9.7
SW ..................... 12. 11.5 8.0 8.3 4.8 6.5 7.9 8.8 9.5 11.5 4.7 10.9
W8W ................... 8.5 7.8 5.4 3.1 4.4 2.8 3.9 6.4 8.9 5.5 8.1 7.6
W ........................ .8 6.6 7.4 8.8 5.1 5. 2.7 10.1 68 12.8 8.1 6.1
WNW .................... 147 28.4 7.1 18.5 9.5 3.1 4.6 12. 10.4 15.8 6. 19.1
NW .................... 23.2 82.1 19.0 22.5 15 90 7 2 19.8 21.8 19.4 29.4
NNW ................... 72.6 73.: 45.8 49.6 48.1 19. 19.4 26.4 2.8 45. 41.1 48.4


Atmospherical pressure.--The atmospherical pressure in Cuba is
considered to have two maximums and two minimums a year. One
maximum and one minimum, occasioned by its intensity are generally
observed in the months of january and october respectively. The other
two that, for the same reason, may be called secondary, happen in the
months of may and july.
There have also been observed daily changes in atmospherical pres-
sure a maximum and minimum, maximum at day and minimum at
night.
The yearly average of pression in the different stations is about
763 mm. (30 inches). It has been observed in all the stations that the
pressure is greater in winter than in summer.
The range in the monthly averages of atmospherical pressure, as
observed at the different stations during the two periods of the year in
which they are more frequent, differ from 1.27 mm. (.05 inches) to
3,302 mm. (13 inches). The months of relative low pressure are those
of the rainy season. It has been observed that the slight increasement
of pressure during the months of july and august is followed by some
disminution in the rainfall.
The aforesaid statements are proved by the two following tables
containing: the first one, the average monthly and yearly pressure, rec-
tified in connection with the temperature and reduced to the sealevel,
at the latitude of 45, reckoned according to the data of the seven
stations therein expressed; and the second one shows the average pres-
sure in the same stations during the two periods of six months comprised
between november and april, and from may to october.









GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA 49


Monthly atmospheric Pressure in Milimeters and Inches

(Inches In Italics)


Guan Sta. Orun
(Pinar Pinar Boque del Sur
del del (Matan- Oama- (Cama
MONTH Havana Bio) Rio zas) giley iley) Santiago


Half yearly.............. 7 781 76 78 761 702
29.98 9.97 0.0 80.0S 9.97 9.98


January ....................... 705 74 766 785 7 76 768
30.10 80.06 W0.11 So.1 30.05 S0.08 30.00
Februray ...................... 782 78 78 764 768 780
80.00 80.00 0.08 80.071 9.986 0.04 29.98
March .......................... 76 764 7 72 794 788
S0.06 30.08 s0.07 30.04 30.01 80.06 80.08
Aprin ........................... 7 781 78 784 781 762
29.99 29.9S8 80.63 0.07 89.97 29.98
May ............................ 59 M 781 759 760 780
29.88 29.87 29.98 29.97 29.89 9.s98 29.9
June ......................... 7 759 760 781 780 70 70
29.89 29.88 9.91 29.97 29.98 9.90 29.9S
July ........................... 7 7 7l3 762 768 782 788
80.08 30.09 S0.0 S0.00 80.08 S0.00 29.98
August ......................... 788 78 768 7 708 73 782
30.04 80.0 830.05 80.04 80.08 30.01 30.00
September ................... 755 757 757 757 759 78 780
29.71 29.81 9.81 92.82 9.88 9 98 .8 29.90
October ........................ 7 M 785 7T4 708 781 760
29.98 29.98 29.78 80.08 29.98 29.96 29.9
November ...................... 7M 7 78 764 781 781 781
80.00 30.01 0.08 80.08 S9.96 89.94 29.94
December ................... 78 74 7) 7W5 768 768 7
30.09 80.07 80.09 30.10 80.05 80.02 S0.00


Half yearly atmospheric pressure in milimeters and inches

(Inches in Italics)



November May to Dir-
STATION to April October ferenoe

Havana .............................................................. 70 8
80.04 29.98 0.12
Guane (Pinar del Blo) ............................................ 78 70D 2
80.08 9.98 0.09
Pinar del BRo ........................................................ 70
80.06 9.91 0.18
Booqu (Matasas) ................................................... 78 00
30.08 09.98 0.10
Omag y ............................................. ... .. .... 780 781 10
76.00 79.S1 0.02
Santa Oruz del ur (amauley)................... ..........7..... 83 1 2
Santlago ..............................................................



Bsunshine.-As a general thing the weather in Cuba is fair, and
most days the sun shines brightly.
The following table shows the number of fair days, registered in
each month of the year 1919, at the fifteen stations expressed therein,
which were those that afforded most complete data. In seems that the si-
tuation of the observatory, whether it be on the north coast, on the








50 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


south or in the interior of the island, has no influence in appreciating
the normal intensity of solar light, nor the number of sunny days.

Number of Clear Days


STATION ear Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dee.

Pinar del Rio ...... 97 10 5 14 10 10 4 8 9 4 6 14 8
Herradura .......... 244 1 19 26 26 19 10 21 28 16 22 B2 22
Casa Blanca ........ 87 7 10 9 7 1 2 3 12 7 15 9 5
Los Mameyes, Arro-
yo Naranjo ....... 55 5 4 2 0 0 0 2 7 2 10 15 8
Santiago de las Ve-
gas ................ 56 7 5 8 9 1 0 4 2 0 2 10 8
Santa Barbara, Isla
de Pinos ......... 101 14 18 20 2 7 0 0 0 0 0 10 12
Madruga ............ 19418 20 24 17 7 10 11 20 11 14 22 20
Quintana ........... 178 16 19 19 15 7 6 11 18 8 17 28 22
"Santa Gertrudls",
Banaglties ........ 135 11 13 18 2 7 11 4 5 11 16 15 17
Clenfuegos .......... 144 14 15 18 15 10 5 10 12 5 4 18 20
La Sierra, Olentae-
go .................40 02.. 8 0 0 1 12 0 0 8 6
Bormiguero ....... 35 28 26 81 29 2 25 29 27 24 28 29 30
Ceballos .......... 162 17 19 20 17 4 7 10 16 10 12 18 12
La Gloria ........... 183 14 18 26 17 9 10 12 22 14 10 19 12
Santa Lucla, Huevi-
tas ................ 202 15 28 28 20 12 6 1 22 14 16 20 13


Atmospherical phenomenae.-Thunder storms, water spouts, hail
and cyclones.-Thunder storms, and tempests with lightning and heavy
rain are very frequent during the months from june to october, but
though of great intensity, they never last long. During this period of
the year the rainfall is so abundant that it sometimes produces innun-
dations, especially in the western part of the Island. Occasionally also
at this time there are water-spouts, followed by hail which destroys the
tobacco plantations, other small plants and even the huts of the farmers.
These disasters happen more frequently in the province of Santa Clara,
causing sometimes a great deal of damage.
Hurricanes in the Antilles generally take a westward course from
the point of origin, inclining more or less northward, according to the
distribution of the atmospheric pressure on the North American Con-
tinent and over the North Atlantic Ocean. The starting point of these
storms, which may be somewhat to the west of the Lesser Antilles, or
to the north or south, depends also on that same distribution of the
atmospheric pressure.
Sometimes atmospherical perturbation happen at the beginning of
the hurricane season. In jie, these disturbances bring on heavy rains
all over the Island, which are the cause of great floods, specially in the
western part.
On account of the narrowness of the Island and its position, run-
ning from the fourth to the second quadrant, most of the cyclones pass
either north or south of it and their consequences are not strongly felt.






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Those which cause most harm generally take place during the months of
september and october, specially those of the latter, which swerve before
crossing Yucatan Channel or strike the Island directly in their course.
The cyclones of october are always felt in the western portion with more
or less intensity. They come from the Caribbean Sea, turning or swerving
near Yucatan Channel, passing by Florida in the second part of their
course and they are very disastrous for the western part of Cuba. Some-
times the whole Island is crossed by storms which are commonly on the
second part of. their course.

Earthquakes.-Earthquakes of slight importance are sometimes felt
in Cuba, but they are shakings of little intensity and short duration.
Almost all these phenomenae have been observed in the oriental region,
and specially in the city of Santiago de Cuba and its surroundings.
The following statements are extracted from a lecture pronounced
by the Jesuit priest M. Gutierrez Lanza, subdirector of the Observatory
of Bel6n College, before the Academy of Sciences of Havana. He de-
clared that the city of Santiago de Cuba and the slopes of the Sierra
Maestra are seriously exposed to the danger of earthquakes, yet never,
until now, has a disaster such as those that have destroyed other localties
of the Antilles happened there; the rest of the province of Oriente is
less exposed to the danger of earthquakes. The province of Pinar del
Rio is also somewhat exposed to them; a great shock was felt there in
january of 1880 causing considerable damages, and being considered
the strongest earthquake ever felt in that region of the Island. In the
central part, occupied by the provinces of Camagiiey, Santa Clara and
Matanzas, these phenomenae have never been felt, and in that of-Hava-
na, though they have been experimented sometimes, it may be assured
that they are never disastrous. During. the period of time, since these
phenomenae began to be registered, only seven have been noticed in this
city, four of them being quite strong; they occurred in 1678, 1693, 1777,
1810, 1835, 1852 and 1880. The latter caused great alarm; the pendu-
lum of the Observatory stopped and many walls in the suburbs were des-
troyed. The author we quote says that rumor has it that the earthquakes
of 1693 and 1810, referred to by some old foreign calenders, made for
Havana, were disastrous; but he believes that such an assertion cannot
be accepted, considering it as the result of the first, exaggerated informa-
tions; because the earliest local writers when referring to seismic distur-
bances, make no mention of such calamities, and because had the dam-
ages caused in the port been se considerable as reported, it was more
than probable that the city also would have been destroyed.






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


CHAPTER II

NATURAL RESOURCES

PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL KINGDOM

Of the animal kingdom, cattle fish and poultry, are principally used
in Cuba as food. Game is not exploited at all and it is reduced to a mere
sport. Though by its climate, the fertility of its soil, the excellence of
its pasture grounds, Cuba is in as good conditions as any other country
in the world for all kind of animal breeding, it has always been prefer-
ably and almost exclusively dedicated to cattle and swine. Horse breed-
ing had a great deal of importance in the province of Camagiiey, before
the war of 1868; after the peace of 1878 that industry never recovered
its bygone splendour.

Cattle.-The native cattle of Cuba called "criollo" sprang from
spanish stock brought from Spain in the sixteenth century to Santo
Domingo and from there to Cuba, where the influence of the climate
somewhat changed the original type producing a special kind; small,
well shaped and handsome animals; the meat is juicy and nutritious.
Although little or no attention was given them, for which reason it
cannot be really considered as an industry, they so perfectly adapted
themselves to the climate that they thrived and multiplied, healthy and
strong with astonishing quickness, to such and extent that in 1895, at
the beginning of the war of independence, approximately 3.000,000
heads, were registered in the official lists. At the end of the struggle
in 1898, the ravages of war had wiped out nearly 90%. This shortage
'of beef had to be remedied, and the American Government of interven-
tion encouraged the importation of cattle from all points of the States,
with the result that under the pressure of urgent necessity, it was so
done that they were composed of a very mixed and ill selected lot, accept-
able to supply momentary provisions, but not good for breeding pur-
poses. Since the establishment of the Republic, steps were taken to
improve this industry and many pure, choice, breeders were imported
from the States. This work has gone on since that date, and, with the
aid and encouragement of the Department of Agriculture, good results
have been obtained. However the cattle existing in the island is scarcely
sufficient for the needs of the country and only steers or young bulls
expressly bred up for that purpose are killed. In order to favor their
reproduction it is forbidden to kill cows or it is only -permitted in
certain cases. Bulls are almost only used for breding and they are not
very numerous. Oxen are almost exclusively employed in farm labors
and for hauling, thus supplying the lack of mechanical motors that are






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


not much used as yet. There are many of them and though small in size,
they are strong and hardy.
Notwithstanding the orders published to preserve and increase
female cattle, the great quantities of cattle raised and the large number
of milch cows of good breed that have been imported from the United
States, the milk industry does not produce a sufficient amount to sup-
ply domestic needs, and in most of the cities condensed milk is used,
imported largely from the United States. On this account this industry
has not been able to prosper in the country, in spite of several laws pu-
blished in order to promote it. Cheese making, although it exists, has
only relative importance as its production is insufficient to satisfy the
local demand; while the butter industry is rudimentary and unimpor-
tant. Tanning, was a very important industry in connection with home
commerce before the war of 1868, but at present it has slight value,
because there being greater means of transportation, tariffs have been
changed and the prices of foreign products lowered; therefore, skins,
instead of being tanned here, are exported raw and the same thing
happens with horns, hoofs and bones, which are scarcely employed in
the industries of the country.

Horses.-Horse breeding is not well organized nor attended to in
Cuba. The native horses, although smaller than the american, are hardy,
gentle and easily supported, for unless taught to eat corn, they prefer the
rich grasses to which they are accustomed. The native stock, when
crossed with good Kentucky, Missouri or Montana stallions, produces
excellent service animals. Horses are specially used for the saddle and
sometimes for hauling in the country. Though as already stated, their
breeding is not attended to with due caie, they multiply themselves in
sufficient number for the necessities of the country. There are 829,019
horses registered in the Department of Agriculture, distributed by
provinces as follows:

Pinar del Rio .................................................. 63,021
Havana ............................................................ 94,214
Matanzas ................................................... 108,900
Camagiiey ......................................................... 129,023
Santa Clara ........................... ..... .. ............... 212,985
Oriented ...................... .... ............. 218,876

Mules.-Mules are much in demand in Cuba, where they are gene-
rally used for hauling in the towns. Not many are bred in the island,
the majority being imported from the States. Scattered throughout
the country there are approximately 65,000 mules and about 4,000 jacks
and jimmies or asses. A good pair of american mules can bring up in
Cuba $500.00 or over.






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Swine.-In Cuba hogs breed twice a year, and owing to the climate
they need much less care than elsewhere, the United States for example.
Generally they are permitted to run wild and they find their own living
easily with the "palmiche" or nut of the royal palm, that makes an
excellent food for them. Though they are extremely prolific the demand
in market is so large that their number never equals it. Hog raising
cannot be considered an industry of the country as the stock is sold for
immediate use of its fresh meat and fat, the latter in a short scale. If
it were duly attended to, this industry would soon become one of the
most important of the Republic.

Sheeps and goats.-There are but few of these animals in Cuba It
is not possible to make any use of the wool of the sheep, because they
loose it on account of the climate, so they are only profitable for their
flesh, though it is not much favored and the same may be said of the
goat. However this kind of breeding, well directed might become an
industry, yielding excellent success especially by profitting the skins.

Poultry.-We have already said that game neither that of fowls
nor- chase animals is exploited in Cuba. As to fowls only poultry rais-
ing offers any means of gaining. Poultry is raised with the greatest
ease and profit, but poultry raising on an industrial scale does not exist,
and the supply is scarcely sufficient for domestic needs as they are
much used. The eggs obtained are not sufficient either, and during the
last years the importation of this article has been constantly increasing.

Fish.-The seas which surround Cuba, constitute an immense, na-
tural, marine fish hatchery, on account of the temperature of the water
and the numerous keys and shoals. However fish is not properly exploited,
with the result that certain species are certainly extinct. The pargo,
cherna and guajaiba (the last named species being the most commonly
used) abound. The exploitation of mollusks and crustaceans is done
only on a small scale: the turtle especially the tortoise variety, the shell
of which has high commercial value, having become nearly extinguished.
Sponge fishing is fairly productive. Of river fish, the only one worth
mentioning is the lisa, the flesh and eggs of which are much used. The
total value of sea products gathered during the year ending june 30,
1919, was $2.729,828.98.

PRODUCTS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM

The products of the vegetable kingdom are so numerous that they
excessively repay the efforts made in cultivating them and this has
been a drawback for the advancement of agriculture in this country,







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA 0D

as well as for the improvement of the species. In fact agriculture with
few exceptions, had been reduced to planting and harvesting, but during
the last few years increasing attention has been payed thereto, exper-
iments have been made and some scientific and modern methods have
been put into practice.
The soil in Cuba has been divided into three classes according to
its color: red, brown and black. The first, as its name suggests, is
of a bright, red color, owing to the great quantity of oxide of iron that
enters into its composition. This kind of soil is very thick and rests
upon a strata of porous rocks that permits perfect drainage; they are
easily fertilized and dry quickly after raining; for these reasons they
are considered the best for cultivation and specially for sugar cane. It
may be seej throughout the island, but it abounds most in the provinces
of Havana and Matanzas. That of the second class, that is brown soil,
is a variety of the first one; its color differs from reddish brown to
light red, or yellowish-red. These also are thick and rest upon porous
rock; they sometimes get extraordinarily dry and that makes them hard
and difficult to be worked on, although they are very fertile when in a
virgin condition in which case they are convenient for the sugar cane.
This soil abounds most in the provinces of Havana, Matanzas, Santa
Clara and Oriente. The black soil owes its color to the great quantities
of organic matter it contains. It is not very thick and is easily impo-
verished, because the heavy rains sweep it away and makes it lose in
thickness. Its undersoil is impermeable clay, for which reason, although
fertile, it is very difficult to work on specially during the.rainy season.
Though all the Island is fitted for the growth and cultivation of
plants that are proper of this intertropical regi6n, or that have been
adapted to this climate, there are some places where certain plants are
produced with evident superiority over those of other regions.
Thus, in the extreme eastern division, the cocoanuts produced in
the district of Baracoa are unrivalled in Cuba for their quality and
abundance, nor can they be easily surpassed outside of Cuba. In the
extensive central division, sugar cane is cultivated under the most favor-
able conditions, and the tobacco of the western division, known as "Vuel-
ta Abajo" is universally recognized as the best of the world.

Sugar cane.-The most important of all the sources of wealth in
Cuba, is the sugar cane. It already covers a large part of its territory
and its cultivation is rapidly increasing every day; in fact, Cuba, with
only 1/700 of the population of the world, is producing 1/4 of the world's
suggar supply, thereby giving Cuba a most important commercial po-
sition.
In Cuba several species of sugar cane are cultivated, some of which
are those known by the names of "cinta" (ribbon) "blanca" (white)







56 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA

"ceniza" (ash) "doradilla" (golden), but the most extended and the
one that renders more profit is the "cristalina" (chrystaline).
The methods of cultivation employed for sugar cane are not the
same throughout the Island, as they depend upon the economical con-
ditions and specially upon the abundance or scarcity of workers, for
higher wages have to be paid when they are lacking and this increases
the cost of production. However, although the present methods of
cultivation might be improved, it is certain that with them Cuba pro-
duces a greater quantity of cane sugar than any other country and with
less expenses.
A soil containing from 30 to 35% of clay is necessary for the sugar
cane, thereby obviating the need of irrigation, an extraordinarily dif-
ficult affair in this country. In spite of the abundance of clay, these
lands are porous and not difficult to work on, as they contain a large
quantity of carbonate of lime and furthermore much organic matter
which is retained in the ground by permitting the leaves and the cane
stalks to rot in the fields, instead of burning them as is the custom in
other countries. This practice of letting the leaves in the field is a great
benefit not only because they preserve the necessary moisture in the
ground, but because the discomposition of organic matter gives birth to
certain parasites which attack and exterminate the insect known as the
"borer," which perforates the cane and thanks to that system it has
entirely disappeared.
The preparatory works for planting the cane is done with plows
drawn by oxen or by gasoline tractors. The cane is planted by shoots, in
rows, about two yards apart and the shoots are placed along the rows
at intervals of about one yard, each shoot having two or three sprouts.
These distances change according to the class and fertility of the soil
The care of the fields is usually limited to cleaning away the grass
and weeds that spring up between the rows, but when the cane is suf-
ficiently high for the leaves of the plants to touch each other, no further
attention is needed, for then the ground is shaded and weeds will not
grow in the dark.
As has been said already, irrigation is not necessary in cultivating
sugar cane nor can it be practised in Cuba, because its application would
be too expensive. It is only used as an exception and circumscribed
exclusively to such portions of the field as absolutely require it.
Excepting the western part of the Island where the lands have been
largely cultivated, no fertilizers are used in all the territory, for the dead
parts of the plants itself are enough to make the earth fertile and besides
that in some places the refuse from the sugar mills are employed, such
as cake from the filter presses, ashes and waste molasses.

Tobacco.-This solanaceous plant, whose rich leaf as produced on
















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VIEW OF THE CITY OF HAVANA


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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Cuban soil is reputed to be the best in the world, is indigenous to the
island and occupies the second place among its valuable productions.
Although it is not cultivated as extensively as sugar cane, it is used in
two important industries, one of which is engaged in preparing and
packing the weed for export, and the other in manufacturing the mi-
lions of cigars and cigarettes consumed in the country or exported.
The latter industry, representing considerable wealth and giving em-
ployment to a great number of skilled workmen, contributes largely to
the welfare of the laboring classes of the cities.
Tobacco requires for its cultivation a loose, rich, sandy soil, the
best for the purpose being found in some localities in the province of
Pinar del Rio, especially in the southern portions, where the land pro-
duces the fine tobacco known as "Vuelta Abajo" that due to its exquisite
quality has obtained the highest prices paid, particularly in England
and the United States.
A plant of fairly good quality is produced in the central and
eastern portions of the Island, specially in the province of Santa Clara,
east of the Arimao river in the famous Manicaragua vegas.
This crop, unlike sugar cane, needs a great deal of care and to be
heavily fertilized; owing to the value of the product many of the finer
grades of tobacco are grown under cheese cloth, expressly made for that
purpose. It is not at all unusual to spend $1,000.00 preparing one
hectarea (two and a half acres) before the seed is put into the ground;
this is done during the fall months, the crop being cut after ninety days
have elapsed and then comes the work of curing it, selecting it and
sending it to market.
The value of the tobacco crop is over $50.000,000 per year of which
approximately one-fourth is exported. During the fiscal year of 1918-19,
31.398,085 pounds of leaf and stripped tobacco valued at $26.470,722.000
and 136.886,679 cigars, 10.163,105 boxes of cigarettes and 892,677 pounds
of cut tobacco, with values of $13.467,937.00, $416,643.00 and $481,479.00
respectively, were exported.
The cultivation of tobacco has made remarkable progress and exce-
lent results are being obtained in connection with the endurance of the
plant, as well as its quantity and quality. Consequently this crop, which
formerly was uncertain and depended to a great extent on climatic
conditions, is today, for the most part, subject to the intelligent control
of man.

Coffee.-When the production of tobacco was of slight importance
and that of sugar barely exceeded home uses, coffee was the principal
Cuban product, and, together with cattle-breeding, constituted the basis
of its economic wealth.
In the year 1846, 2,828 coffee plantations in the Island of Cuba






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


produced 50.000,000 pounds of coffee, which was sold at high prices,
principally in Vienna, at that time the leading coffee market of the
world, but to-day, with the prosperity of the sugar industry, coffee has
been neglected and almost entirely abandoned. The coffee plantations
in Cuba have been reduced to less than two hundred small farms, con-
sequently it is necessary to import the greater part of the coffee which
is consumed in Cuba. These farms, although of slight importance,
continue to exist, and produce coffee, because in Cuba coffee is produced
with no more effort than that required to plant the trees, which last
for many years, and to gather the fruit which is always so abundant
that it well repays the expenses of recollection and leaves plenty of gain
to the owner of the crop, because being an article very scarce at market
it obtains quite high prices.
It requires three or four years before coffee plantations come into
profitable bearing, and the money value of the coffee crop per acre will
range from $100.00 to $250.00.

Cocoanuts.-Throughout the Island of Cuba, the cocoanut is pro-
duced with almost no effort; but the district of Baracoa may be consi-
dered a natural zone of monopoly for this plant. The facts in connection
with the cocoanut industry seem almost improbable; in Baracoa, under
normal conditions, it is sufficient to plant the tree and leave it to develop
by itself; in four or five years it yields fruit so abundantly that in
quantity and value the output is fifty percent greater than that of any
other region of Cuba.
The nuts which fall from the tree (those which "drip" in local
terms) are gathered and sold. The average production per tree is se-
venty cocoanuts per year. Fifteen years ago, with practical no effort,
from twenty-five to thirty millions of cocoanuts were gathered annually.
The riches produced by cultivating cocoanuts are not derived merely
from selling them as fruit; they are used for feeding animals and they
are likewise employed largely for preserves and sweetmeats.
During the fiscal year of 1917-8, the number of cocoanuts exported
reached the sum of 892,000, with a value of $40,121.00 but in 1918-19
only 615,000 were exported, with a value of $28,913.00.

Cacao.-Cacao may be considered as a fellow of industry of coffee,
since both require the same soil and climatic conditions. Coffee shrubs
must have shade during the first months; and the cacao tree, planted at
intervals of fifteen feet in a grove of coffee, produce the required shade
and furnishes another crop perhaps equally profitable, on the same
ground, making the one thus contribute to the success of the other, and
yielding a double revenue to the owner of the plantation.
Cacao trees are planted at the rate of 190 to the acre, from each of







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA 59

which may be obtained from ten to twelve pounds of the beans per year.
A conservative estimate of the yield from these trees would be fifteen
hundred pounds of cacao per acre, which, at $10.00 per cwt. would
yield a gross revenue of $150.00. And since the demand for this pro-
duet is constantly increasing throughout the world, there is reason to
consider the cultivation of this crop, specially in connection with coffee,
as one which promises the most satisfactory success.
Owing to the fact that sugar and tobacco have absorbed such large
amounts of 'capital in Cuba, comparatively little attention has been
given of late to either coffee or cacao, specially the latter, after having
been such an important source of wealth.

Textile plants.-Many important textile plants seem to be indige-
nous to Cuba, while others, introduced from foreign countries, thrive
even better here than in their original homes. Among these, that variety
of the agave or century plant known as henequen, has received up to the
present the greatest attention, and is yielding excellent results.
Henequen is usually planted in rows in shallow soils on rocky and
otherwise useless lands. Several years elapse before the plant becomes
commercially productive; when this happens the longer leaves are then
cut close to the base, carried to the mills and stripped of water and pithy
tissue, after which the fiber is worked into rope and other cordage.
The henequen industry made MWrida, Yucatan, the richest city in
south M6xico. Its cultivation in Cuba is attracting considerable attention
and many hillsides and districts with shallow soil in the neighborhood of
Matanzas can be seen covered with fields of prosperous plants.
The eastern end of Cayo Romano and the promontory lying to the
west of Nuevitas Bay, are also devoted to planting henequen. The only
thing which has probably prevented capital from undertaking this in-
dustry is the fact that some four or five years must elapse before a crop
is ready for the market. After this period the plantation yields profita-
ble returns for many years.
Recently it has been discovered that bagasse or the pithy waste
product of the plant, may be transformed into an excellent kind of
paper.
The shrub or weed from which jute fiber is extracted grows wild in
Cuba, and will undoutedly in the near future become a profitable indus-
try owing to the large quantity of bagging material required for sugar
sacks. The strong white fiber of the corojo palm and that of the Yarey,
are used also for making bridles, girths, bands, etc.
In by-gone times the poor people of the country, especially women,
earned their living by the exploitation of those plants and it got to be
considered a sort of elemental industry with great hopes for the future
that have not been entirely dissipated.







60 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

A variety of the banana plant found in the province of Pinar del
Rio furnishes a long, fine, light brown fiber which the botanists at the
Agricultural Station declare to be an excellent textile product that will
eventually be used for twine and other light cordage.
Ramie grows wild in many parts of Cuba and is obtaining consi-
derable attention, owing to the fact that a machine has been devised which
successfully removes the long, fine fiber from its surrounding tissues.
This fiber, owing to its strength, which exceeds that of hemp, its gloss
and snowy whiteness, is used very largely as a substitute "for silk, and
in the near future will undoubtedly command sufficient capital for its
manufacture in Cuba.
There are many other fibers in the Island, such as that of the afore-
said Yarey palm, the sanseveria, guisaso, etc., which in time will find
their places as commercial products.

Fruits.-Tropical fruits abound in Cuba and also some of the
temperate zone, on account of its rich soil, its dampness, even tempera-
ture and its heavy rains. The principal ones are:

Citrus fruits.-They are so numerous in Cuba, that sometimes there
are real forests of these trees. The wild sour and bitter oranges, com-
mon throughout the West Indies, are specially plentiful in Cuba. The
lemon is also found in great abundance, scattered over the rocky hillsides,
though often the fruit goes to waste for lack of transportation.
Almost everywhere in Cuba, sweet oranges are cultivated for home
consumption. In the districts of Bahia Honda, Isle of Pines, Herra-
dura, La Gloria, Omaja, etc., there are many beautiful groves which
have proved very profitable.
For general commercial purposes the "Washington Naval" or
"Riverside" oranges have probably no superior in Cuba. Both the
"Jafa" and "Pineapple" oranges are quite popular also. The "Late
Valencia", for commercial purposes and shipment abroad, is recognized
as one of the most reliable varieties grown in the Island.

Grape fruit.-Up to the year 1902, the grape fruit or "Toronja",
as it is known in Cuba, was little valued, but with the coming of the
americans it has been cultivated extensively for northern markets. Cul-
tivation in the Isle of Pines has been very successful. The Crop is
large and never fails. Unfortunately grape fruit shipped from Cuba
to the United States, does not always find a profitable market, and at
times the crop has been a complete loss.
There are over 8,000 heetareas or 20,000 acres to-day in this Repu-
blic on which citrus is grown, with an approximate value of about
fifteen million dollars.








GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA 61

Pineapples.-These have been grown and exported in Cuba since
the period of the Spanish occupation, but the cultivation of pineapples
on a large scale began during the first Goverment of Intervention, in-
creasing so much that in exportation, this industry ranks next to citrus
fruit. Over a million crates are shipped yearly to the United States.
The kind known as "Red Spanish", owing to its excellent shipping
qualities, is preferred to all others for export; although the "Pifia
Blanca" or "Sugarloaf", which will not stand shipment abroad, is the
favorite of the local market. The "Smooth Cayenne", a beautiful
fruit, is also in great demand, though not so much as the "Blanca."
Owing to the hundreds of thousands that go to waste for lack of trans-
portation, pineapple offers a splendid opportunity for the canning
industry.

Mango.-The mango is undoubtedly the most popular fruit in Cuba.
Next to the Royal Palm, it is the tree most frequently seen in the coun-
try. Its production is so plentiful that it always exceeds the necessities
of local uses and this is extraordinary. As a general thing they
are not exported and only in exceptional cases and only certain kinds
of them. There are different types of this fruit. The principal ones
are the "mango" and the "manga" both of beautiful appearance, cover-
ed with a skin that is thin, tough and smooth, and with a delicious
flavour, sweet, but with a slightly acid taste. Some varieties have a
peculiar fibre that somewhat impedes the removal of the juicy pulp.
The mango has a pointed beak and is of a flattened pear shape, its color
is yellow or yellowish-green with large red spots. The manga is more
rounded, its color is light yellow and some kinds have the same red
blush that the mangos, but of a paler hue. They begin to ripen in the
months of May and June although the manga comes into season about
a month later than the mango.
Lately several most beautiful varieties of East Indian mangoes
have been introduced into Cuba, the Mulgoba heading the list in size and
best quality. The pulp is delicate, rich and very sweet, and is free from
fibre so that it may be easily eaten with a spoon. Other imported types
are the "Bombay," the "Alfonso," the "Favorita," the "Langra,"
the "Ameere," the "Maller" and the "Sundershaw."
The fancy oriental mangoes, such as the Mulgoba, bring very re-
munerative prices in the local markets and in the United States where
it is shipped.

Anon.-This fruit-has a rounded cone shape with a green skin and
a creamy white pulp, delicious in flavor. It is not largely cultivated
as it does not endure shipment well on account of its delicacy and pe-








GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


culiar structure, and for this reason its consume is confined to local
markets.

Zapote.-This fruit is the size of a peach. It has a sweet, juicy
pulp, and not unlike the persimmon in taste. Only with extreme care
in packing can this be exported.

Tamarind.-This is plentiful in Cuba. The fruit when ripe has
a sweet, yet pleasantly acid pulp that is almost exelusivedly used mixed
with sugar and water to furnish a very refreshing drink.

Red mamey.-This fruit is oval in form; from six to eight inches
in length; covered with a tough, brown skin and filled with a deep, red
pulp, soft, delicate and exceedingly sweet with a large, blackish brown
seed. It is greatly appreciated in the country, where it quotes high
prices.

Bananas.-Bananas have been cultivated and consumed in Cuba
ever since the early period of its colonization, when they were first im-
ported. There are more than twenty varieties in the country. They are
consumed to an extraordinary degree, specially the class called "macho"
that when cooked constitutes a healthy and nutritious food, that is never
wanting in any cuban table, among the rich as well as among the poor
people, and to that effect it may be used in every condition, ripe or
green. The other kinds are eaten as fruit in their natural state. For
commercial purposes as well as for exportation bananas have been
cultivated for many years, in the eastern part of the Island, especially
in the Nipe Bay section. The banana grown in Cuba, almost exclusi-
vely for export to the United States, which has been until now its sole
market, is known here as the "Johnson."
Bananas may be cultivated in every season, though the north
winds prevailing at the beginning of winter are very harmful to their
development on account of the weak sustain given to the plant by its
roots, that are comparatively small and do not go deep into the ground.
Four hundred trees are capable of producing sixteen hundred
bunches.
Though their exportation has been greatly reduced during the last
year, for the reason that many lands formerly planted with bananas
have been given up to the sugar cane, still during the year 1918-19,
30.973,296 kilograms of bananas, worth $885,975.00 were exported.

Aguacate.-This fruit common to the Caribbean basin, is scattered
throughout Cuba. The most common variety in Cuba is oval in shape
with a shiny, green skin, very thin and easily removed. The pulp is a






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


deep, golden color resembling in consistency and shade, rich, cold butter.
Close to the skin it has a greenish tinge. It has such a pleasant nutty
flavor that it admits no comparison with any other fruit. It has a
large, hard seed that does not adhere to the pulp and may be easily
removed. Aguaeates make one of the most delicious salads in the world
and they have an enormous local demand, and even for export, notwith-
standing the difficulties found for this, on account of the quickness with
which it ripens.

Guava.-The guava or "guayaba" grows wild in Cuba. It is a
small, yellow fruit about the size of a lemon with red or white pulp. It
may be eaten in a natural state, but it is most used, and very extensively
in making jellies, preserves and sweet meats of different kinds. Animals
of all kinds, especially horses and pigs, are very fond of it.

Garden products.-In Cuba the same garden products and vegetables
as in Europe are easily and abundantly produced, but their cultivation
is perfunctory and little care is given to the conservation and impro-
vement of the species. It is said that the seeds deteriorate in this coun-
try, for which reason foreign seeds and plantings are generally used.
With the exception of kidney beans, there is no great demand for these
articles and the industry is not very productive whereas importation,
specially of dry legumes, meets the necessities of the market.

Forage plants.-The extensive plains called savannas in Cuba are
luxuriant in native grasses of different kinds on .which many heads of
stock graze without any effort, however numerous they may be. But
although almost all those grasses are perennial, their nutritious power
and other physical conditions are affected by the seasons, so when some
attention began to be paid to the industry of cattle-breeding, several
kinds of grasses were introduced into the island where they have grown,
yielding excellent results. The best ones and those that are most employ-
ed are the following:
Parana grass from South America, is adaptable to low lands where
a plentiful supply of water is found. It is a long, jointed, permanent
grass of great vitality and resistance that frequently reaches a height
of eight to ten feet.
Guinea grass is imported from Africa and constitutes splendid
pasture. It is the one preferred by cattle and is excellent for fattening
it. It is best suited to the higher lands and hillsides. It often reaches
a height of six to eigh feet. It abounds in Cuba and is perennial.
Alfalfa; the recognized value of alfalfa as a stock food has led to
many experiments here in Cuba, but they have not always been a success.
The Agricultural Experimental Station, however, has assured that this






GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


is an excellent kind of pasture, and on a ranch in Camagiiey, a former
Texas stockman has succeeded in getting seven cuttings a year. This
proves that with proper care and favorable conditions this important
member of the forage family could be successfully produced in Cuba.

Grains.-The grain producing countries are in the Temperate Zone,
but the Island of Cuba, situated in the extreme north of the Torrid
Zone, has the advantage, as a subtropical country, of being able to
produce grains, or at least several kinds of grains, in appreciable
quantities.

Corn.-Or maize is probably indigenous to Cuba, since it was in
use when Columbus first arrived. It can be raised in any of the pro-
vinces. The native corn has a short ear, and its point is closed, as if
to prevent the ravages of insects, which have been so destructive to the
American varieties imported from the United States. Although the
ear is much smaller than on the American variety, on good lands the
yield is about forty bushels to the acre, and two crops can be secured
per year. (Each bushel is little more than 25 kilograms). Corn planting
in Cuba has not had much attention, as it is not duly appreciated, and
no attempt is made to improve the selection of the seed, as a result of
which the average is one ear to a stalk. However some experiments have
been successfully made in crossing Cuban and American corn, and these
experiments show that much can be done to improve the native grain.

Millet.-Nearly all varieties of millet do well in Cuba and furnish
good stock and poultry feed. It is free from enemies and seems to
thrive in all seasons, wet or dry, and is considered reliable and profitable.

Wheat.-It is known that this was formerly grown with much
success in Santa Clara, but really no attention has ever been given to
its cultivation, in spite of the belief that a good quality of wheat might
be obtained.
Extensive experiments, however, are at present being carried on
at the Experimental Station with that object. The flour consumed in
Cuba comes from the United States.

Rice.-Rice is in great demand in Cuba, and a very staple food.
Very large quantities are imported, and it is probably due to the low
price of that article that greater attention has not been given to its
cultivation here. Upland, or dry rice, has been grown for many years
for local consumption, the Valencia seed being preferred. There are
many acres of land in Cuba along the coast that are admirably adapted
to the cultivation of rice, similar to that produced on the low plains







GENERAL DESCRIPTON OP CUBA 65

of Louisiana and Texas, and as at present the price has risen conside-
rably, there is no doubt but that the cultivation of this valuable food
product might be carried on commercially.

Tubers and nourishing roots.-The people of Cuba will always be
insured against hunger by the abundance of its tuberous plants, which
are easily produced throughout the Island. Those most commonly
cultivated and utilized are the white potato and sweet potato, "yuca"
and "flame".
"Papa", name given in Cuba to the "patata", which is the spanish
name for potato. Its cultivation dates for a long time in the Island,
but it Las been and still is but little extended, because it needs a special
kind of soil and requires more care and expense than other similar roots.
It is only grown near the towns; in the extensive, fertile valley of
Giiines, situated in the southern part of the province of Havana, it is
successfully cultivated in a large, commercial scale. Potato growers
prefer to buy imported seed for planting because it is believed that the
plant degenerates year by year, so much so, that it becomes entirely
improductive at the end of four or five years. Cuban farmers have made
experiments with all the different varieties of potatoes of the United
States, successfully as a general rule, especially with the Irish variety
called "Early Rose," for its rapid growth and large yield. Cuban pota-
toes placed in the eastern markets of the United States in the month of
march bring good prices, but it is not worth while to export them later
on because then their price is lower when they are largely produced in
the United States, and that is the reason why at that time this product
instead of being exported has to be imported in Cuba.

Sweet potatoes.-They are a standard summer crop in Cuba. The
yield in good lands is very heavy and the quality of the potato is exce-
llent. They are usually planted during the first rains of Spring with corn
and cow peas, and furnish a very important element in food supply.
Stock of all kinds are very fond of them, and the sugar they contain
help greatly in producing weight.
The "yuca" is an indigenous plant. At the time of the discovery,
corn and yuca were the principal articles of food for the indians. There
are four kinds known in the Island; two of them, the white, sweet class
and the sour one are believed to be indigenous and the other two, the
yellow one and the "costa fire" to be exotic. The former ones are the
most cultivated and consumed, the sweet one in its natural condition,
cooked as food, and the sour one for several industrial and feeding uses,
but first it is necessary to clear it of the poisonous part of its juice, which
is easily done merely by squeezing this out and letting it dry. One of
its uses is to make starch. Almost all the starch employed in the Island
8







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


is made from this root and it is excellent. There was a time, when there
being an excess of production, it was possible to export it profitably,
but at present this industry is far from being prosperous. The indians
used to make a kind of bread, called casabe, with the residues of this
root, after being ground, and it is still made, but it is only used in
certain districts, and is daily losing demand in the market.
Same, an exotic plant, is thought to have come from Africa. It
produces very large roots, whose pulp is think, rather rough when raw,
but after cooking, soft and insipid. It is considered more nutritious
than sweet potato. Little importance is given to its cultivation, so its
production is scarce and it is exclusively for local markets, because it
cannot be preserved for a long time.

Oleaginous plants.-Aside from the cocoanut and the cacao, which
in addition to their other multiplied uses may be also classified as oleagi-
nous plants on account of the great quantity of oil they produce, there
are other plants that are rich in fatty materials and can be cultivated
with financial profit by extracting their oil. Prominent among these
are the castor bean and the peanut.
The peanut is extensively cultivated. The little spanish kind, due
to its heavy production of oil, is popular and very prolific in all parts
of the Island where the soil is sandy. The yield, which depends on the
soil and water conditions, varies from 40 to 100 bushels an acre, and
each bushel will produce a gallon of oil. About 20 lbs. of residue oil
cake may be obtained therefrom, furnishnig excellent food for hogs.
On the heavier clay lands, the Virginia peanut does well. But it
is not as prolific a producer of oil as the little Spanish.
The castor bean grows wild and luxuriantly in Cuba but no atten-
tion is given to its cultivation, doubtless because other crops are much
more profitable. As everybody knows the oil it produces is mostly
applied to medical uses.

Medicinal plants.-There are many medicinal plants in Cuba, all
of them growing wild, as no attention has been given them, neither have
their healing virtues been studied in a special, scientific way, so they
are used indiscriminately. Those that are worth mentioning are the
aguedita, known as febrifuge, the guaguasi and the cafia fistula, catar-
tics; the wild lily, the tararaco and ipeca, emetics; the male fern, the
sour pomegranate and the apazote, vermifuges; the chamico, narcotic
and antiasthmatic; the yagruma, a tonic for the heart; machineel,
drastic and antispasmodic; couch-grass, a diuretic; the wild calabash-
tree, expectorant, common ceterach, good for liver diseases and manajf,
vulnerary.







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUBA 67

Gummiferous plants.-The only gummiferous plant indigenous to
Cuba is the female liana, which contains a liquid producing caoutchouc;
but it is possible to cultivate the Castilloa Elastica and the Manihot Gla-
ziovii with profit.
There are many other trees that produce gum, but no advantage is
taken of it, because their exploitation in this way, would injure their
wood, which is much more valuable; for example, the cedar tree. The
"marafi6n" produces a fine gum, much like the arabian, but more
resinous.

Forests and forest products.-Cuba has been extraordinarily rich
in forests. At the time of its discovery and conquest, and for a long
time afterwards it was all an immense forest on account of the slow
progress of its population and owing also to the fact that as the Crown
reserved for itself the rights of property of the woods, those riches
were will preserved for many years.
Nothing has been done later on to keep them, on the contrary, they
have been exploited without order nor method, and only thanks to their
exuberance, has it been possible that remnants thereof have subsisted
to the present day constituting a source of considerable wealth.
During the period when the Government had the monopoly over the
forests, the profitable timber was employed in naval constructions and
for sumptuous buildings in Spain. It is said that the forests of Cuba
furnished more than one fleet, and that the woods used in the famous
Escorial and other palaces had the same origin; but in order to make
the selection of the timber, the forests were broken down, and the logs
not needed were destroyed or abandoned, without making any use of
them. In 1805, when the King renounced the monopoly and the forests
passed to be of private dominion, the exploitation went on in the same
way and later on when the fever of sugar plantations invaded the Is-
land, overmastering every other exploitation, agricultural or industrial,
so as to yield up to the sugar cane the ground once occupied by the
forests, the trees were cut down close to the earth and the most beautiful
specimens humped up on the ground were destroyed by fire. This irra-
tional proceeding is still observed in the Island. Nothing has been done
to preserve nor improve them nor to make them more productive, increa-
sing that source of riches. Consequently, nothing has been done either
to replant the trees nor to make new forests and if this remedy is not ap-
plied, before long the forestal treasure of Cuba will have completely dis-
appeared. However, what still remains is valuable indeed. There are still
thousands of heetareas of woods, where timber may be found for all kind
of constructions and uses, for cabinet work, for dyeing, for tanning, etc.
For the first of these uses, the principal ones are cedar, ocuje, baria, ji-
aro,sabiei (bastard mahogany) and jiqui (indigo tree) Acana and dagame.







GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


The ceiba, one of the most beautiful trees in Cuba and whose usefulness
can vie with that of the royal palm, is becoming extinguished and is
seldom employed.
Mahogany, cedar, ebony, granadillo (west India red ebony) and
the majagua (tree of the Linden family) are excellent for cabinet work
and many other uses. Campeche wood, fustete (fustie, yellow wood),
vija, (it gives a red color) guao, wild agalla (gall nut) sauce blanco
(white willow) peralejo (malpighia) jobo (tree of the terabinth family)
and manaji are good for dyeing. The mangle (mangrove tree) patabAn
and sauce blanco (white willow) are used for tanning. The fruits of
almost all these trees are eaten by cattle. In the woods of Cuba there
are multitude of reeds and climbing plants that have tough elastic fibers
that form a kind of natural string or cord which is much employed in
the country.
In Pinar del Rio Province, not counting the large area occupied by
the Sierra de los Organos, with its extensive plains and mineral lands,
there are estates having valuable timber tracts comprising precious
woods for cabinet-work and hard woods for building, especially in the
towns of Guane, Consolaci6n del Norte and Consolaci6n del Sur; there
are besides a large number of thinly wooded farms in the other munlci-
palities.
In the same province of Pinar del Rio, there are numerous pine
groves where, in spite of the destruction caused by cyclones in that
region, and the incessant cutting of timber, new growths continually
cover the hillsides.
The characteristic tree of this province is the evergreen, or holm,
oak, whose acorns afford rich feed for pigs and its hard, longlasting
wood is specially suitable for ship-building.
There are also large forests in Santa Clara Province, and in those
of Camagiiey and Oriente there are many thousands of cabaUleri in
timber-lands, many of which, specially in the latter province, aeimd
by the Government. Among them the following varieties prevail' ayia,
arabo, baria, dagame, ebano real, espuela de caballero, granadillo, guara,
guamA, guairaje, guayacan, jiqui, jicaro, jocuma, maboakocuje, quie-
bra hacha, roble real, sabina, yaya comuin, and numberless. other trees.
Vegetation in the Isle of Pines, is very similar to that in Pinar
del Rio Province and the common names of the trees are the same.
The average quantity of timber per caballeria, taken from the high
virgin forests of Camagiiey Province, in places near t1- coast, is as
follows: 300 mahogany logs; 50 cedar logs; 50 yaba logs; 100 ocuje
logs; 100 baria logs; 200 jfcaro logs; 50 bastard mahogany (sabicii)
logs; 100 indigo-tree (jiqui) logs and 50 logs of other woods; giving
a total of 1,000 serviceable logs, measuring from 200 to 500 board feet.
The production from forests in the interior of the. same province,








GENERAL DESCRYPTION OF CUBh


is as follows: 400 cedar logs; 50 mahogany logs; 100 yaba logs; 100
baria logs; 100 ocuje logs; 50 bastard mahogany (sabief) logs; 50 in-
digo-tree (jiqui) logs and 150 logs of other woods, giving a total of 900
serviceable logs, all measuring from 200 to 500 board feet.
The average account of fire-wood produce on one eaballeria in that
province is approximately 1,000 cords of 128 cubic feet.
The average per caballeria produced from the mountains in the
province of Oriente ordinarily amounts to about 20,000 feet of cedar
or mahogany, according to which is more abundant; one caballeria may
produce as much as 50,000 feet of hard woods, such as jiqui almiqui
yaba, etc., although half that figure is a good quantity.
In that same province there are many mountains where, in spite
of an-abundance of cedar, only some five thousand feet can be got per
eaballeria owing to the smallness of the growth. In spite of the pre-
vious statement, there have been landholders in Santiago de Cuba who
have got forty logs from a caballeria of woodland with an average of
1,500 feet each, representing a production of 60,000 feet per caballeria.
The production of firewood per caballeria is from 2,000 to 2,500
tons according to whether hard or soft wood is more abundant.
The extraction and exportation of forest products during the ca-
lendar years from 1914 to 1919, inclusive, are hereinafter minutely
given and the value thereof:
1914

Wood ( ber o et) Extraction Exports
Woods (unlber of feed)
Oedar (eedrela odorata) ........................................... 10.459.050 10.49.058
Mahogany (ewletenia mahagont) .................................. 10.254.902 10.254.90
Sabice (lyslloma sablu) ................................................ 4,142 0.428
Taba (andira Inerms) ........................................... 251,702
Aeana (labourdonnalsla albesens) ................................ 4,000 4,000
Other woods ..................................... .. ........... .7, 2 1.552,600
Veaetable fibres numberr of qlatelb)
ana (hargasserd lasgetta) ....................................... 42,50
Mangrove bark ................................................ ..... .152
Royal palm bark ..................................................... ,11
Yarey (copernlel labreseens) ......................................... 18,.2m 8I.l=
Majagua (hbistm tlllace) ........................................... 18 1,8
Other albrs .... .................................................... 97,050 fn.
Various products (Units)
Oros-ts ..................... .................. ......... ..... sm.
Telweraph polu .......................................................... I .S1
Feee po ts ............................................................. 140.791
Bow fmr ... ............................................. 11................40
Becondary produts (units)
arria parts ....... ..................... ................... 2m
Plow p lrt -o .............. ...................................... sm

Bass of thareoal ....................................................... W.f
Other products .......................................................... 847

u ove leave ( ...................................... ........... ...
Patabin (bor a neemos) aeams (eats) .............................. 41









70 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


1915


Woods (Number of feet) Extraction Exports

Cedar (cedrela odorata) ............................................ 9.470,000 8.410,00
Mahogany (swietenla mahagoni) ...................................... 9.156,000 9.155,000
Sabicle (lysiloma sabicu) ................................................ 61,000 19,000
Yaba (andfra Inermis) ................................................... 2,000 1,000
Other woods ............................................................. 1.0,718 1.174,000
Vegetable fibres (Number of quaitals)

Guana (bargasseria lagetta) ........................... ........... 1,10
Mangrove bark .......................................................... ,71
Royal palm bark .. .............................................. 1,405
Yarey (coperniela glabreseens) ................................... 1,040 1.00
Other fibres ................................................ 81,411

Various products (Unite)
Oross-ties .. ....................................................... 233,179
Telegraph poles ......................................................... 14,09
Fence-posts ........................................................ 100,200
Beam s ................................................................... 8,887

Secondary products (Units)

Carriage parts .............. ................................... .... 2
Plow parts ........................................................ 216
Tobacco poles I ....... ............................ 41,900
Cords of fire-wood .................................... .......... ,8
Bags of charcoal ........................................................ 0,688
Other products ..................... ................ ..... ... 5,231

Mangrove leaves (Quintals) ....................................... 3
Pataban (horau racemosa) leaves (Quintals) ........................ 5

1916


Woods (Number of feet) Extraction Exports

Cedar (cedrela odorata) ........................................ 4.858,000 4.858,000
Mahogany swieteniaa mahagon) .... ........................ 8.819,00 .819,00
Babies (lysiloma sabicu) ............................... .... 28 ,184 68,000
Yaba (andira inermis) ... .......................................... 8,023
Acana (labourdonnalsia albeseens .................................. ,000 54,00
Other woods ........................................................ 1.5008
Vegetable fibres (Number of quintals)
Guana (hargasseria lagetta) ............................................ 1059
Mangrove bark .. .........................................,851
Royal palm bark ................................................... 1,405
Yarey (copernicla glabreseens) ...................................... 2,800 1,00
Other' fbres ............... ............................................ 241,M1 15.140
Various products (Units)
Coss-ties ............................................... .....7 .......
Telegraph poles ................................................... 11,01
Fence-posts ....................................................... 5
Beams ..............................................18
Secondary products (Units)
Carriage parts ......................................................
Plow parts .......... .................................................
Tobacco poles..................................................... 21050
Cords of fire-wood ....................................................... 1,
Bags of charcoal ......... .............. ................. 10,0
Other products ..... ................................................ 12,16S

Mangrove leaves (Quintals) ..........................
Pataban (horau racemosa) leaves (Quintals) ...................... 9W01









GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP CUAL 71


1917


Woods (umber o feet) traction ports

Cedar (eedra od ta) ............................................ .24,540 2.18,58
Mahogany (wetroena mahagonO) ....................................... 8.2,81 8.2,811
SableO o sableu) ................................................ 1. ,gw.
Yaba (unda lerma) .................................................. 85,41
Other woods ............................................ ... 2.178.884 o80,0
Vegetable fibres (Number of quwltalb)
Guana (hargasseria lagetta) ................................. .... 8,000 S,009
Mangrove bark ......................................................... 5,50
oyal palm bark .......................................... ...... 4,8
Yarey (coperneia glabreseens) ....................................... 8,090 1,1,2
Other fbres .......... ....................... ..... 8........
vyriou product (Units)

Oroesmtles ................................................................
Tele raph pol ............................................ ...... .... 0,7
Fence-posts ................................................ .. .... 1 5,
Beam s ........................ .................................... .... ,
Secadoary products (Units)

Carriage parts ................................................... .... 12,70
Plow parts ..... ................................... .... 18
Tobacco poles ................................................... ... 48,11
Cords of fire-wood ....................................................... 8,
Bass of charcoal .................................................... 8.. 8,6
Other prodncfa ................................................. .... 118,18

Mangrove leaves (Quintals) ...........................:........... ... 1,438
PatabAn (horan racemosa) leaves (Quintals) ..................... ... L8


1918


ood (Number of feetExtracton Exports
Woods (-Sumbtr of feet)

Cedar (cedrela odorata) .................... ........................... 2.82,00 1.044,000
Mahogany (swletenia mahagoni) ....................................... 3.20,439 844,00
Sabled (lyslloma sablen) ..................................... 2.58,50
Yaba (andira Inermis) ..... .................................. 78,00
Aeana (labourdonnalsia albescens ................................. 8,000 8,000
Other woods ............................................................. 10.91,000 10.9,000
Setetable fibres (Number of quttals)
Guana (hargasseria lagetta) .................................... ..... 190
Mangrove bark ............................................. ,414
Royal palm bark ...................................................
Yarey (copernlcla glabresees) ........................................ 4,680
Other fbres ........................................ ...................... 20,800
Various products (Unlts)

Cros-tes ....................... ........................................ 581,411
Telegraph poles ......................................... ...... .328
Pence-posta ......................... ....................... .... 140,502
Beam ........... ..................................... .... 6,48
Secondary products (aUits)

Carriage parts ................. .............................. .......
Plow parts ............................................................... 507
Tobacco ole .. ......................................................
Cords of re-wood ........................... ......................... 1,808
Bags of charcoal ......................................... 888,
Other products ......................................... 17,800 1,00

Mangrove leaves (Quintals) ............... ......................... 8,449
PatabIn (horau racemosa) leaves (Qulntals) ........................


il-




-.r~l!l: ,:wr4'Aw r~"~


72 GENE DESCBPTION OF CUBA


1919


Extrsction Exports
Woods (Number of feet)n Ex

Cedar (eedrela odorata) ................................................ 5. ,1 ,
Mahogany (swletenla mahagoni) ...................................... 4.104,491 .161,
Sabici (lysiloma sablcu) ............................................... 1.0,5
Yaba (andira Inermis) .............................................. ... 283,048
Acana (labourdonnaisia albescens ................................... 8,50
Other woods ............................................................ 1.811,518 41.481
Vegetable fibres (Number of quintals)
cuana (harga-seria lagetta) ............................................
Mangrove bark .........................................................[ 4,910
Royal palm bark .. ............................................ 1,00I m
Yarey (eoperniela glabrescens) ........................................ 40
Other fibres ........................................................... 808,47

Various products (Unita)
Cross-ties ......... .... ................ ............................... .809 50
Telegraph poles .......................................................... 16.848
Pence-posts .............................................................. 0.185
Beams .................................................................... 2,47
Stakes .................................................................... 1 5,000
Secondary products (Units)
Carriage parts .............. .......................................... S
Tobacco poles ........... ........................................ 186740
Cords ol fire-wood ....................................................... 2.
Bags of charcoal ...................................................... 427.w86
Other products ......... .... ..... ..................................... 8,S 78

PatabAn (horau racemosa) leaves (Quintals) ......................... 10






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G NBrAL DESRPTION OP CUBA 73


Va lu of forestall product estracted and exported from 1914 to 1919,

both inclusive.

1914

Extraction Exports

Woods .................................................................... 1.14 8 1.1
Vegetable fibres .......................................................... s,84 2,8
Various products ........................................................ 8,50
Secondary products ...................................................... 7,21

1915

Extraction Exports

W oods ................................. ................................ 1.16 ,54
Vegetable fibres ....................................................... 18,8 7,190
Various products ................................................ ... 20
Secondary products ............................... ......... 45,254

1916

Extraction Exports

Woods .. ...................................................... $ S,9ss A 5$ ,800
Vegetable fbres ........................................................., 194,21
Various products ........................................................ 177,119
Secondary products................................... ................. ,81

1917

Extraction Exports

Woods ................................................................ 78 $
Vegetable fbres .......................... ........................ 28,618 6,708
Various products ........................................................ 440.581
Secondary products ............................................... 1.002,s 1,500

1918

Extraction Exports

Woods ........................................ .................. 524,w7 S M8B,sM
Vegetable bres .........................................................0888 18,47
Various products .......... .................... ................ 8,8
Secondary products .................................................... 479, 100


1919




Woods .....................:;.... ................... ....................
Vegetable ibres ........................................................ 28.8i4
Various prod et ........................................................ 8,
Secondary products ...................................................... ,00


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74 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA

PRODUCTS OF THE MINERAL KINGDOM

Mining in Cuba-which had remained almost stationary until 1913,
inasmuch that it had hardly given any signs of life throughout the
Island, with the only exception of the province of Oriente where the
oldest and most important mines of copper and iron had been exploit-
ed-rapidly acquired extraordinary impetus and large development
after the discovery and denouncement of the rich copper beds, found
on the estate of Matahambre, in the barrio of Pimienta, municipality of
Pinar del Rio and also when certain traces were observed, revealing the
existence of petroleum specially, and other oily substances and natural
gases, in Caimito del Guayabal, Guanabacoa and Giiines.
Moreover, the encouragement given to mining by the two above
mentioned circumstances, greatly increased when several important
deposits of copper, iron and chromium were discovered in the province
of Matanzas and likewise many others of copper and manganese in that
of Santa Clara and all these motives which had determined the great
interest shown towards mining were completed by the high prices obtain-
ed by copper and manganese on account of the European war; so in
order to attain all the profits excepted therefrom, attempts were renewed
to exploit many of the old beds of manganese in the province of Oriente,
while new ones were denounced with the idea of putting them in such
conditions that they might be immediately exploited.
The facts just mentioned gave place to numerous registrations of
copper in the province of Pinar del Rio from 1914 to 1918 and almost
the entire area of the province of Havana was denounced by private
individuals and important companies, desirous of assuring the mineral
rights, in case the existence of petroleum were confirmed. Finally, and
confiding with the enthusiasm aroused about mining affairs in Pinar
del Rio and Havana, numerous denouncements were registered in the
provinces of Matanzas and Santa Clara; so that those four years, from
1915 to 1918 may be considered as the period in which mining reached
its greatest development in Cuba, from the administrative as well as
from the industrial point of view.
Th data given in the following table set forth the conditions of the
Island in connection with mining concessions, towards the end of 1919
classified by output and provinces and the numbers and tables appearing
further on, show off the activity displayed during the last twelve years
in reference to mineral extraction and exportation.








GNUBAL DSCBOITION OF CUBA 0


Province of Pinar del B(o


SNumber of
mines Hectareas

ner ..................... 0 401'941
Iron 1s 18,048
Gold 6 148
ver .................................................. .......... a.... 1 S 4
Coalvr .............................. ........................ ........ 16 18'M
G aonld .... ........ ..................................................... 8

al ........... ..................... ...........................
Asphaltem ............................................................. 65
LPetroaed m ............................................................ 2 B12,0
Petroleum .. .................. ............. 1 5,900
Garhet .................................... ......... ........ 1 25
Totals ........................................ .............. 91.sw W8


Province of Havana


xmInart Number of
mines Hectareas

Petroleum .......... ......................... .................... .... O as,'
Asphalt m ................................................ ........... 1, '
Copper ......................... ..................................... 1 l 0
oal ....................................... .... ..................... 8
Iron ...................................................................... 4
Gold .......................................... ........................ 4
Sulphur ... ....................................... 1 M
Phosphate of lime ...................................................... 1
TotalW ............................................................ 18 28,81'


Province of Matansas


MINERALt Number of
mines Hectareas

Petroleum ................................................................ 1
Asphaltum .............................................................. 88 1,8
Copper .................................................................. 14 1,200
Gold .. ................................ .............................. ... 5 a1
Gold 5 an
Anthracte coal ......................................................... 1
Totals ............................... .......... 7 ............. 1.0


Province of Santa Clara


MIexALT Number of
mines Heetareas

Copper ............................. ................ .............. 85 5 0'
Asphaltm ............................................................... ,70'
Iron ....................................... ........................ 4 2 4'811
Petroleum ............................................................ 11 8,281
ooal ......... .............................. ............. 1
SGold ..................................................................... 1 1
Asbestos .............................................................. 2
Sil ..r ................................................................... 1 12

Tot .................................................................. .1 70
Totals ............................................................. I 1B,448'10








bId GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CUBA


Province of Camagiiey


Number ot
XZMINaa mines Betareas

Iron ...... ... ............................. 7 21.B1
Copper .................. ................... ............................. 69 sI& '
Asphaltum ........ ..... .... ................................ .'
C hrom ium ................................................ ........ 9
M anganese .. ........................................................
G old .. .... ... ..... .. .... .. .......... .....
Silver .. .. ..... .... .. ........ ..........
Antim ony ... ... ............... .... ......... ......... ........ .. .... 1 9
Totals .................. ....................... ...... 16. 29,"95fl


Province of Oriente


Number of
MINERAL mines Heetarea

Iron ............ ......................... ..... ..... ............. 586 119,01 0ro
Manganese ... ... ......... ............................... .1 28S 15,00'84
Copper ... ........ .............................................. 818 1,914'83M
Gold .......... .. ... .. ............ ......... ... .............. .. 4 1,514'861
Anthracite coal ....................................................... 13 1,28
Lead .. ... .. ...... .............................................. 11 84
Zinc ...... ................ ............................................. 9 50
Petroleum .......... .......... .... .......... ................. ...... 4 4
Asphaltum ... ............. .......................................... 10 20
Asbestos ................................................................ 2 9
Mercury ........ .. ......... .. ......... .............2 I
T in ........................................... ..1 S
Other substances .................................................... 28 22,221
Totals .... .......... .................... .................... 1,508 176m.75'WS


Summary


PROVINEOK


Number of
mines


Pinar del fRo ........................................ ............
Havana .. ........................................... 148
Matanzas ..............................................................
Santa Clara ...........................................................
amaguiey .............................................................. 54
Oriente ............................................................... 1,508
Totals ............. .....................................j. 2.is


Heetareas


94,24V687
28. 41-40
10,097
is 448"1441
2B.VO 9480
176 .745'S9.1
Ms5u.119311
ow.Cb Bim
Ii.15'45


From the preceding table it will be seen that on december 3, 1919,
there were throughout the Republic, what with regular concessions, "
land connecting claims ("demasias,") and dumps, 2,915 mines whicke
registered all together comprised an area of 356,036 heetareas, 11 areal-
and 93 centiareas.




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