• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Dedication
 Cuba - Spain - United States
 Historical facts
 Chronological review
 Cuba's grievances
 Six months later














Group Title: Cuba, her past, present and future in connection with Spain and the United States : an appeal to the ruling powers of the country of Washington, Jefferson, and Monroe ...
Title: Cuba, her past, present and future in connection with Spain and the United States
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 Material Information
Title: Cuba, her past, present and future in connection with Spain and the United States an appeal to the ruling powers of the country of Washington, Jefferson, and Monroe ..
Physical Description: iv, 60 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: G., I
Publisher: Judd & Detweiler, Printers
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1897
 Subjects
Subject: Cuban question -- 1895-1898   ( lcsh )
Politics and government -- Cuba -- 1895-1898   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Letter of transmittal to Gen. Fitzhugh Lee signed: I.G.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074056
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000665319
oclc - 24615310
notis - ADK5691

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Dedication
        Page 1
    Cuba - Spain - United States
        Page 2
    Historical facts
        Page 3
    Chronological review
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Cuba's grievances
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Six months later
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
Full Text












CUBA


HER PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE


IN CONNECTION WITH



SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES





AN APPEAR TO THE RULING POWERS OF THE COUNTRY OF
WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON, AND MONROE.






"The laying a country desolate with fire and word, declaring war against the
natural rights of all mankhkl, and ertirpuat,. the defenders thereof from
the face of the earth, is the cowcern of err/ man (, whom nature hath giren the
power of feeling."



VASHINGTON, i). C.. FEBRUARY, 22, 1897


9 9/o WASITIIGTO, .
JTUDI) & DETWETLER, PRINTERS
1897


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HER PAST, PRESENT, ANDIFUTURE


IN CONNECTION WITH


SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES





AN APPEAL TO THE RULING POWERS OF THE COUNTRY OF
WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON, AND MONROE.





"Tl7e laying a country desolate wilthfire and sword, declaring war against the
natural rights of all mankind, and extirpating the defenders thereof from
the face of the earth, is the concern of every man to whom nature hqh given the
power of feeling.". ,



WASHINGTON, D. C., FEBRUARY, 22, 1897


WASHINGTON, D. C.
JUDD & DETWEILER, PRII
1897


- 4


CTB;



















INDEX.
Page.
Dedicatorv...................................................... 1
Cuba-Spairn-United States.................. ................. 2
Address to Consul General Lee .. ............................. 2
H historical facts............ .... ........................ ...... 3
Chronological review.......... .. ............................. 3
Spain's dishonest dealings with Cuba ..... ..................... 3
Committee of information called for ................. ......... 4
Revolution for independence ..................................... 4
S)utrageous acts of government and volunteers...... .... ........ 4
Gen. Martinez Campos sent to Cuba............................... 4
Treaty of El Zanjon ........................................... 5
Porto Rico under tie Spanish republic ............................ 5
Bad faith of Spanish government ................................. 5
Cause of second revolution ............................... ....... 5
Formation of two political parties...... ......................... 5
Object of thie Conservative party. ....... .................... 6
Partiality of tie Government.................... ............... 6
Im1pudence of a minister of tire colonies........................... 6
New party in Cuba for reforms................................... 6
Minister Maura for reforms............. ........... ........... 7
Opposition of the Conservatives................................. 7
Impudent manifestations of Cdnovas. ................. .......... 7
Becerra to succeed Maura..................................... 7
Abarzuza to succeed Becerra-a transaction ....................... 7
Change of Cabinet ... .. ........................................ 8
1, ;.. .. ;.. Cuba ... ............... ........... ......... ...... 8
( ... rifaithful. ............................................. 8
Gen. Martinez Campos sent to Cuba............................... 9
Dishonest conduct of Cinovas........................ ....... .... 9
Thle whole country for independence ............. ............... 9
Failure of Gen. Martinez Campos ......... ....................... 9
Honest declaration of Martinez Campos........................... 10
A special man for a program of force............................... 10
General Campos' opinion about Weyler ......... ........ ... 10
General W eyler in Havana ....................................... 10
H is proclaim action ................................................. 11
Offering pardon ................ ................................ 11
Separation from Spain at any cost-................................. 11
Reforms that are not such ...................... ................ 11
The insurgents control the rural country........................... 12
Savage proceedings of General Weyler ...................... ..... 12
Cuba's grievances .. ............................................ 13
Spanish rulers not trustworthy.................................. 16
C an- as' responsibility....... ........- .. .... ................ 17
The Queen's speech opening the Cortes-Grievances acknowledged
and promises Imade. .. -............ ................... .... 17
and promisessmade- --17
Good faith an empty word--.................... I-............. 18
Tie Cortes' answer to the Queen's speech........................ 18
Contradictions and broken good faith strengthen the revolution.... 18
Cuba's faint hopes vanished ................... ................. 18
(ii)











INDEX. III
Page.
Even autonomy would not represent peace ............... ........ 19
General Campos' private opinions and public acts.................. 19
Unfavorable comparison with the English General Burgoyne....... 20
Efforts of some republicans..................................... 20
Sagasta no better than Cinovas ................................ 20
Spain not definitely constituted yet.............................. 21
Peace and prosperity only with the United States................. 21
Cuba and the United States complete each other................. 22
Cuba in regard to Spain and the United States ..................... 22
Moral duty of the United States.................. ............ 22
Europe and the United States ........ ......................... 23
England and Egypt and other nations............................ 23
Spain to depend on herself ...................................... 23
Even with allies Spain could not succeed ........................ 24
Spain cannot reconquer Cuba.................................... 24
Spain attempts to show exhaustless resources..................... 25
Impotence of Spain to succeed by the force of arms............... 25
Bishops try to help the government.............................. 26
Desperate condition of Spain............. ...................... 26
Canovas' stupid daring............ ............................. 27
A war of conquest .............................................. 27
Insurgents will not submit....................................... 27
Nothing definite in vain promises................................. 27
Porto Rico waiting in vain...... ................................. 28
No ground for further trust ....................................... 28
Cdnovas' speeches; his declarations and contradictions. ........... 28
The country of the vice versas..................................... 29
Autonomy denied....... .................................... 29
Assimilation to be kept up....... ........ .. ................. 29
COdnovas considers the Autonomists as insurgents................... 29
Finds ground for the wish of independence ........................ 29
Declares it to be a rational aspiration.......... ................. 30
Canovas admits that the idea of independence can be professed..... 30
The essential question in Cuba according to Cinovas.............. 30
Repression to be kept up-Separatism a product of the ground.. ... 30
Cdnovas scorns the Autonomist party .... .............. ...... 31
Cannot determine reforms. ...................................... 31
Senator Labra's appeal to the government...... .............. .31
Too-late declaration of Lord North. .............. ............ 32
Too late for conciliation. ......................... ............ 32
A pond of blood and a mountain of slaughtered Cuban victims be-
tween the parties..... ........ ......................... 32
Among the barbarous nations.......................... ......... 33
Sad prospects for the country.............................. ...... 33
War or anarchy.... ... ...................... 33
The United States to save Cuba................... ... ........ 34
Spain may oppose, but in vain................................... 34
Final issue. ................................................ .... 34
Six months later ................................................ 35
More troops sent.................................... .......... 35
Importance of the revolution .................................... 35
Cdnovas' pride humbled.......................................... 35
W hat the loan means...................... ......... ........ ... 36
Canovas' urgent appeals to General Weyler....................... 36
Turkish way of General Weyler.................................. 37
Pretended pacification of Pinar del Rio not true .............. .... 38
Sword, fire, and epidemics in Havana province .................... 38
Repetition of Indian extermination .............................. 39











IV INDEX.
Page.
The United States to be aroused to action ......................... 39
Message of President Cleveland... ................... ........ 40
Interest of the United States in Cuba's fate ...................... 40
How the United States are placed ............................... 40
Compelled to police the coast ................................... 41
The United States aware of events in Cuba ...................... 41
Hopes of President Cleveland .................................. 41
Absolute autonomy would bring prosperity to the island ........... 42
Spanish requirement not reasonable ......... .................... 42
Offer to mediate between belligerents............................ 42
No European interference........................................ 43
Patience has a limit ....................... ................... 43
When the United States may take steps ........................ 43
Senator Cameron's resolution................................... 44
Senate Committee report on Cuba.............. ................ 44
Review of history and of President Monroe's message.............. 45
Ready for the consequences of "good offices .................... 45
Confidence and alarm mixed in Premier Canovas ................. 46
Cdnovas' and Weyler's scheme ................................... 47
Weyler's part.... .............................................. 47
C:inovas' performance a discredit to him.............. ........... 47
C0inovas' scheme of reforms ................................... 48
" Much ado about nothing".............. ..................... 48
No essential difference......... ........ ..................... 48
Powers of the Council of administration ........................ 49
As in old times............................................... 49
The governor general above the Council......................... 50
The same story of old................. ........................... 50
Nominal powers ............................................ 50
Extraordinary powers to the government........................ 50
Unlimited powers to the governor general........................ 51
Spanish government will not give up the purse ................... 51
The monopoly to subsist .............. ......................... 51
Cdinovas' whistle....................................... .... .... 52
Let ..... ;.., i,..1. ......................................... 52
Mor-I. Ii- ... ..... the Spanish people and their rulers....... 52
Scheme of reforms will deceive no one............................. 53
Timely advice and worthy lesson............................... 53
Address to the American people by Col. E. Allen, president of the
American Cuban League...................................... 53
The United States, France, and Cuba............................ 55
Doubts over the Democratic administration....................... 56
The Republican platform ........... ........................ 57
A sad contrast ........................ .......................... 57
No party question............................................ 57
McKinley on Lincoln .......................................... 57
Tie next President's tribute to the great martyr President...... 59
Appeal to President-elect McKinley ............................. 60

















DEDICATORY.

To the people of the United States, whose sympathy for
Cuban independence is so openly shown through the public
press, popular meetings, city councils, and State legisla-
tures; to the higher representatives of the country in the
National Congress, who, regardless of party politics, have
fearlessly advocated the Cuban cause, winning the respect
and gratitude of the Cubans and the approval of all con-
scientious people; to the other members who have erro-
neously sustained the right of Spain to oppress and recon-
quer Cuba, even if it be through the barbarous, unchristian,
and uncivilized means she is employing at the same doors
of this grand country of Washington, Jefferson, and Monroe ;
and to the coming Administration, whose Chief is noted as a
decided Monroeist, and some of its members have been
most conspicuous in behalf of Cuban independence, this
modest sketch is respectfully dedicated by-

THE AUTHOR.
WASHINGTON, D. C., February, 1897.


















CUBA-SPAIN-UNITED STATES.


The origin of this unpretending and hastily written work
is to be found in the following address:

To GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE,
Consul General of the United States of
America at Havana, Cuba.
GENERAL: Please accept kindly the present work, which
is simply a collection of notes-a memorandum to help the
study of the different questions pointed out in the same.
Due allowance for incorrect English is begged, on the
ground that it is not the native language of the author, and
that his opportunities for the study and practice of the same
are few; while, at the same time, the special character of
these notes, written amid the constant imprisonment and
banishment of pacific or merely suspected people to State
penal stations in Africa, and the daily shooting of Cubans
in the Spanish fortresses, did not advise to have them given
for correction nor otherwise delay their delivery. They are
a burning coal to any but an American hand.

Respectfully yours,
I. G.
HAVANA, CUBA, August 25, 1896.












HISTORICAL FACTS.

If through wonderful deeds of daring enterprise Spain
discovered and conquered numberless countries in this new
world of America, she has shown at the same time the utter
incapacity of her rulers to hold said countries in allegiance
to her by ties of mutual interest.
Following the same system of oppression through which
she lost Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, and Portugal,
Spain has seen more than half of this American continent,
from Upper California and Texas, parts that were formerly
of Mexico, down to Cape Horn, and one of the Greater
Antilles, appeal to war measures to break political connec-
tions with her, achieve independence, and thereby forming
many different republics.
Spain did not learn anything from the successful war of
independence of the thirteen American colonies, nor has
she ever turned into profitable experience her own sad one
some years later; on the contrary, holding firm to her in-
sane practice, she has lost her immense continental empire
in America, the island of San Domingo twice, and is actu-
ally losing Cuba after shameful and often-repeated -breach
of promises to change her ruinous and degrading political
condition.


CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW.

1836-Spain's Dishonest Dealings with OCba.

For some few years previous to that of 1836, Cuba was rep-
resented in the Spanish Cortes, and it was then resolved by
these and the government that the representatives from
Cuba should be dismissed and the island governed by special
laws, to be framed.












HISTORICAL FACTS.

If through wonderful deeds of daring enterprise Spain
discovered and conquered numberless countries in this new
world of America, she has shown at the same time the utter
incapacity of her rulers to hold said countries in allegiance
to her by ties of mutual interest.
Following the same system of oppression through which
she lost Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, and Portugal,
Spain has seen more than half of this American continent,
from Upper California and Texas, parts that were formerly
of Mexico, down to Cape Horn, and one of the Greater
Antilles, appeal to war measures to break political connec-
tions with her, achieve independence, and thereby forming
many different republics.
Spain did not learn anything from the successful war of
independence of the thirteen American colonies, nor has
she ever turned into profitable experience her own sad one
some years later; on the contrary, holding firm to her in-
sane practice, she has lost her immense continental empire
in America, the island of San Domingo twice, and is actu-
ally losing Cuba after shameful and often-repeated -breach
of promises to change her ruinous and degrading political
condition.


CHRONOLOGICAL REVIEW.

1836-Spain's Dishonest Dealings with OCba.

For some few years previous to that of 1836, Cuba was rep-
resented in the Spanish Cortes, and it was then resolved by
these and the government that the representatives from
Cuba should be dismissed and the island governed by special
laws, to be framed.












1866-Committee of Information Called for.

Thirty years later, being minister of the colonies the actual
prime minister, Seflor Canovas del Castillo, a committee of
information from Cuba was called to Madrid. Prominent
men were elected, and many wise resolutions offered, which,
if adopted, would have saved Cuba for Spain, and both from
the ruinous wars and common disasters that have followed.

1868-Revolution for Independence.

As the Spanish government paid no regard to the meas-
ures proposed by the truly loyal commissioners, Cubans
raised the flag of independence in October of 1868.

Outrageous Acts of the Spanish Government and Volunteers.

Hundreds of Cubans were banished to the Spanish prisons
in Africa; others shot without legal proceedings; the gov-
ernor general was forced to embark for Spain because he
dared to mention self-government to the insurgents; inno-
cent students of the university were subjected to a mock
trial and massacred as a sacrifice offered to appease the rage
of the bloodthirsty reactionary party, while others were
chained with iron fetters and banished to State prisons;
foreigners were shot in the street; ladies met with no re-
spect; there seemed to be the idea of exterminating Cubans
and whoever would sympathize with them.

1877-Gen. Martinez Campos Sent to Cuba.

The war raged savagely until Gen. Martinez Campos came
to Cuba in 1877 and took command of the army. His
humane treatment to prisoners, his acknowledgment that
the country had been under unexcusable mismanagement
and had a right to better administration, prepared the good
feelings of the Cubans toward him, and the way for the
compromise that took place a year later.











1878-Treaty of El Zanjon.

By the treaty of El Zanjon with the Cubans, Gen. Martinez
Campos in the name of the Spanish government, repre-
sented by the same C'novas del Castillo, pledged the former
to grant Cuba all the civil and political rights that would
place Cuba on an equality with Porto Rico.

Porto Rico under the Spanish Republic.
As previous to the Bourbon restoration the republican
government in Spain had extended liberal laws, general
suffrage, etc., to Porto Rico, the Cubans accepted the com-
promise, thus putting an end to the ten years' war.

Bad Faith of the Spanish Government.
The bad faith of the Spanish government soon became
evident. To place Cuba and Porto Rico on equal terms, the
latter was deprived of the advantages she had gained under
the Republic, and new restrictive laws were given to Cuba
and Porto Rico as provisional for the election of members
to city and province councils and to the Cortes.
Citizens were required by said laws to be tax-payers for
five and twenty-five dollars respectively in order to enjoy
the right of voting.

Cause of a Second Revolution.
Such fraud gave rise to a second revolution, though it
only lasted a year. The people were tired, the country
ruined; so it was thought best to wait for events and pre-
pare for better days if necessary.

Formation of Two Political Parties.
Two political parties formed under the respective names
of Liberal and Conservative. The Liberals, representing the
Cuban feelings, claimed all the civil and political rights
existing in Spain, and also the special laws agreed to by the











Cortes and the government and not framed as yet. They
drew up a full program based on the principles of self-gov-
ernment.

Object of the Conservative Party.

The Conservative party appeared to be for assimilation to
the mother country, but gradually and in years to come.
Firmly opposed to all political reforms for the time being,
it worked in fact to keep up the previous state of affairs, and
had the support of the government.

Partiality of the Government.

The electoral claims were always decided in its favor, and
the lists so arranged as to suit their conveniences; and even
when the Liberals had a majority in any election and the
right to nominate the president of the city or province
councils, the government would make the nomination from
among the Conservatives.

Impudence of a Minister of the Colonies.
Even a minister of the colonies, Sefior Conde de Tejada
de Valdosera, CAnovas being prime minister, had the impu-
dence of saying in full session of congress that the electoral
laws in Cuba and Porto Rico had to be kept such that they
would always give the triumph to the better Spaniards."
That same man is the actual minister of Justice in the pres-
ent Cinovas cabinet.

1892-A New Party in Cuba for Reforms.
The better class of sensible Spaniards, dissatisfied with
the dangerous policy followed by the Conservative party
now masked with the name of Union Constitucional, formed
a third party, called Reformist. The program, though
more limited than that of the Autonomist, met with strong
support, and a near end was predicted to the Conservative
party.










1893-Minister Maura for Reforms.
Under Prime Minister Sagasta, Sefior Maura, minister of
the colonies, presented to the Cortes a plan of reforms for
Cuba. The Cuban Reformists gave their support to the
same. The Autonomists did only accept it as a base for
future development. The Separatists felt the effect of the
proposed reforms. The whole country was for peace and
willing to stand by Spain if liberal laws were enacted and
Cuba could see that in a near future she was to have the
whole management of her own affairs.

Opposition of the Conservatives.
But the Conservative party in Spain and Cuba, under the
direction of CAnovas and Romero Robledo, opposed the plan
so strongly that Sagasta, an unprincipled politician more
than a statesman, thought fit to dispense with the plan and
with Minister Maura. It was a triumph for the Reactionary
party, a hope for the Separatists, and for the Cuban people
a new cause of mistrust.

Impudent Manifestation of Cdnovas.
C~novas increased that mistrust by his haughty and im-
pudent manifestation that he opposed the plan of Maura
because the Cubans would at last reach peacefully through
it what they had not been able to conquer by war."

Becerra to Succeed Maura.
Ex-Minister Becerra was called to succeed Maura and
present a plan. In doing this he raised such protests in
the Reformist and Autonomist parties in Cuba, encouraging
at the same time the subdued energies of the Separatists, that
Sagasta removed Becerra.
Abarzuza to Succeed Becerra-A Transaction.
An ex-republican named Abarzuza, said to have been acci-
dentally born in Cuba, where he was utterly unknown, was
called next by Sagasta. He prepared a plan to suit Cinovas











and Romero Robledo. and as a political transaction it was
humbly accepted by the Reformist and Autonomist represen-
tativesin the Cortes. The Conservatives claimed the triumph,
and they were right; but had to share it with the Separatists,
who gained more by such triumph and derived greater
benefit; the shameful defeat being for the apparent good
faith of the government.

1895-Change of Cabinet.

Over two years had passed in useless discussions about
the pretended reforms, and Sagasta, knowing that the revo-
lution in Cuba was to be the result, availed himself of the
opportunity given by a riot of army officers against the
public press on account of the Melilla troubles, and left the
government again to Cinovas.

February, 1895-Feelings in Cuba.
The dissatisfaction and distrust in Cuba toward the
Madrid government had been growing stronger, and the
Separatists took advantage of the same to raise once more
the flag of independence.
The country at large was not for war; so the revolution-
ary movement remained limited to a small portion of the
eastern province of Santiago de Cuba. There were many
Spaniards among the revolutionists, and for several months
most of the men in arms were willing to give them up if
autonomy was granted. The government took no notice
of it; would not go beyond Abarzuza's plan, and even to
this proved unfaithful.

Cdnovas Unfaithful.
It had been agreed by Canovas and the Cuban representa-
tives in Cortes to carry the new system into immediate exe-
cution, having the elections made according to the last
rectified lists; and that in case of unavoidable delay, the mem-
bers then in office would have their terms extended until
changed according to the new plan.










Gen. Martinez Campos Sent to Cuba.
At the same time, as Gen. Martinez Campos possessed the
respect and esteem of the Cubans, Canovas appointed him
governor general to Cuba, thinking that with his personal
prestige he would subdue the initiated revolution and keep
the political parties at peace.

Dishonest Conduct of Cdnovas.
Later on, learning that by the electoral lists the elections
would be controlled by Reformists and Autonomists, he
showed no regard to his pledged word, and postponed the
elections sine die on the ground that peace was disturbed,
and, besides, issued several royal decrees for the substitu-
tion of the popular representatives with members appointed
by the government and for a new rectification of the elect-
oral lists. Reformists and Autonomists were turned out and
substituted by members of the Reactionary party. Thou-
sands of well-known tax-payers, electors in the Liberal
parties, were struck off from the lists. New provincial gov-
ernors were appointed from among presidents and secre-
taries of the Conservative party in Cuba, and poor Martinez
Campos became an instrument of CAnovas, showing to his
personal discredit that he was more of a soldier to obey
than of a statesman to rule.

The Whole Country Roused for Independence.
The cup had been filled to the brim, and the shameful
and dishonest act of the government was the last drop to
produce the overflow. Faith and hope had come to an end,
and the whole country joined the revolution spreading
itself from the extreme east to the distant west without any
possible check.
Failure of Martinez Campos.
Gen. Martinez Campos failed through the pressure of
Canovas and the reactionary party; both urged on blood-
shed and banishments without limits. Gen. Martinez Campos








10

was not willing to do more than what he had done, and the
Madrid government removed him in January, 1896.

Honest Declarations of Martinez Campos.
Before leaving the island, General Campos publicly de-
clared that from the beginning of the war the insurgents
often made prisoners that were always released and even
conveyed to Spanish quarters, the officers being allowed to
keep their swords; and that in contrast to that high policy
he had been compelled to have some prisoners shot, and
prominent Cubans seized on suspicion, and without trial
banished to State prisons in Africa, only to satisfy the
claims of the Conservative party, but against his own con-
science, that forbid him to keep up such proceedings.

A Special Man for a Program of Force.
A special man, capable of carrying out a program of force,
was wanted by CAnovas and the Conservatives, and the
chances stood between General Polavieja and General
Weyler. Both had left in Cuba sad remembrances of their
cruelties during the previous war, but General Weyler was
considered, besides, a contemptible, disreputable character,
whose want of feelings and gross brutalities with defenseless
women were remembered with horror.
General Campos' Opinion About Weyler.
Cable dispatches from Madrid to the Havana press had
given, as the opinion of Gen. Martinez Campos, that if Gen-
eral Weyler was to be sent as governor general to Cuba,
even the dead would raise from their graves to protest
against the outrage. The Cuban Liberal press opposed the
possible nomination, and yet General Weyler was appointed,
to the disgrace of CAnovas and his party, and even of the
queen regent herself for signing the appointment.
Weyler in Havana.
General Weyler arrived at Havana with a large staff of
his selection, and reinforcements to complete 150,000 regu-








11

lar troops. Having fifty generals under his chief command,
he had operations pushed at once.
His Proclamation.
Trying to mask his feelings and purposes, he issued a
proclamation ordering that no one should be imprisoned or
considered as a rebel or a sympathizer unless the act was
accompanied with proofs; but in the practice numberless
parties have been and are deprived of liberty, and even of
life, without any proof of guilt. The case of the American
citizen Doctor Delgado and his farm help, shot on their
own ground, is only a weak illustration of the fact; the
dungeons and fosses of all the Spanish fortresses through-
out the island and the State prisons in Africa are a con-
stant, sad, bloody and eloquent protest against the proc-
lamation and the infamous proceedings of General Weyler.

Offering Pardon.
After some time of unsuccessful operations he issued an
edict granting pardon to all those who would present them-
selves in the term of twenty days, promising to shoot those
who would be taken up with arms. Seeing that it was of
no effect, the grace has been extended for unlimited time,
with the same result.

Separation from Spain at Any Cost.
The feeling of opposition to any further Spanish control
over the island is so deeply rooted that it is impossible to
shake it. All hopes of redress from Spain are lost, even by
the pacific people opposed to the revolution. The indefinite
delay and the bad faith of the government in attending
Cuba's urgent needs are the cause of it.

Reforms That are not Such.
In all the pretended plans of reforms Cuba is to be limited
to the management of merely local affairs after being left
without means to attend to the same. Her budget is to be











controlled by the Spanish government and voted by the
Spanish Cortes, none of whose members are to pay the
taxes. Commercial affairs; the tariff, army and navy, the
judiciary, and all general expenses, loans, interests, pensions,
etc., are under the control of the Madrid government, and
as in that condition Cuba can never prosper, and the
country is overtired of Spanish oppression and misrule,
thousands of men are in revolution against any farther
Spanish interference and seem decided to carry out a war
of destruction, if necessary, to render Spanish control over
the island utterly impossible and ruinous to Spain.

The Insurgents Control the Rural Country.
The insurgents have absolute control over all the rural
country. To show this, and also that the Spanish govern-
ment is limited to the large and fortified towns, they have
prohibited and prevented the raising of tobacco crops and
the grinding of sugar cane; and, as a demonstration of the
impotence of the Spanish government to protect its subjects
and their property, have burned the cane fields and towns,
laid waste the tobacco plantations, and destroyed the build-
ings in both, so that the Spanish troops may have no shel-
ter when going through the country, and the government
no source from which to draw any revenue. How sad it is
to think and see that while they succeed in accomplishing
their object, at the same time they are destroying their own
country and ruining their own people!

Savage Proceedings of General Weyler.
General Weyler, unable to oppose the plans of the insur-
gents, throws all his hatred on the people that remain at
their farms and, through private orders to the chiefs of col-
umns, the officers and soldiers are allowed to impose upon
said people, take away their cattle, poultry, and whatever
they have, threaten them with all sorts of danger, often
met, and thus they are forced to abandon their homes and
their means of living to go to towns for starvation and











death. The houses thus left uninhabited are burned by
the Spanish troops; any man found anywhere in the coun-
try is killed on the spot and reported as dead in an encounter.
If any insurgent hospital for the sick or wounded is found
in the woods or elsewhere, it is fired on and burned without
even giving time to the invalids to escape from the flames.


CUBA'S GRIEVANCES.

Except in Turkey, or in the slow Asiatic world, or in the
dark continent of Africa, there is no country in which com-
parisons with the government of Spain in Cuba can be
.made.
Under Spanish oppression and constant bad faith of the
government, Cuba has suffered unbearable grievances for
which there is no possible redress.
Among others:
1. Cuba is not allowed to manage her own affairs. The
Cuban budget is presented by the Madrid government to
the Cortes and voted by over five hundred Spanish repre-
sentatives, regardless of the Cuban special ones, except those
that, being elected through the influence of the government,
are always ready to vote for the same, even if it is against
the interests that they appear to represent.

2. Cuba has its own treasury and what is called her own
debt, but not the right to fix expenses, salaries, number of
employes, nor to appoint them. The Madrid government
holds that right and sends the office-holders from Spain.
Generally paying to be appointed, they fall on Cuba as
birds of prey, ravage the country, and return home with the
spoils. Some special proteges come only for two years, if they
have'served eighteen in Spain. In that case they retire at the
end of said term with the right to a pension of four-fifths
of the high salary in Cuba, which the latter is to pay to the
privileged one that returns to his country to indulge in an
idle or lazy life or to take up some other business.











3. Cuba has been paying the debts raised by Spain
through her wars in Mexico, South America, and San Do-
Ilingo; also the salaries to all the Spanish ministers and
consular officials in America; the amount granted by the
Madrid government to a company of steamers between
Spain and Cuba. At present and through oft-repeated
claims, Cuba has been relieved of a small part of said ex-
penses, and also of the thousands of dollars that were
charged on the same for the payment of selected Havana
cigars that were sent to Spain for the pleasure of the mem-
bers of the royal family, those of the cabinet, and the like.
4. All the loans raised to meet the war expenses and keep
up the integrity of the nation are not paid by the nation at
large, but charged exclusively on Cuba, without any inter-
ference from her part on the loans, interests, form of pay-
ment, etc.
5. Cuba takes no part in regulating her commercial af-
fairs nor her tariff. The Madrid government rules over all,
having always a majority in the Cortes ready to approve its
acts. So it happens that while the United States is the com-
mercial metropolis of Cuba and buys from this the 90 per
cent of her production, Cuba in exchange cannot buy of
the United States the machinery, farm implements, pro-
visions and goods of all kinds, because the import duties
fixed by Spain amount to more than the price of the article
in the American market; but if the same article is shipped
to Spain it can be re-exported to Cuba and compete advan-
tageously in price with the same object imported in Havana
from the United States, injuring thus the interests of Cuba
and of the United States in their commercial relations.
6. While most of the merchandise from Spain enters free
of duty in Cuba and only few articles are subject to a nomi-
nal one, Cuban products are excluded from Spain. Sugar
from Cuba is subject to such high duties in the so-called
mother country that they amount to prohibition.
Cuban alcohol-made from molasses and sugar cane-








15

cannot be introduced in Spain because the import duties
amount to five or six times the value of the merchandise,
making it impossible to compete in price with the inferior
alcohol produced in Germany and protected in Spain ac-
cording to their treaties. Even the use of Cuban alcohol
for the preservation of wines has been prohibited by the
government, so as to insure the consumption of the inferior
German artificial product.
Salt meats from the Argentine Republic are forced into
Cuba, not in reciprocity for the admittance of Cuban cigars
or any other Cuban products, but for the benefit granted by
said Republic to the wines from Spain.
7. Cuban tobacco and cigars are almost excluded from
Spain, notwithstanding its being the second important pro-
duction of the island and unrivaled in the world. The
Madrid government has established so strong a monopoly
in favor of a trust for the manufacture and sale of cigars in
Spain, that Cuban products can only be sold there through
the agency of and payment of a high commission to said
company. Import duties are exceedingly high, and trav-
elers are only allowed a very limited number of cigars, even
paying duty on them.
8. In said cigar company, as well as in the transatlantic
line of steamers and in the Spanish Colonial Bank, all of
which have enormous privileges and make immense busi-
ness at the expense of Cuba, many of the most important
members of government and noted political men of Spain
and the principal leaders of the Cuban Conservative party
are interested, and so they oppose any reform that will give
Cuba the management of her own affairs.
9. Countless millions of dollars have been officially taken
from Cuba to Spain in times of her prosperity, and when
she has come to her ruin through the scandalous misman-
agement of the Spanish government, she is charged with all
the expenses made to preserve the integrity of the nation
and the oppressive policy that will at last produce the inde-
pendence of the island.










10. Separate from the municipal and provincial taxes, the
ordinary budget imposed upon Cuba by Spain has been up
to forty millions of dollars, being at present of over twenty-
eight, to be drawn from a population of a million and a
half and a desolated country. The extraordinary budget,
to meet all the expenses of the war, is unlimited.

11. Taxes are levied by the Madrid government on every
imaginable thing, and not only on the estimated profit that
property, professional practice, industry, commerce, etc., can
produce, but even on the amount paid for said taxes; on
every inhabitant from fourteen years up, on public and
private salaries and pensions, and to tenants, on and for the
amount they pay as farm, house, or office rent, there being
besides the high-priced stamped paper for all official and
business transactions.

12. Since the year 1836 special laws were promised to
Cuba, and in 1896, sixty years later, Cuba is still without
them and subject as ever to the prey and ravages of the
unscrupulous Spanish governments, Spanish politicians,
merchants in Spain and public employes, all of whom
speculate with the mismanagement of the country.

Such being the state of affairs, only one thing is to be
wondered at-how Cuba has stood the same so long !

Spanish Rulers not Trustworthy.

There is not a man in power or in any of the monarchical
political parties in Spain whom Cuba can trust for redress.
Prime Minister Canovas, the strongest civil support of the
monarchy, influenced by narrow partisan feelings and lack-
ing the high spirit and foresight of a statesman, has low-
ered himself in the respect and confidence of the Cuban
Liberals, has thrown at stake the integrity of the nation, and
lost all right to be trusted.











Odnovas' Responsibility.
CAnovas is responsible in full for the present revolution
and its consequences. He opposed Maura's reforms for two
years and defeated them. He approved those of Abarzuza,
and, unfaithful to his pledged word, postponed the applica-
tion of the same and the local elections in the island, on
the ground that peace had been disturbed; and ten months
later, when the whole country was in arms as a protest
against his proceedings and the illegal restoration of the
Conservative party to official power in Cuba, and when
hundreds of towns and villages and thousands of farms
had been destroyed and nine-tenths of the electoral colleges
could not meet, lie, in agreement with General Weyler,
ordered general elections for the Cortes to be made. Re-
formists and Autonomists resented the injury and abstained
themselves from joining in the farce; and as none but the
Conservatives were anxious to play a part in it, for them it
was the undisputed triumph. Many prot6gis of the govern-
ment whose names had never been heard of in Cuba before,
became the false representatives of Cuba.

The Queen's Speech Opening the Cortes-Grievances Acknowl-
edged and Promises Made.
On May 12, 1896, the Queen Regent opened the Cortes,
and in her speech she said that Abarzuza's plan of reforms
was insufficient and did not satisfy any party ; that Spain
did not pretend to have the Antilles kept under an anti-
quated system of government; that in order to have peace
consolidated in them they must be provided with a system
of local administration that will insure to the same the
management of their peculiar interests; that to said pur-
ose her government would present such plans of wide
reforms as would satisfy the most exacting, and, finally,
Ahat no one had a right to doubt her government's good
faith, which she pledged before the whole world as wit-
bess."











Good Faith an Empty Word.
Not two months had elapsed, and Prime Minister Canovas
in his speech of July 1 to the senate maintained that re-
forms would not be granted to Cuba until the insurgents
were reduced to complete impotence, the insurrection extin-
guished, and the different political parties brought to an
agreement as to the extent of the reforms, without any of
them pretending the sacrifice of the old-time Spaniards for
the benefit of the new-comers."

The Cortes' Answer to the Queen's Speech.
The answer from the Cortes to the Queen's speech was
given in that same sense, the president of the committee to
draw up said answer being Romero Robledo, second of
Canovas and the highest representative of the Cuban Re-
actionary party.

Contradictions and Broken Good Faith Strengthen the Revo-
lution.
The contradiction between the Queen's promises, made
before the whole world, and the acts of her government
and Cortes before the same, showing the broken good faith
of both, amount to an universal proclamation in favor of
the insurgents, strengthening the position of these and the
right of Cuba to sever all political connections with Spain.

Cuba's Faint Hopes Vanished.
There was a last and faint hope that Spain, rather than
risk her sovereignty over Cuba, would put an end to the
war by granting a true and radical autonomy; but even
that hope has been lost. The last defying utterances of
CAuovas, the conduct of his second, Romero Robledo, and
the answer from the Cortes to the Queen's speech have left
no room for any hope. Even those who were Autonomist
at heart and condemn the destructive character of the revo-
lution, and fear for the future welfare of the island if she











were to become independent and not annexed to the United
States, do not hope for Spanish success, because it would
mean a greater humiliation for the Cubans, a reinforced
system of oppression for the country under the Reactionary
party, and a new and more cruel war at a no distant period.

Even Autonomy Would Not Represent Peace.

The conduct of Gen. Martinez Campos in Cuba and after-
ward in the senate confirms the belief that, even with au-
tonomy like that of Canada, Cuba would not be at peace as
longas she remained under Spanish influence and control,
represented by a governor general with power to appoint
other governors and high officials. Martinez Campos, the
general who stood high in the estimation of the Cubans
and had often written and repeatedly spoken in favor of the
ignored rights of Cuba; whose speeches in the senate after
the treaty of El Zanjon made Senator Labra compare them
with those of Lord Durham, and of whom it was thought
that in coming to Cuba as governor general and com-
mander-in-chief he would exert his own personal judgment
and influence to pacify the country, doing justice to its
claims, proved to be a simple instrument in the hands of
CAnovas and the Reactionary party, falling at last with dis-
grace.

General Campos' Private Opinions and Public Acts.

On his return to Spain he publicly expressed his convic-
tion that nothing short of autonomy would give peace to
Cuba, and offered to have the truth made known to the
world in regard to Cuban affairs; and yet he has gone be-
fore the senate and shown once more his subordination to
CAnovas, who has treated him so shamefully. He spoke of
necessary and immediate reforms for Cuba without specify-
ing which, and at last gave his support to the cabinet, rec-
ognizing the right of the same to choose the opportunity of
changing its policy toward Cuba.











Unfavorable Comparison with the English General Burgoyne.
How different from the high-minded advocates of the
American cause in the British Parliament a century and a
quarter ago, and among them General Burgoyne surren-
dered to the American general at Saratoga, in October,
1777. History narrates that General Burgoyne was al-
lowed to go to England in the spring of 1778, and while
still a prisoner on parole lie took his seat in Parliament and
became conspicuous among the defenders of the American
cause." Out of the entire republican party in Spain t' ere
is not one public man capable of doing as much.

Efforts of Some Republicans.
Labra, Salmeron, and Pi Margall have constantly advo-
cated for Cuban autonomy, trying to save Spain from having
to depress her pride by granting through force what she
ought to have recognized as a right; and, even more, have
tried to save her from the disgrace of losing the island
through the gross errors and repeated bad faith of her politi-
cal men in power.

Sagasta No Better than Cdnovas.
Sagasta and his party are no better than Cinovas and his.
In a recent telegram from the city of Avila to his colleague,
Moret, in Madrid, Sagasta said:
When there be peace, circumstances and conditions will
come that will determine our future conduct in regard to
the progress and prosperity of Cuba and to our integrity
and sovereign rights as a nation."

That is to say, that the so-called Liberal party in Spain
has no definite plan of reforms in regard to Cuba, being on
a level with the Conservative party; and as Sagasta and
Canovas, and Moret and Silvela, and Maura and many
others of the political men of the restored monarchy, either
in the government or in the Cortes, are more of rhetoricians
than of statesmen, and neither party can inspire confidence











nor do justice to Cubans in their urgent needs, Cuba does
not wait any longer for the special laws promised her since
the year 1836, and is now determined to frame them for
herself, away from all Spanish interference.
Spain Not Definitely Constituted Yet.
Spain is not a definitely constituted country yet. She
has drawn up about a dozen constitutions since that of the
Napoleonic war in 1812, and surely the present one will not
be the last. Spanish generals are numerous enough to sup-
ply the whole general staff of all the European armies;
they all meddle in politics and belong to different parties,
being always ready for a revolt. It is the same with the
most prominent civil-political men, many of whom have
been members of the different parties according to their own
personal conveniences. So, it is not possible that a nation
laboring under such an unsettled and corrupted state of
affairs may give peace, order, prosperity, morality and
justice to another country of her dependence.
Peace and Prosperity Only with the United States.
Spain cannot give what she has not, and Cuba is in urgent
need of powerful protection to recover from her present
shock and to develop the astonishing natural wealth of the
country, kept in check by a long-continued mismanage-
ment. That protection can come only from the United
States. These and Cuba, more than neighbors, are like
membersof the same family interested in commercial affairs.
Nowhere in the world can money find as good an invest-
ment as in Cuba, if peace and justice are guaranteed under
American influence and protection; so, it is to the mutual
interests of the United States and Cuba, when independent,
to come to an understanding, and the latter would surely
become within a few years the richest and one of the most
important States of the great American Union. California
and Texas are good examples of the difference between
Spanish and American influence and enterprise. Mexico
and all the Spanish-American Republics can testify to the
same.











Cuba and the United States Complete Each Other.
Cuba and the United States complete each other. Cuban
sugar and cigars would be a home product, unrivaled in the
world, and the excess of production would surely find an
easy way to foreign markets; and when amidst the cold and
dreary winter the northern people are deprived of fresh
vegetables and delicate fruits, Cuba would provide for them,
being her best season for such crops. At other times the
continental States would provide Cuba with the products of
their farms and industries, and so every comfort, every con-
venience, and a positive prosperity would be found for all
within the United States.

Cuba in Regard to Spain and the United States.
Cuba has never been other than an oppressed political
dependence of Spain, while, through commercial inter-
course, she is like a part of the United States, without the
advantages that by right she should have and would surely
enjoy were she really a part of the Union. Cuba is in
great distress at present; she is struggling for life, and
needs a kind, helping hand that will rescue her from
further humiliation and poverty or even destruction and
moral death.

Moral Duty of the United States.
None but the United States can feel more morally bound
to extend that protecting hand to a country almost its own,
and whose mutual commercial interests are at stake. The
United States is the ruling nation and protective power of
America, and for the sake of peace, liberty, commerce, civ-
ilization and humanity, cannot but interfere in the bloody,
cruel, and destructive contest between Spain and Cuba be-
fore it turns into a war of savage and mutual extermina-
tion. If Europe is indifferent to it or inclined to give moral
support to Spain, through jealousy or spite to the United
States, it becomes the latter to take up the question and put
an end to it with her intervention.










Europe and the United States.

Well may the European nations disgrace themselves by
allowing the shameful condition of affairs in Crete and
Armenia, because their selfishness, jealousy, and mistrust of
each other overpower their sense of humanity and the rights
of civilization. The United States as a nation can well
raise herself above them all, regardless of the effect that a
decisive action on her part upon Cuban affairs would have
in Europe, because the latter has no right to show any ob-
jection to the action of the United States in a work of peace
and humanity carried out in this free and independent
American continent, at the very doors of said nation whom
it affects more directly.

England and Egypt and Other Nations.
England occupied Egypt to the advancement of com-
merce and civilization, being only opposed by France
through jealousy and political ambition. Practical as Eng-
land is, she would not meddle between the United States
and Spain only to gratify the temporary satisfaction of the
latter. France, Germany, Austria and Italy are too much
engaged in their own internal affairs to venture in an en-
terprise away from home to defend Spanish disputed rights
to oppress an American country. Russia has always been
a warm friend to the United States; has no interest in Spain
nor in her colonies. All her attention is drawn to the East,
and across the same she will meet the United States by way
of the Pacific ocean, common to both.

Spain to Depend on Herself.
So, Spain cannot depend on any strange help to maintain
her despotic rule on Cuba in case the United States would
see fit to interfere in the endless struggle between the col-
ony and the metropolis, ruinous to both, shameful to civil-
ization, and a permanent trouble to American commerce
and to other interests of American citizens.











Even with Allies Spain Could Not Succeed.
And even if Spain were to find an ally reckless enough to
try another scheme like the one through which England
occupied and keeps Gibraltar, there is no doubt that the
young and comparatively weak nation that from 1812 to
1815 dared to meet on the open sea the greatest maritime
power of the world, captured many of her vessels and de-
feated at last the navy and the army of proud England,
now, having attained her present wonderful development
and astonished the world with the unsurpassed military
and naval deeds of Federals and Confederates during the
war of 1861 to 1865, would uphold her reputation and be
ready to accept and determined to succeed in the contest for
such a prize as Cuba, which, for her geographical situation,
her present and future importance in regard to Central and
South America, on both oceans, and southeastern Asia, when
Cuba will become like a station in the new road to the
Pacific ocean, through the Panama or Nicaragua canal,
can well be disputed by the United States with any
other nation in the world, with all probabilities of success.
Spain and her ally would have to provide for an uncom-
mon expedition to American waters and to American land,
while the United States would operate at home, in and
around Cuba as if it were in New York or New Orleans,
having, besides, the active help of the Cubans and the moral
support of the whole country, convinced that nothing but
annexation to the United States can give Cuba the peace
and prosperity that she is entitled to enjoy.
Spain Cannot Reconquer Cuba.
Spain cannot reconquer Cuba. Her efforts have been
like those of an epileptic, and the greater the strength and
forces developed under tile influence of the attack, the
greater the prostration that follows after the excitement
subsides. Spain has really surprised the world with the effort
accomplished sending a very large army for the conquest of
Cuba; but the excitement is subsiding and the strength is











yielding; the prostration begins. This war was to be ended
at the outbreak, either by a compromise granting autonomy
or by throwing immense numbers of troops over the insur-
gents, giving them no time to organize or rest, protecting at
the same time the sugar and tobacco plantations, horses,
cattle, and all kind of property; but pride and ignorance
of the true state of affairs prevented the first measure ; in
regard to the second, Spain not only has been unable to ac-
complish it, notwithstanding her great, desperate and un-
expected effort, but, on the contrary, it is the insurgents
who have given no rest to the Spanish troops; have pre-
vented the raising of crops; have destroyed numberless
towns and countless tobacco farms and sugar plantations
and buildings thereon, so that the Spanish columns could
not find either shelter or provisions in the country ; have
forced them to concentrate in fortified towns, intrench and
garrison others, and keep at the defensive, while the insur-
gents move freely all over the country, control the same
and oppose successfully the preparatory works for the next
crop.

Spain Attempts to Show Exhaustless Resources.
Under such circumstances, the Madrid government, trying
to draw away the attention of foreign powers, and particu-
larly of the United States, from her impotence to insure
peace and guarantee property and life in Cuba, offered to
send forty thousand men in August and sixty thousand
more during the autumn; but, even admitting the possibil-
ity of the full accomplishment of the offer, it will not help
her cause in the least; the failure of another crop is enough
to produce the complete ruin of the country at large, and
even a state of famine with all its horrors.

Impotence of Spain to Succeed by the For m
That Spain cannot conquer the revol t b force /
is no doubt. According to the state p of Gen. Ma
tinez Campos in the senate, the war inUli isearly cost-








26

ing-Spain twenty thousand men and over a hundred mil-
lions of dollars. Senator Labra stated before the senate that
up to last June the Cuban war debt amounted to three
hundred and thirty millions of dollars, with an annual in-
terest of over twenty millions.
Canovas del Castillo has acknowledged that twelve mil-
lions of dollars were spent in July, and that from that date
no less than from ten to twelve millions monthly will be
needed; and as Spain's special rents in mining districts and
custom-house revenues are already mortgaged, there is no
way of raising money other than a few millions at a time
from the Spanish and the Spanish Colonial Banks, the priv-
ileged cigar company, and the transatlantic line of steamers.
There is not money enough even to pay the army, to which,
as it has been said in the Spanish congress, five payments
are due.

Bishops Try to Help the Government.
The bishops have been trying to move the spirit of the
people all over Spain, to have them contribute with volun-
teers and money to help the government, but in vain. The
country is poor, and las become indifferent as to the result
of the campaign; not for want of patriotism, but for con-
viction that all the efforts of the monarchical government
of Canovas, Sagasta and any other, if successful, will only
be for the benefit of the monarchy and of the political par-
ties whose selfishness and errors have been producing and
will maintain the causes for a revolution in Cuba every
few years.

Desperate Condition of Spain.
The condition of Spain in Cuba is desperate. With no
money from abroad and without any at home; denying to
the Cubans the right of managing their own affairs, she has
yet to depend on the apparently loyal ones for the construc-
tion of barracks, hospitals, fortresses etc., that are built by
means of public subscriptions really forced on the people.










Owners of rural property, sugar and tobacco plantations,
wishing to have them protected, have to raise and garrison,
at their own expense, the fortresses and the troops to guard
the same. The Spanish government cannot afford to do it,
and, if done at times, it is charging thirty dollars a month
for each soldier, when the poor victims are only allowed
ten, and from this, the scanty food, full equipment, and
medicine and diet in the hospitals are deducted. The
Spanish soldier is in a worse condition than the slave of
olden times.
Cdnovas' Stupid Daring.
Without money, Spain cannot gratify her haughtiness;
and yet Canovas dares to speak of submission first; re-
forms later;" and in a speech before the Cortes he says to
these and to the world:
A War of Conquest.
"After a decided triumph on our part, so that the insur-
gents shall see that Spain has not yielded because she could
not conquer them; after they be convinced that Spain has
the power and the means to conquer them, and that the
best thing they can do is to submit to her rightful sov-
ereignty ; after Spanish pride be satisfied, it will be time
then to do something that will show the sincerity of our con-
victions."
Insurgents Will Not Submit.
As the insurgents are well aware of the real condition of
Spain, and that in the present contest they have the better
part, it is absurd to think and talk of their submission;
and even if they had the worse part, it is not reasonable to
expect that after the efforts made to succeed, they would
submit without knowing what advantages the country
would derive by it.
Nothing Definite in Vain Promises.
That nothing is to be had from the Spanish government
is clearly shown in the last words of Canovas just quoted :
"After Spanish pride be satisfied it will be time then to
do something that will show the sincerity of our convic-
tions."










That something may be the continuation of the pres-
ent system to show their convictions that Cuba ought to be
kept under restraint, and even martial law if thought con-
venient.
Porto Rico Waiting in Vain.
Why, if not, a plan of self-government or of broad, lib-
eral reforms is denied to Porto Rico, loyal, patient, and even
hopeful toward the government that is ruining her through
speculations with her needs ?

No Ground for Further Trust.
Cuba, Porto Rico, and the Philippine islands have nothing
to expect from Spanish monarchical governments. Canovas,
Sagasta, and all the other political men of any importance
are nothing but fine talkers. They make good -speeches,
which are at times masterpieces of oratory, but no ideas, no
formulas are to be found in them. Words, words, words,"
as Hamlet said; nothing but words.

Cdnovas' Speeches-His Declarations and Contradictions.
Canovas' speeches of July I and July 14 before the Senate
and Congress of Deputies are a good proof of it. Among
other things, he said:
The acts of the Spanish administration in Cuba are
being used to dishonor the same before the nations of Amer-
ica and Europe, and tend to weaken, if not to destroy in some
of them, the sympathy that the right of Spain could other-
wise insure."

And he added :
It is not only in America where, with great discretion
on the part of the Spanish-American Republics, and with a
feeling of filial love that we ought not to forget, it is held
that we ought to improve the administration in Cuba upon
the base of having its people interfere in the same ; it is
not, either, in some other country of America ; it is even in
Europe where the existing prejudice against us that we do
not carry to the government of the island all the ideas and
all the means recognized in modern colonial science is
greatly injuring us."








29

The Country of the Vice Versas.
To prove that the Spanish critic who called Spain the
country of the vice-versas" knew what he said, Prime Min-
ister Chnovas comes to ratify the statement.

Autonomy Denied.
He acknowledges that it is a need and a convenience for
Spain to introduce all kinds of reforms in Cuba, but pro-
vided," he says, they have nothing to do with political
autonomy nor with political decentralization, which it is
utterly impossible to grant."

Assimilation to be Kept Up.
"I have never admitted," he further says, nor will I
ever admit, to give up the system of assimilation, in what-
ever there is essential in it, between Cuba and Spain.
* I have candidly recognized a need there is in
Cuba ; it existed before the war, exists at present, and will
exist after the war-the need to reform, perhaps, some points
of assimilation. There is a real need of applying there, to a
great extent, what the English call self-government-such a
decentralization that may be considered as extreme, giving
the country a large share in the management of her pecu-
liar interests."

Cdnovas Considers the Autonomists as Insurgents.
He adds:
Liberty is postponed in the minds of the insurgents, be-
cause they prefer what is called autonomy-that is to say,
the local government, the possession of local employment,
offices and political influence, and the satisfaction of their
personal ambitions."

Finds Ground for the Wish of Independence.
"My opinion is that the majority of the Sepa-
ratists are so at heart, and wish independence, attracted by
the example of the other countries of the American conti-
nent; attracted by the existence of the neighboring Repub-
lic of the United States, by her war of independence, and
by the prosperity, truly unique in both Americas, that said
Republic has reached."








30

Declares it to be a Rational Aspiration.
Why will that not be, even if hateful to us, a rational
aspiration ? And I say rational in the sense of its being
one of so many ideas held by reason. If those men, greatly
mistaken, have the belief that it is convenient for them to
separate from Spain, do they not see the impossibility to
constitute independence-impossibility seen by their neigh-
bors and the world over-as there is no one not to be con-
vinced of it, and the United States above all ? Do they not
see that Cuba is totally incapable of being independent, and
that if, unfortunately,she was to be evacuated by the Spanish
army, she would fall into a state of anarchy and, more than
this, into one of barbarism."

Cdnovas Admits that the Idea of Independence Can be
Professed.
"But even this being so, is it totally absurd that there
may be people who, attracted by ambition, by the desire of
having political representation in their own country, may
wish to form an independent State? I have
never nor will I ever yield to insurgents; have always been
and will ever be their enemy while I live; but as much as
to deny that such is an idea that can be professed, how am I
todenyit?" *
The Essential Question in Cuba According to Cdnovas.
"Senator Labra believes that it is enough to
satisfy the claims of those who wish political reforms, that
the Government be constituted in a different manner, and
that the municipal, provincial, and economical laws, all of
them, in a word, be different from what they are at present;
but that is not the essential question in Cuba. The essen-
tial question is to put an end to the separation and subdue
it, and for that it is necessary to satisfy that part of the
people who are loyal to us, do not hate us, and is by us, and
that is just and necessary, and I wish to contribute to it as
one of the foremost, not forgetting that there is a Separatist
element that will ever feel so and that will always need to
be kept under restraint." *
Repression to be Kept Up; Separatism a Product of the Ground.
"There is an irreducible element, more or less numerous,
a untural product of the ground, that will not disappear by









any means, and it would be insanity not to take the same
into consideration and count on it." *

Scorns the Autonomist Party.

"The Autonomist party is greatly weakened on account
of the large number of its members that have deserted from
the same. It may yet render great services to the govern-
ment with its advice, but cannot give any positive help to
end that war, which, for want of that influence, remains to
be only ended by the force of arms, without preventing the
government, by it, from preparing all the reforms that it
may think fit to prepare and be ready, when honorable, to
give them, and particularly if asked for."

Cannot Determine Reforms.

But cannot determine them, nor point them out, nor do
anything that may lead the insurgents to believe that the
government would submit to them."

If anything but words is to be found in the pieces of
oratory quoted above, it is the conviction that Canovas will
not give Cuba any reform worthy of the name.

Senator Labra's Appeal to the Government.

Senator Labra, addressing the government, and particu-
larly its chief representative, before the senate, brought to
recollection the War of Independence in the United States,
and said:
"Most eloquent speeches were delivered; pas-
sion had risen to its height; all the orators had carried to
the debate their honest convictions; words in defense of the
revolted colonies and even of the American rebellion were
heard in the British Parliament; there was a policy of war
at any cost; tremendous policy that led to all kinds of sac-
rifices; but a day came at last in which any further effort
for the war was to be impossible; that day in which the
agreement between the United States and France was made
public; the day of the paralysis of Lord Chatham, the great
advocate of American rights and liberties."









32

Too-late Declaration of Lord Nor6th.
And it was in that sad night that Lord North, who had
represented the policy of resistance and force, on retiring,
lowered his head, half hidden in the collar of his furred
overcoat, and exclaimed:
"I also had thought that by force alone, per-
haps we would not be able to put an end to that American
war!"
God grant that a similar case may not be repeated in
our country "
Too Late for Conciliation.
But as Spanish statesmen never read in the book of ex-
perience, events always surprise them ; and, to their sorrow,
they will find at last that this Cuban war cannot be ended
by the force of arms, and now not even by means of con-
ciliation, either.

A Pond of Blood and a Mountain of Slaughtered Cuban Vic-
tims Between the Parties.
It is too late, and too many wrongs, too many criminal
deeds have been committed by the Spanish government, to
have Cuba overlook them. Countless imprisonments and
cruel banishments of Cubans on mere suspicion ; constant
slaughter of pacific people and prisoners in the country, car-
ried out by the Spanish troops, or the infamous guerrillas,
where brigands and murderers have found employment;
the daily shooting of numberless prisoners, whose bodies
and blood,if put together, would fill and overflow the moats
of the fortresses where they are shot, cannot but fill any
Cuban heart with indignation, and strengthen the mind and
the will to reject any kind of compromise that would keep
the Cuban family in submission to the most contemptible of
governments; more so when all such acts of cruelty have
been committed by order of the high official appointed by
a government whose chief representative "accepts that the
idea of independence in the Cubans, though erroneous and








33

hateful to Spaniards, is a rational one, and admits that it can
be professed." It is a too cruel and bloody sarcasm to re-
ceive it with superhuman peace of mind.

Among the Barbarous Nations.
To have that savage practice carried out when all civil-
ized -nations condemn it, and after General Campos has
owned in the senate that the insurgents return prisoners and
even cure the wounded ones, is simply to place Spain, by
the deeds of her actual rulers and high representatives,
among the barbarous nations that have no respect for
human life, and treat political prisoners and suspects worse
than common criminals.

Sad Prospects for the Country.
There being no possible conciliation between Cuba and
Spain nor the triumph of the latter over the former, the
cause of Spain is irretrievably lost. Cuba, with a mixed
population of a million and a half, cannot raise and equip
an army strong enough to meet on the open field that of
Spain with her seventeen millions; but, carrying out the
policy of the revolution, to fight when convenient, to tire
and weary the enemy's army, bring her already empty treas-
ury to a full bankruptcy, exhausting her credit abroad and
at home, Cuba will succeed in her enterprise of forcing
Spain to abandon the island, but it will be after ruin and
desolation have extended over the whole country.

War or Anarchy.
Spain, for her convenience, is opposed to have the situation
of Cuba recognized as a state of war, and yet, to a more
serious and sad conclusion will civilized nations have to
come, or, at least the United States, recognizing that there
is in Cuba a state of anarchy through which, if not checked,
Cuba will not only be lost to Spain, but to the Cubans, who
will not be able to raise, develop and maintain a desolated
country as an independent State, and for a time it would










even be lost to the general and intellectual commerce of the
world if not rescued by the United States.

The United States to Save Cuba.

Are these as a nation to remain passive and let that con-
dition of affairs continue and increase? It does not seem
possible that she will keep from interfering as best she may
think or will to put an end to such a destructive struggle,
and to have peace, prosperity and all the guaranties found
in her own country extended to a neighboring one, almost
a part of her own.

Spain May Oppose, but in Vain.

Under another epileptic excitement Spain may oppose
the intervention, but to no effect. The right of a country
to break off the ties of tyranny, strengthened by the rights
of civilization and humanity represented in this case by the
United States, is above the historical rights of Spain and
her sense of pride.

Final Issue.

A feeling of self-preservation would advise Spain not to
enter into a war with the United States; but if insanity
would prompt her to a different action, there is no doubt
that the Spanish navy and army would prove true to their
world-acknowledged reputation for courage and endurance;
but, overpowered by right and strength, Spain would have
to yield, and, as a punishment to her uninterrupted colonial
errors, see Cuba lost to her, and in a very few years under
the protection of the United States, and through the influ-
ence and enterprise of her people become one of the most
peaceful and prosperous countries of the world.












SIX MONTHS LATER.
Six months have elapsed since the preceding work was
presented to Consul General Lee, and a brief review of
events during said time is required, so as to bring these
notes up to the present date.

More Troops Sent.
The forty and the sixty thousand men offered by CAnovas
landed in Cuba within the stated time, and the government
felt proud of having sent, in all, two hundred and fifty
thousand regular troops, which, with no less than twenty
thousand of guerrillas and some eighty thousand of Spanish
volunteers, made up an army of over three hundred thou-
sand men under the command of General Weyler.

Importance of the Revolution.
That the Cuban revolution is something unequaled by
any other in the history of American wars for independence,
is shown in the fact that no continental power has ever sent
such a large army across the Atlantic to keep in submission
any of its colonies; and yet, that gigantic effort of Spain
proves unsuccessful in the way of conquering Cuba, after
two years' struggle.

Canovas' Pride Humbled.
Money was needed, and Canovas attempted to raise an-
other foreign loan, and have the railroad companies con-
tribute to the four hundred millions of dollars that he
wanted; but to his deepest sorrow and humiliation he asked
in vain. The Rothschilds would not give a cent more on the
mines of Almaden. Foreign holders of Spanish railroad
stocks opposed lending any more money to a bankrupt na-
tion. Interests on foreign loans were due, and there was
no way of paying them unless by means of a national loan.
To it did CAnovas devote all his energies, knowing that the











result of the same was to be of a decisive effect. La Epoca,
a ministerial paper devoted to Canovas, gives the latter's
view as to
What the Loan Means.
Canovas said :
Money is the principal nerve of war; were it not possi-
ble to raise the loan, sooner or later, but in a relative short
time, the operations of the campaign would have to be sus-
pended, and that would be equivalent to accept the idea of
the loss of Cuba ; and if this immense national misfortune
was to happen, it would be of the gravest consequences, be-
cause, as the example is contagious, with the loss of our
sovereignty on the sea of the Antilles we would have given
a disastrous example."

The national loan was raised, not for four hundred mil-
lions of dollars as Cinovas had desired, but for eighty mil-
lions. The interests due on the foreign loans were paid,
and, according to Cauovas' own statement, there is only
money left until March.

CdWovas Urgent Appeals to General Weyler.

Canovas urged General Weyler to take personal com-
mand of the military operations and have them successfully
finished before the year was over, because the pressure of
the United States Government was growing stronger, and
any delay in extinguishing the revolution could give
ground for some kind of interference; that Spain had made
her last effort, and there was a very strong feeling of oppo-
sition throughout the country to have more men sent to
Cuba for a useless sacrifice; that, except the ministerial
press, all the other considered the campaign in Cuba a total
failure and his command a bitter disappointment. Finally
he called General Weyler's attention to the probable triumph
of the Republican party in the elections of November and
to the greater dangers that it would involve for Spain if the
revolution was not ended before March.










Turkish Way of General Weyler.
General Weyler, in his own Turkish way, began to pre-
pare what he thought to be a definite plan. In an official
document of October last to General Arolas, commander of
the western trocha, he stated that the insurgents received
their greatest help through the informations derived from
the people in the country, and so all farmers or farm help
living within ten miles of said military line must be com-
pelled to move in the term of ten days to the fortified towns,
and those failing to do it and found in the country to be
treated as rebels and spies."
Later on, when the return of the November elections was
known, he hastened to operations in the province of Pinar
del Rio and issued a general order to the effect above men-
tioned, but comprising the whole province. Thousands of
families were thus forced to give up their homes and their
means of keeping up life in the country, to concentrate in
towns where no provisions were made for their accommoda-
tion and support, and so, from want of shelter and food,
they soon became a prey to famine, disease, and death.
Farm-houses through the country, huts, or settlements with
families near the insurgent camps were burnt by the Spanish
columns, and the inmates cut to pieces, regardless of sex or
age, and many a time much to the expressed reluctance of
sensitive officers and soldiers, who, heart-broken at the rec-
ollection of their families, had yet to obey the orders of the
heartless chief and use their swords against those defense-
less people.
The New York Mail and Express of last January has
said :
Weyler declared before starting for Pinar del Rio that
he would pacify that province even if he had to kill every
man, woman, and child in it. In the Spanish vocabulary
pacification means death."

Many lives have been destroyed by the soldiers and guer-
rillas of Weyler, but Pinar del Rio is not pacified. A num-








38

ber of the New York Journal of January last contained a
map of Cuba, showing the number and location of the Cuban
forces in Pinar del Rio and the other provinces.
General Wevler tried in vain to crush the Cuban General
Maceo and his army corps upon the mountains, but was al-
ways repelled with heavy losses. A joint action being re-
quired between Maceo and Gomez in the provinces of
Havana, the former left his army corps under an able com-
mandpr and passed the trocha with a number of his staff.
A long distance from the same lie fell, and it has not been
satisfactorily explained yet how he was killed. His death
has not checked the march of the revolution.

Pretended Pacification of Pinar del Rio Not 7-ue.
Though General Weyler pretends to have pacified the
province of Pinar del Rio, there are proofs to the contrary
in the large number of troops he has left to contend with
the insurgents, and in the edict he has issued, first, allowing
country people to return to their farms, provided these are
near fortified places and the owners have the confidence of
the local authorities; second, that the deeds of property are
presented, and, thirdly, that the receipt of having paid the
taxes of last year shall be exhibited ; and, as the greater
number of farms are distant from fortified places, and pacific
people will not risk to be treated as rebels and spies, and
the deeds of property may have been burnt, and no one is
going to pay taxes on a crop he did not raise and on a
property that was destroyed, people will keep away from
the farms until peace is permanently insured.

Sword, Fire, and Epidemics in Havana Province.
From Pinar del Rio General Weyler marched to Havana
and Matanzas; extended to both provinces the edict issued
for that of Pinar del Rio, and carrying fire and sword through
the country,forced the people to concentrate in towns, where,
deprived of all the necessaries of life, they are dying by the
thousands, victims to exposure, hunger, and epidemics.











Smallpox, typhus, and malignant dysentery are helping Gen-
eral Weyler in his work of extermination of the Cuban fam-
ily. He goes to his object and does not care by what means;
all Cubans are rebels, so, the more of them that die the better;
if they all could be exterminated at once, the work of pacifi-
cation would sooner be done. What is it to him if Cuba is
not his country, and as soon as he has accomplished his end
will return to Spain, charged with honors and money that
will insure him prominent show ?

Repetition of Indian Extermination.
History is repeating itself; and like the adventurous Span-
iards who four hundred years ago conquered by similar means
all the Indian countries in America and extinguished the
race in Cuba, writing with blood the history of said times,
so is the present Spanish government doing now in Cuba.
C uovas has said that separatism is a natural product of
the ground," and knows well enough that if apparently
killed at any time, it will sprout again ; so there is no excuse
for that war of savage extermination, whose responsibility
is not to be charged only on Weyler, but on Canovas and
his cabinet that approve his acts with their support; on the
Queen Regent, who keeps them in her confidence, and on
the nation at large, that tolerates them all. If all these
parties have lost their conscience as individuals, there is an
universal conscience represented by the Christian and civil-
ized nations of the world, which, if not dormant, must feel
the shock and be aroused to action, putting a stop to such
proceedings, disgraceful to civilization and to the govern-
ments of nations that tolerate them.

The United States to be Aroused to Action.
First among and above all are the United States, on ac-
count of her institutions and her relations with Cuba; a
trembling step in that direction, though only as a gentle
warning, was taken by President Cleveland, as shown in his
message of December 7 last, to Congress.








40

Message of President Cleveland.
President Cleveland says in extract:
"The insurrection in Cuba still continues with its per-
plexities. It is difficult to perceive that any progress has
thus far been made toward the pacification of the island.
If Spain still holds Havana and the seaports and all the
considerable towns, the insurgents still roam at will over at
least two-thirds of the inland country.
While the original policy of the Spanish government
seemed to be that of protection, it has now abandoned it and
is acting upon the theory that the exigencies of the contest
require the wholesale annihilation of property that it may
not prove of use and advantage to the enemy."

Interest of the United States in Cuba's Fate.
"The spectacle of the utter ruin of an adjoining country,
by nature one of the most fertile and charming on the globe,
would engage the serious attention of the Government and
people of the United States in any circumstances. In point
of fact, they have a concern with it which is by no means
of a wholly sentimental or philanthropic character. It lies
so near to us as to be hardly separated from our territory.
Our actual pecuniary interest in it is second only to that of
the people and government of Spain. It is reasonably esti-
mated that at least from $30,000,000 to $50,000,000 of
American capital are invested in plantations and in rail-
road, mining, and other business enterprises on the island.
The volume of trade between the United States and
Cuba, which in 1889 amounted to about $64,000,000, rose in
1893 to about $103,000,000, and in 1894, the year before
the present insurrection broke out, amounted to nearly
$9(i,000,000. Besides this large pecuniary stake in the for-
tunes of Cuba, the United States finds itself inextricably
involved in the present contest in other ways, both vexa-
tious and costly."

How the United States are Placed.
"The insurgents are undoubtedly encouraged and sup-
ported by the widespread sympathy the people of this
country always and instinctively feel for every struggle
for better and freer government, and which, in the case
of the more adventurous and restless elements of our











population, leads in only too many instances to active
participation in the contest. This Government is constantly
called upon to protect American citizens, to claim damages
for injuries to persons and property, now estimated at many
millions of dollars, and to ask explanations and apologies
for the acts of Spanish officials whose zeal for the repression
of the rebellion sometimes blinds them to immunities be-
longing to the unoffending citizen of a friendly power."

Compelled to Police the Coast.
"The United States is compelled to actively police a long
line of seacoast against unlawful expeditions, the escape of
which the utmost vigilance will not always suffice to pre-
vent. These inevitable entanglements of the United States
with the rebellion in Cuba, the large American property
interests affected, and considerations of philanthropy and
humanity in general have led to a vehement demand in
various quarters for some sort of positive intervention on
the part of the United States."

The United States Aware of Events in Cuba.
Neither the Government nor the people of the United
States have shut their eyes to the course of events in Cuba,
nor have failed to realize the existence of conceded griev-
ances, which have led to the present revolt from the author-
ity of Spain-grievances recognized by the Queen Regent
and by the Cortes, voiced by the most patriotic and enlight-
ened of Spanish statesmen without regard to party, and
demonstrated by reforms proposed by the executive and
approved by the legislative branch of the Spanish govern-
ment."
Hopes of President Cleveland.
"It would seem that if Spain should offer to Cuba genu-
ine autonomy-a measure of home rule which, while pre-
serving the sovereignty of Spain, would satisfy all rational
requirements of her Spanish subjects-there should be no
just reason why the pacification of the island might not be
effected on that basis. Such a result would appear to be in
the true interest of all concerned. It would at once stop the
conflict which is now consuming the resources of the island
and making it worthless for whichever party may ultimately
prevail."










Absolute Autonomy Would Bring Prosperity to the Island.
"It would keep intact the possessions of Spain without
touching her honor, which will be consulted rather than
impugned by the adequate redress of admitted grievances.
It would put the prosperity of the island and the fortunes
of its inhabitants within their own control without severing
the natural and ancient ties which bind them to the mother
country, and would yet enable them to test their capacity
for self-government under the most favorable conditions.
It has been objected on the one side that Spain should
not promise autonomy until her insurgent subjects lay down
their arms; on the other side, that promised autonomy,
however liberal, is insufficient because without assurance of
the promise being fulfilled."

Spanish Requirement Not Reasonable.
"But the reasonableness of a requirement by Spain of
unconditional surrender on the part of the insurgent Cubans
before their autonomy is conceded, is not altogether ap-
parent.
It ignores important features of the situation-the sta-
bility two years' duration has given to the insurrection, the
feasibility of its indefinite prolongation in the nature of
things, and, as shown by past experience, the utter and im-
minent ruin of the island unless the present strife is speedily
composed; above all, the rank abuses which all parties in
Spain, all branches of her government, and all her public
men concede to exist and profess a desire to remove.
Facing such circumstances, to withhold the proffer of
needed reforms until the parties demanding them put them-
selves at mercy by throwing down their arms, has the ap-
pearance of neglecting the gravest of perils and inviting
suspicion as to the sincerity of any professed willingness to
great reforms. The objection on behalf of the insurgents
that promised reforms cannot be relied upon must, of course,
be considered."

Offer to Mediate Between Belligerents.
Realizing that suspicions and precautions on the part of
the weaker of two combatants are always natural and not
always unjustifiable, being sincerely desirous in the inter-
est of both, as well as on its own account, that the Cuban
problem should be solved with the least possible delay, it








43

was intimated by this Government to the government of
Spain some months ago, that if a satisfactory measure of
home rule were tendered the Cuban insurgents and would
be accepted by them upon a guaranty of its execution, the
United States would endeavor to find a way not objectiona-
ble to Spain of furnishing such guaranty. The friendly
offices of the United States in any way consistent with our
Constitution and laws will always be at the disposal of
either party."
No European Interference.
Whatever circumstances may arise, our policy and our
interests would constrain us to object to the acquisition of
the island or an interference with its control by any other
power."
Patience Has a Limit.
It should be added that it cannot be reasonably assumed
that the hitherto expectant attitude of the United States will
beindefinitely maintained. While we are anxious to accord
all due respect to the sovereignty of Spain, we cannot view
the pending conflict in all its features and properly appre-
hend our inevitably close relations to it and its possible re-
sults, without considering that by the course of events we
may be drawn into such an unusual and unprecedented con-
dition as will fix a limit to our patient waiting for Spain to
end the contest, either alone and in her own way, or with our
friendly co-operation."

When the United Slates May Take Steps.
"When the inability of Spain to deal successfully with
.the insurrection has become manifest, and it is demonstrated
that her sovereignty is extinct in Cuba for all purposes of its
rightful existence, and when a hopeless struggle for its re-
establishment has degenerated into a strife which means
nothing more than the useless sacrifice of human life and
the utter destruction of the very subject-matter of the con-
flict, a situation will be presented in which our obligations
to the sovereignty of Spain will be superseded by higher
obligations which we can hardly hesitate to recognize and
discharge.
I have deemed it not amiss to remind the Congress that
a time may arrive when a correct policy and care for our in-
terests, as well as a regard for the interests of other nations










and their citizens, joined by considerations of humanity and
a desire to see a rich and fertile country intimately related
to us saved from complete devastation, will constrain our
Government to such action as will subserve the interests
thus involved, and at the same time promise to Cuba and its
inhabitants an opportunity to enjoy the blessings of peace."

Senator Cameron's Resolution.
As a recognition of the above facts and answering the call
of the people for a speedy, immediate action, Senator Cam-
eron introduced a joint resolution acknowledging the inde-
pendence of Cuba and offering the friendly offices of this
Government with Spain to bring to a close the war between
Spain and the Republic of Cuba. It was unanimously ac-
cepted by the Committee of Foreign Affairs, and the report
of the same is given in the following extract:
Senate Committee Report on Cuba.
The opening lines of the report state that "Congress at
its last session, after long and patient consideration, adopted
with practical unanimity the view expressed by your com-
mittee that the time had come for intervention with Spain
for the recognition of the independence of Cuba. Spain
having declined to listen to any representation founded on
an understanding between herself and the insurgents, and
Congress having pledged itself to friendly intervention, the
only question that remains to be decided is the nature of
the next step to be taken with proper regard to the customs
and usages of nations."

Review of History and of President Monroe's Message.
1. The report comprises a complete review of the history
of nations regarding intervention, and epitomizes the history
of the movement of the Spanish colonies in America for
independence, resulting in President Monroe sending to
Congress his celebrated message of March 8, 1822, recom-
mending the recognition of all the revolted colonies of
Spain-Mexico, Colombia, Chili, and Buenos Ayres.
These countries asked no more. They based their claim
on their independence de facto, and Monroe admitted its








45

force. 'The provinces,' he added, which have declared
their independence and are in the enjoyment of it, ought to
be recognized.' In reality it created the law, so far as its
action went, and its legality was recognized by no European
power, and Spain protested vigorously.
2. From that day to this," continues the report, the
American people have always and unanimously supported
and approved the Monroe doctrine. They needed no reason-
ing to prove that it was vital to their safety."
The Government of the United States has always re-
garded Cuba as within the sphere of its most active and
serious interest.
This right of intervention in matters relating to the ex-
ternal relations of Cuba, asserted and exercised'seventy years
ago, has been asserted and exercised at every crisis in which
the island has been involved.
When the Cuban insurgents in 1869 appealed to the
United States for recognition, President Grant admitted the
justice of the claim, and directed the minister of the United
States at Madrid to interpose our good offices with the
Spanish government, in order to obtain by a friendly ar-
rangement the independence of the island. The story of
that intervention is familiar to every member of the Senate,
and was made the basis of its resolution last session, re-
questing the President once more to interpose his friendly
offices with the Spanish government for the recognition of
the independence of Cuba.'"

Ready for the Consequences of "Good Offices."
The resolution then adopted by Congress was perfectly
understood to carry with it the consequences which neces-
sarily would follow the rejection by Spain of friendly offices.
On this point the situation needs no further comment. The
action taken by Congress in the last session was taken on
great consideration and on just principles,' on a right of in-
tervention exercised twenty-seven years ago, and after a
patient delay unexampled in history.
The interval of nine months which has elapsed since
the action of Congress, has proved the necessity of carrying
it on to completion."
The report then goes on to argue that-
"The Cuban insurgents have a better status for recogni-
tion than had any of the revolted people named in the long











chapter of precedents whose independence has become a
fact. The only question that properly remains for Congress
to consider is the mode which shall be adopted for the step
which Congress is pledged next to take.
"The Government of the United States entertains none
but the friendliest feelings towards Spain. Its most anxious
wish is to avoid even the appearance of an unfriendliness
which is wholly foreign to its thought. For more than a
hundred years, amidst divergence of clashing interests and
under frequent and severe strains, the two governments
have succeeded in avoiding collision, and there is no friendly
office which Spain could ask which the United States, within
the limits of its established principles and policy, would not
be glad to extend. In the present instance it is actuated
by an earnest wish to avoid the danger of seeming to pro-
voke a conflict.
The practice of Europe in regard to intervention, as in
the instances cited, has been almost invariably harsh and
oppressive. The practice of the United States has been al-
most invariably mild and forbearing. Among the prece-
dents which have been so numerously cited there can be no
doubt as to the choice. The most moderate is the best.
Among these, the attitude taken by President Monroe in
'1822 is the only attitude which can properly be regarded as
obligatory for a similar situation today. The course pur-
sued by the United States in the recognition of Colombia is
the only course which Congress can consistently adopt.
We recommend, therefore, the joint resolution, with
amendments, to read as follows:
"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That the in-
dependence of the Republic of Cuba be, and the same is
hereby, acknowledged by the United States of America.
"Be it further resolved, That the United States will use its
friendly offices with the government of Spain to bring to a
close the war between Spain and the Republic of Cuba."

Confidence and Alarm Mixed in Premier Cdnovas.
Though Minister Cnovas felt confident that he had noth-
ing to fear from the administration of Mr. Cleveland, yet
his declarations impressed him, because, being made by the
President of the United States, they were to be kept in
record and could not honestly be ignored by his successor,










nor by the other representatives of the country that is
unanimously showing its sympathy to Cuba, protesting
against the acts of the Government that turn United States
vessels and naval officers into a corps of police in favor of
Spain, spends the money of the nation in paying said
service, and has thus far failed to comply with its constant
claim for speedy action on behalf of Cuba.

Cdnovas' and Weyler's Scheme.
The report of the Senate Committee on Cuba alarmed
Chnovas still more deeply, because he saw in it a prompt
and decided answer to public opinion; so he insisted on
General Weyler, and for mutual interest it was agreed to
present several provinces as pacified, and by it the opposi-
tion in Spain against Weyler would subside, and the gov-
ernment, showing that it acted from its own free will and
not under the pressure of the United States, would announce
a plan of reforms before the inauguration of the Republican
President, keeping the latter from making any unfavorable
declaration against Spain or otherwise resolving on some
immediate action.
Weyler's Part.
Weyler has performed his part and goes to his business.
While he and his chosen ones remain in Cuba, the spoils are
for them, no matter if the public press in Spain raises its
indignation high at the corruption through which even the
poor soldier is robbed of food, clothing, and proper attend-
ance when sick. Weyler knows that he is repulsive to
Cubans; always was so, and forever will be; but he does not
care for that. He and his party came to Cuba for profit,
not for work and moral acts. They are in a rebel country,
and when tired of it will return with the spoils to their
mother land.

Cdnovas' Performance, a Discredit to Him.
But Canovas' part has been a complete and discreditable
failure, and, besides, a masked, impudent contempt of Presi-
dent Cleveland and his honest hopes.










President Cleveland pretended for Cuba "a genuine au-
tonomy that would put the prosperity of the island and the
fortunes of its inhabitants within their own control," and
Canovas has acted shamefully towards him and his Cabinet
and all those that honestly believed yet in the sincerity of
the promises made by any Spanish government up to this
day. Something like a spare bone thrown to a dog to gnaw
and keep him away from annoying, has Cdnovas thrown to
this Government, in the shape of a ridiculous plan of re-
forms that do not reform anything. Cleveland and Olney
and the Government they represent have been slighted and
ridiculed in the attempt made to insure peace and union
between Spain and Cuba on the base of an ample auton-
omy.
Cdnovas' Scheme of Reforms.
A brief examination of the plan will give the proof of its
emptiness and inefficacy.
To begin with, the whole affair is reduced to a scheme for
a new robe to cover the same old diseased body, and to be
used as soon as it receives the approval of the Cortes, and
as soon as the state of the island will permit."
The Cortes are not in session; when called they may not
approve the scheme; and even if they approve it, the state
of the island may not permit its execution. Meagre as the
projected reforms are, there is no prospect of their being
carried into effect yet.
"Much Ado About Nothing."
The reforms consist chiefly in the creation of an assem-
bly, to be called the Council of administration, composed
of thirty-five members, of whom twenty-one are to be elected
by the people, and six by the different corporations. The
remainder will be one magistrate, one university professor,
one archbishop, and five former senators or deputies.
No Essential Diference.
Though somewhat more limited in the number of mem-
bers, Cuba has had that Council of administration for many










years past, and it has never been of any advantage to the
country, because the influence and pressure of the govern-
ment over most of its members, and the right of dispensing
with its advice or decisions, has always rendered the Coun-
cil a mere decorative piece.
Under the new disguise the effects would be the same.
Of the thirty-five members twenty-one are to be elected by
the people. No Cuban capable of feeling could take part
in the sham elections. The Reformists would be allowed
some few members, and the greater number would turn out
Conservatives. Even if the scattered and less sensitive Au-
tonomists were to join the Reformists, the Conservative force
in the Council would be increased by the government with
the rest of the members that are of its free appointment, and
the assembly would always come out as a home-made ma-
chine for the use and with the trade-mark of the govern-
ment.

Powers of the Council of Administration.
The Council of administration is empowered, firstly, to
prepare a budget; secondly, to examine into the fitness of
officials appointed; thirdly, to make a tariff subject to the
condition of Spanish imports having advantages over the
general tariff.

As in Old Times.
The preparation of the budget is nothing new. The
actual Council of administration has been doing that work
yearly, to have it ignored and replaced by another prepared
by the Madrid government for the Cortes and approved by
the same.
As to the right of examining into the fitness of officials
appointed, it is mere sham. When the governor general
appoints them he is sure to enforce their approval.
In regard to the making of the tariff, subject to certain
conditions, the Madrid government will take good care to
dictate such rules that the tariff will result as the latter's










work and not that of the Council, or else in submitting it to
the approbation of the Cortes it will be disregarded and re-
placed by one of their own making.

The Governor General Above the Council.
The governor general will represent the home govern-
ment and will have the right to nominate officials, who
should by Cubans or Spaniards who have resided two years
in Cuba. Nevertheless, he may freely nominate high func-
tionaries, such as magistrates, prefects, etc.

The Same Story of Old.
Cuba has a right acknowledged by law, but in the same
a higher right is granted to the governor general. The
Council of administration is empowered to examine into
the fitness of officials appointed by the governor general,"
but (in Spanish laws and resolutions there is
always a but), nevertheless, he can freely nominate high
functionaries, such as magistrates, prefects, etc."

Nominal Powers.
The municipal councils general will be empowered to
elect their presidents and will have charge of public educa-
tion.

They have always had that power, though ineffectual in
the practice through the intrusions of the government.

Extraordinary Powers to the Government.
According to another decree, the government reserves to
itself extraordinary powers in the event of any disturbance
of public order, and Cuba will continue to elect senators and
deputies to the Cortes as at present.

With and without reserve the government has alwavsex-
ercised absolute powers; and any small, limited disturbance
of public order, no matter where in the island, has been and
will ever be an excuse to suspend constitutional rights. As









51

to the election of senators and deputies to the Cortes, Cuba
could not forget past and costly experience. For eighteen
years have the Autonomist representatives been humbly and
ridiculously petitioning and being treated with scorn. And
after the savage warfare carried out in Cuba by the Spanish
government, should the latter conquer and subdue the
island, could there be any Cuban so deprived of dignity as
to accept a representation for the Spanish Cortes ? It does
not seem possible!

Unlimited Powers to the Governor General.
The powers of the governor general are much extended.

That extension is not possible, because they have always
done what their caprice or their pleasure has inclined them
to do. At present General Weyler has deprived the found-
lings, orphans, and aged poor of their asylum-that is a
private institution-to use it for military purposes. The
Cuban medical professors at the university have been im-
prisoned or banished, and substituted with physicians from
the army. So great is the power of the governor general, that
General Weyler has turned an army physician, who has
never treated but soldiers, into a professor for the special
chair of obstetrics and gynecology.

Spanish Government Will Not Give Up the Purse.
The Spanish government will continue to vote budgets
and treaties for the colonies.

If the budget, the tariff, and the right of making treaties
are to be controlled by the government and Cortes in Spain,
what is left to the ill-treated colonies in the way of man-
aging their own special interests ?
The Monopoly to Subsist.
The Spanish products, according to the reform scheme,
will be allowed a rebate of 40 per cent. of the Cuban tariffs,
compared with other imports.










In a word, Spaiu makes the tariff to suit her convenience,
and the swindling and smuggling would continue, and Cuba
would be kept down in misery and oppression if she were
to fall into such a stupidly prepared trap.

Cdnovas' Whistle.

The new scheme of Canovas is, in fact, like a whistle that
does not sound, or a fiddle without strings.

Let Americans Judge.

Honest Cleveland and Olney, Senators and Congressmen
who have advocated for Spain, examine impartially the
scheme of reforms prepared by the Spanish government as
generous concessions to the Cubans, and honestly make a
judgment of what Cubans are to expect from Spain, and
which is to be the line of conduct that the United States
ought to follow in regard to both.

Moral Diference Between the Spanish People and Their Rulers.

The time for action must have come, and though in said
Cortes, before the government and amid roars of laughter
and thunders of applause, members of the American Con-
gress have been subject to vulgar comparisons and consid-
ered as only capable of producing lard, the world all over
knows that Americans are not slow for anything; that they
have raised themselves to high positions and have likewise
raised their country through brains and enterprise not to
be found at present in that parchment nobility of Spain,
whether ancient or modern, nor in most of the so-called
representatives of the country in the monarchical parties,
the Cortes and the government, as otherwise the nation
itself, its people, honest, hospitable, warm-hearted, and capa-
ble of the greatest enterprises, would not be kept down in
ignorance and poverty through the corrupt, selfish, and
criminal understanding of the monarchical politicians, the
government and the Crown.











Scheme of Reforms Will Deceive No One.
The Spanish scheme of reforms cannot fool American
statesmen, legislators, public press, and people at large.
A country deprived of governing its own budget, tariff,
etc., is left defenseless. Besides that, a most important point
has been hypocritically kept in silence; it is that concerning
the war debt, the decision of which is left to the Cortes. If
in June last the debt amounted to three hundred and thirty
millions of dollars, and since then no less than a hundred
millions more have been spent, it would reach the sum of
five hundred millions before the war would come to an end,
no matter how soon it was. The government and the Cortes
would charge Cuba with that debt, and it is easy to think
what the prospects of her people would be if forced to carry
a debt of five hundred millions of dollars, when even the
whole revenue of the island would not be enough to pay
the interests, when the country is devastated, and when the
budget, tariff, and commercial treaties are beyond their
control.
Timely Advice and Worthy Lesson.
As for those whom such apparent reforms would sat-
isfy-whether they be American statesmen, legislators,
humble Cubans, and Spanish subjects-a timely advice and
worthy lesson is to be found in the following:

Address to the American People by Col. Ethan Allen, President
of the American-Cuban League of the United States.
NEW YORK, February 6, 1897.
"The time has come for the citizens of the United States
to be heard upon the proposed reforms which Spain in her
extremity now offers to Cuba. The Cubans, through their
official representatives, have spoken in condemnation of these
Spanish proposals, and it is now becoming that the Ameri-
can people, who have so closely followed the march of the
patriots with a burning sympathy, should confirm this de-
cision. As the official head of the Cuban League of the
United States, I can proclaim the fact to be that from border











to border across this Republic the vote and voice is almost
unanimous against any terms for Cuba other than absolute
independence.
To every governor of our States and to every mayor of
our cities appeal has been made for sympathy and aid for
the struggling Cubans, and not one has faltered in his alle-
giance to the cause of liberty. The American heart still
beats loyally to the music of Bunker Hill and is cheered
with the tramp of those who are marching to independence.
There can be no step backward now. If Cuba listens to the
voice of the hypocrite and again places herself under the
banner of Spain,she is craven and cowardly and unworthy
of the plaudits of our people.
She draws from us her dynamite, powder, and guns, and
the supply shall not fail if she will continue to hold her
present heroic attitude against the seductions of her fierce
and perfidious enemy. History repeats itself in this hurried
offer of compromise from Spain. It has long been the trick
of royal powers to seduce with promises where they failed
to reduce with arms. This was attempted in our own revo-
lution. Washington and Congress alike rejected the pro-
posed reforms; Cuba must follow their example.
It is a monstrous proposition to the American citizen
that Cuba shall now lay down her arms and again feel the
embrace of her horrid foe. Dick Turpin, on Hounslow
Heath, is not celebrated in story for villainy so great as that
charged to Spanish rulers in their dealings with Cuba. For
hundreds of years it has been a continuation of plunder
and oppression. Why should the murderer now dictate
terms to his victim ? Turpin was sent to the gibbet for his
crimes.
Regarding Spain as an individual, why should she, for
crimes more colossal, not be gibbeted upon the scaffold of
outraged humanity? To accept her proposals by her al-
most victorious combatants in Cuba would be to rehabilitate
this dreg in the family of nations for another career of in-
famy until intolerable crimes precipitated another bloody
conflict.
The time to end the domination of Spain in this hemi-
sphere is now ; the time for patriotic Americans to uphold
the hands of the brave Cubans is now ; the time to throttle
the cowardly obeisance to monarchy by some of our own
American officials is now; and the time to bend the re-
publican head of our people to a brutal throne in favor of a
compromise which continues the enthrallment of a band of











brothers whom we have so far cheered with our friendship is
never.
ETHAN ALLEN,
President American Cuban League
of the United States."

The feelings shown by Colonel Allen in his address to the
American people were strengthened by an editorial article
published on the 8th instant by the New York Journal under
the heading-

The United States, France and Cuba.

"At Delmonico's there gathered Saturday night a brilliant
assemblage of men, representing the very flower of New
York's commercial and professional classes. The Sons of
the American Revolution had taken the occasion of the
119th anniversary of the treaty of alliance with France to
do honor to that great nation which extended to the strug-
gling colonies in America aid in establishing their inde-
pendence of Great Britain-aid which Captain Mahan
declared was absolutely decisive in the struggle. 'It was
because of the maritime power which France gave us,' said
the great authority upon sea power, 'that the success of the
war against England was obtained.'
Every oration addressed to that assemblage expressed in
fervent words the sense of a nation's gratitude to a great
ally. Every cable message which sped under the Atlantic
bore renewed assurances of good will from the one nation
to the other. The dispatch of congratulation to the Presi-
dent of the French Republic expressed grateful remem-
brance of 'priceless services.' The lieutenant governor of
New York eulogized the' brilliant and cultured court which
stretched forth the hand of assistance and brotherly love to
the struggling, uncouth farmer soldiery of a new-born
people.' The names of Lafayette and Washington were
linked together in a common immortality, the' Marseillaise'
and the 'Star-spangled Banner' were mingled in a stirring
march, and the entwined flags of the two republics gave
testimony to the honor which all beneath them bore to the
nation which in upholding the cause of the American Re-
public became in all truth the sponsor of liberty.
"It is inconceivable that any son of the American
Revolution could have listened to the speeches in which











the far-seeing patriotism of France was extolled without
thinking of another uncouth farmer soldiery struggling
for liberty, uncleered by a single act of aid from the re-
public which France erected. The Lafayettes whom the
people of the United States would send to Cuba, the Attor-
ney General of the United States would indict for piracy.
The sea power, which might prove as effective to the cause
of liberty today as Captain Mahan declares it was in 1778,
we employ for the suppression of liberty. To what nation
will the sons of the Cuban revolution a hundred years
hence send messages of gratitude? What banner in the
days of their success shall be entwined with the flag of
Cuba Libre ?
It was pointed out by more than one scholarly orator
that the aid of France to the American revolution had its
reflex action upon French institutions themselves. In
building up democracy over seas, the French people imbibed
democratic ideas at home. We may well inquire whether
from this fact, too, a lesson is not to be learned by us. At
a moment when complaint of the growing aristocracy of
American institutions is loud and bitter, at a time when
Presidents must be strong men fit to govern a headstrong
people, in a day when the Executive makes hourly encroach-
ments on the legislative power, and the grasp of plutocracy
is dominant of all, can we serve a corrupt monarchy, as
France served a new-born republic, without in our turn
experiencing a reflex action ?
"The JOURNAL offers these queries in all seriousness to the
Sons of the American Revolution, with the frank statement
of its own conviction that the policy of the United States in
leaving Cuba to its fate makes a celebration of our first
treaty with France a damning indictment of our own na-
tional selfishness."

Doubts Over the Democratic Administration.

The Democratic Administration passes away leaving a
doubt on President Cleveland and Secretary Olney's con-
duct, and the new Republican Administration comes into
power with the following platform unanimously agreed
upon at St. Louis, Missouri, on June 18, 1896, and ratified
with its acceptance:











The Republican Platform.
"The government of Spain having lost control of Cuba,
and being unable to protect the property or lives of resi-
dent American citizens, or to comply with its treaty obliga-
tion, we believe that theGovernment of the United States
should actively use its influence and good offices to restore
peace and give independence to the island."

A Sad Contrast.
The 4th of March is fast approaching. The excitement
for the inauguration of the new President affects every
American citizen, and, as a contrast to the same, at the very
doors of this grand and free country lies a brother country
desperately struggling for the liberties that are enjoyed
here, and sadly seeing that not a helping hand has been
nobly and generously extended to have it rise from the
opprobrious condition in which it lies and seems con-
demned to remain.

No Party Question.
It is by no means a party question; all over the Union,
regardless of party, the voice is heard demanding that help
be extended; but he who could do it has not heard the voice
or has disregarded it.
Another man and another Administration comes into
power, and to it no better and more timely address can be
made than quoting the tribute paid by its Chief to the im-
mortal Lincoln:

McKinley on Lincoln.
"It requires the most gracious pages in the world's his-
tory to record what one American achieved. The story of
this simple life is the story of a plain, honest, manly citi-
zen, true patriot and profound statesman, who, believing
with all the strength of his mighty soul in the institutions
of his country, won, because of them, the highest place in
its Government-then fell a precious sacrifice to the Union
he held so dear, which Providence had spared his life long
enough to save.
I










While the party with which we stand, and for which he
stood, can justly claim him, and without dispute can boast
the distinction of being the first to honor and trust him,
his fame has leaped the bounds of party and country, and
now belongs to mankind and the ages.
Lincoln had sublime faith in the people. He worked
with and among them. He recognized the importance and
power of an enlightened public sentiment and was guided
by it. Even amid the vicissitudes of war he concealed little
from public view and inspection. In all he did he invited,
rather than evaded, examination and criticism. There was
such homely simplicity in his character that it could not be
hedged in by pomp of place nor in ceremonials of high offi-
cial station.
"Among the statesmen of America, Lincoln is the true
Democrat and, Franklin perhaps excepted, the first great
one.
Lincoln believed in the uplifting influences of free gov-
ernment, and that by giving all a chance we could get
higher average results for the people than when govern-
menits are exclusive and opportunities are limited to the
few. No American ever did so much as he to enlarge these
opportunities or tear down the barriers which excluded a
free participation in them.
Lincoln was essentially a man of peace. He inherited
from his Quaker forefathers an intense opposition to war.
Magnanimity was one of Lincoln's most striking traits.
Patriotism moved him at every step. At the beginning of
the war he placed at the head of three most important mil-
itary departments three of his political opponents-Patter-
son, Butler, and McClellan.
Many people were impatient at Lincoln's conservatism.
He gave the South every chance possible. He pleaded with
them with an earnestness that was pathetic. He recognized
the South was not alone to blame for tile existence of slavery,
but that the sin was a national one.
Lincoln did all he could to avert it, but there was no
hesitation on his part when the sword of rebellion flashed
from its scabbard.
The proud designation 'Father of His Country' was not
more appropriately bestowed upon Washington than the
affectionate title 'Father Abraham' was given to Lincoln
by the soldiers and loyal people of the North.
To him was given the duty and responsibility of mak-
ing that great classic of liberty, the Declaration of Independ-









59
ence, no longer an empty promise, but a glorious fulfill-
ment.
The greatest names in American history are Washing-
ton and Lincoln. Each lived to accomplish his appointed
task.
Lincoln's fame rests upon a severer test than that of any
other American. Never in all the ages of men have the
acts, words, motives-even thoughts-of any statesman been
so scrutinized, analyzed, studied, or speculated upon as his.
"A noble manhood, nobly consecrated to man, never dies.
The martyr to liberty, the emancipation of a race, the savior
of the only free government among men, may be buried
from human sight, but his deeds will live in human grati-
tude forever." (President-elect McKinley before the Mar-
quette Club, Chicago, February 12, 1896.)

The Next President's Tribute to the Great Martyr" President.
The greatest names in American history are Washing-
ton and Lincoln. One is forever associated with the inde-
pendence of the States and formation of the Federal Union,
the other with the universal freedom and the preservation
of the Union. Washington enforced the Declaration of In-
dependence as against England; Lincoln proclaimed its
fulfillment not only to a down-trodden race in America, but
to all people for all time who may seek the protection of
our flag. These illustrious men achieved grander results
for mankind within a single century-from 1775 to 1865-
than other men ever accomplished in all the years since
first the flight of time began. Washington engaged in no
ordinary revolution; with him it was not who should rule,
but what should rule. He drew his sword, not for a change
of rulers upon an established throne, but to establish a new
government, which would acknowledge no throne but the
tribune of the people. Lincoln accepted war to save the
Union, the safeguard of our liberties, and re-established it
on indestructible foundations as forever one and indivisible.
To quote his own grand words: 'Now we are contending
that this nation under God shall have a new birth of free-
dom, and that government of the people, by the people, for
the people shall not perish from the earth.'
"Each lived to accomplish his appointed task. Each re-
ceived the unbounded gratitude of the people of his time,
and each is held in great and ever-increasing reverence by
posterity. The fame of each will never die; it will grow




/41r




60

with the ages, because it is based upon imperishable service to
humanity, not to the people of a single generation or coun -
try, but to the whole human family. wherever scattered,
forever." (McKinley's speech at the Albany Lincoln memo-
rial banquet.)

President-elect McKinley honors himself and his party
and his country, honoring the memory of President Lin-
coln; but he will honor it more yet by putting into action
his own quoted words:
Washington enforced the Declaration of Independence
as against England. Lincoln proclaimed its fulfillment, not
only to a down-trodden race in America, but to all people
for all time who may seek the protection of our flag."

And let it be said that the next President saved a down-
trodden people from absolute and total destruction.

President-elect MCKINLEY:

American citizens are killed or imprisoned ille-
gally in Cuba by defying Spanish authorities, and
Cuba, in urgent need, is claiming and waiting for
the protection of the American flag.



WASHINGTON, D. C., Fcbruary 22, 1897-Anniversary of
IWashington's Birthday.




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