• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Catalogue of articles forwarde...
 The Jamaica Court at the Indian...
 A-The climate of Jamaica
 B- Jamaica as a winter residence...
 C- Jamaica as a health resort,...
 D- Climate of the Santa Cruz...
 Map of Jamaica






Title: Jamaica at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074022/00001
 Material Information
Title: Jamaica at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
Physical Description: 107 p. : plates, tables, fold. map. ; 24cm.
Language: English
Conference: Colonial and Indian Exhibition, (1886
Publisher: Spottiswoode and Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1886?]
 Subjects
Subject: Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Catalogue of articles forwarded from the Island of Jamaica.--Handbook compiled for the governors of the Jamaica Institute.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074022
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000143091
oclc - 23195288
notis - AAQ9262

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vi a
        page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Catalogue of articles forwarded
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 32a
    The Jamaica Court at the Indian and colonial exhibition handbook
        Page 32b
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    A-The climate of Jamaica
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    B- Jamaica as a winter residence for northern people
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    C- Jamaica as a health resort, and as a place to settle in
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    D- Climate of the Santa Cruz mountains
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Map of Jamaica
        Page 108
Full Text
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GENERAL SIR HENRY WYLIE NORMAN,

i.C.B., C.I .,

GOVUENOB OF JAMAICA.











JAMAICA

AT THE



alnmial a4 |nbian Epibition,


LONDON, 1886.



Jamaica's beauteous isle and genial clime
I sing. Attend, ye Britons! nor disdain
Th' adventurous muse to verdant vales that soars,
And radiant realms, beyond th' Atlantic wave;
Ardent to gather for her Albion's brow
A tropic wreath, green with immortal spring."
BRYAe EDWnAS.




Executive Commissioner in London:
SIR AUGUSTUS J. ADDERLEY, K.C.M.G.
BOYAL COMMISSIONER.


Honorary Commissioner:
C. WASHINGTON EVES, EsQ.


Commission at Jamaica:
Rzv. DB. ROBB, D.D., Chairman.
Da. J. C. PmnLIPPO. HON. H. J. KEMBLE.
HON. C. B. MossE, C.B. &c. R. H. B. HOTCHIN, ESQ., M.A.
TaE REV. JOHN RADCLIFFE.
H. PRIEST, Secretary.


-W fFLsBaiiMIL^^sIsIK






























































PRINTED BY
BrOTTISWOODr AND CO., NEW-STRXEE SQUARE
LONDON


















INTRODUCTION.





WHEN practical arrangements for the representation of the Colonies
at the Exhibition were being made, the West Indian industries were
in a state of considerable depression, and it was doubtful whether any
such appearance could be made as would be entirely satisfactory in
itself or pleasurable to remember. But the encouragement given by
His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, who is ever ready to view
with kindly consideration all the efforts towards progress made in
any portion of the outlying dominions of his mother, the Queen-
Empress, induced the West India Colonies to come to the front, and
to avail themselves of that which might be truly called the opportunity
of a century. The visit of the Royal Princes, sons of the Prince of
Wales, also tended to strengthen the wish to be well represented in
the old country; and when the record of that visit gave prominence
to the feelings of pride in the victories of Rodney and other gallant
sailors and soldiers who fought for England at a time when the West
Indian seas were the arena of the great nations of Europe, the
desire of being recognized as having an important share in the
glorious past of England became more intensified. At the same time,
more practical considerations conduced to the same end. These
colonies produce articles of food and luxury which the world consumes
without thinking of the places of production, the people engaged in
tropical industries, and the peculiar conditions under which these










industries exist. To bring producer and consumer, therefore, together,
to make them, if only for a time, sympathise with and understand
each other, to get them to discuss their mutual obligations, and to
forget the blunders and prejudices of byegone years, would lead, not
only to more cordial sentiments, but to what is perhaps more im-
portant, increased and more prosperous trade. From the time that
Pitt awed a tumultuous House of Commons by crying, in stentorian
tones, Sugar! Sugar! Sugar! down to the much changed condi-
tions of the present time, the fortunes of the West Indies have been
largely concerned with the position in the markets of the world of
that article which a recent Chancellor of the Exchequer described as
"the delight of youth and the solace of age." The tropical planter
wishes to convince his sugar-eating brother at home that the produce
of the cane is infinitely superior in sweetness and nutritive qualities
to the sickly stuff obtained from bounty-feed beet on the Continent of
Europe. This understanding is likely to come about. There are
other products in the West Indies besides sugar, as we shall see
later on. And the mere fact of becoming acquainted, through
pictures, photographs, and natural objects, with the beautiful scenery
and interesting curiosities, appealing to the imagination of the general
observer, the scientific thought of the ethnological student, and the
large-heartedness of the philanthropist, cannot fail to widen the
horizon of the insular English mind, and perhaps impress it with
new suggestions of duty. Trade and commerce are, after all, the
practical results of sentiment, and it is into the aspect of buyer and
seller, of giving employment to English ships and English labour, and
of affording outlets to English capital, that the whole question finally
resolves itself.
In this scene of Imperial fraternisation, Jamaica plays an important
part. This Colony has always had a peculiar interest for the people
of England. Its acquisition by Cromwell, the influence upon it of the
naval and military operations of the succeeding 150 years, the rise of










its prosperity, the slave trade and slavery, the effect of that social
revolution known as emancipation, and the hopes entertained of the
upward progress of the negro race-the peculiar exclusiveness of the
old protective or Colonial" system, the abandonment of this and the
havoc caused by the admission into Great Britain on equal terms of
foreign slave-grown sugar, the decline of the sugar industry, the
forming of provision grounds, and the attention paid to the cultivation
of other products-the long reign of the House of Assembly, until the
riots of 1865 led to the abolition of Representative Government-the
18 years of Crown Government, and the new elective constitution
under which the Colony is now placed as the result of Lord Derby's
"new departure"-all these points constitute an historical record of
no mean interest; they explain the concern felt for the Colony by
Englishmen in the past, and they afford a ground for a new and
larger sympathy in the future. Nor, in forecasting what is to come,
must we forget the likelihood of its again becoming a great entrepot of
commerce when the Panama Canal, which is to unite two oceans and
divert a large part of the sea traffic of the world, is an accomplished
fact. Its perennial beauty and varied climate must make it in time a
health resort for Europe and America, and the Laureate might have
had some picture of the Jamaica hills in his mind when he wrote the
following lines, which, although they may not be entirely accurate in
detail, and although they miss some of the most delightful character-
istics of the island, namely, its rivers, its picturesque ravines, and its
many streams, may stand as a suggestion in outline of a tropical
scene:-

The mountain wooded to the peak; the lawns
And winding glades high up like ways to heaven;
The slender coco's drooping crown of plumes;
The lightning flash of insect and of bird;
The lustre of the long convolvuluses
That coiled around the stately stems and ran
Even to the limit of the land; the glows
And glories of the broad belt of the world."








vi .

Turning from these general considerations to a few words of
practical explanation, it is necessary to state how the Jamaica people
carried out their wish to be represented at the Exhibition. The Legis-
lature necessarily had to vote a certain sum of money. The exhibits
were collected in the island and forwarded by "The Institute of
Jamaica," an admirable and well-managed Society, established by law,
and one of whose duties it is to provide for the holding of exhibitions
illustrative of the Industries of Jamaica." It has charge of the museum,
and indeed carries out the functions of the former Royal Society of
Arts and Agriculture," which exercised much influence in its time.
Cordial assistance was also given in the collection of exhibits by Mr. D.
Morris, himself a Governor of the Institute, as well as the head of the
Botanic Gardens. This gentleman is now the Assistant-Director of
Kew Gardens, and, since his recent arrival in England, has taken much
interest in the Court. On April 10, 1886, I was appointed by His
Excellency Sir Henry Norman, the Governor of the Colony, with the
concurrence of the Jamaica Institute, to the important office of
Honorary Commissioner for Jamaica at the Colonial and Indian
Exhibition. I have gladly devoted much time to the arrangement of
the exhibits sent from the Colony and others collected by me in England,
and, when not present myself, have always had a representative in the
Court, to give explanations to visitors. On May 1, the Prince of
Wales paid an official visit to the Exhibition, and in examining the
Jamaica Court, His Royal Highness expressed himself as highly satis-
fied with its appearance. The Queen, upon her visit on May 21,
was also graciously pleased to express her interest and approbation.
Subsequent to the arrival of the exhibits from the Colony, there
came a large number of copies of the Handbook compiled for the
Governors of the Jamaica Institute, by Laurence R. Fyfe and A. C.
Sinclair, compilers of the Official Handbook of Jamaica." Accompany-
ing these were copies of a detailed catalogue of all the articles sent for
exhibition. These papers, so full of valuable information in regard to











-~


JAMAICA: FRONT VIEW OF THE COURT.










the history, condition and products of the Colony, were distributed and
the copies soon exhausted. It was therefore thought desirable by me
to reprint them, and place them together in one volume, with such
particulars regarding the Court itself as might serve as a kind of
general guide to visitors. I therefore hope that this book, which will
be distributed gratuitously, will meet with the approval of His
Excellency the Governor and the Governors of the Jamaica Institute,
and will not only serve a temporary purpose but will constitute a
permanent record of the Jamaica Court, such as may be referred to
with pleasure by all who are interested in Jamaica, and keep alive for
many years to come, so far as this island is concerned, the memory of
the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886.
The front view of the Court, as well as that looking towards the
south, photographs of which ar6 here reproduced, will give a general
idea of its appearance. But the real usefulness of the Exhibition can
only be understood after a detailed inspection. Philosophers tell us
that the two great powers of the human mind are observation and
reflection, and that, the mental powers being limited, these two
operations cannot take place at the same time. The advantage,
therefore, of a written record is, that it assists the memory, stored
by observation, and gives fulness to a permanent impression, the
completeness of which would not be edged off" by time. The list
of exhibits from the Colony, and the supplementary list of articles,
will be useful to the planter and merchant, to the shipper of English
goods, who wishes to know what he can get in exchange, and to the
colonial exporter who has the varied products of the island to draw
upon for English and European consumption. As an economic and
commercial study, therefore, as well as an attempted blending of form
and colour to constitute a picture, the Court may be regarded. Of
course, one may see orange trees in public gardens and in many other
places in England, but the orange tree at the right entrance of
the Jamaica Court represents what will be an important Jamaica







V111iii

industry. The visitor to the United States will probably find on
his breakfast and dinner tables the oranges from Florida, but the
crop there is subject to a touch of frost which cannot be experienced
in Jamaica, and a large trade is possible from the Colony in this
fruit. Oranges and other West Indian fruit can be had in England,
thanks to the admirable arrangements for conveyance made by
that enterprising firm, Scrutton, Sons & Co., whose recent importation
of these products, under conditions of special advantage in their
steamers, was a great success, and holds out much promise for the
future. The Jamaica orange should be well known in England, if
more extensive cultivation of it be entered upon. The aloe on the
left hand of the Court, the palms and ferns distributed throughout,
refresh the eye and fill the mind with pictures of tropical vegetation.
Art is interspersed with nature. On the left are to be seen large oil
paintings of Jamaica scenes. The first is the principal street in
Kingston as it appeared at the beginning of this century. The
military uniforms, the planter's dress, the general appearance of the
street, are all characteristic of the time and place. Next hangs a
portrait of the present Governor, General Sir Henry Norman, which
will be recognized at once by those who know His Excellency. Then
another large oil painting arrests attention, with its view of Montego
Bay, and its effects of sky and sea.
A splendid turtle back, surmounted by the arms of the colony,
which are set off with grass plumes and fan decoration, remind the
visitor in what part of the Empire he now stands. The pictures on
this wall close with another large oil painting, representing a general
view of Kingston and Port Royal, and the long stretch of sand known
as the Palisades. Turning round from this picture, another oil
painting on the opposite side, recalling one of the most beautiful
scenes in Jamaica, Bog Walk, will be noticed, and, looking up,
surmounting the centre arches of the Court on the inside, two more
oil paintings of scenery are visible, the one to the left being Stewart




t-







ix

Bluf, on the north sid3 of Jamaica, and the other being the Coast of
Green Island.
In the open arches at the back of the Court two other large oil
paintings are placed, one representing Holland Estate, St. Thomas,
and the other Port Maria. These paintings are of quite modern
execution, but they are faithful representations of the scenes they
purport to reproduce. In the front of the arch hangs the portrait of
the Earl of Balcarres, who was Governor of Jamaica from 1795 to
1801, lent by the present head of the family. Numerous photographs,
old Jamaica newspapers riddled with worm holes and yellow with their
eighty years of age, and the specimens of lace bark with which the
lower parts of the stands are decorated, may be noticed in passing;
but, turning to natural products, a prominent trophy in the front
centre of the Court is the Rum for which Jamaica is so famous. In
handsome glass jars, this spiiit, which has been designated liquid
sunshine," from the fact that it is the immediate and natural pro-
duct of the cane, is shown from the uncoloured white to the deepest
shades. All the well-known marks are here represented, as well as
the crops of different years. The row of sugars contains some fine
specimens, although from many causes Jamaica is not now the great
sugar colony that it was, say, in Monk Lewis's time, 100 years ago.
Besides producing sugar and rum, Jamaica is a large fruit-growing
country, as suggested above, a ready market being found in the
United States, and probably also in England, for oranges, shaddocks,
and bananas. A number of other important industries are also
represented in this Court. The display of coffee is especially fine,
occupying a large space on the centre stand facing the entrance.
The cocoa, pimento, pepper, annatto are all suggestive of Nature's
bounty, in providing useful things to make human life more
pleasant; and not the least important of these means of ameliora-
tion is to be found in the cinchona bark, of which quinine is made, so
largely shown in this Court. Standing in front of the Court, and







x

looking at it as a whole, the effect is very pleasing. The suspended
alligator at the back, the case of humming birds, the shark with his
attendant small fish, the two piles of rum casks reaching high up, the
stands of sugar canes, the variegated woods, the hammocks overhead,
the dried turtle case, and the boxes of Jamaica cigars, the barrels of
Turk's Island salt, the hats with their broad brims shading from the
tropical sun, the pressed leaves of ferns, the case of bonnets, baskets
and fancy work shown by the Women's Self-Help Society of Kingston,
the general arrangement of palms, mahogany plants, ferns, grasses,
and other foliage, make up a picture which, studied generally or in
detail, cannot fail to be regarded with interest by Englishmen, whether
resident at home or on a visit from the island. The secret of any
success obtained is, of course, to be found in the intrinsic interest of
the exhibits and their adaptability for effective grouping.
The visitor should also see the admirable collection of Jamaica
coffees, forwarded by Messrs. Brancker, Boxwell and Co., of Liver-
pool. This collection is part of the economic food display on the left
hand side of the Indian Court, starting from the Jungle end.
Upon the whole, a very complete exposition is given of the produce
of Jamaica. But this suggests what a large increase of cultivation is
possible. The planting of cacao is practically beginning. The
cinchona plants present a good appearance, but the industry is yet in
its infancy. Bananas, the principal fruit industry of the island, are
exported to the value of 200,000. These are largely consumed and
much appreciated in the United States. The pine-apple, too, is
capable of a much larger export. Jamaica tea, of good flavour, would
find a ready market in London. There is, indeed, no early limit to
the production of these articles. But the great requisite is colonists.
Young men with a small capital, and sufficient resources to enable
them to wait until the trees bear (which may be from four to six
years), would find a competence in this colony in the cultivation of
cinchona or coffee. A Jamaica Governor, some six or seven years ago,









invested in a coffee plantation, and it is understood that he is
beginning to receive the reward of his enterprise. A special feature
of Jamaica, too, is the pens. These are extensive sweeps of land for
growing grass for the rearing of cattle. The large population of
Jamaica ought to eat more beef. An old Jamaica colonist used to say
that if the population would eat more animal food, civilisation would
make greater strides. However this may be, pen-keeping has not been
unprofitable, and has been engaged in by young Englishmen who are
fond of an open air life, who are accustomed to horsemanship, and
who at the same time like to put money in their pockets. Of course, the
sale of cattle depends upon the demand arising from the sugar estates
for draught purposes as well as for food. The sugar cultivation has
been stationary, at a comparatively low figure, for many years, but with
a turn in the market and perhaps a countervailing duty on bounty
fed beet sugar imported into Great Britain (which is certainly
more within the bounds of possibility than many people imagine)
there would be reason to hope for an extension of cultivation. The
German bounties will certainly be reduced by a kind of sliding scale
during the next two years. It may be interesting to place on
record the recent German legislation on this important subject:-
" NEW GERMAN LAW.-Tax on roots, 1 mark, 70 pf. Drawback
from August 1st, 1886, to 30th September, 1887, m. 18. From October
1887, m. 17.25. For loaf sugar, m. 22.20 to October 31st, 1887; and
after, m. 21.56. This law continues the principle of the tax on roots,
and it shows a desire to export white sugars for direct consumption.
At the usual computation of 1,000 kilos, per ton, and 20 marks to the
, the bounty will be reduced from 36s. as at present, after October
1886, to 27s., and after October 1887 to 19s. 6d., at 9 tons beet to 1
sugar; and from 20s. to 2s. 6d. at 10 tons. It takes on the average
9- tons roots to make 1 ton sugar in Germany." A new law has als-
been passed in France increasing the fiscal advantage enjoyed by
French colonial sugar on its importation into France, but otherwise







xii

continuing the law of 1884, which provides for the next three years a
gradually increasing yield of sugar from the weight of beet roots worked
in the factories. Upon the whole there is movement in this Bounty
question, and it may be hoped that within a reasonable time the
system may be discontinued either by the voluntary action of foreign
Governments, or by practical measures on the part of the English
Government to remove the bounty, for the benefit of the English
revenue, upon the entrance of such sugar into English ports. It
should be added that negotiations have recently taken place between
Jamaica and Canada, and also with the United States, for a reciprocal
trade arrangement, but these have not yet produced any result,
although such result is certainly within the range of "practical
politics."
Jamaica, as a field for agricultural enterprise by Englishmen, is
open to many settlers. The Government will, no doubt, give all infor-
mation as to the acquisition of suitable land. For labourers, whose
services are necessary in all agricultural undertakings, it offers oppor-
tunities. The East Indian coolie is there earning his shilling a day
instead of his two annas in India. The saving Chinaman adapts
himself first to labour in the fields or factories, and afterwards makes
money as a pedlar or petty tradesman; the indigenous black man
(for so he may now be called) is cultivating his provision ground and
keeping his family together by the sale of the produce, or he is off to
take part in the work of the Panama Canal-a proceeding not always
to his own health or advantage. In point of fact there is room for
enterprising small capitalists from Europe; and although labour may
be somewhat shifting and uncertain in different parts, such difficulties
could be overcome, and in course of time it may be hoped that this
island will be recognized as an attractive centre of agricultural and
commercial enterprise, and its past difficulties be forgotten in the dawn
of that brighter era for which its capabilities are so eminently adapted.
1 FEN COURT,
LONDON: July 1886. C. WASHINGTON EVES.










CATALOGUE OF ARTICLES FORWARDED
FROM THE

ISLAND OF JAMAICA.




JAMAICA is the largest and most valuable of the West India Islands
belonging to Great Britain, and it has been termed "one of the
brightest jewels in the British Crown." Its greatest length is 144
miles, and it contains 4,200 square miles. The value of the exports
during the year 1885 was 1,408,848; of the imports, 1,487,833;
and the revenue, 545,000.
The chief exports in order of importance are-Sugar, 307,826;
Rum, 234,053; Tropical Fruits, 181,501; Coffee, 157,281; Dye
Woods, 155,526; Pimento, 53,867; Ginger, 20,168; Beeswax and
Honey, 7,775; Cacao, 6,359; Lance Wood Spars, 2,005, &c., &c.
As regards distribution of trade, the produce of the island shipped
in 1885 was as follows-United Kingdom, 37"2 per cent.; United
States of America, 42-2 per cent.; Dominion of Canada, 5"4 per cent.;
all other countries, 15-2 per cent.
The surface of the island is greatly diversified, and hence it affords
means for the cultivation of most economic tropical plants from sea-
level to an elevation of 7,000 feet. Cattle and horse-raising are
important industries on the northern slopes of the island where the
nutritious Guinea grass affords excellent pasture all the year round.
The climate of Jamaica is superior to that of any of the West
India Islands, and in the hills especially, at moderate elevation, it is
recommended as eminently suitable to northern people obliged to seek
a mild health resort during the winter months.
The population of Jamaica by last census was 580,000, being an
increase of 73,650 during the previous ten years. Of these there
are-whites, 14,432; coloured, 109,946; black, 444,186; the remainder
being Coolies and Chinese.
The Government is administered by a Governor appointed by the
Crown, assisted by a Legislative Council composed of nominated and
elected members, the latter having the majority.
Fuller information respecting Jamaica may be obtained from The
Handbook of Jamaica," an octavo volume of some 500 pages, published
A








2

annually under the auspices of government, and which is a most
complete repository for everything connected with the island. The
volume for 1885-86 is published by Edward Stanford, 53 Charing
Cross, London.


I.-SUGAR.

The export of sugar from Jamaica in 1885 was 24,985 tons, of the
value of 307,826. This, combined with rum, renders the produce
of the sugar-cane the staple industry of the island. The general
depression in the price of sugar is felt in Jamaica as in all sugar-
producing countries.
1. Vacuum pan sugar (white), Bushy Park Louis Verley.
2. Vacuum pan sugar (yellow), Bushy Park Louis Verley.
3. Vacuum pan sugar, Bushy Park .Louis Verley.
4. Vacuum pan sugar (white), Ewing's Caymanas J. Crum-Ewing.
5. Vacuum pan sugar (yellow), Ewing's Caymanas J. Crum-Ewing.
6. Centrifugal sugar, Greenwich Estate .C. J. Ward.
7. Centrifugal sugar, Moneymusk Estate C. J. Ward.
8. Centrifugal sugar, Seven Plantations J. Grenan.
9. Centrifugal sugar, Vale-Royal Hon. Henry Sewell.
10. Centrifugal sugar, Arcadia Hon. Henry Sewell.
11. Muscovado sugar, Savoy Estate J. W. Kemp.
12. Muscovado sugar, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
13. Muscovado sugar, Mona Estate Louis Verley.
14. Muscovado sugar, Y. S. C. W. Treleaven.
15. Muscovado sugar, Lloyds George Stiebel.
16. Muscovado sugar, Worthy Park J. Gray.
17. Muscovado sugar, Hyde Hall L. C. Shirley.
18. Muscovado sugar, Etingdon L. C. Shirley.
19. Muscovado sugar (Ranger cured), Bogue C. W. Treleaven.
20. Muscovado sugar George Solomon & Co.



II.-RUM.

During the year 1885, Jamaica rum was exported to the extent of
2,080,471 gallons, of the value of 234,053. This industry occupies
so prominent a position, and is so widely known, that it is needless to
enlarge upon it. The exhibits include the finest and best brands
produced in the island, and embrace estates and merchants' rums of
acknowledged excellence.

(A.)-Estates Rum.
21. Crop, 1885, Lancaster Estate C. H. W. Gordon.
22. Crop, 1885, Hyde Estate Hon. Henry Sewell.
23. Crop, 1885, Steelfield Estate. Hon. Henry Sewell.
24. Crop, 1885, Vale Royal Estate Hon. Henry Sewell.
25. Crop, 1885, Lottery Estate Hon. Henry Sewell.












26. Crop, 1885, Oxford Estate
27. Crop,.1885, Braco Estate
28. Crop, 1885, Cambridge Estate
29. Crop, 1885 (white), Lodge Estate .
80. Crop, 1886 (white), Lodge Estate.
31. Crop, 1885, Lodge Estate
82. Crop, 1885, Chester Estate
33. Crop, 1885, Fontabelle Estate
34. Crop, 1885, Brampton Bryan Estate
35. Crop, 1885, Georgia Estate .
36. Crop, 1885, Bryan Castle Estate
37. Crop, 1885, Lloyds' Estate
38. Crop, 1885, Content Estate
89. Crop, 1886, Savoy Estate
40. Crop, 1882, Spring Estate
41. Crop, 1885, Spring Estate
42. Crop, 1885, Hopewell Estate
43. Crop, 1885 (white), Hopewell Estate
44. Crop, 1885, Hordley Estate .
45. Crop, 1885, Amity Hall Estate
46. Crop, 1864, Hordley Estate
47. Crop, 1886, Tulloch Estate
48. Crop, 1886 (white), Tullqch Estate
49. Crop, 1885, Knollis Estate
50. Crop, 1886, Y. S. Estate
51. Crop, 1886, Ipswich Estate
52. Crop, 1886, Bogue Estate
53. Crop, 1863, Friendship Estate
54. Crop, 1867 (white), Friendship Estate.
55. Crop, 1868, Friendship Estate
56. Crop, 1870, Friendship Estate
57. Crop, 1872, Friendship Estate
58. Crop, 1874, Friendship Estate
59. Crop, 1876, Friendship Estate
60. Crop, 1878, Friendship Estate
61. Crop, 1880, Friendship Estate
62. Crop, 1882, Friendship Estate
63. Crop, 1882 (white), Friendship Estate
64. Crop, 1883, Friendship Estate
65. Crop, 1885, Friendship Estate
66. Crop, 1886, Friendship Estate
67. Crop, 1886, Cornwall Estate
68. Crop, 1886, Blackheath Estate
69. Crop, 1886, Blue Castle Estate
70. Crop, 1886, Golden Grove Estate
71. Crop, 1886, Halse Hall Estate
72. Crop, 1885, Moneymusk Estate
73. Crop, 1885, Greenwich Estate
74. Crop, 1886, Worthy Park Estate
75. Crop, 1886, Park Hall Estate
76. Crop, 1885, Mona Estate
77. Crop, 1885 (white), Mona Estate.
78. Crop, 1885, Bushy Park Estate
79. Crop, 1885 (white), Bushy Park Estate
80. Crop, 1886, Etingdon Estate
81. Crop, 1886, Hyde Hall Estate
82. Crop, 1886, Kent Estate


C. J. M. Barrett.
C. H. W. Gordon.
Mrs. E. Thompson.
H. J. Ronaldson.
H. J. Ronaldson.
H. J. Ronaldson.
A. B. Gentles.
C. H. Stewart.
Dr. Proctor.
J. W. Gordon.
Dr. Proctor.
George Stiebel.
C. N. Sterling.
J. W. Kemp.
Walter Ogilvy.
Walter Ogilvy.
Walter Ogilvy.
Walter Ogilvy.
J. Harrison.
J. Harrison.
J. Harrison.
J. McPhail.
J. McPhail.
J. McPhail.
C. W. Treleaven.
C. W. Treleaven.
C. W. Treleaven.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
C. W. Eves & Co.
Col. F. Lushington.
Eustace Grieg.
Eustace Grieg.
De B. S. Heaven.
J. J. Ronaldson.
C. J. Ward.
C. J. Ward.
Col. Talbot.
H. T. Ronaldson.
Louis Verley.
Louis Verley.
Louis Verley.
Louis Verley.
L. C. Shirley.
L. C. Shirley.
Hon. W. Kerr.
A2


I~blF~C?P-'~XP~~I'~IC; -
7"~.'












Crop, 1886, Gales Valley Estate.
Crop, 1886, Tilston Estate
Crop. 1886, Golden Grove Estate
Crop, 1886, Wiltshire Estate
Crop, 1876 (10 years old), Orange Valley
Crop, 1886, Orange Valley Estate
Crop, 1886, Catherine Hall. Estate
Crop, 1886, Guilsbro' Estate
Crop, 1886, Round Hill Estate
Crop, 1886, Dundee Estate
Crop, 1886, Cherry Garden Estate
Crop, 1886 (white), Cherry Garden Estate


Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
S Hon. W. Kerr.
S Hon. W. Kerr.
Estate. Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
Hon. W. Kerr.
C. A. Robinson.
C. A. Robinson.


(B.)-Merchants' Rum.


Table rum, Crop, 1885 .
Table rum, Crop, 1875
Rum, 1 year old
Rum, 5 years old
Rum, 10 years old
Rum, 15 years old
Rum, 20 years old
Rum, 31 years old
Rum, 10 years old
Rum, 15 years old
Rum, 25 years old
Rum, (old)
Rum (white)
Rum (very old)
Rum (white)


J. M. Farquharson.
J. M. Farquharson.
D. Finzi & Co.
D. Finzi & Co.
D. Finzi & Co.
D. Finzi & Co.
D. Finzi & Co.
D. Finzi & Co.
Wray & Nephew.
Wray & Nephew.
Wray & Nephew.
Simon & Le Ray.
Simon & Le Ray.
P. Desnoes & Son.
P. Desnoes & Son.


III.-LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, &c.


Sweet orange spirit
Seville orange spirit
Sweet orange wine
Orange wine
Range wine (white)
Ginger wine
Ginger wine (white)
Pimento Dram.
Prune Dram
Bitters
Crdme de Noyau
Quinine bitters.
Rum shrub
Cashew wine
Pimento cordial
White ginger wine
White ginger cordial.
White orange wine
Pure orange cordial
Pure orange wine
Liqueur d'Or
Rosolio .


S. T. Scharschmidt, Mandeville.
S. T. Scharschmidt, Mandeville.
S. T. Scharschmidt, Mandeville.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Wray & Nephew, Kingston.
Delgado Brothers, Falmouth.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.


-


E


I I 1











Stomachic bitters
Bitters
White peppermint wine
Prune bark cordial
Bitterine .
Creme de Noyan (pink)
Creme de Noyau (white)
White ginger wine
Ginger wine
Orange wine
Bitters
Peppermint cordial
Pimento Dram .
Noyau
Parfait Amour
Rosolio
Fullermum
Aniseed
Anisado
Orange juice


Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
S Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
S Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
S Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
S Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
Simon & Le Ray, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son Kingston.
P. Desnoes & Son, Kingston.


IV.-TROPICAL FRUITS.

Next to sugar and rum the chief industrial interest in Jamaica, at
present, is connected with the raising and shipping of tropical fruits
to the United States of America. During the year 1885 fruit to the
value of ;181,501 was thus exported. Most of this fruit is shipped
to the Northern ports of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore; but
now that the strict quarantine restrictions between Jamaica and New
Orleans have been removed, it is hoped that soon a large trade will
be established between that port and this island. Up to the present
time sufficient attention has not been paid to the packing of fruit-
more especially pine-apples and oranges-despatched from Jamaica;
and hence the low prices in several cases realized. It is evident, taking
into consideration the quality of the fruit which leaves this island,
that higher prices could and would be obtained if more care were
bestowed upon the wrapping. Oranges, pine-apples, and other fruit
have been exported in small quantities to the United Kingdom; but
no trade of this nature has been hitherto established.


Caramba (Averrhoa Carambola), Governor's
Mango (Mangifera indica var.),
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale),
Star-apple (Chrysophyllum Cainito),
Jimbling (Cicca disticha),
Tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea),
Nutmegs (Myristica fragrans),
Cocoa-plum (Chrysobalanus Icaco),
Ginep (Melicocca bijuga),
Walnut (Aleurites triloba),


Institute of Jamaica.

,, ,,



r,,,
,, ,,


,, ,,








6


163. Jew plum (Spondias dulcis), Governor's
164. Ylang-Ylang (Artobotrys odoratissima), ,,
165. Mangoes, No.11 (Mangifera indica var.),
166. Alligator pear (Persea gratissima),
167. Alligator pear (purple) (Persea gratissima)
168. Chocho (Sechium edule),
169. Akee (Blighia sapida),
170. Jamaica peppers (10 varieties)
171. Blimbi (Averrhoa Bilimbi)
172. Guava (Psidium Guaiava),. .



V.-ECONOMIC PRODUCTS of the
(Cocos nucifera.)
178. Ripe nuts.
174. Ripe nuts, dissected to show nut in husk.
175. Ripe nuts, cleared of husk and polished.
176. Small nuts, immature forms,
177. Young plants.
178. Nuts half-husked.
179. Varnished nuts.
180. Unvarnished nuts.
181. Growing nuts.
182. Bunches of ripe nuts.
183. Stems of the cocoanut palm.


Institute of Jamaica.






W. M. Bailey, Kingston.
J. J. Bowrey, Kingston.
J. J. Bowrey, Kingston.



COOOANUT PALM.


(B.)-Exhibited by the General Penitentiary.
Doormat of cocoanut fibre.
Whitewash brush of cocoanut fibre.
Horsebrush of cocoanut fibre.
Shoebrushes of cocoanut fibre.
Cocoanut fibre.
Coatbrush of cocoanut fibre.


VI.-COFFEE.
In Jamaica two very distinct classes of coffee are produced. The
total export is about 84,000 cwt. per annum. Of this about 10,000
cwt. is Blue Mountain Coffee of the finest quality, consigned almost
entirely to the Liverpool market, where it sells from 100/ to 142/ per
cwt. The remaining portion of Jamaica coffee is grown chiefly by negro
settlers, is badly cured, and hence fetches comparatively low prices.
190. Coffee, Clydesdale Estate Mrs. MacLaverty.
191. Coffee (in parchment), Clydesdale Estate Mrs. MacLaverty.
192. Coffee, Sherwood Forest Estate John Davidson.
193. Coffee (in husk), Sherwood Forest Estate John Davidson.
194. Coffee (in parchment), Sherwood Forest Estate John Davidson.
195. Coffee (green), Sherwood Forest Estate John Davidson.
196. Coffee (peaberry), Sherwood Forest Estate John Davidson.
197. Coffee, Portland Gap Estate, Gosset Treleaven & Co.
198. Coffee, Arntully Estate W. A. SabonadiBre.
199. Coffee (in parchment), Arntully Estate W. A. SabonadiBre.











200. Coffee (dried in cherry), Arntully Estate
201. Coffee, Tweedside Estate
202. Coffee (in. parchment), Tweedside Estate
203. Coffee, Langley Estate .
204. Coffee (in parchment), Langley Estate
205. Coffee (in berry), Langley Estate
206. Coffee, Radnor Estate .
207. Coffee, Whitfield Hall Estate
208. Coffee, Clifton Mount Estate
208j. Coffee (peaberry), Clifton Mount Estate
209. Coffee, Petersfield Estate
210. Coffee (peaberry), Abbey Green Estate
211. Coffee, Abbey Green Estate. .
212. Coffee (peaberry), Abbey Green Estate
213. Coffee, Newton Estate .
214. Coffee, Spring Hill Estate. .
215. Coffee (No. 1), Spring Hill Estate
216. Coffee (in parchment), Spring Hill Estate
217. Coffee (peaberry), Spring Hill Estate
218. Coffee, Ewings Caymanas Estate.
218a. Coffee, The Cottage Estate .
219. Coffee, Windsor Forest Estate
220. Coffee (peaberry), Windsor Forest Estate
221. Coffee, Brokenhurst Estate .
222. Coffee (peaberry), Brokenhurst Estate.
223. Coffee (parchment), Brokenhurst Estate
224. Coffee (peaberry), Brokenhurst Estate
225. Coffee (Groves Estate). .
226. Coffee (parchment), Groves Estate
227. Coffee (in cherry), Groves Estate.
228. Coffee (No. 1), Rose Hill Estate .
229. Coffee (No. 2), Rose Hill Estate .
230. Coffee (No. 3), Rose Hill Estate .
231. Coffee (peaberry), Rose Hill Estate
232. Coffee (in cherry), Rose Hill Estate
233. Coffee (in parchment), Rose Hill Estate
234. Coffee (No. 1), Prospect Estate
235. Coffee (No. 2), Prospect Estate
236. Coffee (No. 3), Prospect Estate
237. Coffee (No. 1 of 1884-85 crop), Prospect Estate
238. Coffee (peaberry), Prospect Estate
239. Coffee (in cherry), Prospect Estate
240. Coffee, Mount Cressy Estate
241. Coffee, Park Hall Estate
242. Coffee (peaberry), Park Hall Estate
243. Coffee, Sherwood Forest Estate .
244. Coffee, Sherwood Forest Estate .
245. Coffee (peaberry), Sherwood Forest Estate
246. Coffee (Mocha), Rose Hill Estate.
247. Coffee (Liberian), Hordley Estate
248. Coffee (settlers), Golden Spring Estate
249. Coffee (settlers), Whitney Estate.
250. Coffee (settlers), Whitney Estate.
251. Coffee (settlers), Langley Estate .
252. Coffee (settlers in parchment), Langley Estate
253. Coffee (settlers). .
254. Coffee (settlers) .


W. A. SabonadiBre.
Capt. Baker.
Capt. Baker.
W. E. Sant.
W. E. Sant.
W. E. Sant.
J. A. Stephens.
De B. S. Heaven.
John McLean.
John McLean.
C. J. Ward.
C. J. Ward.
C. J. Ward.
C. J. Ward.
John Hollingsworth.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
J. Crum-Ewing.
A. W. Kemble.
S. H. Watson.
S. H. Watson.
Walter H. Wynne.
Walter H. Wynne.
Walter H. Wynne.
Walter H. Wynne.
C. R. Taylor.
C. R. Taylor.
C. E. Taylor.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
P. Desnoes & Son.
H. J. Ronaldson.
H. J. Ronaldson.
R. A. Stewart.
R. A. Stewart.
R. A. Stewart.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
J. Harrison.
W. C. Logan.
George Wilson.
George Wilson.
W. E. Sant.
W. E. Sant.
Walter Logan.
Walter Logan.










255. Coffee (settlers)
256. Coffee (settlers)
257. Coffee (cherries in solution).
258. Coffee (Liberian) .


George & Branday.
George & Branday.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.


VII.-PIMENTO.

Jamaica pepper or allspice, the dried and cured berries of a native
tree (Pimenta vulgaris), was exported to the value of 53,867 in
1885. Jamaica supplies the world with this article, which is exported
in large quantities from no other country. The pimento tree, which
is allied to the myrtle family, grows abundantly on warm limestone
hills at elevations of from 1,500 to 2,500 feet. Beneath thetrees cattle
and horses are pastured, feeding on the nutritious pimento grass."


259. Pimento, Bamboo Penn, Beresford Estate
260. Pimento, Southfield Estate .
261. Pimento, Lillyfield Estate
262. Pimento, Belle Vue Estate
263. Pimento, Liberty Hill Estate
264. Pimento, Whitney Estate
265. Pimento, Seville Estate
266. Pimento, Oldsbury Estate
267. Pimento, Middleton Estate
268. Pimento
269. Pimento
270. Pimento
271. Pimento
272. Pimento
273. Pimento


S. Gossett.
Richard Moss.
Richard Moss.
John Davidson.
Miss Stennett.
E. C. Elliott.
J. E. P. Thompson.
W. Pierce.
George Massey.
C. M. Calder.
J. P. Baillie.
E. S. Falden.
George & Branday.
George & Branday.
T. G. Anthony.


VIII.-OACAO.

Cacao, or chocolate, is made from the cured beans or seeds of a
tree (Theobroma Cacao). In connection with the development of the
fruit trade in Jamaica, cacao is receiving great attention, and plan-
tations are being established under the shade of the banana trees. To
yield fine cacao, the beans require to be fermented and carefully cured.
On the manner with which these processes are performed depend
entirely the quality of the cacao. During the last three years, owing
to better preparation, the price of Jamaica cacao has risen about 10
per cent.; and, if systematic attention is paid to the curing of this
article, planters may expect a considerable increase on the present
market value. Many years ago Long, the historian, made the following
remarks with regard to cacao: This tree once grew so plentifully in
Jamaica that the inhabitants flattered themselves it would become the
source of inexhaustible wealth to them; in 1671 there were forty-five




wrr~r wn~'qr'" "rTB I-. rirr~i-?


9

walks in bearing, and many new ones in cultivation, but some years
afterwards they were all destroyed at once, as it is said, by a blast
which pervaded the whole island; so that they were never afterwards
recovered, and at present there are but few." The number of cacao
plantations at present is about ten, but several smaller ones are being
established, and it is hoped shortly to find Jamaica cacao in the London


market in large quantities.
274. Cacao, Belle Vue Estate
275. Cacao, Alpha Cottage Estate
276. Cacao (washed and clayed), Golden Spring Estate
277. Cacao (fermented and washed), Golden Spring
Estate
278. Cacao (fermented and washed), Langley Estate
279. Cacao, Cambrian Plantation Estate
280. Cacao (No. 1), Spring Hill Estate
280a. Cacao (No. 2), Spring Hill Estate
281. Cacao (No. 3), Spring Hill Estate
282. Cacao, Spring Hill Estate. .
283. Cacao, Spring Hill Estate. .
284. Cacao, Spring Hill Estate
285. Cacao. ...
286. Cacao (settlers), St. Thomas-in-the-Vale Estate
287. Cacao (pods in spirit) .
288. Cacao (leaves)
289. Cacao (butter)


John Davidson.
W. S. Taylor.
W. Logan.

W. Logan.
W. E. Sant.
J. Cohen.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
George & Branday.
W. Logan.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
G. Eustace Burke.


IX.-ANNATTO.

Annatto is derived from the seeds of Bixa Orellana, a low shrubby
tree, native of the West Indies. The seeds are prepared by drying in
the sun, and when cured present a waxy, reddish colour. They are
much used for colouring purposes.
290. Annatto, The Cottage Estate A. W. Kemble.
291. Annatto, Kingston Estate. H. Priest.
292. Annatto, Kingston Estate A. S. Lazarus & Co.
293. Annatto, Kingston Estate P. Desnoes & Son.
294. Annatto J. P. Baillie.
295. Annatto, precipitate from seeds without aid of
chemicals, Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
296. Annatto, cleaned seeds, Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
297. Annatto, seeds in natural state, Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
298. Annatto and lard, free from foreign substance,
slightly salted, Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
299. Annatto, washings, after principal colouring
matter has been extracted-showing colouring
portion of seeds which is soluble in water,
Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
300. Annatto seed and olive oil, free from foreign
substance, Union Hill Estate F. B. Sturridge.
301. Annatto and petroleum, fancy mixture, showing
amalgamation of colouring matter with any
oleaginous substances, Union Hill F. B. Sturridge.











302. Annatto, Worthy Park Estate
303. Colours from annatto precipitate, painted on paper,
Union Hill Estate .
304. Plate painted with annatto and paint oil, Union
Hill Estate
305. Plate painted with annatto and olive oil, Union
Hill Estate


J. Gray.

F. B. Sturridge.

F. B. Sturridge.

F. B. Sturridge.


X.-FANCY AND FURNITURE WOODS.

It may be mentioned that there are no large forests in Jamaica
from whence quantities of cheap building timber can be obtained.
There are, however, choice cabinet and fancy woods which might be
obtained in appreciable quantities, and the immense variety of articles
such as knife-handles, knobs, buttons, &c., which are now manufactured
from choice grained woods, opens a ready market to some of the best
and most costly of Jamaica woods. Many of these woods, as may be
seen at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, are of surpassing excellence.
Full particulars respecting the quantity obtainable, and the prices,
may be had on application to the private exhibitors mentioned below.

(A.)-Woods in Polished Sections with Natural Bark.


Lignum vita, Guaiacum officinale
Candle wood, Cassia emarginata
Yellow sanders (two), Bucida capitata
Log wood (two), HEmatoxylon campechianum.
Log wood, Hoematoxylon campechianum .
Fustic, Muclura tinctoria .
Bitter wood, Picrena excelsa
Cam wood, Baphia nitida. .
Prickly yellow, Xanthoxylon clava-Herculis
Calabash, Crescentia Cujete
Cocoanut, Cocos nucifera .
Camphor wood (two), Cinnamomum camphora
Cork wood (three), Anona palustris .
Ebony, Brya Ebenus
Wild Cinnamon, Canella alba .
Scarlet Cordia, Cordia Sebestena
Hog gum (two), Moronobea coccinea
Quassia wood, Quassia amara .
Beech, Exostemma caribbiea
Red bull heart .
Guava, Sidium Guava .
Fiddle wood, Catharexylum surrectum
Cashaw, Prosopis juliflora
Yoke, Catalpa longisiliqua .
Ginep, Melicocca bijuga
Iron wood
Red musk wood
Pimento. .
Lignum vita


Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
George & Branday.
George & Branday.


Sm











(B.)-Woods in Polished Slabs.

Exhibited by C. W. Treleaven, Bogue Estate, St. Elizabeth.


Green-heart ebony.
Fustic.
Naseberry bully tree.
Gallimenta.
Wild tamarind.
Dog wood.
Pigeon wood.
Maiden plum.
Rcse wood.
Yellow sanders.
Wild orange.
Red wood.
Wild mahogany.
Pimento.
Fiddle wood.


Grape wood.
Log wood.
Yellow candle wood.
Black-heart ebony.
Bully tree.
Mammee bully tree.
Mahogany.
Braziletto.
Cassada.
White candle wood.
Mahoe.
Bastard bully tree.
Bread nut.
Cog wood.


Exhibited by Turnbull & Mudon, Kingston.


364. Mahogany.
365. Yacca.
366. Mahoe.
367. Satin wood.
368. Grey sanders.
369. Maiden plum.


370. Yoke.
371. Lace bark.
372. Dog wood.
373. Braziletto.
374. Mahogany root.
375. Common cedar.


Exhibited by A. A. Green, Balaclava.


Mahogany.
Ebony.
Mahogany root.
Rose wood.
Red candle wood.
Red bullet tree.
Fustic.
Bread nut.


384. Fiddle wood.
385. Cog bully tree.
386. Mahogany root.
387. White candle wood.
388. Blue mahoe.
389. Beech.
390. Green heart.


(C.)-Woods in Trimmed and Polished Blocks.

Exhibited by Alfred Pawsey, Kingston.


391. Mountain fig.
392. Prickly yellow.
393. Locust.
394. White dog wood.
395. White bullet wood.
396. Prune.


397. Timber sweet wood.
398. Grey sanders.
399. Broad leaf.
400. Dog wood.
401. Braziletto.
402. Bread nut.


Exhibited by the Boys' Reformatory, Stony Hill.
403. Fiddle wood. 410. Wild orange.
404. Mahogany. 411. Spanish elm.
405. Mahoe. 412. Satin wood.
406. Black-heart ebony. 413. Calabash.
407. Yacca. 414. Juniper cedar.
408. Prickly yellow. 415. Pimento.
409. Cocoanut. 416. Yellow sanders.











(D.)-Woods in Small Polished Slabs, from the Parish
of Clarendon.

Exhibited by Ernest C. Elliott, Vere.


417. Ants wood.
418. Beef apple.
419. Birch.
420. Braziletto, m.
421. Black bully tree.
422. Broad leaf.
423. Naseberry bully tree.
424. Bullet tree, 1.
425. Wild bitter wood.
426. Barbary bully tree.
427. Break axe, m.
428. Bread nut, m.
429. Bread nut, 1.
430. Bitter wood.
431. Blood wood.
432. Braziletto, m.
433. Beech.
434. Black ashes.
435. Braziletto, 1.
436. Box wood, 1.
437. Big family, 1.
438. Cog wood.
439. Cedar.
440. Bastard cedar.
441. Calabash, m.
442. Calabash, 1.
443. Red candle wood.
444. Wild candle wood.
445. White candle wood.
446. Cherry tree.
447. White cog wood.
448. Darrant cedar.
449. Cubla nancy.
450. Wild cinnamon.
451. Candle wood, 1.
452. Cashaw, 1.
453. Chink wood.
454. Damson.
455. Dog wood, m.
456. Dago.
457. Dog wood, 1.
458. Black ebony, 1.
459. Green-heart ebony, 1.
460. Wild fiddle wood.
461. Wild fustic.
462. Fiddle wood.
463. Fustic.
464. Black fig.
465. Galimenta.
466. Gutter wood.
467. Wild guava.
468. Grand gini.


469. Wild ginep.
470. Grape, m.
471. Guava, 1.
472. Guava, m.
473. Gum wood.
474. Tame guava.
475. Small-leaf grape.
476. Broad-leaf grape.
477. Green heart, 1.
478. Mountain guava.
479. Hog doctor.
480. Wild hog doctor.
481. Iron wood, 1.
482. White iron wood.
483. Jack fruit, 1.
484. Jointer.
485. Lablab.
486. Lance wood.
487. Log wood, m.
488. Log wood, 1.
489. Log wood root, 1.
490. White lance wood.
491. Wild locust.
492. Bastard lignum vite.
493. Bastard lignum vitse, 1.
494. Mahogany.
495. Mountain ebony.
496. Milk wood.
497. Wild mahoe.
498. White mahogany.
499. Maiden plum.
500. Mango.
501. Mammee.
502. Mammee, sapote.
503. Wild mahogany.
504. Maroon lance.
505. Muskmelon.
506. Mast wood.
507. Mountain mahoe.
508. Wild orange.
509. Seville orange.
510. Wild olive, 1.
511. Wild pomegranate.
512. Prune.
513. Prickly yellow.
5132. Parrot wood.
514. Pasture wood.
515. Pimento wood.
516. Pear tree.
517. Pepper wood.
518. Wild pear tree.
519. Prickly yellow, 1.


,.,.-L.s..-aai











Prickly yellow root, 1. 537. Salt wood.
SRed rod wood. 538. Satin wood.
* White rod wood. 539. Wild Spanish olive.
SRose wood. 540. Stock fish, 1.
SRose apple. 541. Small leaf, 1.
. Rosin. 542. White tamarind.
SWild sour sop. 543. Red tamarind.
SSpanish elm. 544. Bastard tamarind.
SWild Spanish elm 545. Turkey berry.
SPepper sweet wood. 546. Thatch wood.
SBelly sweet wood. 547. Vanilla.
. Timber sweet wood. 548. Wattle wood.
SLong-leaved sweet wood. 549. Yellow sanders, 1.
SSavannah barlary. 550. Yellow sanders, m.
SSlug wood. 551. Yoke wood.
SSlug sweet wood. 552. Yacca.
. Silver wood.
"1" signifies woods indigenous to the lowlands, m to the mountains.


XI.-SPICES, CONDIMENTS, &c.

Next to the development of the fruit interest, the cultivation of
spices and spice plants would appear to offer great inducements in
Jamaica. Pimento, which is the largest spice industry in the world,
stands essentially a Jamaican product. Jamaica ginger is exported to
the value of 20,000 per annum. Cayenne pepper, turmeric root,
nutmeg, cinnamon, cardamom clove, vanilla, and black pepper are also
established in the island, and afford abundant means for the prosecution
of the minor industries. All the above-mentioned plants are chiefly
cultivated in the low country.


Cayenne pepper.
Cayenne pepper.
Cayenne pepper.
Cayenne pepper.
Ginger
Ginger
Ginger
Nutmegs, Bath .


Nutmegs, with mace, Bath
Nutmegs, in shell, Bath
Nutmegs, out of shell, Bath
Nutmegs (in solution)
Turmeric powder
Cinnamon .
Cinnamomum Cassia.
Wild cinnamon (Canella alba)
Cardamoms, Langley.
Jamaica pickles, Kingston.


Governors of Jamaica Institute.
B. Fisher.
B. Fisher.
Mrs. J. Bruce.
George & Branday.
P. Desnoes & Son.
George & Branday.
Dr. Major.
Dr. Major.
Dr. Major.
Dr. Major.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
Botanical Department.
W. E. Sant.
Levien & Sherlock.


"n.zPl~cll~.ae~s~Y1 -
;










XII.-MEALS, STARCHES.

Plants for the production of meals and starches are abundant in
Jamaica, and they are capable of being produced in large quantities.
577. Affoo Yam Meal, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
578. Cocoa Meal, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
579. Breadfruit meal, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
580. Pumpkin meal, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
581. Sweet potato starch, Gordon Town J. Hart.
582. Arrowroot starch, Worthy Park J. Gray.
583. Indian arrowroot starch, Worthy Park J. Gray.
584. Negro Yam starch, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
585. Arrowroot starch, Plantain Garden River Robert Kirkland.
586. Cassava starch, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
587. Starch, Whitney Estate E. C. Elliott.
588. Arrowroot starch Governor's Jamaica Institute.
589. Curcuma starch Botanical Department.
590. Tous les mois, Worthy Park J. Gray.
591. Sugar bean Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
592. White pea .Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
593. No eye pea .Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
594. Red pea Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
595. Cuckhold's Increase Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
596. Crab eye .Governor's Institute of Jamaica.



XIII.--DYEWOODS.
Dyewoods, such as log wood, fustic and sappan wood, are exported
from Jamaica to the value of about 100,000 annually. Log wood
was introduced from British Honduras in 1715, and since that time
has spread spontaneously over the lowlands, especially in the neighbour-
hood of sugar estates, so that now the exports of log wood from Jamaica
exceed those of British Honduras.
597. Logwood, Elim Estate. J. M. Farquharson.
598. Fustic, Elim Estate J. M. Farquharson.
599. Sappan, Elim Estate J. M. Farquharson.



XIV.-FIBRES AND FIBROUS MATERIALS.

Numerous plants are found in Jamaica capable of yielding valuable
fibre, and considerable interest is being taken in the result of systematic
trials undertaken by a committee appointed by government, to test the
capabilities of certain machines driven by steam power in the prepara-
tion of fibres on a commercial scale. Experiments have been carried
on during the last few years, beginning with a machine invented
by a local engineer, Mr. James Kennedy, called the "Eureka"
machine, and continued with a machine known as Smith's Patent,"






-n.i


~m*nrfi;~p~.C~*~C~~?~:




-


15

manufactured by Death and Ellwood, Leicester, England, now the pro-
perty of the Universal Fibre Company, London. The result of these
trials have been published in the Jamaica Gazette, and, although not
quite so satisfactory as was expected, still point to the fact that a fibre
industry in Jamaica carried on in a systematic manner must prove
highly remunerative.
Should a fibre industry be established in Jamaica, it will be necessary
to cultivate the plants on a large scale. Many of these plants, such as
the silk grass or henequen (Furcroea cubensis), the bowstring hemps
(Sansevieria), and the China grass or Ramie (Behmneria nicca), are
sufficiently abundant to supply plants to establish large areas at once.

(A.)-Specimens of Fibre Exhibited by Mr.James Kennedy,
Kingston, Prepared by the "Eureka" Fibre Machine.
600. One bundle of fibres of pine-apple, Ramie, Pita.
601. Furcrcea and Sansevieria zeylanica.
602. Bowstring hemp (Sansevieria zeylanica).
603. African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria guineensis).
604. Ramie (Bcehmeria nivea).
605. Plantain (Musa paradisiaca).
606. Dagger (Yucca aloifolia).
607. Pinguin (Bromelia pinguin).
608. Flag or rush (Cladium occidentale).
609. Pine-apple (Ananas sativa).
610. Keratto (Agave keratto).
611. Bromelia Karatas.
(B.)-Exhibited by the Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
612. Silk grass (Furcrcea cubensis).
613. Pinguin (Bromelia pinguin).
614. Keratto cleaned and extracted (Agave keratto).
615. Pine-apple (Ananas sativa).
616. Bowstring hemp (Sansevieria zeylanica).
617. African bowstring hemp (Sansevieria guineensis).
618. Dagger, cleaned (Yucca aloifolia).
619. Ramie (Behmeria nivea).



XV.-OILS, ESSENTIAL OIL, PERFUMES, &c.
Plants yielding oils and perfumes are abundant in Jamaica, and
exhibits enumerated below indicate a wide field for the operations of the
chemist and the cultivator of flowers for their perfumes. Many of the
plants are very abundant and obtainable in large quantities; others,
like the tube rose and jasmine, require to be cultivated. The first
attempt to establish a flower-farm and extract perfume in the island
is being made by Col. Talbot, on Worthy Park Estate, St. Catherine
(under the superintendence of Mr. J. Gray).


~Jiwi;..~








16

(A.)-Exhibited by S. T. Scharschmidt, Mandeville.
620. Tuberose pomade (Polianthes tuberosa).
621. Jasmine pomade (Jasminum sp.).
622. Extracts of Bonplondia.
623. Extract of wild cinnamon (Canella alba).
624. Extract of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia).
625. Extract of jasmine and Lily.
626. Extract of jasmine (Jasminum sp.).
627. Extract of red muskwood.
628. Extract of rosewood.
629. Extract of Tangierine orange (Citrus Aurantium var.).
630. Extract of verbena.
631. Essential oil of lemon (Citrus medical var. Limonum).
632. Essential oil of sweet orange (Citrus Aurantium).
633. Essential oil of Seville orange (Citrus Aurantium).
634. Essential oil of pimento berries (Pimenta vulgaris).
635. Essential oil of pimento leaf (Pimenta vulgaris).
636. Fixed oil of Ben nut.
637. Fixed oil of pear (Persea gratissima).
638. Fixed oil of walnut (Aleurites triloba).

(B.)
639. Walnut oil (Aleurites triloba), Ocho Rios A. J. Rodgers.
640. Essential oil, Seville orange (Citrus Aurantium var.), Worthy Park J. Gray.
641. Essential oil, sweet orange (Citrus Aurantium), Worthy Park J. Gray.
642. Essential oil of citron lime, Worthy Park J. Gray.

(C.)-Exhibited by J. J. Bowrey, F.C.S., F.I.C.,
Government Analytical Chemist.
643. Essential oil, Mountain cigar bush (Hedyosmum nutans).
644. Essential oil, Blue gum (Eucalyptus Globulus).
645. Essential oil, Seville orange seed (Citrus Aurantium var.).
646. Essential oil, Cigar bush (Critonia Dalea).
647. Essential oil, Lemon grass (Andropogon citratus).
648. Essential oil. Juniper cedar (Juniperus bermudiana).
649. Essential oil, Mountain thyme (Micromeria obovata).
650. Essential oil, Pimento leaves (Pimenta vulgaris).
651. Essential oil of Ben (Moringa pterygosperma).
652. Essential oil of Cocoanut (Cocos nucifera).
653. Essential oil, Spanish walnut (Aleurites triloba).
654. Essential oil, Sand box (Hura crepitans).
655. Essential oil, Santa Maria (Calophyllum calaba).
656. Essential oil, matter of Annotta (Bixa orellana).
657. Fat of Antidote Cacoon (Fevillea cordifolia).




XVI.-MEDICINAL AND ECONOMIC SUBSTANCES.

Plants of a medicinal nature are a marked feature in the indigenous
Flora of Jamaica, and in works published from 1735 to the present time
numerous references are made to the valuable properties possessed by
Jamaica plants. Cinchona (150 acres) and Tea (2 acres) are cultivated




,11 7 -7 7.


17

experimentally by Government. The following exhibit contains a
fairly representative collection of the medicinal plants (both indigenous
and introduced) of the island. The reference in brackets indicates the
portion of the plant used in medicine :-


(A.)-Exhibits by the Botanical Department, Jamaica.

658. Nickar seeds, Guilandina Bondnuella.
659. Nickar seeds, Guilandina Bonduc.
660. Nickar seeds, Guilandina Bonduc. var.
661. Horse-eye beans, Mucuna urens.
662. Horse beans.
663. Wild worm wood (leaves), Parthenium hysterophorus.
664. Pepper rod (leaves), Croton humilis.
665. Guinea hen weed (whole plant), Petiveria alliacea.
666. Sand box seeds, Hura crepitans.
667. Castor oil seed, Ricinus communis.
668. Guaco (root and leaves), Mikania guaco.
669. Bottle-cod root, Capparis cyanophallophora.
670. Adrue (tubers), Cyperus articulatus.
671. Pomegranate (rind of fruit), Punica granatum.
672. Dog wood (bark), Piscida erythrina.
673. Locust tree bark, Hymenea courbaril.
674. Bastard cabbage bark, Andira inermis.
675. Balsam tree bark, Amyris balsamifera.
676. China root, Smilax China.
677. Fitweed root, Eryngium fcetidum.
678. False ipecacuanha, Asclepias curassavica.
679. Cow-itch (pods), Mucuna urens.
680. Divi-divi pods, Cesalpinia coriaria.
681. Surge weed, Euphorbia pilulifera.
682. Horse cassia, Cassia fistula.
683. Mexican thistle seed, Argemone mexicana.
684. Cascarilla bark, Croton cascarilla.
685. Locust tree gum, Hymenmea courbaril.
686. Gum guaiacum, Guaiacum officinale.
687. Log wood gum, Haematoxylon campechinum.
688. Horse cassia, Cassia grandis.
689. Purging cassia, Cassia fistula.
690. Crabs-eye or jequetery seeds, Abrus precatorius.
691. Circassian beads, Adenanthera pavonina.
692. Soap berry, Sapindus inequalis.
693. Job's tears, Coix lachryma.
694. Maiden plum bark, Comocladia integrifolia
695. Wild cinnamon bark, Canella alba.
696. John Crow bush (roots), Bocconia frutescens.
697. Prune bark, Prunus occidentalis.
698. Mountain Cigar bush (leaves), Hedyosmum nutans.
699. Bitter Dan bark, Simaruba glauca.
700. Blue gum trees (leaves), Eucalyptus globulus.
701. Lemon-scented gum tree, Eucalyptus citriodora.
702. Antidote cacoon, Fevillea cordifolia.
703. French Cotton, Calotropis procera.
704. Cacoon seeds, Entada scandens.
705. Hog gum, Moronobea coccines.












Mat6 or Paraquay Tea, Ilex paraguayensis.
African oil palm seeds, Elmis guineensis.
CearA rubber seed, Manihot glaziovi.
Jamaica walnut, Aleurites triloba.
Para rubber seeds, Hevea braziliensis.
Betel nut seeds, Areca catechu.
Kus-kus grass (root), Andropogon muricatus.
Chewstick (branches), Gouania domingensis.
Cotton.
Sarsaparilla (roots), Smilax officinalis.
Mahogany seed, Swietenia mahagoni.
Breadfruit tree (leaves), Artocarpus incisa.
African sweet reed (5 vars.), Sorghum spp.
Aloes (inspissated juice), Aloe vulgaris.

(B.)-Contributed by Private Parties.


Jamaica walnut (Aleurites triloba) .
Kola nut (Cola acuminata)
Locust tree gum (Hymenma courbaril)
Cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale) .
Hog gum (Moronobea coccinea)
Kola nut (Cola acuminata)
Kus-kus grass (root), (Andropogon muricatus)
Coca leaves, No. 1 (Erythroxylon coca) .
Coca leaves, No. 2 (Erythroxylon coca) .
Liquorice seed
Divi-divi pods (Clsalpinia coriaria)
Cashaw gum (Prosopis juliflora)
Cashaw gum (Anacardium occidentale) .
Log wood gum (Hsematoxylon campechianum)
Locust tree gum (Hymenea courbaril)
Cascarilla bark (Croton cascarilla).
Wild cinnamon bark (Canella alba)
Sarsaparilla (Smilax officinalis)
Soap berries (Sapindus insequalis) .
St. Vincent seeds .
Rice (grown in Clarendon)
Syrup made from horehound, liquorice, &c.


Dr. Major.
Dr. Major.
Mrs. T. Hendrick.
Mrs. T. Hendrick.
Rev. J. Seed Robert
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
J. Gray.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Rev. J. Seed Roberts.
Miss L. Gordon.
John Thompson.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
S. T. Scharschmidt.
A. Berry.
Rev. E. Palmer.
Rev. E. Palmer.
Rev. E. Palmer.
Miss Rebecca Martin.


(C.)-Prepared by J. J. Bowrey, F.I.C., F.C.S., Govern-
ment Analytical Chemist.
742. Cinchona febrifuge, prepared from Jamaica-grown bark of Cinchona
siccirubra.




XVII.-MISCELLANEOUS.

(A.)


Honey, Kingston
Honey, St. Catherine
Honey, Kingston
Honey, St. Catherine
Beeswax (bleached), St. Catherine .


P. Desnoes & Son.
Matthew Russell.
J. H. Aikman.
Charles Gordon.
Matthew Russell.


., ^ccn~--T? 7 ..a ,











748. Beeswax, Kingston A. Berry.
749. Beeswax, St. Catherine. Charles Gordon.
750. Beeswax, Kingston George & Branday.
751. Lime juice, Black River George E. Levy.
752. Lime juice, Lillyfield R.. ichard Moss.
753. Preserved Ginger Arthur Linton.
754. Lime juice, Southfield Richard Moss.
755. Vinegar James Verley.
756. Citrate of lime, Mandeville S. T. Scharschmidt.
757. Buckets of common bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris). Botanical Department.
758. Yams Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
759. African yam. D. Morris.
760. Arracacha (Arracacha esculenta) .Botanical Department
761. Old man's beard (Tillandsia usneoides) Botanical Department.
762. Assam tea, prepared from plants growing on the
Government Cinchona Plantation, Jamaica J. Hart.


(B.)-Exhibited by Levien & Sherlock, Kingston.
763. A turtle back.
764. Turtle tablets for epicures.
765. Turtle tablets for invalids.
766. Turtle fat.
767. Eggs from interior of a turtle.
768. Turtle eggs found in the sand.
769. Turtle diamonds.
770. Turtle oil.
771. Dry turtle.
772. Preserves in bottles, of ginger, limes, orange, cherimoya, melon, cashaw,
pine-apple, No. 11 mango, green tamarinds, crystallised ginger, guava
jelly, mangolima.
773. Preserves of Jamaica fruits in tins.


(C.)-Exhibited by the General Penitentiary.

774. Tubs.
775. Piggins.
776. A chess table of Jamaica woods.
777. A pair of boots.
778. A staff.
779. Rulers.
780. A what-not.
781. Hats.




XVIII.-BOOKS, REPORTS, &c.

782. Set of volumes of the "Handbook of Jamaica" for the years 1882, 1883,
1884-85, 1885-86, compiled by A. C. Sinclair and L. R. Fyfe.
783. Set of volumes of the "Handbook of Jamaica" for the years 1882, 1883,
1884-85, 1885-86, exhibited by the Governors of the Institute of Jamaica.
784. Studies on the Flora of Jamaica, Mrs. T. Hendrick.
785. Map of the Island of Jamaica by Governor's Institute of Jamaica.
786. Departmental Reports for the year 1883-84.
787. Jamaica Blue-Book for the year 1884.









20



XIX.-VIEWS, PHOTOGRAPHS, PLANS, AND

BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, MOUNTED IN FRAMES.


(A.)-Contributed by the Governors of the Institute
of Jamaica.

788. Craigton Church, Port Royal Mountain.
789. Irish Town, Port Royal Mountains.
790. Port Royal, Naval Station.
791. The Bog Walk, on Road to St. Ann's.
792. A view of the Town of Mandeville.
793. A view of the Town of Lucea.
794. Roaring River Bridge, St. Ann's.
795. The Cotton Tree, Up-Park Camp.
796. Old Queen's House, Spanish Town.
797. River Head.
798. View of a Village, Stewart Town.
799. A view of the Fern Walk.
800. Port Maria, North Coast.
801. A view of Harbour Street, Kingston.
802. Y. S. Falls.
803. Barracks of the 2nd West India Regiment, Up-Park Camp.
804. A view of Duke Street, Kingston.
805. Strawberry Hill, Mountain Residence.
806. Newcastle, Hill Station for White Troops.
807. Metcalf's Statue, Kingston.
808. A view of Newcastle.
809. Brooks's Hotel, Mandeville.
810. The Bog Walk.
811. View on the Road to Newcastle.
812. King's House, Governor's Residence, near Kingston.
813. A view on the Bog Walk.
814. Part of the Bog Walk.
815. Montego Bay.
816. Court House, Black River.
817. The Cocoanut Grove at the Lunatic Asylum, Kingston.
818. Cascade, Roaring River.
819. Viaduct on the Ewarton Extension Line.
820. The Bog Walk.
821. Cascade of the Roaring River.
822. Dam Head, Irrigation Works.
823. Hamstead Estate, Trelawny.
824. The Rio Cobre, Spanish Town.
825. Llandovery Falls, St. Ann's.
826. Band of the 1st West India Regiment.
827. The Dining Hall of the Lunatic Asylum, Kingston.
828. Male Recreation Court, Lunatic Asylum, Kingston.
829. Male and Female Dormitories, Lunatic Asylum, Kingston.
830. Male Infirmary, Lunatic Asylum, Kingston.
831. Gate Lodge, Hospital, &c., Lepers' Home, Spanish Town.
832. Ward and Recreation Shed, Male, Lepers' Home, Spanish Town.
833. Male Ward, Front View, Public Hospital, Kingston.
834. Male Ward, Side View, Public Hospital, Kingston.
835. Operation Theatre and Wards, Public Hospital, Kingston.











(B.)-Exhibited by the Rev. Barton Tucker, Port Royal.
836. View from a West India Verandah.
837. A Banana Tree.
838. Fort Augusta, &c.
839. Corner of a Provision Ground.
840. Garrison and Point, Port Royal.
841. Near Kingston, from Port Royal.
842. View in the Public Gardens.
843. View of the Interior of May Penn.
844. Up in the Hills.
845. Group of Bamboos, Chapelton.
846. Tavernor, Chapelton.
847. Cabbage Palm, &c.
848. Date Palm, &c.
849. Cocoanut Palm and Mangroves.
850. Up in the Hills.
851. St. Catherine's Peak.
852. Red Hills Village, under Bull Head.
853. In the Palisadoes.
854. In the Grounds, King's House.
855. Port Royal, from Craighton.
856. Kingston from the Palisadoes (framed oil painting).
857. In the Isle of Springs (framed oil painting).

(C.)
858. Newcastle, from Flamstead Road (oil painting), Col. Morley, Up-Park Camp.
859. Sunset at Harbour Head, Jamaica (oil painting), Mrs. Morley, Up-Park Camp.
860. Up-Park Camp (oil painting), Mrs. Morley, Up-Park Camp.
861. Up-Park Camp, showing Messhouse, Mrs. Morley, Up-Park Camp.
862. Photographs of the Parish Church, Kingston, Miss Downer.
863. A complete set of the postage stamps (from half-penny to five shillings) and
of island and foreign post cards in use in Jamaica since 1860, contributed
by the Postmaster for Jamaica.
864. A complete set of the telegraph stamps (three-pence and one shilling) and of
the embossed stamps for general and Government use, issued in Jamaica,
October 1879. Contributed by the Postmaster for Jamaica.
865. A set of revenue stamps and embossed stamps. Contributed by the Conimis-
sioner of Stamps, Jamaica.
866. Mounted specimen cards of Cinchona, Ferns, and Lichens, exhibited by the
Botanical Department.




XX. --FANCY ARTICLES AND ORNAMENTAL WORK.

(A.)-From the Women's Self-Help Society, Kingston.
867. Two fire screens made from French cotton.
868. Two fire screens made from lace bark.
869. A birthday card.
870. A lamp shade.
871. A fan made from lace bark and ferns.
872. One set of d'oyleys.
873. A photograph screen made from dagger plant.
874. A letter rack made from dagger plant.
875. Necklaces made from gold" shells.









22

876. Chains made of "Job's tears"
877. Chains made of "soap berries."
878. Chain made of shells.
879. Necklace made from liquorice seeds.
880. Watch pocket made from the strainer" vine.
881. An etching on bamboo.
882. An etching on small bamboo.
883. A "Yabba."
884. A cocoanut, polished.
885. A small cocoanut, polished.
886. Handkerchief case made from banana bark.
887. Cigar case made from banana bark.
888. A pair of bracelets made from the horse-eye bean.
889. Napkin rings made from bamboo.
890. A basket made from leaves of the palmetto palm.
891. A hat made from leaves of the palmetto palm.
892. A Tarantula" spider's nest.
893. Hat made of Jippijappa leaves.
894. Lace bark whip.
895. Specimen of lace bark.
896. Rings made from gru-gru" nuts.
897. Scarf ring made from gru-gru nut.
898. Chains made from Circassian seeds.
899. Zulu hat basket covered with moss.
900. A pair of tortoise shell bracelets.
9C1. A pair of tortoise shell hair pins.
902. A set of tortoise shell studs, &c.
903. A pair of tortoise shell hair pins.
904. A picture made of lace bark, French cotton, &c.
905. Sticks from ebony and gru-gru palm.

(B.)-From Mrs. Hendrick, Richmond Park.
906. Water monkey of Jamaica pottery, with convolvulus, ferns, &c., painted
in oils.
907. Flower pot, with flowering plantain painted in oils.
908. Flower pot, with Iris lily and coleus.
909. Two calabashes, with Jamaica flowers painted on them.
910. Two calabashes painted in blue.
911. One set of d'oyleys made from lace bark and Jamaica ferns.

(C.)-From Mrs. Morley, Up-Park Camp.
912. Twelve d'oyleys painted in oils.
913. Six d'oyleys painted in oils.
914. Twelve d'oyleys.
915. Cards ornamented with Jamaica ferns.
916. Bread-fruit blossoms.

(D.)-From Miss Downer, Kingston.
917. One set of d'oyleys made from lace bark and Jamaica ferns.
918. One lamp shade.
919. One set of candle shades.

(E.)-Exhibited by the Governors of the Institute
of Jamaica.
920. Back combs made from tortoise shell.
921. Combs made from tortoise shell.






.-. -A








23

922. Dressing case comb from tortoise shell.
923. A pair of cuff bracelets of
924. A pair of band bracelets of ,,
925. An amber bracelet of
926. A chain made of
927. A pocket comb of ,
928. Paper knife of
929. Brooch of
930. Pair of ball amber earrings of ,,
931. Amber studs, &c., of
932. Pins of
933. Amber cross of
934. Salt spoons of

(F.)


Wall baskets of "Jippijappa .
Fancy baskets
Souvenir of Jamaica (in ferns).
Carved calabashes
Lamp shades
A set of d'oyleys
A dagger plant hat
Watch pockets from dagger plant
Pincushion from dagger plant .
Fern albums
Hat made from wire grass
Ladies' basket made of wire grass
Dish-mats made of wire grass .


A. C. Bancroft, Buff Bay.
Miss M. It. Martin, Kingston.
Mrs. Major, Bath.
Samuel Stephen.
Miss Kilburn, Kingston.
Mrs. Hitchins, Kingston.
Miss Egbertha Harrison, Ocho Rios.
Miss Egbertha Harrison, Ocho Rios.
Miss Egbertha Harrison, Ocho Rios.
Miss Egbertha Harrison, Ocho Rios.
T. E. Thompson.
T. E. Thompson.
T. E. Thompson.


XXI.-EXHIBITS of SALT from the TURKS and CAICOS

ISLANDS, DEPENDENCIES OF JAMAICA, W. I.

948. Five barrels, J. W. Reynolds, Turks Island.
949. One box, Frith & Murphy, Turks Island.





XXII.-CINCHONA BARK.

FROM TREES GROWN IN THE BLUE MOUNTAINS
OF JAMAICA.

(A.)-Exhibited by De B. S. Heaven, Whitfield Hall.

950. Trunk bark, Cinchona o.llcinalis.
951. Twig bark, Cinchona oflicinalis.
952. Root bark, Cinchona offimnalis.
953. Trunk bark, Cinchona suc-irubra.
954. Branch and twig bark, Cinchona succ:rubra.
955. Root bark, Cinchona suecirubra.








24

(B.)-Exhibited by the Botanical Department.
956. Cinchona calisaya.
957. Cinchona hybrid.
958. Cinchona officinalis.
959. Cinchona Ledgeriana.
960. Cinchona succirubra.
961. Cinchona Ledgeriana (Howard's).




XXIII.-BAMBOOS, WALKING STICKS, &c.

The bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) is generally distributed in Jamaica.
In a crushed state it is exported for fibre and paper-making. Material
for walking sticks is abundant. The wild cane (Arundo occidentalis)
possesses roots of very grotesque shapes and forms which might be
utilised for umbrella and sunshade handles. Of these roots large
quantities are easily obtainable at a moderate cost.

Exhibited by the Botanical Department.

962. Stems of common bamboo (Bsmbusa vulgaris).
963. Stems of China bamboo (Bambusa nana).
9C4. Stems of solid bamboo (Bambusa sp.).
965. Stems of wild cane (Arundo occidentalis).
9C6. Stems of wild cane (Arundo saccharoides).
967. Stems of Indian cane (Beesha travancoriensis).
968. Stems of ground rattan (Rhaphis flabellifolmis).

9C9. Walking Sticks, cxhibitcd by the Goverrcrs of the Institute of Jamaica.










yS 12..








25


Jiist of Articles collecteb in gnglanb
(in addition to the Exhibits from the Colony).


DYE WOODS.
Exhibited by Major J. Simpson-Carson.
Log wood in natural state.


MISCELLANEOUS.-BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, &c.
(A.)-Exhibited by Mrs. SIMPSON-CARSON.
Jamaica pressed ferns.
(B.)-Exhibited by Christy & Co.


Remijia Purdieana.
Mock pepper.
Papaw leaves.
Papaw dry juice.
Sarsaparilla.
Nutmeg and its fat.
Copalchi bark.
Blue Mountain coffee.
Black pepper seed.


Annatto seed (husk).
Jatropha Curcus.
Colubrina reclinats.
Euphorbia piluligera.
Capsicums.
Jamaica Chew-Stick.
Lucuma mammosa.
Guaiacum officinale.
Kola leaf.


Gum Guaiacum.
Cassia Sophera.
Parthenium hysteropho-
rum.
Leuciena glauca.
Nutmegs.
Feuilla cordifolia.
Mucuna urens.


(C.)-Exhibited by C. Washington Eves.
GROWING PLANTS, VIZ.:-


Mahogany tree.
Dracena.
Clusia.
India-rubber.
Cypress.
Musacoccinea.
Croupaum.
Lomaria gibba.


Aloe, variegated.
Coffea Arabica.
Lemon tree.
Alocasia edibilla (cocoa).
Orange tree.
Jamaica myrtle.
Blue gum.
Laurus canella.


Myristica fragrans.
Palm Latonia.
Musa.
Plantain.
Date palm.
Pandanus Vitchi.


FANCY ARTICLES.
(A.)-Exhibited by Miss Sewell.
Chains made of "Job's tears." Chains made of soap-berries.
,, liquorice seeds. ,, ,, nickle seeds.
,, ,, St. Vincent seeds.
(B.)-Exhibited by Hon. Henry Sewell.
Lamp-shades made from lace bark. Large alligator hide.
Lace bark whip. Large mounted alligator's head.
D'oyleys made of lace bark. Specimen lace bark.
Lace bark and Jamaica fans. Sticks.
Seeds strung in necklaces.
Exhibited by Hon. H. J. Kemble.
Oil of Ben.
This Oil is the best for every purpose, nore especially for Machinery, Watchmakers, tc.
It never gets rancid.

Exhibited by Col. A. W. Chambers.
Fan and d'Oyleys made of lace bark and ferns.








26

PHOTOGRAPHS.
(A.)-Exhibited by Hon. R. H. JACKSON.
Pumbpoint Lighthouse, Port Royal, Jamaica.
Residence near Half-way Tree, St. Andrew's, Jamaica.
Arch erected at Half-way Tree, to welcome Sir Henry and Lady Norman on their
return to Jamaica.
Half-way Tree Court House, Parish of St. Andrew's, Jamaica.
New Castle Station of English Troops in Jamaica.
Opening of Railroad from Kingston to the Moneague, by Sir Henry Norman.
Parish Church, Kingston, Jamaica.
Interior of Half-way Tree Court House, in the Parish of St. Andrew's, on the
occasion of presentation of address to Sir Henry and Lady Norman.
Arrival of Sir Henry and Lady Norman on Royal Mail Steamer, at Kingston, Jamaica.
Public Gardens on the Parade, Kingston, Jamaica.
Arch of Welcome by the Kingston Volunteers to Sir Henry and Lady Norman.
Arch erected in Kingston to Welcome Sir Henry and Lady Norman on their
return from England.
(B.)-Exhibited by Miss Norman.
Photograph of General Sir Henry Norman, K.C.B., &c., &c., Governor of Jamaica.
(C.)-Exhibited by C. Washington Eves.
Photograph of General Sir Henry Norman, K.C.B., &c., &c., Governor of Jamaica.
,, 1st West India Band, taken by the Stereoscopic Company, London.

LARGE OIL-PAINTINGS REPRESENTING JAMAICA
SCENERY.
Exhibited by C. Washington Eves.
(Painted by H. P. Dollman and C. Washington Eves.)


Harbour Street, Kingston, 1825. Holland Estate, St. Tho
Montego Bay, 1810. Steward's Bluff (sea vie
Kingston and Port Royal, 1805. Green Island (sea view)
Bog Walk, 1820. Coat-of-Arms (Jamaica
Port Maria, 1818.

SUNDRIES FROM JAMAICA.
Exhibited by C. Washington Eves.
Large alligator.
Small alligator.
Shark and flying-fish.
Six hammocks.
Two piles of rum casks, representing puncheons, hogsheads, barre
casks, and octaves.
Case of humming-birds.
Two turtle-backs.
Carib implements.
Palm fans.
Pampas grass for decorative purposes.
Sugar hogshead.

SUGAR.
970. Exhibited by Major J. Simpson-Carson.
Albion vacuum pan (yellow)
971. Exhibited by C. Washington Eves.
Friendship Centrifugal (yellow).
972. Exhibited by Hawthoin, Shedden, & Co.
Y. S. Estate Muscovado crop, 1886.


mas, 1820.
w).
).


Is, quarter-








'27


Abbitional list of g fibits.

WOODS.
Exhibited by T. A. and M. H. Foster, Bogue.
Ebony. Braziletto.
Logwood. Fustic Root.
Fustic. Logwood Root.

Exhibited by Rev. J. S. Roberts.
Tacca Saplings. I Iron-Wood Saplings.

Exhibited by J. M. Farquharson, Elein.


Logwood.
Fustic.


Sappau.


Exhibited by R. V. Sherring.
Cabinets made of Jamaica Woods.


MISCELLANEOUS.
Exhibited by Miss Wortley, of The Woman's Self-Help
Society.
Picture made of Jamaica Bark and Leaves.
Woman. Hat: Grey Leaf, Red Lichen, French Cotton, and Lace Bark. Veil: Lace
Bark. 'ace: Dagger Skin. Sleeve: Grey Leaf. Body: Lace and Cabbage Bark.
Skirt: Red Lichen, French Cotton, and Lace Bark. Trimming: Yellow Leaf. Boots:
Tobacco Leaf. Hand: Cabbage Bark.

Exhibited by Major J. Simpson-Carson.


Case of Butterflies and Moths from
Newcastle, Jamaica.
Tarantula's Nest.


Grogher Nuts.
Jamaica Cutlas.
Whips made of Lace Bark.


PHOTOGRAPHS.
Exhibited by R. V. Sherring.
A complete Collection of Jamaica Views.

Exhibited by G. Morley.
Coloured Plates of Fishes:
Puppy Fish. Cow Fish.
Blue I arrot. Welchman.
Striped Angel. Flying Fish.
Butterfly Fish. Angel Fish.
Red-Mouth Grunt. Noch Hind.
Sorrel Grunt. White Grunt.
I.ed Snapper.


OIL PAINTINGS.
Exhibited by Mrs. Lionel Lee, of St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica.
1. Fatima, a Creole. 1 2. Tomasina, a Negress.









28

OIL PAINTINGS.

Exhibited by Colonel Morley.


Hope River, Gordon Town.
Barracks at Up-Park Camp.


Sunset at Kingston.
The Camp at Newcastle.


Exhibited by Miss Rebecca Martin.
Syrup from Horehound, Liquorice, Clary, and Calabash.


Exhibited by J. J. Bowrey, F.I.C., F.C.S.
Fruit of Papaw.


Exhibited by the Kingston Preserved Turtle Factory and
Jamaica Preserve Dep6t.


Bird Peppers.
Mixed Peppers.
Ginger.
Mixed Pickles.
Melon.
Mangolina.
Orange.
Cashew Apples.
Pine Apple.
Cherry Melias.
Guava Jelly.


Limes in Syrup.
Pickled Mangoes.
Green Mangoes.
Green Tamarinds.
Pine Jam.
Green and Yellow Turtle Fat.
Turtle Diamonds.
Turtle Eggs.
Turtle Liver Oil.
Turtle Soup in Tablets.


Exhibited by T. K. Bellis.
SUN-DRIED JAMAICA TURTLE.-The choicer parts of the fish as used in making Turtle
Soup-the calipash and calipee and fins. One pound is sufficient for four quarts
of soup.
PRESERVED CALIPASH AND CALIPEE, IN TINs.-Same as above, but preserved in a wet
state.
TURTLE GREEN FAT.-Preserved in glass bottles and small tins.
EXTRACT OF GREEN TURTLE.-In small glass jars. Prepared from the choicer parts of
the turtle meat on the principle of extract of meat. A small quantity dissolved in
hot water makes an excellent turtle broth.
REAL TURTLE SOUP.-As understood among British epicures. Ready for use, in half-pint
and pint bottles and tins.
TURTLE HERBS AND SPICES.-In small sachets; being the exact flavouring for turtle soup.
TURTLE FINS. -The whole fin preserved in one piece for turtle entries.
LACE BARK for decorative purposes.
JAMAICA CIGARs.- From the Clarendon Factory and Potosi Factory in Kingston.


Exhibited by Valentine G. Bell, M.I.C.E., Chief Resident
Engineer, Jamaica Government Railway.
High-speed Steam Engine, invented by Exhibitor, and manufactured in the
Railway Workshops, Kingston, Jamaica.


* 71T









29





RUM.


973. Carson's AH Crop, 1885.
974. ,, AC ,, 1886.
975. Plummers' F <> G Crop, 1863.
976. ,, ,, ,, 1864.
977. ,, 18(5.
978. ,, ,, ,, 1866.
979. ,, ,, 1867.
980. ,, ,, ,, 1868.
981. ,, ,, 1869.
982. ,, ,, 1870.
983. ,, ,, 1871.
984. ,, ,, 1872.
985. .. .. .. 1873.
986. ,, ,, 1874.
987. ,, ,, ,, 1875.
988. 1876.
988. ,, ,, ,, 1876.
989. ,, ,, 1877.
990. ,, ,, 1878.
991. ,, ,, ,, 1879.
992. ,, ,, ,, 1880.
993. ,, 1881.
994. .. 1882.

995. Wedderburn's wCrop, 1882.
996. ,, ,, 1885.

997. Wedderburn's R Crop, 1863.


998.
999.
1000.
1001.
1002.
1003.
1004.
1005.
1006.
1007.
1008.
1009.
1010.
1011.
1012.
1013.
1014.
1015.
1016.
1017.
1018.
1019.
1020.


1864.
1865.
1866.
1867.
1868.
1869.
1870.
1871.
1872.
1873.
1874.
1875.
1876.
1877.
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.


1021. Mark A
ls
BC
1022. AB
A D
BB
1023. AB
AD

1024. ,, C 9 G

1025. ,, C E

C
1026. W G

D
1027. D
IN
E
1028. H

1029. ,, y

G
1030. ,, G

A
1031. ,, G P
W
1032. ,, G V

1033. G G
I
H
1034. ,,

HI
1035. ,,

1036. ,, S T
H
1037. ,, C

D
1038. ,,
HI

1039. ,,

K
1040. ,, K

1041.W V
1041. ,, HV
LH
1042. L P
L
1043.
1C G
A
1044. N G
N G


Crop, 1885.

,, 1879.

,, 1879.

,, 1876.

,, 1879.

,, 1880.

,, 1874.

,, 1872.

S1875.

,, 1870.


,, 1867.

,, 1874.

,, 1872.

,, 1878.

,, 1872.

,, 1882.

,, 1879.


,, 1879.

,, 1880.

,, 1872.

,, 1880.

,, 1881.

S1878.

,, 1882.


~P~PIIP~-~r )
---
i i:
!1











1045. Mark 0 E Crop, 1883.


1046.

1017.

1048.

1049.

1050.

1051.

1052.

1053.

1054.

1055.

1056.

1057.

1058.

1059.

1060.

1061.

1062.

1063.

1064.

1065.

1066.

1067.

1068.

1069.


1070.

1071.

1072.

1073.


OV
HN
C
C
GRC
S
ST
S
S RM
T
I I
V
G
S AA
DE
A
TC
H
L

, G G P

E
LH
R
IS
L
CL


S
IE
C
CL
E
S G
LL
AD
G
IE
IT
NR
T
W
IAN
V
R
C W
DH
S
E T
R
ON W


S1883.

,, 1878.

,, 1879.

S1880.

S1876.

,, 1874.

S1885.

,, 1879.

,, 1879.

, 1878.

,, 1876.

S1875.

,, 1875.

,, 1875.

S1875.

,, 1875.

,, 1877.

,, 1877.

,, 1876.

,, 1878.

,, 1878.

,, 1875.

,, 1874.

,, 1879.


,, 1878.

,, 1871.

,, 1878.

,, 1874.


1075.

1076.


1077.


1078.


1079.


1080.

1081.

1082.

1083.

1084.

1085.

1086.

1087.

1088.

1089.

1090.

1091.
1092.
1093.

1094.

1095.

1096.

1097.

1098.

1099.

1100.


V
IB
HI
TB
D


M
IM
R
IC
Y
D
ON
PH
E
SC
W D
SI
IM
V
IC
V
BP
GF
Q
C
WS
P
I
E
P
P
TB
A
Al
TE
P
RH
R
CH
S
" GRH
B
W

CH
L
AE
G
II


WyW Crop, 1874.


,, 1880.

,, 1881.


,, 1879.


,, 1879.


,, 1875.


,, 1880.

,, 1869.

,, 1877.

,, 1877.

,, 1875.

,, 1875.

,, 1883.

,, 1885.

,, 1885.

,, 1885.

,, 1882.

,, 1878.
,, 1878.
,, 1878.

,, 1872.

,, 1872.

,, 1870.

,, 1870.

,, 1885.

,, 1865.

,, 1875.


1074. Mark


i
i

n\




IYrr ~-r-i- ~8~?CC~P~rf ~ ~x~l


G
1101. Mark II


1102.

1103.

1104.


1105.


1106.

1107.

1108.

1109.

1110.

1111.

1112.

1113.


1114.

1115.

1116.

1117.

1118.


1119.

1120.


1121.

1122.

1123.

1124.

1125.

1126.


L
WM
LHK

R
C
J WP
M
CH
II

UH


K
A
JSW

H

C
WC
G G

<2C>
W&N
H
C

FR

P P






HC
ST
F
" WHK

A
OC
M
Sv

P
IW

,, Q

,, P PH


P /0 H


Crop, 1880.

S1880.

S1866.

S1881.


S1880.


S1879.

S1880.

,, 1878.

1884.

S1883.

S1880.

,, 1876.

S1879.


S1880.

S1880.

,, 1878.

,, 1875.

,, 1882.

,, 1877.

,, 1884.


,, 1878.

S1880.

,, 1878.

,, 1867.

I ,, 1880.

,, 1878.


1127. Mark S j Crop, 1872.


1128.

1129.

1130.

1131.
1132.

1133.

1134.

1135.

1136.

1137.

1138.

1139.

1140.


1141.


1142.

1143.

1144.

1145.


1146.

1147.


1148.

1149.

1150.

1151.

1152.

1153.

1154.


,, IWO



I W

Lc

,, M G M

S S F




,, S F

G V
M
31



M
IW



F
IB
,, /\ B

NH

S IGC

RR

R S\

F
W
YS
IM
IP
IM
D

M G

J M
B V
C
SJMG
KO
CH
DR
I B


,, 1876.

,, 1876.

,, 1879.

S1873.

,, 1873.

,, 1873.

S1873.

S1873.

S1872.

S1873.

,, 1873.

,, 1873.

,, 1874.


S1873.

,, 1865.

,, 1885.

,, 1867.

,, 1870.


,, 1874.

,, 1879.

,, 1879.

S1883.

,, 1880.

S1880.

S1S81.

,, 1884.

,, 188 .











1155. Mark


1156.


1157.


1158.


Crop, 1881.


,, 1886.


,, 1882.


,, 1877.


WV
LH
White

P
NH
White

A
HS
White

B
W
White


Mark





,,


,,I


la


ill


S
ST
White

c ) G
White
F ,G/
White
L
CG
White
IRWIN


1159.


1160.


1161.


1162.

1163.


Crop, 1885.


,, 1885.


,, 1884.


S1885.

,, 1886.


i~": 3r.1,1




























































CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS.















THE


JAMAICA


AT THE


5nbian


1886.


HANDBOOK
COMPILED FOR

THE GOVERNORS OF THE JAMAICA INSTITUTE


BY

LAURENCE R. FYFE
AND
A. C. SINCLAIR,
COMPILES OF THE OFFICIAL "HANDBOOK OF JAMAICA."


COURT


anb Colonial gxibition,

















CONTENTS.


Situation, Area and General Description ...

Population ... ...

History .....

Constitution and Government ... .

Law and Police ...

Taxation ...... ...

Religion and Education ...

Public Health ...

Trade ....

Productions ... ......

Public Gardens and Plantations

Lands ..... ..

Postal and Telegraphic Communications ...

Means of Communication ...

Points of Topographical Interest ...

Provident and other Societies ...

Natural History ... ...

The Climate of Jamaica, by Dr. Phillippo


PAG
... ... ... 35

... ... 40

... ..... 41


... ... 48

.. ... ... 49
... ... ... 49

49

... ... ... 52

... ... ... 53

.. ... ... 57

... ... 62

.. ... ... 63

... ... ... 64

... ... ... 65

... 66

... ... ... 70

... 71

... ... ... 79


Jamaica, as a Winter Residence for Northern People, by Consul
Hoskinson ... ... .. ... ... ... 88

Jamaica, as a Health Resort and as a Place to settle in, by Rev. Dr.
Robb ... ... ... ... ... ..... 92

Climate of the Santa Cruz Mountains, by Dr. Clark ... ... 97

The Climate of the Hills of Manchester, by Rev. H. Walder ... 100

Tropical Fruits, by D. Morris, Esq., M.A. ... ... ... 101

'The West Indies at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition,' extracted
from The Times ... .. .. ... ... 104























i3oarb of G(ovcrnors.
THE REV. ALEXANDER ROBB, THE HON. H. J. KEMBLE.
M.A., D.D., CHAIRMAN.
THE REV. JOHN RADCLIFFE.
J. C. PHILLIPPO, Esq., M.D.
D. MORRIS, Esq., M.A.
THE HON. SURGEON-GENERAL
C. B. MOSSE, C.B. R. B. HOTCHKIN, Esq., M.A.







Commissioners.
Sir AUGUSTUS JOHN ADDERLEY, K.C.M.G., Executive Commissioner
for Jamaica at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition.
C. WASHINGTON EVES, Esq., Honorary Commissioner for Jamaica at
the Indian and Colonial Exhibition.

















.. ..













THE ISLAND OF JAMAICA,




JAMAICA, the aboriginal name of which was Xaymaca, implies the
land of streams. Bridges, the historian, is of opinion that the word
is derived from two Indian words, Chabaiian," signifying water, and
"Makia," wood. The compound word would approach to Chab-
makia," and harmonised to the Spanish ear would be Cha-makia,"
thence corrupted to "Jamaica "-" denoting a land covered with wood,
and therefore watered by shaded rivulets, or, in other words, fertile."

I.-SITUATION, AREA, GENERAL DESCRIPTION, AND POPULATION.
The Island of Jamaica, which is one of the four islands which
constitute what are known as the "Greater Antilles," is situated
between 17 43' and 180 32' N. lat. and 76' 11' and 780 20' 50" W.
long. It is on all sides bounded by the Caribbean Sea, the waters of
which mingle with those of the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 5,000
miles from England, 100 miles from Hayti, 90 miles from the south
of Cuba, and about 540 miles from Colon on the Isthmus of Panama.
Jamaica is 4,193 square miles in extent, having an extreme length
of 144 miles and an extreme width of 49 miles; its least width is
211 miles. The island is divided into three counties and fourteen
parishes, namely:-

Parish Suare Parish Square Parish Sqa
Miles Ailes 1i1les

Kingston St. Catherine x 450 St. Elizabeth 471
ingSt. Andrew 7 St. Mary 0 229 Trelawny ? 332'
Thos Clarendon 467 St. James 227
St. Thomas 280 St. Ann
Portland S J8310 St. Ann I 464 Hanover .o 16
rtand 310 Manchester ) g 310 Westmoreland 308

Total 767) Total 1,920 Total 1,505.


The foundation or basis of the island is composed of igneous
rocks, overlaying which are several distinct formations.
The coast formation of the parishes forming the county of Surrey
is of white and yellow limestone; -the interior consists chiefly of the
c2
L._,.







36

metamorphosed and trappean series, with carbonaceous shales and
conglomerate. The greater part of this country is very mountainous;
the only flats are the plain of Liguanea (north of Kingston) and the
valleys of the Morant and Plantain Garden rivers, and smaller flats
at and near the mouths of the other chief rivers. Mineral deposits
are numerous in the mountain districts. Iron, copper, lead, man-
ganese, and cobalt have been found and worked to some extent, but
no profitable industry has been the result. Marble of good quality
has also been found at the head of the Blue Mountain valley.
In the county of Middlesex the parish of St. Mary exhibits a great
diversity of formation, consisting of white and yellow limestone,
carbonaceous shales, metamorphosed, porphyritic, granite, and
conglomerate rocks, with many mineral-bearing rocks. The district
of St. Thomas-in-the-Vale is of granitic formation, overlaid con-
siderably by cretaceous and white limestone and marl beds. St.
Catherine possesses an extensive alluvial flat, stretching from
Kingston harbour to the boundary of Clarendon; the rest of the
parish is of white limestone. In Upper Clarendon the metamor-
phosed trappean and conglomerate series prevail; the central districts
are of white limestone, and the southern part, with the district of
Vere, is alluvium, and embraces an area of about 132 square miles,
which is the largest continuous flat in the island. The mineral
deposits of Upper Clarendon are considerable, and it is believed offer
a fair field for mining enterprise. The parishes of Manchester and
St. Ann consist almost entirely of white limestone.
The parish of St. Elizabeth, in the county of Cornwall, has an
extensive area of alluvium from the boundary of Manchester to the
boundary of Westmoreland, narrowing so considerably at Lacovia
that the north and south limestones nearly meet; much of this flat
is covered by swamp. In the north-east of the parish there is"also
an extensive flat called the Nassau Valley. The rest of the parish is
white limestone, with some patches of yellow limestone. The parish
of Westmoreland also presents extensive alluvial deposits and marl
beds. The north-western part of the parish furnishes trappean rocks
with yellow and cretaceous limestone. The eastern part is chiefly
white limestone, with some trap formations at the head of the Great
River. In Trelawny the district called the Black Grounds con-
sists of trap formation. The rest of the parish is of white lime-
stone, with some alluvial valleys; that called the Queen of Spain's
Valley," on the borders of St. James, is remarkable for its picturesque
beauty and great fertility. The interior of St. James presents a
trappean formation, with some over-laying yellow and cretaceous
limestones. The rest is of white limestone, with some alluvial




- ap-s'w'"~ ---~ra~~rrrx ~Y;-n- -t'-e U


deposits round the coast. The eastern part of Hanover is chiefly
white limestone, and the western part black shale, with some
metamorphosed rocks and yellow limestone.
The surface of the island is extremely mountainous, and attains
considerable altitudes. A great diversity of climate is, therefore,
obtainable. From a tropical temperature of 80 to 860 at the sea-
coast, the thermometer falls to 450 and 500 on the top of the highest
mountains, and with a dryness of atmosphere that renders the
climate of the mountains of Jamaica particularly delightful and
suitable to the most delicate constitutions. Ice has been quite
recently found on the top of the Blue Mountains.*
The mountains in the midland part of the island are the highest.
Through the county of Surrey and partly through Middlesex there
runs the great central chain which trends generally in an east and
west direction, the highest part of which is the Blue Mountain Peak,
attaining an elevation of 7,360 feet.
The following are the elevations- above the sea of the principal
mountains and passes:-

as Elevation in Elevation in
hames feet ame e

John Crow Range, average 2,100 Silver Hill Gap 3,513
Cuna-Cuna Pass 2,698 Catherine's Peak 5,036
Blue Mountain, Western Peak. 7,360 Cold Spring Gap 4,523
Portland Gap 5,549 Hardware Gap 4,079
Sir John's Peak (highest point 1 6,100 Fox's Gap 3,967
of Cinchona Plantation) J Stony Hill (where main road 1 1,360
Belle Vue, Cinchona Plantation 5,017 crosses it) J
Arntully Gap 2,754 Guy's Hill 2,100
Hagley Gap 1,959 Mount Diablo, highest point 2,300
Morce's Gap 4,945 ,, ,, where road crosses 1,800
Content Gap 3,251 Bull Head 2,885
Newcastle Hospital 3,800 Mandeville 2,131
Flamstead 3,663 Accompong Town 1,409
Belle Vue (Dr. Stephens') 3,784 Dolphin Head 1,816

The numerous rivers and springs which abound along the coast in
most parts of the island to a considerable extent justify the name of
the Land of Springs," although there are extensive districts in the
midland and western parts of the island singularly barren of water.

As affording the most reliable information as to the climate of Jamaica, papers are
annexed to this Handbook, forming Appendices A, B, C, D, and E, entitled The Climate
of Jamaica," by Dr. Phillippo, a Physician of great experience, resident in Kingston;
Jamaica as a winter residence for Northern People," by Mr. E. Hoskinson, for many
years Consul at Kingston for the United States of America; "Jamaica as a Health
Resort," by the Rev. Dr. Robb, Principal of the Presbyterian Training College, Kingston;
The Climate of the Santa Cruz Mountains," by Dr. J. H. Clark, the District Medical
Officer for that District, and the Climate of the Manchester Mountains," by the Rev.
H. Walder, Moravian Missionary.







38

In consequence of the great elevations from which most of the
rivers flow, they are very rapid in their descent, and in times of flood
become formidable torrents, sweeping everything before them, and
operating as dangerous obstructions to the traveller.
The chief rivers are the Agua Alta or Wag Water, running through
the parishes of St. Andrew and St. Mary; the Hope River, in the
parish of St. Andrew; the Rio Cobre, running through the parish of
St. Catherine; the Plantain Garden, Morant and Yallahs, rivers in the
parish of St. Thomas; the Rio Grande, the Swift, the Spanish and
Buff Bay rivers, in the parish of Portland; the Cave River, forming
the boundary between the parishes of St. Ann and Clarendon; the
Hector's River, dividing the parish of Trelawny from Manchester;
the Rio Minho, or Dry River, and the Milk River, in the parish of
Clarendon; the Black River, in the parish of St. Elizabeth; the
Martha Bra River, in the parish of Trelawny; the Cabaritta River, in
the parish of Westmoreland ; and the Great River, dividing the
parishes of St. James and Hanover. The Black River, in the parish
of St. Elizabeth, is navigable for thirty miles of its course. The water
is fresh from three to five miles up the river according to the season
of the year. None of the other rivers of the island are navigable even
to the extent stated above.
The principal ports are Kingston and Port Royal, in the parish of
Kingston; Old Harbour Bay, in St. Catherine; Salt River and Carlisle
Bay, in Clarendon; Alligator Pond, in Manchester; Black River, in St.
Elizabeth; Savanna-la-Mar, in Westmoreland; Lucea, in Hanover;
Montego Bay, in St. James; Falmouth and Rio Bueno, in Trelawny;
Dry Harbour and St. Ann's Bay, in St. Ann; Port Maria and Annotto
Bay, in St. Mary; Port Antonio, Buff Bay, and Manchioneal, in Port-
land; Port Morant and Morant Bay, in St. Thomas.
The chief bays are Morant Bay, Old Harbour Bay, Carlisle Bay,
Alligator Pond Bay, Black River Bay, Negril Bay, Montego Bay, St.
Ann's Bay, Ocho Rios Bay, Annotto Bay, Buff Bay, Hope Bay, and
Plantain Garden River Bay.
The principal capes or promontories are Morant Point, in the
parish of St. Thomas; Portland Point, in Clarendon; Great Pedro
Bluff and Parotte Point, in St. Elizabeth; Negril Point, in West-
moreland; Montego Bay Point, in St. James, and Galina Point, in
St. Mary.
There are many mineral springs in the island possessing valuable
qualities for the cure of various diseases. The spring at Bath, in the
parish of St. Thomas, is the hottest in the island; the temperature at
the fountain head is 1260 to 128 F., but the water loses about 90







39
of heat in its transit to the baths. These waters are sulphuric and
contain a large proportion of hydro-sulphate of lime; they are not
purgative, and are beneficial in gout, rheumatism, gravelly complaints,
cutaneous affections, and fevers. A cold spring flows from the same
hillside, near the hot spring, so that cold and hot water are delivered
alongside of each other at the bath.
The bath at Milk River, in the district of Vere, is one of the most
remarkable in the world. It is a warm, saline, purgative bath; the
temperature is 920 F. It is particularly efficacious in the cure of
gout, rheumatism, paralysis, and neuralgia; also in cases of disordered
liver and spleen. Some wonderful results are on record, and it is
believed that if the beneficial effects of these waters were more gener-
ally known in Europe and America a large number of sufferers would
be attracted to them.
The waters of the Spa Spring, or Jamaica Spa as it is called, at
Silver Hill, in St. Andrew, are chalybeate, aerated, cold, and tonic,
and are beneficial in most cases of debility, particularly after fever,
dropsy and in stomach complaints.
There is also a remarkable spring at Moffat, on the White River, a
tributary of the Negro River in the Blue Mountain Valley. These
waters are sulphuric, cold, and purgative, useful in itch and all
cutaneous diseases. A similar spring exists near the source of the
Cabaritta River, in Hanover.
The chief towns of Jamaica are Kingston, which is the largest and
most important commercial town in the British West Indies, and
forms the capital of the parish known by that name; Spanish Town,
in the parish of St. Catherine; Chapelton, in the parish of Clarendon;
Mandeville, in the parish of Manchester; Black River, in the parish
of St. Elizabeth; Savanna-la-Mar, in the parish of Westmoreland;
Lucea, in the parish of Hanover; Montego Bay, in the parish of St.
James; Falmouth, in the parish of Trelawny; St. Ann's Bay, in the
parish of St. Ann; Port Maria, in the parish of St. Mary; Port
Antonio, in the parish of Portland; and Morant Bay, in the parish of
St. Thomas.
Kingston, which was built after the destruction of Port Royal by
the earthquake of 1692, is now the seat of Government. It is lighted
with gas, and has a constant and abundant supply of wholesome
water; it is the head station of the Jamaica Railway, and has very
excellent lines of tram cars traversing the principal streets. It is
the centre of the telegraphic lines of the West India and Panama
Telegraph Company and of the Government Inland System, and is
the chief seaport of the island. It contains fourteen churches, a




__7Ir;r~\r---r;- -


number of schools, a town hall, a theatre, two court houses, a number
of well-kept hotels and lodging-houses, and the colonial secretariat
and other public offices. In the suburbs are the lunatic asylum, the
public hospital, and the general penitentiary. A remarkably hand-
some and very commodious market adorns the lower end of King
Street. Near the pier, which forms part of the market buildings, is
a well-executed marble statue of Admiral Lord Rodney, who defeated
Count de Grasse in his descent on the British West Indies in April
1782. In the upper part of the same street, and on the east and
north sides of the public garden, are statues respectively of Sir
Charles Theophilus Metcalfe, a former Governor of the island, the
Honourable Edward Jordon, C.B., one of Jamaica's most distinguished
sons, and Dr. Lewis Quier Bowerbank, an eminent physician and a
great sanitary reformer. Around the city proper have grown up a
large number of tasteful and commodious villas, ornamented with
shrubberies and gardens. The rent of good and commodious houses
in Kingston is from 50 to 100 a year; the direct taxes amount to
3s. 10d. per head of the population. Five daily newspapers are pub-
lished in Kingston.
The population of Jamaica in the years 1861, 1871, and 1881,
as ascertained by the census taken in each of those years, was
441,264, 506,154, and 580,804 respectively; showing an increase of
64,890 between 1861 and 1871, and an increase of 74,650 between
1871 and 1881; the increase for the 20 years between 1861 and 1881
having been 139,540.
The population in 1881 was thus classified in the census returns:-


Males
Females


White ...
Coloured
Black ...
Coolie ...
Chinese ...
Not stated


The estimated
follows :-
1882 ... ... ...
1883 ... ...


... ... ... ... ... ... ... 282,957
... ... ... ... ...... 297,874
580,804

... ...... ... ... ... 14,432
... ... ... ... ... ... ... 109,946
... ... ... ... ... ... ... 444,186
... ... ... ... ... ... ... 11,016
... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99
...... ... ... ... ... 1,125
580,804

population in the years subsequent to 1881 is as


... 588,718
... 594,023


1884...
1885...


... ... ... 91,819
.. ... ... 596,38.


The natural increase of population for the whole island during
the year 1885 over 1884 was 15-5 per 1,000 persons living.
The following is the population of the chief towns as shown by


*`1_` ~'8 -"l iM1- ^pr




- -I--- -L-.~~---l"-" ~r1~a*----ri;


the census returns of 1881. Since then the population of the island
has considerably increased, as indicated above, so that the population
of the towns, as given below, must be regarded as merely approximate
as regards the present time:-
Kingston ... ... ... 36,522 Lucea ... ... ... 1,702
Spanish Town ... ... 5,689 Montego Bay... ... ... 4,651
Chapelton ... ... ... 654 Falmouth ... ... ... 3,029
Mandeville ... ... ... 218 St. Ann's Bay ... ... 1,565
Black River ... ... ... 1,279 Port Maria ... ... ... 6,741
Savanna-la-Mar ... ... 2,498 Port Antonio... ... ... 1,305
Morant Bay ... ... ... ... 1,000


II.-HISTORY.
Jamaica was discovered by Christopher Columbus on May 3,
1494, and remained in Spanish possession until May 11, 1655,
when it capitulated to an English expedition commanded by Admiral
Penn and General Venables. The island was placed under military
jurisdiction and continued so until May 1661, when a commission was
received from Charles II. appointing General D'Oyley Governor, and
authorising him to govern by means of an elected Council. Courts of
Law were established, and the members of Council were declared
Justices of the Peace and empowered to appoint Constables for their
respective districts. In December of the same year the King, by a
Royal Proclamation, declared that children born in Jamaica of Her
Majesty's natural born subjects of England shall be free denizens of
England." In August 1662, Lord Windsor arrived as the successor
of D'Oyley and brought with him additional instructions as to the
government of the country. The army was disbanded and a militia
established and ordinances were passed for the encouragement of
religious liberty and toleration. In January 1663, the first General
Assembly was held, and a body of laws was passed which was declared
by a contemporary historian to be as good as could be expected from
such young statesmen."
Sir Thomas Modyford arrived as Governor in June 1664, and
settled the seat of Government at Spanish Town. He brought with
him a thousand persons, to whom he granted lands in the interior; and,
as they were possessed of means, they soon began planting to the great
benefit of the colony. He had acquired a large fortune by planting
operations in Barbados, and he now freely expended his wealth in the
same direction in Jamaica. He instructed the inhabitants "in the
manner of making sugar, of planting cacao groves, of managing
pimento walks, and of erecting salt works."* The result was the

"History of Barbados," by Power.







42

increased value of the products and the extension of cultivation.
Cacao was then considered the best commodity in the island. A
planter obtained from 20 acres of cacao plants 12 cwts. of nuts, which
he sold in England for 8. 12s. per cwt." The best sugar works made
at that time 20,000 to 30,000 lbs. of sugar a week, which were sold for
50 per cent. beyond Barbados sugar.*
Sir Thomas Modyford, in his first report to the King, stated that
sugar, ginger, indigo, cotton, tobacco, dyeing woods, and cacao were
produced in Jamaica as well as elsewhere, but there were numerous
other commodities; the best building timber and stone in the whole
world, plenty of corn, potatoes, yams, cattle, horses, fowl, sheep, fruit,
and pasturage. In short, nothing was then wanting but more hands
and cows."t The former were secured by the Royal African Company
being required at a moderate rate to supply the island with slaves from
the Coast of Africa, and by the King ordering that all felons convicted
in the Circuit Courts and at the Old Bailey, whose sentences might be
commuted to transportation, being sent to Jamaica. The King also
engaged to pay from the Imperial Exchequer for one year the cost of
emigration from Barbados and the Leeward Islands. The required
cattle were obtained from the Cape de Verde Islands, Hispanniola, and
Cuba. The price paid for the supply from the two last-named places
was 4s. per head.
With the view of encouraging immigration to the colony, the King
ordered Sir Thomas Modyford to be prodigal in the granting of lands
allowing 30 acres per head to men, women, and children, white and
black. All patentees were, however, required to begin cultivation
within three years, and to pay a fine of is. per acre on all lands
left unplanted after that period.
Privateers at that time swarmed the Caribbean Sea, and Sir Thomas
Modyford legalised their actions and utilised their services by commis-
sioning them to act on behalf of the King of England against Spain
and all nationalities." The privateers thereupon seized Tobago and
other places in the Atlantic, and eventually captured and pillaged
Panama, in the Pacific. On intelligence of these proceedings reaching
England, Sir Thomas Modyford was ordered to be sent" under a strong
and safe guard to England to answer for his assumption of power, and
his commissions to the privateers were annulled. The colony, however,
continued to grow rich, and in 1675 it exported vast quantities of
sugar, superior to that of the other islands." The population had by
this time greatly increased, as it numbered 7,768 free people and 9,504
slaves.

*" Calendar of State Papers," vol. ii. t Ibid.




.. .


43

The political dissensions between the Governor and the Assembly,
which began during the administration of Sir Thomas Modyford, now
produced a political dead-lock, and left the colony without a revenue.
To prevent a continuation of these legislative conflicts the Earl of
Carlisle (who assumed the government in June 1678) was directed to
introduce into the island the Irish mode of legislation as laid down in
Poynings' Act; but so persistent and determined was the opposition
of the Assembly that the King had to restore the old form of govern-
ment and to recall the Earl of Carlisle.
On June 7, 1692, the great earthquake occurred by which almost
the whole of Port Royal was destroyed. Whole streets, with their
inhabitants, were swallowed up by the opening of the earth, which
as it closed again squeezed the people to death, and in that manner
several were left with their heads above ground."* Of the 3,000
houses, which the town possessed, only about 200, with Fort Charles,
remained uninjured.
Two years later a French fleet, commanded by Admiral Du Casse
(acting in the interest of the fugitive King), landed in the eastern
and southern parts of the island, and by horrid atrocities secured a
large amount of money. They took several merchant ships, destroyed
50 plantations, and carried off 1,300 slaves. They were encountered
at Salt River by the Colonial Militia, and driven back to their ships with
the loss of 700 men. This was the only battle fought on Jamaica
ground with a foreign enemy after the expulsion of the Spaniards.
In 1760 a premeditated rebellion occurred among the slaves in
St. Mary. The insurgents seized the fort at Port Maria, and possessed
themselves of arms, ammunition, and other stores. The white
inhabitants of the neighboring properties were all butchered, and
the rebels retired to Ballard's Valley, where they gave battle to a
body of volunteers. They fought with desperate fury, but they were
surrounded and overpowered. More than 400 were killed in the
field, and about 600 were transported to the Bay of Honduras. This
was the most formidable slave insurrection in the history of the
colony.
In 1795 the Trelawny Town Maroons expelled their European
Superintendent, and threatened to march upon Montego Bay and
commit reprisals for the flogging by order of the Magistrates of two
of their people. A detachment of 400 soldiers was despatched to
subdue the insurgents, but they were met by volley after volley from
unseen hands. Fresh detachments were despatched, but they met


* Bridge's Annals of Jamaica."









with no better success; they, too, fell into ambuscade, and were almost
exterminated. The conflict continued for months, and was only
brought to a close by the introduction of Spanish blood-hounds to
trace out and destroy the insurgents in the forests. The Maroons
capitulated, and were transported to Sierra Leone, where they formed
the nucleus of that thriving colony.
In the year 1807 the African slave trade was abolished; and in
the following year the government of the Duke of Manchester (which
lasted for 19 years) began. During the administration of the Duke
of Manchester, the Assembly was called upon by the Imperial Govern-
ment to enact laws for the amelioration of the condition of the slaves.
This was regarded by the House as an interference with their con-
stitutional rights, and they rejected every suggestion made to them.
The result was a conflict between the Imperial Government and the
House of Assembly, during which "the slave-owners threatened to
transfer their allegiance to the United States, or to assert their
independence after the manner of their continental neighbours." The
excitement which these proceedings produced extended itself to the
slave population, and resulted in an outbreak on December 28,
1831. A number of the insurgents were killed in the field; several
of the ringleaders were captured, tried, and executed; and the
remainder returned to the estates. Property of the value of .666,977
sterling was destroyed by the insurgents; and the Imperial Govern-
ment, in commiseration of the deplorable state to which the proprietors
were reduced, extended to them a loan of 200,000 to replenish their
plantations. This rebellion culminated in the entire abolition of
slavery in the British Possessions. The Jamaica slave-owners received
5,853,975 sterling as compensation for the 255,290 able-bodied
negroes who were emancipated.
In the year 1838 (the year of emancipation) the value of the
sugar, rum, and coffee exported was 1,455,185. From that time
the exports of the staples continued to decline; but in 1842 the Earl
of Elgin arrived as Governor, and he distinguished his government
by his efforts to improve the social condition of the colony, and to
develop its varied industrial resources. A Royal Agricultural Society,
and several parochial associations of a similar kind, were established
under his presidency; and a variety of improvements in modes of
cultivation, machinery, &c., were introduced through his instru-
mentality. Immigration from India was authorised by the Imperial
Government, and the first batch of Coolies arrived in 1845. Attention
was also directed to the cultivation of the minor products; but the
beneficial effects of these important improvements were soon to be
displaced by despondency and retrogression. In August 1846 the









Imperial Parliament passed an Act for the gradual equalisation of the
sugar duties on British and Foreign productions, and the Assembly,
in the succeeding November, declared that "they were, in consequence,
unable to continue the institutions of the colony on their present
scale, or to defray the future expense of Coolie immigration." The
result was the immediate cessation of immigration, and a struggle
between the Assembly and the Council for a general reduction of
the salaries of all public officers, which continued for 13 years, and
which ended in the loss of 130,000 of revenue, and a change in the
form of government.
The new government was inaugurated by Governor Sir Henry
Barkly in October 1853, and the Legislature passed laws for effecting
financial reforms and restoring public credit. But this desirable
state of accord did not long continue, as Sir Charles Darling's inter-
pretation of the Act for the better government of the island introduced
ministerial responsibility, and with this a constant struggle for place
and power. These political dissensions continued during the govern-
ment of Mr. Edward John Eyre, wiho succeeded Sir Charles Darling,
until everybody's attention was directed to more serious events. An
outbreak occurred at Morant Bay on October 11, 1865, during
which the Custos of the parish and several Magistrates, a number of
the officers and men of the Volunteers, and the Curate of Bath, were
killed. The immediate despatch of a military force to the scene of
disturbance, and the loyalty of the greater part of the predial classes,
secured the early restoration of order. Martial law was, however,
continued for a month, during which Mr. George William Gordon,
one of the representatives in the House of Assembly for St. Thomas-
in-the-East, and a number of the ringleaders of the outbreak, were
tried by Court-Martial and executed; others were flogged, and a
number were sentenced to penal servitude. A Royal Commission of
Inquiry, which was subsequently sent to the island, reported that the
disturbances had their immediate origin in a planned resistance to
lawful authority; but that the punishments were excessive, and, in
some cases, positively barbarous. Governor Eyre was recalled, and
Sir John Peter Grant (formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal) was
commissioned as Governor. During his administration the provisions
of the law which was passed by the Legislature (after the disturbance
above briefly recorded) for abolishing representative government in
the colony were brought into effect, and Jamaica was declared
a Crown colony. After a lapse of 18 years, this form of govern-
ment was modified by the introduction of the elective element into
the Legislative Council. This change was effected on the assumption
of the government by Governor Sir Henry Wylie Norman, who con-


- ~T~ws-~cr-r-~m~a~-~- r-7cni-p"amnarr-~ -7ri-n f







46

tinues to administer the government, enjoying the confidence and
esteem of all classes of the community.


III.-CONSTITUTION AND GOVERNMENT.
The Local Legislature of Jamaica passed two laws in the month
of December 1865, by which the then Legislative Council and House
of Assembly were abolished and the Queen was empowered to create
and constitute a Government for this island, in such form and with
such powers as to Her Majesty might seem fitting, and from time to
time to alter or amend such Government." In pursuance of these
enactments a single Chamber was established under the designation of
" the Legislative Council of Jamaica." The Council thus created
consisted of the Senior Military Officer for the time being in command
of the regular troops in the island, the Colonial Secretary and the
Attorney-General, by virtue of their offices, and such other officers and
persons as Her Majesty might think fit to appoint as official and
unofficial members of the Board.
The entire body of unofficial members resigned their seats in
November 1882, in consequence of the passing of a resolution by the
votes of the official members directing the payment from colonial funds
of one-half of the damages and costs in the suit for the seizure of the
schooner Florence," by order of the Governor. (There was then one
vacancy in the number of unofficial members, and two were absent
from the island.) Petitions were forwarded from the inhabitants of
the principal towns to the Imperial Government in support of the
action taken by the unofficial members, and praying for the remodelling
of the Political Constitution of the colony. The consequence was the
passing of an Order by the Queen in Council, dated May 19, 1884,
in which it was declared that a new Legislative Council should be
constituted, which should consist of the Governor, the Senior Military
Officer for the time being in command of Her Majesty's regular troops
in Jamaica, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, and the
Director of Public Works; not more than five members nominated by
the Crown, and nine members elected by taxpayers of 20s. and
upwards. The island was by the said Order in Council divided into
nine electoral districts, and a member apportioned to each.
With the view of granting to the elected members substantial
power and responsibility in legislation, it was provided in the Order in
Council that where six elected members were agreed on a question
affecting finances the ex-officio and nominated members should not be
required to vote; and where the nine elected members were agreed on
any other question the same rule should be observed with regard to
the votes of the ex-oficio and nominated members. As a further







47

concession to the elective element on the inauguration of the new
system of government, only two nominated members were appointed-
namely, the Superintending Medical Officer and the Inspector of
Schools-thus practically giving a majority of three elected members
in the Legislative Council.
The Governor of the island is President of the Legislative Council,
and six members and the President constitute a quorum for the
dispatch of business. Any member may propose any question for
debate unless it involves the raising or expending of revenue-this
latter power being vested in the Governor alone.
There is also a Privy Council consisting of the Senior Military
Officer, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney-General, and such other
persons, not exceeding eight in number, as may be appointed by the
Queen. The only appointed member at present is Major-General
Mann, Director of Public Works. The Governor is to consult in all
cases with the Privy Councillors, excepting only when the matter to be
decided would in his judgment sustain material prejudice by consulta-
tion or be too unimportant to require their advice."
The following is a list of the Legislative Council as at present
constituted:-
Ex-Officio and Nominated Members.
His Excellency Sir Henry Wylie Norman, K.C.B., C.I.E., Governor,
President.
The Hon. Major-General Somerset Molyneux Wiseman-Clarke,
Commander of the Forces.
Hon. E. N. Walker, C.M.G., Colonial Secretary.
Hon. Henry H. Hocking, Attorney-General.
Hon. Major-General J. R. Mann, R.E., C.M.G., Director of Public
Works.
Hon. Deputy Surgeon-General C. B. Mosse, C.B., Superintending
Medical Officer.
Hon. Thos. Capper, Inspector of Schools.
Elected Members.
Hon. Charles Salmon Farquharson, for Westmoreland and
Hanover.
Hon. James Miller Farquharson, for St. Elizabeth.
Hon. George Henderson, for Portland and St. Thomas.
Hon. Robert Craig, for Clarendon.
Hon. Emanuel George Levy, for St. Catherine.
Hon. William Malabre, for Kingston and St. Andrew.
Hon. John Thomson Palache, for Manchester.
Hon. Michael Solomon, for St. Ann and St. Mary.
Hon. Wellesley Bourke, for St. James and Trelawny.









Previous to the admission of the elective element into the
Legislative Council, the Municipal Boards and the Road Boards were
annually appointed by the Governor on the recommendation of the
Custodes of parishes. These Boards discharged the parochial duties
performed by the elected Vestries and the old Commissioners of
Highways and Bridges previous to the abolition, in 1865, of the then
Constitution.
Since the recent change in the constitution of the Legislative
Council the Municipal Boards and the Road Boards have been
abolished, and a Parochial Board has been established in each parish,
consisting of the person representing the electoral district in the
Legislative Council, the Custos of the parish, and from 13 to 18
persons elected by the taxpayers who are qualified to vote at elections
for the Legislative Council. In Kingston the Chairman of the Board
is styled Mayor, and the members are styled Councillors. The
Parochial Boards manage all the local affairs that have hitherto been
discharged by the Municipal and Road Boards.
The estimates of the parochial expenditure are prepared by the
Parochial Boards under sanction of the Governor. These, with the
estimates of public expenditure, which are prepared by the Colonial
Secretary, under the instructions of the Governor, are annually
presented to the Legislative Council in the form of a Minute from
the Governor. After all the items are considered by the Council, they
are incorporated in an Appropriation Law, the schedule of which
becomes the Civil List of the year.


IV.-LAw AND POLICE.
The Judicial Establishment consists of a Supreme Court of
Judicature, an Admiralty Court, District Courts, and Courts of Petty
Sessions.
The Supreme Court has incorporated with it the High Court of
Chancery, the Incumbered Estates Court, the Court of Ordinary,
the Court of Divorce and Matrimonial Causes, the Chief Court of
Bankruptcy, and the Circuit Courts. The several divisions of the
Supreme Court, except the Circuit Courts, sit in Kingston at times
appointed by the Judges. For the purpose of the sitting of the
Circuit Courts the island is divided into parochial districts. There
are a Chief Justice and two Assistant-Judges, who divide the duties
of the Supreme Court by arrangements among themselves.
The Court of Admiralty has an organisation of its own. It is a
branch of the Admiralty Court of England. The matters in respect









to which this Court exercises jurisdiction particularly relate to
seamen, pilotage, salvage, damages by ships, &e. It sits whenever
there is business to be disposed of.
For the purposes of the District Courts the island is divided into
six districts, consisting of adjacent localities. There are five District
Court Judges-the Junior Assistant-Judge of the Supreme Court
presiding in the Civil Division of the City of Kingston District Court.
A District Court Judge presides in each of the other District Courts.
Courts of Petty Sessions are held in the several parishes, and are
presided over by Stipendiary or Local Magistrates.
The Attorney-General and two Assistants act as Public Prose-
cutors.
Barristers, Advocates, and Solicitors practise in the several
Courts of the island.
The Police Force consists of 18 Inspectors and Sub-Inspectors,
and 673 Sub-Officers and Constables; 19 Water Policemen, and 1,080
Rural Policemen. They are under the command of an Inspector-
General of Police.
There are a General Penitentiary, two Gaols, and six other
Prisons in different parts of the island. A Government Reformatory
for boys is maintained at Stony Hill and one for girls at Admirals'
Pen, in St. Andrew.


V.-TAXATION.
The principal heads of general revenue are import duties, excise,
and stamps. Taxes on houses, wheels, and horsekind are imposed for
parochial purposes. The revenue received for public or general pur-
poses during the financial year ending September 30, 1885, amounted
to 504,718, and for local or parochial purposes to 90,437; total,
595,155. The expenditure during the same period was, for general
purposes, 470,353, and for local purposes, 92,348; total, 562,701.
The rate of taxation was 16s. lid. per head of the population for
general purposes and 3s. per head for local purposes, making a total
of 19s. lid. per head.


VI.-RELIGION AND EDUCATION.
There is no Ecclesiastical Establishment in the island, the Church
of England in Jamaica having been disestablished in 1869.


. .. --- ci ~~ -cJ~I7~n~ ''' 9 f









The Church of England, or Episcopal Church in Jamaica, now
numbers 1 Bishop, 60 Rectors, and 22 Curates-total, 83. These
Clergymen, assisted by Catechists and Lay Readers, officiate at 101
churches and chapels. The last returns showed a total of 29,080
registered members. The total revenue of the Church for the year
1884 was 27,484. The capital funds amounted in the year 1884 to
55,725. There were 228 Elementary Schools in connection with
the Episcopal Church in Jamaica.
The Established Church of Scotland in Jamaica has 3 Clergymen,
who are stationed in Kingston, St. Elizabeth, and Manchester, and
about 1,500 communicants. There are 9 Elementary Schools in
connection with this Church.
The Roman Catholics have 29 stations and an accredited member-
ship of 9,292. These stations include the Convent of the Immaculate
Conception in Kingston, to which twelve Sisters of the Order of St.
Francis are attached. A Boarding School, a Middle-Class Day
School, and an Elementary Day School are kept by the Ladies of the
Convent. There are 11 other Elementary Schools attached to the
Roman Catholic Church, besides St. George's College, in North
Street, Kingston, for the higher education of Catholic boys. The
Vicar Apostolic and 11 other priests form the Clergy of the Roman
Catholic community in Jamaica; they are all of the Society of Jesus.
The Wesleyans have 192 Chapels and other preaching places, 31
Ministers, 19,264 members, and 1,084 probationers. Their organi-
sation is now styled The Western Annual Conference." Their Day
Schools number 101, and their Sabbath Schools 103. The former
include the Colleges for boys at York Castle, in St. Ann, and for girls
at Barbican, in St. Andrew.
The Baptist Missionary Society has 130 Churches and 56 Ministers.
The total number of communicants is 30,000, and the number of
inquirers 4,467. There are 92 Sunday Schools, with a roll of 1,407
teachers and 15,407 scholars. The Day Schools number 137, with an
average attendance of 5,918 pupils. Calabar College, for the education
and training of Ministers attached to this Mission, is situated in East
Queen Street, Kingston.
The United Presbyterian Church in Jamaica numbers 43 regular
Churches and 27 out-stations; these are scattered over 10 of the
parishes of the island. Thirty-one Missionaries, 8,577 communicants,
and 1,435 candidates for Church Communion are attached to this
body. They have 628 Sunday-School Classes, with 662 teachers and
6,462 scholars. The Presbyterians have a Theological College in









Kingston, where the candidates for their Ministry are educated and
trained; and they have 75 Elementary Schools in different localities,
the larger number being in the parishes of St. Mary and Manchester.
The United Methodists' Free Churches have 34 stations and 9
Ministers. The membership numbers 3,081 communicants and 251
probationers. They have 82 Elementary Schools in connection with
their Society.
The London Missionary Society has 15 Churches and a number of
out-stations and cottage meeting-houses; 8 Pastors and 9 Catechists.
There are 2,927 accredited Church members and 761 candidates and
inquirers, with an attendance of about 1,669 pupils at the Sunday
Schools. The Elementary Day Schools number 22, and are principally
in Clarendon.
The Christian Church, or "The Disciples of Christ," have 15
Churches, with a membership of about 1,500. These Churches are
served by 7 Ministers. They have 8 Elementary Schools under
Government inspection.
The Moravian Church has 14 principal stations and 5 out-
stations; they are all at the western end of the island, principally in
Manchester, St. Elizabeth, and Westmoreland. The number of
communicants at the close of 1884 was 5,603, with 15,765 persons
in Church connection. There were 64 Schools, with 4,886 children
attending them. There is a Training School for Male Teachers at
Fairfield, in Manchester, and a similar Institution for Female
Teachers at Bethabara, in the same parish. At the close of 1884 there
were 12 ordained Missionaries in the Moravian Church in Jamaica in
charge of congregations.
There is a Government Training College in Spanish Town which
sends out an average of 8 trained Masters annually; the number
of Students now in residence is 31.
There is also a Government Training College at Camperdown Pen,
in St. Andrew, for Female Teachers; there are 21 Lady Students.
There is likewise a Training College for 30 Male Students at the Mico,
in Kingston. These institutions are strictly undenominational.
There are several Endowed Schools in the island where higher
and middle-class education may be had either free of all charges or
at nominal rates. There are the Jamaica High School, in St. Andrew,
the Mico- and Wolmer's, in Kingston, Titchfield and Merrick's, in
Portland, Munro and Dickenson's, in St. Elizabeth, Rusea's, in
Hanover, the Vere and Manchester Free-Schools, in Clarendon and
S2







52

Manchester, Smith and Beckford's, in St. Catherine, and Manning's,
in Westmoreland.
There are also a number of Private Schools where a superior
education may be obtained. The Church of England and Collegiate
High School and the Mary Villa College, in Kingston, are among the
leading schools of this class for boys; the same remark applying to
the Wesleyan High School at York Castle, in St. Ann's, for boys, and
to the'Wesleyan High School for girls at Barbican, in St. Andrew.
A Government scholarship is annually granted in Jamaica; it is
confined to boys born in Jamaica, or of parents domiciled in Jamaica,
and resident there for five years preceding the day of examination.
This scholarship is of the value of 200 per annum for three years,
and enables the successful competitor to obtain a University education
in Great Britain.
In furtherance of education there is a public library in Kingston,
consisting of scientific, historical, and general literature. A large
collection of school books is included in these volumes. A museum is
attached to the institute, and lectures are periodically delivered by the
members and others on subjects bearing on the material interests of
the country.


VII.-THE PUBLIC HEALTH.
The Medical Department consists of a staff of medical officers at
the public hospital of Kingston and in the several parishes, all of
whom are under the direction of the Superintending Medical Officer.
The public hospital of Kingston is situated in North Street and
contains 200 beds. There are 18 public general hospitals situated
in convenient localities throughout the island, in which the labourers
employed on estates and the indigent poor are treated. These
hospitals contain a total of 1,090 beds.
Government dispensaries are established in remote districts, at
which the District Medical Officers attend on fixed days to give advice
and to dispense medicines at a moderate rate of fees. A poor person,
although not a pauper, who may be unable to attend at a hospital,
dispensary, or at the residence of a District Medical Officer, by reason
of serious illness or infirmity, is attended at his residence by the
District Medical Officer of his district, under certain regulations.
The 1 natic asylum is at Rae Town, in the parish of Kingston;
it is the finest building of the sort in the British West Indies; it has
accommodation for over 370 patients.









Quarantine regulations are strictly maintained at the several
ports. There is a Lazaretto for the port of Kingston at Green Bay,
opposite Port Royal; it stands on a projecting cliff overlooking the
harbour, and is some 50 to 60 feet above sea-level. The buildings are
capable of accommodating 68 persons.
The sanitary affairs of the island are directed and supervised by
a Central Board of Health which sits in Kingston. The Parochial
Boards, as the Local Boards of Health, carry out the recommendations
of the Central Board. The officers and sub-officers of the Con-
stabulary are Inspectors of Nuisances. There is a Commissioner of
Health for Kingston.



VIII.-TRADE.
The value of the merchandise and other articles imported during
the financial year 1885, stood thus: .Value of imports from the United
Kingdom, 761,157; from the Dominion of Canada, 177,172; from
the United States, 464,282; from other countries, 53,762; total
of imports, 1,456,373. The following represents the value of the
principal articles imported: Foodstuffs, 642,500; clothing, 424,900;
building materials, 99,800; household necessaries, 54,500; furni-
ture, 18,800; railway and estates supplies, 31,000; coal, 29,500;
books, 9,800; specie, 9,600.
The export trade of the island stood thus in 1885: Value of
exports to the United Kingdom, 532,971; to the Dominion of
Canada, 65,775; to the United States, 595,237; to other countries,
214,865; total, 1,408,848.
The value of the total exports for the year 1885 were below those
of 1884 by 75,141. This is attributable to two causes-the severe
and lengthened drought which existed almost during the entire year
1885, inducing low production and the generally depressed state of
trade inducing low prices.
Sugar and rum (the principal staples of the country) stood at the
head of the list of exports and in the following proportion to the total
of exports: Sugar, 22 per cent.; rum, 17 per cent. The other
products came in the following order: Coffee, 11 per cent.; fruit,
11 per cent.; dye woods, 11 per cent.; pimento, 4 per cent.
The subjoined return shows the quantity and value of the exports
during the year ended September 30, 1885. The articles were
exported in the following proportions to the countries named: United










54

Kingdom, 37"2; United States, 42'2; Dominion of Canada, 5*4;
other countries, 15-2 :-


ARTICLE


Annotto... ... ...
Arrowroot ...
Beeswax ...
Cattle, neat ...
Cacoa ... ... ...
Cocoanuts ...
Coffee ... ...
Fruit: Bananas ...
,, Limes ... ...
,, Mangoes ...
Oranges ...
,, Pine-apples ...
S Shaddocks ...
Ginger ... ... ...
Hides ... ...
Honey ... ... ...
Horses and Mules ...
Lance Wood Spars ...
Limejuice ...
Pimento ...
Rum ... ... ...
Sheep's Wool ... ...
Sticks, walking ...
Succades ...
Sugar ... ... ...
Tamarinds ...
Tobacco, Cigars ...
Manufactured
Tortoiseshell ... ...
Turtle ... ... ...
,, prepared and dried
Wood, Bitter ... ...
,, Ebony ... ...
S Fustic ... ...
,, Lignum vital ...
,, Log wood ...
,, Mahogany ...
Yam ... ... ...


QUANTI


288,187 Ibs.
9 c. 0
1,107 c. 2
109 no.
3,028 c. 1
5,115,872 no.
80,657 c. 0
1,417,282 bun
8091 bar
166,705 no.
22,614,390 no.
8,883 dozs
15 barr
12,313 c. 0
376,327 Ibs.
1,311 c. 0
98 no.
6,685 no.
54,934 galls
87,447 c. 0
2,080,471 galls
23,677 lbs.
3,230 bun
45 c. 1
499,717 c. 2
4,597 Ibs.
4,689) lbs.
2,019 lbs.
3,311 lbs.
1,487 no.
4,788i lbs.
314 17-2
546 14-2
927 15-2
520 19-2
56,605 15-2
2,740 feet
21,021 c. 0


TY. VALUE.

s. d.
3,602 6 9
q. 22 lbs. 13 14 6
q. 9 lbs. 6,202 9 0
1,078 0 0
q. 14 lbs. 6,359 11 10
17,905 11 0
q. 22 Ibs. 157,281 11 10
ches 129,918 10 4
rels 323 14 0
161 5 0
31,660 2 11
1,443 9 9
els 5 6 0
q. 15 lbs. 20,168 18 3
9,408 3 6
q. 26 lbs. 1,573 9 7
2,039 0 0
2,005 10 0
2,060 0 6
q. 14 lbs. 53,867 8 7
s. 234,052 19 9
493 5 5
dles 3,790 13 0
q. 5 Ibs. 81 12 0
q. 15 lbs. 307,826 1 3
84 16 0
1,993 0 9
155 19 0
1,572 16 10
2,323 8 9
696 3 9
20 tons 496 5 6
20 tons 1,640 2 0
20 tons 2,690 9 6
0 tons 1,302 7 6
20 tons 152,835 10 6
32 0 0
q. 10 Ibs. 10,809 9 10










i-a



COFFEE FIUIT, &c. PIMENTO

Cocoanuts Bannas. Oranges.
YEARS Quantity Value ----;--- ------- Quantity Value g
Cwt. A Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value wt.
Cwt. a cwt. *f t C
No. Bunches No. 0 D o 0

1854 ... 43,059 80,520 220 3 Nil Nil 1,001,950 604 41,179 83,158

1874 ... 92,065 336,958 1,359,895 3,740 84,771 6,358 4,796,780 3,386 51,439 86,008

1884 ... 48,357 98,842 5,438,730 20,671 1,842,934 191,972 41,639,500 58,295 110,472 92,796

1885 ... 80,657 157,282 5,115,872 17,906 1,417,282 129,917 22,614,390 31,660 7,447 53,867 P g


BUM SUGAR WOOD

Quantity Value Quantity Value Fustic Log wood *M
Galls. Cwt. Quantity V lue Quantity Value

Tons Tons
1854 ... 997,745 117,179 420,908 412,238 625 1,453 3,917 7,208. .

1874 ... 1,935,114 290,267 511,182 482,779 2,438 8,260 62,803 147,564

1884 ... 2,036,430 220,617 588,524 428,445 1,796 4,491 44,928 134,783

1885 ... 2,080,471 234,053 499,717 307,826 928 2,690 56,605 152,836 P (
0
D2
_c0
0Z1(^










The following table shows the imports and exports of the colony
for the years 1865, 1874, and 1880, and for each year thereafter:-

YEAR IMPORTS EXPORTS

1865 year ended December 31 ... ... 1,050,984 912,004
1874 ,, September 30 ... ... 1,762,817 1,442,080
1880 ,,, ... ... 1,475,197 1,512,979
1881 ,, ,, .. ... 1,392,669 1,178,593
1882 ,, ,, ... ... 1,321,962 1,549,058
1883 ,, ,, ... ... 1,591,962 1,469,447
1884 ,, ,, .. ... 1,548,707 1,483,989
1885 ,,, ... ... 1,456,373 1,408,848


The shipping employed in the export trade of the island during
the year 1885, was as follows:-

NUMBER TONs CREW

Steam Vessels ... ... ... 370 320,371 13,360
Sailing Vessels ... ... ... 333 75,806 2,813
703 396,177 16,173

The above tonnage, &c., includes the steam vessels of thirteen
lines of steamers that trade with Jamaica. By nearly all of these
steamships, mails are made up for all parts of the world.

The money of account in Jamaica is pounds, shillings, and pence
sterling. By the present law all silver coins under the value of
6d. current in Great Britain are a legal tender in the island to
the extent of 40s. in one payment, but to no greater extent (7 Vie.,
chap. 51); and all copper coins current in Great Britain are a legal
tender to the extent of 12d. in one payment, but to no greater extent
(6 Vie., chap. 40); but there is now no copper coinage current in
Great Britain, and the bronze coinage which has superseded it has
not been made current in Jamaica by proclamation. The other coins
current in the island are Spanish and Mexican doubloons of full
weight at 3. 4s.; (Columbian and other Spanish and Mexican
doubloons are seldom worth more than 3 each) ; all American gold
coins of $5 and upwards at the rate of 1. Os. 6d. for 85 (one-dollar
gold pieces are only current at 4s. ld.); gold coins current in Great
Britain and Ireland, and British silver crowns, half-crowns, florins,
shillings, and sixpences, all of which are a legal tender to any extent.

By Law 49 of 1869 the issue of a nickel currency of pennies and
half-pennies is authorised, and these coins are a legal tender to the









extent of one shilling and of one sixpence respectively. Law 13 of
1880 authorises the issue of nickel farthings, which are a legal tender
to the extent of 3d. in one payment.
The coins in circulation are the following:-
British coins, gold and silver, of all denominations.
Gold doubloons (seldom seen). s. d.
Old Mexican, average 3 4 0
Columbian 3 0 0
Aliquot parts in proportion.
American (United States) gold (seldom seen).
,, Double eagle 4 2 0
,, Single 2 1 0
Half .1 0 6
,, Quarter 0 10 3
Dollar 0 4 1
Jamaica-nickel coin: penny, halfpenny, farthing.


IX.-PRODUCTIONS.
The total acreage of the island is 2,683,520 acres. Of this
270,000 acres are valueless, being in ponds, morass, rivers, rocks, and
cock-pits. Of the remainder (2,413,520 acres) 596,703 acres were
under cultivation and care during the year 1885, leaving 1,816,817
acres available for agricultural and pastoral purposes.
Coffee, pimento (or all-spice), ginger, and cinchona are the
principal productions of the higher elevations, whilst sugar, Liberian
coffee, cacao, spices, fruit, tobacco, nutmeg, cocoanuts, pine-apples,
and fibre-yielding plants are grown in the lower elevations and plains.
Interspersed with these are fields of guinea grass which afford
abundant nutritious food for cattle and horsekind.
Sugar.-In the early days of sugar manufacture in the island the
mills used for the expression of the cane were almost entirely worked
by horse-power, but there are only four or five estates on which this
mode of working mills still prevails, steam and water power having
almost entirely superseded it. The mills on 120 estates are supplied
with motive power by steam; 40 by water; 18 by steam and water;
and one by wind. The separation of molasses from sugar is now
almost entirely effected by means of the centrifugal machine, although
the old method of standing casks of sugar in tiers and allowing the
molasses to gradually drain out through perforations in the casks is
still followed in a few instances.
The manufacture of sugar is the principal industry of the island,
but, owing to the beet-root competition, it is much reduced in price.
The quantity produced during 1885 was considerably less than that
produced in the previous year, owing to the cause just stated and to









the drought which prevailed in almost all parts of the island during
the entire year. The quantity exported was 499,717 cwt. of the
value of 307,826.
In addition to the sugar exported, a large quantity (estimated at over
10,000 hhds. a year) is consumed in the island; this is principally
produced by small settlers, who grow the cane on their small holdings,
and extract the saccharine matter by means of a rude construction
designated a small sugar mill."
Rum.-The Jamaica Rum is the finest in the world, holding the
first place in all markets for quality and merit, and commanding a
higher price than the rum of any other country. The quantity ex-
ported in 1885 was 2,080,471 gallons of the value of 234,053. In
addition to the rum exported about 4,000 puncheons are annually
made by the large proprietors for home consumption. The small
settlers do not manufacture rum from the sugar produced by them, as
the working of stills of a smaller capacity than 300 gallons is under
such legal restrictions as almost to be prohibited.
Coffee.-In the higher mountain districts coffee is grown which can
compete successfully with that grown in any other country. The
character of this coffee is indeed so well established, that notwith-
standing the fluctuations in price in the plantations at lower altitudes
the coffee from the higher and well-known localities (especially from
the Blue Mountains) for the most part remains at the same rates,
ranging from 120s. to 140s. per cwt. The exports during the year
1885 were 80,657 cwt. of the value of 157,282.
The coffee above referred to is the Arabian coffee; but Liberian
coffee is being generally planted, and will soon occupy a prominent
position in the produce market. The Liberian coffee is successfully
grown in the plains, where labour is cheaper and more abundant than
in the high mountains, and where there are no difficulties and expense
in connection with transport. In addition to the coffee exported, a very
large quantity is annually consumed in the island, all classes of the
inhabitants being coffee-drinkers. This coffee is principally grown and
cured by the small settlers, especially those living in the parish of
Manchester.
Pimento.-The pimento, which is indigenous to the island, is not
only a very graceful tree, but a very remunerative plant in favourable
years. It grows without cultivation of any sort in ordinary pasture
land, especially in the high elevations. Ever since the Crimean war
of 1854 the demand for pimento in the European markets has been
considerably reduced, especially in Russia, where a large quantity of
this spice had been previously consumed, but under no circumstance









can a pimento property become valueless to the owner. The plant
grows on land left to nature, and when it comes to maturity, on the
mere clearing of the ground of the bush the best of all natural grasses
in the island springs up spontaneously around the pimento trees, and
the pasturage, which was fruitless before, becomes of great value. The
value of the pimento exported in 1885 was 38,929 less than that of the
pimento exported in 1884, but this very large falling off was principally
due to the total failure of the pimento crop in the parish of St. Ann
owing to the drought and strong breezes.
Cinchona.-The lands on the Blue Mountain range, where the
quinine-yielding trees are being cultivated, enjoy a temperature
resembling that of an English May, and are, therefore, very suitable
for the successful growth of the plant. This department of cultivation
has not been twenty years in existence in Jamaica. It was first
established under the direction of Sir J. P. Grant, and has since been
developed by Mr. D. Morris, the late Director of Public Gardens and
Plantations. Mr. Morris, in a recent paper, says : Assuming that the
proper elevation has been selected and that the proper kind is culti-
vated, the result or the profit would be that at the expense of 100 there
could be put into the market 1,815 lbs. of bark, realising 363. This
is the expense which would be spread over the seven years from the
time of planting the tree to the removal of the bark. After the
establishment of the trees-about 1,210 to the acre-the expense be-
comes trifling and the return annual."
There are about 5,000 acres of land now in cinchona. Of these
143 acres constitute the Government Cinchona Plantation at Belle
Vue, and 2,688 acres are lands lately patented by the Government to
private individuals at nominal rates for the purpose of encouraging
the enterprise. The remaining acreage consists of private property,
situated principally in the parishes of St. Andrew, St. Thomas, Portland,
and Manchester.
Mr. Morris, in his last official report, stated that most species of
cinchona, when established in suitable soils, appear to do well in
Jamaica, but evidently the most hardy and generally the most suitable
for the circumstances of the ordinary planter is cinchona officinalis, which
at elevations above 5,000 feet grows and thrives in a thoroughly
satisfactory manner.
Tea.-The cultivation of this plant is now being established on
some of the higher lands purchased from the Government for the pur-
pose of cinchona planting. The results of cultivation by the Govern-
ment so far have been most encouraging. A sample of camellia thea
recently sent to England from the Government Botanic Gardens was









pronounced by a firm of brokers (Messrs. George White & Company)
"to be of good flavour, and to combine to a great extent the peculiar
characteristics of a fine China black leaf and a Ceylon Pekoe
Souchong."
Bananas.-This is the most extensive and the most valuable fruit
interest in the island. The exports in 1875 were of the value of
5,590; in 1880, 38,556; in 1884, 191,972, and in 1885, 129,917.
The temporary falling off in the latter year was attributable to the
prolonged drought and the general depression of trade. The Director
of Public Gardens, in reporting to the Government in 1884, stated that
"the development of the banana industry has brought into cultivation
large tracts of lands formerly lying useless or in ruinate, and it has also
been the means of circulating nearly 200,000 per annum in ready
money amongst all classes of the community." With ordinary care
and in favourable soil the net profit of banana cultivation is stated to
be about 15 per acre planted.
Oranges.-The export of oranges is increasing by rapid strides.
Several well-kept plantations are springing up, which will no doubt in
time yield fruit superior to any now exported; but the trees yielding
the bulk of the present export of oranges from Jamaica are self-sown
seedlings, growing in cattle pastures or in the neighbourhood of coffee
and provision fields, and they receive little or no cultivation. The
value of the oranges exported amounts to over 30,000 per annum.
Pine-apples.-The cultivation of this valuable and luscious fruit is
greatly extending. During the year 1884 a fine selection of the best
English pines from Windsor Castle and Lord Carrington's nurseries
was introduced into Jamaica by the Government, and the plants are
now doing well. The smooth cayenne species is being introduced by
the Horticultural Society. In 1880 the value of the pine-apples
exported was 522; in 1885 it had reached 1,443.
Cocoanuts.-In a tropical country and along the sea-coast there is
no tree which is at once so picturesque and so useful for shade and
shelter and so valuable as a source of food for man and beast as the
cocoanut. If carefully planted in favourable situations the plant will
take care of itself and will cause no expense for management. An
acre of land will produce 60 plants, and these will yield nuts that will
realise about 10 per annum. Thus the cocoanut industry is capable
of being made most lucrative. Already it has an export value of
about 20,000, and a home consumption of about 10,000, so that
the cocoanut industry in Jamaica is at present of an annual value of
about 30,000. The thousands of acres of land bordering the sea-
coast of the island are capable of immense development in this
direction.




eeT;P-?bS~ Iw3~Ctr-7~ :- .'- -.. -


61

Other delicious fruits, such as the mango, the cherimoyer, the
naseberry, and the sweet sop grow in great profusion without any care
or cultivation; some of these might, with care in packing, &c., become
articles of export, especially to the United States, which are within a
week's journey from Jamaica. The development of the fruit trade has
been very rapid. In 1867 the value of the fruits exported was 728.
Two years later an agency was established at Port Antonio (which was
then a decaying port) for certain fruit-houses in the United States, and
seven schooners were loaded with bananas. In the following year
cocoanuts and oranges were added, and since then the trade has gone
on progressively, and has extended itself throughout the island.
Several steamers are now engaged in this profitable business, the
greater part of the fruit being conveyed to New York, Philadelphia,
Baltimore, and New Orleans. The following table shows the progress
made in the fruit trade during the last ten years:-
QUANTITY VALUE
ARTICLE
1875 1885 1875 1885
Cocoanuts, no. ... ... 2,007,893 5,115,872 5,599 7 3 17,905 11 0
Bananas, bnchs... ... 58,411 1,417,282 5,590 0 0 129,917 10 4
Limes, brls. ... ... 635 8091 254 0 0 323 14 0
Mangoes, no. ...... 57,820 166,705 43 7 4 161 5 0
Oranges, no. ...... 4,673,820 22,614,390 3,271 13 5 31,660 2 11
Pine-apples, doz. ... 3894 8,883 116 16 0 1,443 9 9
Shaddocks, brls. ... 6 15 0 17 6 5 6 0
Tamarinds, lbs.... ... 4,082 4,597 204 2 0 84 16 0
15,080 3 6 181,501 15 0

Cacao was an important industry in Jamaica about a hundred and
fifty years ago, but it had so declined that twenty years ago the only
trees in the island were a few inferior kinds scattered here and there
in settlers' gardens. In 1867 the quantity exported was 133 cwt.,
but 10 years after it had reached 375 cwt. of the value of 1,051.
Now the quantity exported is 8,028 cwt. and the value 6,360.
Messrs. Lewis & Peat (English brokers), in recently reporting on
samples sent them, stated that "before they named where the cacao
came from it was classified as high class Trinidad.' "
Fibre-yielding Plants.-Increased attention is being devoted to the
utilisation of the many native plants capable of yielding fibre. The
most promising plants appear to be the various species of agave
furcrcea, sansevieria, and the China grass or ramie (ba'hmeria nirea).
Furcrcea cubensis is widely distributed in the island and especially in
the parish of Westmoreland, where it is known as "silk grass." The
common keratto yields a good soap as well as a fair fibre. The







62

bamboo is utilised also for fibre purposes, being exported in a crushed
state and packed by hydraulic pressure in convenient bales. The New
Zealand flax (phonrmiim tenax) has been introduced, and is now
established at the Cinchona Plantation.
Woods.-A large business was done in Jamaica woods to the year
1875, when the quantity exported was 85,204 tons, of the value of
265,211. Since then both the price and the quantity required
have considerably fallen. During the year 1885 the quantity exported
was 58,598 tons, of the value of 158,500 ; but this was larger than the
exports of the previous year, which were 47,080 tons, of 140,447 value.
The most valuable of the Jamaica woods are the yacca, the bullet tree,
(hard almost as a bone), the mahoe, juniper cedar, Santa Maria,
Spanish elm, the common cedar (from which cigar boxes and furniture
are largely made), lignum vitae, ebony, fiddle wood, yoke, prickly
yellow, broad-leaf, guango, soap wood, calabash and cashaw.
Medicinal Plants.-Plants of a medicinal nature are a marked
feature in the indigenous flora of Jamaica, and in works published from
1735 to the present time numerous references are made to the valuable
properties possessed by Jamaica plants. Eighty-seven samples were
exhibited at the New Orleans Exposition, among which was the semper
vivum (aloe vulgaris), which grows commonly throughout the island
and in the driest districts. Samples of the inspissated juice, prepared
by the officers of the Botanical Department, have lately been declared
in London and New York of good quality and of value as an article of
commerce. Sarsaparilla is also successfully grown in the parish of St.
Elizabeth and elsewhere. At the present price of sarsaparilla the
gross return is estimated at 30s. per plant, or at the rate of 50 per
acre. The quinine-yielding cinchona has already been noticed.

X.-PUBLIC GARDENS AND PLANTATIONS.
The Public Gardens and Plantations consist of the following:-
1. The Botanic Gardens at Castleton.-600 feet above sea-level, in
the parish of St. Mary, 19 miles from Kingston, containing collections
of tropical plants, a palmetum, experimental grounds for economic
plants, and large nurseries for their successful propagation and
distribution.
2. Cinchona Plantations.-4,500 to 6,300 feet above sea-level, on
the southern slopes of the Blue Mountains, in the parish of St. Andrew,
23 miles from Kingston. About 143 acres under cinchona cultivation
and 7 acres in jalap, tea, &c. Contain also nurseries for the propa-
gation and distribution of cinchona plants and timber and shade trees
for higher elevations.









8. Hope Plantations.-400 feet above sea-level, near the foot of the
hills in Liguanea Plains, 5 miles from Kingston, containing about 150
acres, of which 15 acres are under cultivation for propagating and
distributing new varieties of sugar cane; nurseries for valuable timber
and shade trees; also for fruit trees, pine-apples, and plants of Liberian
coffee and Trinidad cacao.
4. Palisadoes Plantation.-Occupying the long, narrow strip of land
enclosing the Kingston Harbour, about 5 miles long; extensively
planted with cocoanut palms.
5. Kingston Parade Garden.-A pleasure-garden and central park
in Kingston; kept up with shade and ornamental trees, flowering
plants, tanks, and fountains.
6. Botanic Garden at Bath.-The old Botanic Garden of the
colony, established in 1774; still maintained as a station for the
distribution of seeds and plants in the eastern portion of the island.
7. King's House Gardens and Grounds.-Containing about 177
acres, of which about 20 acres are kept up as an ornamental garden.
Many valuable economic plants and fruit trees are also under cultivation,
as well as the rarer tropical palms.
These gardens and plantations form a department of the public
service and are maintained at the public cost. They are under the
control of a director, who is assisted by two superintendents and four
gardeners.
Plants are sold at the gardens and plantations at moderate prices.
For public institutions and for persons endeavouring to promote the
development of industrial products in the island, a number of valuable
introduced plants are available for experimental purposes at nominal
rates or free of cost. On special application to the director, plants
valuable in medicine or arts, and specimens required for artistic,
educational, or benevolent purposes, may be gratuitously supplied.

XI.-LANDs.
Under two local laws all lands in the possession of squatters are
aken over by the Government, and all lands on which quit rents have
not been paid for five years and more are forfeited to the Crown. The
operations of these laws have placed the Crown in possession of over
80,000 acres of land, a large portion of which extends over the
northern part of the parish of St. Thomas and the southern part of
Portland. All this region consists of virgin lands, and is well-watered
with numerous springs and rivers. It possesses a most salubrious
climate, and ranges from 2,000 to 6,000 feet in height, and it embraces


^*^*i--iir m" i *"i i iii iii 11 v. ^









some of the finest coffee land in the island. The geological formation
is chiefly of trappean and metamorphosed series, and it is of the same
character as the fertile coffee lands of the parishes of St. Andrew and
St. Thomas. It is rich in minerals; copper, cobalt, and lead having
already been discovered in several places. The climate in the higher
parts is extremely cool, and is suited to the labour of white men in the
open air. European fruits have been cultivated in some of these
localities, and the Government Cinchona Plantations are situated on
portions of this land, which have already proved that cinchona bark
can be successfully produced in Jamaica.
The lands are offered for lease and sale by the Government at
the rate of 2s. an acre on the condition that "the grantee will
immediately upon entering into possession commence to establish the
cultivation of cinchona." If at the end of five years the grantee shall
have cleared and planted efficiently with cinchona a total extent of not
less than one-sixth of the land, the whole will be conveyed to him in
fee-simple without further charge. A number of enterprising planters
have availed themselves of these conditions, and have entered on the
cultivation of cinchona, with coffee, tea, and other products suitable to
the localities.


XII.-PosTAL AND TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS.
The Post-Office Department includes the Inland Telegraph and the
Foreign Money-Order Branches; the whole is under the management
of the Postmaster of Jamaica, who is assisted-by 17 clerks.
There are 93 District Post-Offices. The postal rates are based on
a prepaid system; they are uniform throughout the island. Twopence
is charged for a letter of a half-ounce; 4d. for a letter of an ounce,
and 4d. for every additional ounce or fraction of an ounce. Letters
for office or town delivery, or for Spanish Town, Old Harbour,
Gordon Town, Cold Spring, Port Royal, Halfway-Tree, Up-Park
Camp, Linstead, Ewarton, May Pen, Four Paths, and Porus are
charged ld. for the half-ounce, and 2d. for every additional ounce or
fraction thereof. A post card for town or office delivery is charged 1,d.,
and for any distance inland ld. Newspapers pass within the island
1d. each.
Letters for Great Britain, the Canadian Provinces, the British
West India Islands, the United States of America, and all other
countries that are within the Postal Union are conveyed by steamer at
a uniform rate of 4d. for every half-ounce. Newspapers not exceeding
4 ounces are carried at Id., and every additional 4 ounces or fraction









of an ounce is charged Id. additional. Post cards are permitted
transmission at ld. per card.
There are daily mails between Kingston and Spanish Town, Old
Harbour, Halfway-Tree, Gordon Town, Cold Spring, Port Royal, Up-
Park Camp, Linstead, Ewarton, May Pen, Four Paths, and Porus,
and tri-weekly posts between the other parts of the island.
There are 40 Telegraph Sub-Stations. The charge for telegrams
throughout the island is s1. for the first 20 words, and 3d. for every
additional 5 words.
Money-orders are issued from the General Post-Office for the
United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, British
Guiana, Barbados, and Turks Islands. Money-orders for British
India, Australia, South Africa, and the other principal British Colonies
are paid through the General Post-Office in London. (Inland Money-
orders are issued through the Public Treasury.) The Parcels-Post
system is now in operation between Jamaica and Great Britain, and
parcels up to 7 lbs. in weight can be sent at a postage charge of 9d.
per lb.


XIII.-MEANs OF COMMUNICATION.
I. IN JAMAICA.-(1) By railway.-A Government railway runs
from Kingston to Spanish Town, a distance of 13 miles, whence one
branch goes as far as Porus, in the parish of Manchester, distant 50,
miles from Kingston, and a second branch runs to Ewarton, in St.
Catherine, at the foot of Mount Diablo, distant 30 miles from
Kingston. (2) By carriage or on horseback.-There wre livery stables
in Kingston and most of the large towns. (3) By mail coach.-Various
lines of road are now traversed by mail coaches. (4) Tramcars.-
These are confined to Kingston and the immediate neighbourhood.
(5) Coastal steamer.-A steamer leaves Kingston every ten days on a
trip round the island, going eastward and westward alternately, and
calling at the principal ports.
II. To on FROM JAMAICA.-(1) Royal Mail Steam Packet Company.-
The vessels leaving Southampton (England) every alternate Thursday
reach Kingston on every alternate Sunday, and vessels which leave
Kingston every alternate Wednesday reach Southampton in about
17 days. (2) West India and Pacific Steamship Company.-Steamer
leaves Liverpool for Kingston once a month on a day fixed by
advertisement, calling at St. Thomas and Port-au-Prince. (3) French
Line.-Steamers arrive at Kingston on the 13th of each month, after
touching at St. Thomas, Ponce, Port-au-Prince, and Santiago de Cuba;
E









they leave Kingston on the 16th of each month. (4) Cutnard Steam-
ship Company.-The steamers sail monthly from Halifax, Nova Scotia;
Bermuda, Turks Islands, and Jamaica, returning by the same route a
few days after their arrival in Jamaica. (5) Atlas Steam Company.-
The steamers sail from Kingston to New York and back every fortnight;
the voyage takes 6 to 8 days.



XIV.-POINTS OF TOPOGRAPHICAL INTEREST IN JAMAICA.
A stranger arriving at Kingston, Jamaica, and desirous of seeing
something of the island, is often in a difficulty to find suitable
information to enable him to visit points of interest without loss of
time. If the visitor has only a short time at his disposal, he would be
compelled to confine himself to points of interest within easy access of
Kingston, and in such case could not do better than visit one or more
of the following places:-
The Cantonment of Newcastle, at an elevation of from 3,800 to
4,500 feet above the sea, is about 14 miles from Kingston, of which
9 miles consist of a good carriage road to the village of Gordon Town,
where ponies can be hired to ride up the beautiful valley of the Hope
River. From Cold Spring Gap, above Newcastle, a view of the north-
side of the island may be obtained if the fog will permit.
The next point of interest is the Bog Walk Valley, through which
the Rio Cobre flows, and up which the railway to Ewarton passes.
To see this valley properly, the journey should be made by the
carriage road. The usual course is by rail to Spanish Town, where
a carriage may be hired to proceed up the Bog Walk, at the lower
entrance of which is the dam or head works of the Rio Cobre Irrigation
Canal, and at the upper end is the Gibraltar Rock, through which
the Ewarton Railway passes by a tunnel half-a-mile long. While
passing through Spanish Town, a visit might be paid to the public
buildings, including the old King's House," the old Legislative
Council Chambers, the Cathedral, &c.
Another delightful drive is over Stony Hill, down the valley of the
Wag Water River, along the carriage road known as the "Annotto
Bay Junction Road," to the Castleton Botanical Garden. This garden,
maintained by the Government, is well worth seeing, and the scenery
along the road is very beautiful. The trip to Castleton and back to
Kingston is easily accomplished in one day.
If the visitor is interested in the growth of cinchona, a great
portion of the mountains and much beautiful scenery may be seen









by a trip to the Government Cinchona Plantation, which is on the
Blue Mountain Range, about 5 miles in a straight line east of Newcastle.
A very pretty waterfall and precipitous gorge may be seen on the
Cane River, 2 miles north of the little village on the Windward
Road, 7 miles from Kingston.
Should the visitor have time at his disposal, and desire to take a
trip round the island, we would suggest his "doing" the eastern
side of the island first.
Starting from Kingston, the road is most uninteresting until you
arrive near Morant Bay, in the parish of St. Thomas; from this
point the country is mostly cultivated, and the scenery picturesque,
with the great Blue Mountain Peak to the northward until arrival at
Bath, an inland village. Here the most important object of interest
is the warm bath of St. Thomas the Apostle, of which an account is
given in another part of this Handbook.
An excursion into the mountains from Bath, over the bridle road
known as the Cuna-Cuna Road, is most interesting. This road passes
over a wild and very mountainous district, and, crossing the main
ridge, enters the valley of the Rio Grande, which discharges on the
north side of the island. This district will be found replete with
objects of interest for the naturalist, the geologist, and the botanist.
Continuing the journey eastward from Bath for about 7J miles,
the top of Quaw Hill is reached. From this point a lovely view
may be obtained of the sugar estates in the Plantain Garden River
district, and the east end of the island with the lighthouse. The
road hence to Port Antonio passes more or less within view of the
sea, and is one of the most lovely drives in the island. Port Antonio
is a pretty and thriving town, and has a fine harbour.
The road from Port Antonio to Annotto Bay crosses the beautiful
Rio Grande, one of the finest rivers in the island, and passes through
the villages of Hope Bay and Buff Bay, and mostly skirts the sea.
There is some pretty scenery along this road, but the distant mountain
scenery is particularly beautiful.
The eastern end of the island is extremely mountainous, and
there are some lovely spots to be seen up the ravines and gorges of
these mountains.
Should the visitor care to take a ride into the interior, we would
suggest one up the Rio Grande to the Maroon village called Moore
Town; and, should he care to see some of the mountain fastnesses,
a walk up the Stony River to the site of old Nanny Town, although
a work of great labour, will amply repay the trouble.


I%~'zR~sp~d~onSr*-,g;FJiirr*l~nr;--sn-




------ ;7-r-~qil ai;-m-\TP;F~L~',wAll~


68

From Annotto Bay the main road turns inland until, at a distance
of about 12 miles, the thriving seaport town of Port Maria is reached.
From Port Maria the road continues through the parish of St. Mary
to the White River, which is the boundary of that parish and of the
adjacent parish of St. Ann. The White River Falls are very beautiful
and well worth the attention of the visitor; those at Prospect are
about 2 miles off the main road, and the great cascade at Cascade
Pen is about 5 miles from the main road.
The main road continues through the parish of St. Ann, along the
seaside to the village of Ocho Rios, which is a very pretty place.
Much lovely scenery will be seen through the parish of St. Ann, and
the Roaring River Falls, near the main road, 4 miles east of St. Ann's
Bay, are a grand sight which no visitor to Jamaica should miss.
The town of St. Ann's Bay is prettily situated on rising ground,
and is growing in importance. A trip through the parish of St. Ann
will be found extremely enjoyable. We therefore suggest that the
tourist should take the road from St. Ann's Bay or Ocho Rios to
Moneague, where he should sleep, and starting at four o'clock on the
following morning be at the top of Mount Diablo at daybreak, so as
to witness one of the most extraordinary sights in Jamaica-namely,
the conversion of the district of St. Thomas-in-the-Vale, which lies at
the foot of the hill on the other side, into a lake of fog, which any
stranger might take for water. From this spot the Ewarton Railway
Station is only 5 miles distant, so the tourist may either return by
rail, or, what would be better, retrace his steps to Moneague and
thence follow the great interior road through St. Ann's to Brown's
Town, a very pretty and thriving interior village, whence the road
passes to Stewart Town, on the boundary line of the parish of
Trelawny. Below Stewart Town the Rio Bueno rises-an immense
body of water bursts forth in a deep pool from under a precipitous
rock; this is quite a curious place, and well worth the time it will
take to visit it.
The seaside road from St. Ann's Bay towards the west passes
through the villages of Runaway Bay and Dry Harbour, and crosses
the Rio Bueno by a fine bridge at the village of that name. Two
miles to the eastward of Dry Harbour a very remarkable cave is
situated near the southern side of the road. This cave is very
extensive and beautiful, and the several passages underground may
be traversed for a long distance; of course, a guide and candles would
be necessary.
The road from Rio Bueno continues westward, through some fine
sugar estates, to the village of Duncans, and thence reaches the town
of Falmouth, which is a large and regularly built seaport town. The









court house here is considered the finest in the island. Falmouth
was once a very flourishing town, but Montego Bay, in the adjoining
parish of St. James, is now its successful rival in trade.
The western districts of Trelawny, and the northern and central
parts of St. James, are well cultivated, and the visitor will see some
fine sugar estates. Montego Bay, the chief town of St. James, is very
prettily situated, and the harbour has been much improved of late
years; this place does a considerable trade. The road from Montego
Bay follows the seacoast to Lucea, one of the prettiest little towns in
Jamaica; the harbour is small but perfectly land-locked.
From Montego Bay the main road across the island leads to
Montpelier and the Great River," which is the boundary of St.
James and Hanover. Here is a very fine bridge, after crossing which
there are two roads, one going to Savanna-la-Mar, and the other to
Black River. We would suggest the traveller taking the road to
Savanna-la-Mar; it passes through a beautiful and well-cultivated
country, and there are some very fine residences along this road.
The other road to Black River also'passes through some very pretty
country. The chief object in taking the Savanna-la-Mar road is to
see that town, and also to have an opportunity of visiting some of the
fine sugar estates of Westmoreland, which is perhaps the most
prolific sugar district of the island. Savanna-la-Mar is the shipping
port, and a considerable amount of business is done here.
The road from Savanna-la-Mar to Black River furnishes some fine
views, particularly about Bluefields. The western end of the island is
rich in cultivated scenery, while that of the eastern end is wild and
mountainous. At the town of Black River, the river of that name
debouches, and there is a fine bridge over it near its mouth. A row up
this large river to and beyond the "broad water" is worthy the
attention of the tourist, particularly to one unaccustomed to the wild
and tangled vegetation of its banks. The Black River is the finest
river in the island; it has a tortuous course of over 40 miles, of which
about 30 are navigable for good-sized boats.
From Black River the main road, which (like all the other main
roads in the island) is extremely good, passes northward through
Lacovia; but we would suggest the tourist taking the road through
Fuller's Wood, Claremont and Pedro Plains for the purpose of visiting
the Lover's Leap," a sloping precipice 6,160 feet high, the base of
which is washed by the sea. This spot is situated on the beautiful
property of "Yardley Chase," where a well-conducted sanitarium is
maintained. The roads from Yardley Chase through the Santa
Cruz Mountains are good, and there is much lovely scenery. We


Ib W 1 B ,- E ;: ,. Jc :nlr,', ....r r-







70

would suggest the road past Potsdam School and northwards to the
village of Santa Cruz; here the main road is again entered; this will
lead through the beautiful pastures of Gilnock, Goshen, and Pepper
to the foot of Spur Tree Hill, at the boundary of the parish of Man-
chester. This is, perhaps, the most trying piece of road that the
visitor will have experienced in his travels, as in a distance of about
2 miles an elevation of about 1,300 feet has to be overcome. The
road, however, is a good one.
Once at the top of Spur Tree Hill, the tourist is fairly in the
parish of Manchester, and, following a good road for 8- miles farther,
the picturesque village of Mandeville (so named after the son of the
Duke of Manchester) is reached. This place is 2,130 feet above the
sea. Here the visitor will find good accommodation, and enjoy a
delicious climate, and, as the surrounding country is very beautiful,
he might spend two or more days here with advantage.
From Mandeville a fine road leads to Porus at the eastern foot of
the Manchester mountains. Porus is the western terminus of the
railway from Kingston, whence Kingston can be reached in two and a
half hours. We would, however, suggest that the visitor continue in his
buggy southward to the Milk River Bath, of which an account is given
elsewhere in this Handbook; this is a most remarkable mineral
spring, and the Government maintains here an establishment for the
benefit of those persons needing the use of these waters.
From Milk River Bath a visit in the sugar districts of Vere will
be most interesting. If the visitor is fond of adventure, a visit to the
Portland Cave will amply repay him. This cave is situated at the
foot of the Portland Ridge at the south-eastern extremity of the
district of Vere, and is quite a curiosity; it has many passages and
may be traversed for long distances, the stalactites and stalagmites
are extremely beautiful. From Vere a splendid road passing the two
curious rivers called Salt River' and Cockpit River leads to Old
Harbour, whence there is a line of railway to Kingston, and this will
complete the tour of the island to Kingston.


XV.-PROVIDENT AND OTHER SOCIETIES.
There are associations throughout the island for the aid of widows
and orphans; the granting of medical and pecuniary assistance to the
respectable poor, and the relief of distress, generally. Among these
may be named the Women's Self-Help Society, the Kingston Dis-
pensary, the Charity Organisation Society, and the Jamaica Masonic
Benevolence.








There are also a number of mutual aid societies in Jamaica.
Among these are a Life Assurance Society, a Fire Insurance Society,
seven Building Societies, a Marine Insurance Company, and a People's
Discount and Deposit Company. In addition to these several institu-
tions there are 11 branches of Foreign Life Assurance and 18 branches
of Foreign Fire Insurance Societies doing business in the island.
A Government Savings Bank exists in Kingston, with branches
in the several parishes. There were on September 30, 1885-15,511
individual depositors, besides the charitable societies, clubs, and
public functionaries investing in their official capacities; the amount
deposited during the financial year was 223,135. The assets of
the Bank on the date named amounted to 360,190. Penny Banks
are also in operation in the several districts; these are principally
held at schools, and are under the management of ministers of religion
and other influential gentlemen. On September 30, 1885, there were
59 Penny Banks in operation, with 13,922 depositors.



XVI.-NATuRAL HISTORY OF JAMAICA.

1. BIRDs.-The number of species of birds found in the island is
189. Of this number 43 are presumed to be peculiar to Jamaica, as
they are not known to have been found elsewhere. It is quite impos-
sible to give the list of these birds in this small publication, but it may
be found in the "Handbook of Jamaica for 1881, pp. 103 to 117.
Space affords opportunity only of giving the common names of
those birds, which, as the late Dr. Chamberlaine, by whom the list was
compiled, says, are most commonly followed by sportsmen." They
are the following-the wild Guinea bird, the quail, the white-belly
dove, the baldpate pigeon, the peadove, the ground dove, the mountain
witch, the ring-tail pigeon (" the most luscious dainty of his class or
of any other ") the blue pigeon, the white-wing pigeon, the mountain
partridge, the two-penny chick, the coot, the Jamaica heron, rails,
plovers, snipe, ducks of many kinds, the butter bird, sand-pipers, the
pecheere, and parrots.
Gosse in his work, "A Naturalist's Sojourn in Jamaica," pays
tribute to the singing birds of the island in the following graceful
words:-" The groves and fields of this sunny isle ring with the
melody of birds to a degree fully equal, in my judgment, to that of
Europe. In the lone forests the glass-eye merle' pours forth a rich
and continued song; and that mysterious harmonist, the 'solitaire,'
utters his sweet but solemn trills, long drawn and slow, like broken









notes of appsalm, so perfectly in keeping with the deep solitude. In
the woods that cover, as with an ever-verdant crown, the lower hills,
the black strike' and the cotton tree sparrow' enunciate their clear
musical calls so much alike as scarcely to be distinguished, four or
five notes running up the scale so rapidly as to be fused as it were
together, and suddenly falling at the end. Here too sits the hopping
dick' and whistles by the hour together a rich and mellow succession
of wild notes, clear and flute-like, like his European cousin the black-
bird. But there is one master-musician, whose varied notes
leave the efforts of his rivals at an immeasurable distance behind him.
It is he that makes our sunny glades and shady groves eminently
melodious by night and day, sustaining almost the whole burden
himself. He is the nightingale of the western world, the many-voiced
mocking bird. If all the birds of Jamaica were voiceless, except
the mocking bird, the woods and groves and gardens would still be
everywhere vocal with his profuse and rapturous songs."
There is a Birds' and Fish Protection Law in force in Jamaica,
under which the killing of certain birds is prohibited, and a close
season is prescribed for others. The sporting birds, enumerated above,
are in the second class.
2. FIsHEs.-Almost all writers on Jamaica have united in praising
the variety, abundance, and superior quality of our sea and river fish.
In "The Present State of Jamaica," by a Thomas Malthus, pub-
lished in London in 1683, the following extract occurs: "There is
store of fish both in the sea and divers rivers, not much common to
England, but a kind of lobster, crawfish, eels, mullets, and Spanish
mackarel, with abundance of all sorts of admirable fish proper to
those seas. Tortoise are taken much on this coast but chiefly at the
Island Caymanas, 30 leagues to the west of this island, whither the
vessels go May, June, and July to load of their fish that they pickle
in bulk, and take them in that season when they come on shore to
lay their eggs, which they do, and cover them with sand that hatches
them, and then by instinct they crawl to the sea, where they live and
feed on weeds that grow to the bottom or float."
Sloane writing as quaintly says: "I knew not, neither have I
heard, of any place where there are greater plenty of freshwater or
seawater fishes than in the island and on the coast of Jamaica, which
is a great providence and contrivance for the support of the inhabi-
tants, the temperature of the climate and air hindering the salting,
preserving, or drying provisions as in other countries."
Saltwater fish.-The Calipeva, or "Jamaica salmon," as it has


.A




C ~ r.4-77r,


73

been called from its appearance, is classed among the mullets and
generally held the finest fish of the island. It ranks among three
special Jamaican dainties, the other two being the ring-tail pigeon
and the mountain or black crab.
June fish attain the largest size of any kind usually brought to
market. The Hon. Mr. Coke mentions one captured off Long Acre,
in St. Elizabeth's parish, which weighed 314 lbs. gross, and they
have been harpooned off Port Royal measuring 6 feet in length. It
is regarded as excellent for the table when weighing from 10 to 20 lbs.
Grunts appear to be more common in the local market than
other kinds of fish. With them are associated the croakers and
drummers, all deriving their names from the singular sounds they
produce.
Snappers also furnish a constant supply at all seasons, and are in
good request for the table. Mutton, black, grey, and pot snappers are
among the favourite varieties.
Silts constitute a very important proportion of the fisherman'
harvest all round the island.
The kingfish is one of the handsomest and richest taken in these
waters.
The barracouta in its prime is by many considered equal in merit
to the kingfish. It is taken at all seasons and on all parts of the
coast. The name 'is spelt in various ways, but the form above is
adopted from that published in the Royal Navy List as the title
borne by one of Her Majesty's vessels, and most likely to be correct
according to the derivation.
Freshwater fish.-The freshwater fish proper exhibit but little
variety compared with those of the streams and rivers of other regions,
nor are the few indigenous kinds especially abundant. The reasons
probably are the precipitous and broken nature of most of the water-
courses in the island, as well as the constant alterations and dis-
turbances taking place in the channels from bad slides and floods.
Foremost amongst the freshwater fish are the two kinds of mullets-
the mountain mullet" and the hog-nose mullet." The mountain
mullet is a very delicate fish; the flesh is remarkably sweet and white,
and the roe is a most recherche morsel. In general it is found nearly
as large as the fish itself. The mountain mullet seldom exceeds 10
inches in length, and weighs half a pound, and in some instances
above a pound.
The hog-nose mullet of the Rio Grande, the Swift, and Spanish
Rivers, are certainly the largest and perhaps the sweetest. The head







74

and neck are a mass of rich, sweet, gelatinous substance. The flesh
has always been esteemed a dainty of no ordinary kind, and so it is.
The length of the hog-nose mullet taken out of the Swift River,
below the "Fish Done," will often measure 23 inches and usually
weighs from 2 to 4 lbs. It is designated by this name on account
of the elongation or projection of the cartilage of the upper mandible
considerably over the lower, ending in a blunt point, with which
contrivance it turns up mud, or the fallen leaves frequently found
in conglomerated heaps, &c., in search of its ordinary food. The
mandibles are supplied with strong, short teeth of a conical shape,
irregularly set.
3. INsECTS.--Jamaica is singular for the great number of its insect
forms and the fewness of the individual members of each species ordi-
narily seen. Occasionally a species will occur in great force but very
locally, however, and for only a short time. It is practically almost
useless to chase insects here; the nature of the country, the thickness
of the vegetation, and the heat are such as to forbid it. A collector
has, therefore, to keep a sharp look-out, and seize any opportunity of
securing an insect which may present itself.
Beside coleoptera, lepidoptera, and hymenoptera the island is rich
in species of the other orders of insects. The number of spiders is
considerable, and includes some very pretty and curious examples, but,
as far as is known, no attempt has been made to work them out.
It may be of interest to state that the larvae of Protoparce
jamaicensis is very destructive of the tobacco plant here; the larve of
Euthisanotia timais not unfrequently destroy all the lilies in a garden
in a few days; that of Hyblcea puera is common on the yoke or oak
tree (Catalpa longisiliqua), sometimes denuding large trees of their
leaves; the larvae of Phakellura hyalinata attack cucumbers, often
completely destroying the vines, and the larvae of Hymenia per-
spectalis are destructive of edible calalu.
4. SHELLS.-NO part of the world possesses richer conchological
treasures than Jamaica, or offers more tempting prospects to the
explorer for shells. The land shells are unsurpassed anywhere else
for beauty and variety, and comprise no less than 221 inoperculates
and 240 operculates (exclusive of numerous recognized varieties)
discovered up to the present time. Not more, on the average, than
one-third of the area of the shell-bearing districts has been explored as
yet, and the remainder constitutes untrodden ground where splendid
rewards await the collector. Several generic forms are peculiar
to the island, whilst the specific forms, with the exception of about a
dozen small ones, are to be found nowhere else. Stoastoma (except




r rw t -


75

4 species in Haiti and Porto Rico, and 1 of the subgenus Electrina
far away in the Philippines), Sagda (except the subgenus Odontosagda
in Haiti, more properly coming under Zonites), Geomelania (except 1
species of the subgenus Blandiella in Demerara), Sucidella, and Jamaicia
belong to Jamaica exclusively. It is the metropolis of the beautiful
Cyclostomas with a decollated spire and delicately frilled lip, known as
Choanopoma, and of Alcadia among the Helicinide, with its curious
slit or notched lip, and sickle-shaped or toothed columella. There is a
superb collection of the land shells of Jamaica in the British Museum,
presented by the late lamented Mr. Chitty, formerly one of the Judges
of the island; and a complete catalogue of the species up to this time
found, arranged, however, according to the classification in the mono-
graphs of Pfeiffer, appears in the Handbook of Jamaica for 1883.
In these days of rapid locomotion but a few months would be taken
up in a trip from Europe to Jamaica, and in going back laden with an
ample collection of these lovely objects. Land shells occur in amazing
numbers in the limestone districts, which constitute the greater part of
the island. After becoming acquainted with their habitats, the
collector may easily obtain a rich harvest of many genera and species
in a single day; while his work will be done amidst the magnificent
scenery of our favoured island, and he will be securing a fresh lease of
life by inhaling its refreshing and invigorating mountain breezes. If
desirous of collecting the sea-shells, the collector will have but a few
hours' travel to undergo in transferring himself from the interior to the
seashores, which present every variety of station suited to marine
species, of which nearly all those of the entire Caribbean Province are
easily to be collected in Jamaica, from the littoral to no very great
depths. They are of transcendent beauty, and many of them are still
rare in cabinets.
It may be added that Rhizopoda, Polycystina, Spongida, and
indeed nearly all the groups of the sub-kingdom Protozoa, are repre-
sented in great profusion in Jamaica-a single haul of the net or bag
rarely fails to bring up very many new forms. Legions of the more
splendid members of the Ccelenterata offer themselves to the hand of
the collector. If time is left, it may be profitably employed in exploring
the Bowden and Clarendon beds, which, especially the former, abound
in marine Tertiary fossils still as perfect as on the day of their
entombment.
5. JAMacA sTocK.-The breeding of cattle and horses has had
great attention from penkeepers, and the breed has been greatly
improved from time to time by the introduction of superior stock from
England and America. At the present time our neat cattle and







76

thorough-bred horses will compare favourably with those of most
countries, whilst they undoubtedly surpass the stock in the rest of the
West Indies.
The best cattle are reared in the parishes of St. Ann, Manchester,
and St. Elizabeth, the Guinea grass in those parishes being very fine
and the climate well suited to the growth and development of fine
stock. The fattening capabilities of the parish of St. Catherine,
particularly in the Salt Pond and St. Dorothy districts, are well known.
The markets of Kingston and Spanish Town are supplied with beef
chiefly from cattle brought from St. Ann, Manchester, and St.
Elizabeth, and fattened in St. Catherine. There are other districts in
the island in which on a more limited scale neat cattle are reared,
notably in St. Mary, Trelawny, Westmoreland, and Hanover, the herd
of pure-bred Herefords at Knockalva in the last-named parish being
the finest in the island, the six-year-old steers weighing from 1,500 to
2,000 lbs.
The horsekind in Jamaica is the finest in the West Indies. As in
the case of cattle, so in that of horses, the parishes of St. Ann, Man-
chester, and St. Elizabeth have been found to produce the best stock.
The racing stock come almost entirely from these three parishes; and
the horses of Hanover and Westmoreland are excellent and hardy
stock for general use. Some of the best Jamaica racing-stock have
been exported to Demerara, Barbados, Trinidad, &c., where they have
always distinguished themselves. Three Jamaica race-horses have
lately been exported to Mexico.
Mules are bred all over the island, but on a more extensive scale
at the regular grazing farms. The mules of St. Elizabeth and
Manchester are in great demand, because they are as a rule good-
tempered, hardy, and cheap; whilst the mules of Hanover, and
notably those bred at Knockalva, on the borders of Westmoreland, are
generally considered to be the finest in the island.
The following table shows the number of horsekind and horned
cattle in Jamaica on which poll-tax was paid in the several years from
1880 to 1885, both inclusive:-
Year ending September 30, 1880 ... ........ 135,353
1881 ... ... ... ... 138,244
S, 1882 ... ... ... ... 145,714
,, 1883 ... ... ... ... 140,961
,, 1884 ... ... ... ... 138,450
,, 1885 ... ... ... ... 140,923
This return does not include cattle and horsekind used on estates
in the island, nor animals under one year of age, as these are not
subject to taxation.







77

6. WILD ANmALs.-The only wild animals found on the island at
its conquest by the British troops were cattle, horses, hogs, and Indian
conies. Of these only hogs and Indian conies remain in a wild state.
Wild hogs abound in the upper parts of the parishes of Portland and
St. Thomas, and are also to be found in the backwoods of St. Ann,
Trelawny, and St. Elizabeth, where they often do great damage to the
provision grounds of the peasantry. Some of them grow a great size;
indeed there is evidence that they have attained the height of 3
feet. The Indian cony, which is good eating, is found in rocky
localities, chiefly in limestone districts. They abound in the lowlands
of St. Catherine, in the St. John's mountains, in Upper Clarendon,
Portland, St. Ann, and Trelawny.
In dealing with wild animals, perhaps mention should be made of
the iguana and the mungoose. The iguana, which is a large lizard
from 2 to 4 feet long, and much esteemed for the delicacy of its
flesh, is found only on the Healthshire Hills of St. Catherine. The
mungoose was introduced from India at a comparatively recent date
for the purpose of destroying rats on sugar estates, and has spread all
over the island.










i(^? ''~s~i .^




-B~-eF~s-~~~J:i -~;-11?u;~;;r. I I---yp ~~I~ C ~ -I -


APPENDIX,



A.-THE CLIMATE OF JAMAICA.

BY DR. J. C. PHILLIPPO.

"JAMAICA," says Scoresby Jackson, a well-known English physician,
"offers a great variety of climate, and is therefore one of the best of the West
India Islands for invalids to reside at who can afford to move from place to
place in order to put themselves in the most advantageous positions as
regards their temperament and diseases. Scrofulous children and persons
threatened with consumption but in whom there is no active disease might
well be sent there. Persons suffering from bronchial affections, as well as
persons in whom the constitution is not materially implicated, might derive
benefit from a sojourn in Jamaica."
A residence of thirty years in the lowlands enables the writer to cor-
roborate every word just quoted, and to state in addition that he has seen
many in whom there were symptoms of active tubercular mischief who have
been alleviated and even cured when due attention has been paid to the
necessary hygienic laws.
Within a radius of a few miles we can obtain dry mountain situations
with cheerful aspects, extensive views of tropical scenery, an invigorating
stimulating atmosphere suitable to the hypochondriac and dyspeptic, and
moist mountain situations for the nervous and those who suffer from a dry
and irritable condition of the air-passages; dry inland and seaside situations
for the luco-phlegmatic and those who suffer from copious bronchial dis-
charges, saline and sulphurous baths in the lowlands for the rheumatic and
gouty, and chalybeate waters in the mountains for the anemic.
Open-air life.-Over and beyond these advantages Jamaica permits at
all times an open-air life, for in the mountains as well as in the plains, all
the windows and doors are kept open during the day with free ventilation
during the night. There are few days in the year in which open-air exercise
cannot be taken in some way or other, and while we should hardly advise
Europeans and Americans to sleep in the open air, our soldiers both native
and European have often been placed under tents, in seasons of epidemics,
with advantage.
It is the open-air life that really cures so many invalids who go to the
various watering-places and summer resorts in Europe and America; it is
the open-air life that renders England's summers so beneficial to the invalid
who has been shut up during the cold and dreary winter months and we
venture to affirm that an open-air life in Jamaica, with the pure and rare










atmosphere of its mountains, will do far more for the invalid than a resi-
dence in Egypt, Syria, Mentone, Nice, or Spain for the European, or
Minnesota, Nassau, or even Florida for the American.
Sea-breezes.-Jamaica being an island in the tropics is of course warm,
but the hottest days and nights in the lowlands, except during the rainy
seasons of April and May, September and October, are tempered by the sea
and land-breezes, the former of which sets in from 10 to 11 A.M. and lasts
generally until 5 to 6 P.M., and sometimes even all night, whilst the latter
commences at about 8 P.M. and lasts until 6 or 7 in the morning.
Professor Parkes, in his excellent work on Hygiene, states as the result of
his examination as head of the Army Medical Department of Great Britain,
that for several years there were but 151 perfectly calm days at Up-Park
Camp, the Military Station near Kingston, whilst the velocity of the sea-
breeze according to Mr. Maxwell Hall, the Government Meteorologist of the
Island, is generally from 2 to 4 miles per hour during the winter months
and from 5 to 6 in June and July.
Temperature.-Throughout the whole island the temperature is generally
equable all the year round, the mean maximum in the lowlands being from
830 to 86 during the day and the mean minimum from 680 to 700 during
the night. Of course there are hours when the maximum will be much
higher and the minimum much lower, but rarely does the thermometer go
above 900 during the winter months, and then but for a very short time, the
average maximum being about 800. The diurnal range in the lowlands is
considerable, being from 150 to 16*, but as the lowest temperature is generally
at about two or three in the morning, when most people are in bed, the fall
is not much felt.
In the mountains the temperature varies according to altitude and
exposure to the north winds, which come down pretty severely in January,
February, and sometimes in December and March, but the diurnal change
is by no means so great as in the lowlands. Thus at the Government
Cinchona Plantation, at Bellevue, at an altitude of 4,850 feet at a distance of
about 20 miles from Kingston, the daily range is not more than about
110 on an average. During the winter months, for 8 years, the mean
maximum during the day was from 640 to 680 and the mean minimum at
night from 580 to 57.
Humidity.- The humidity of the atmosphere is always a matter of great
importance, and in this too we can show an immense advantage over the
more northern sanitary resorts, for of course the higher the temperature the
less is the humidity felt. In Kingston, Professor Parkes gives the mean
degree of humidity as 650 in the years 1870-78, and in 1888 it was about 77,
whilst at Boston, U.S., with a temperature of 200 it is not uncommon for
the humidity to stand at 77.
Humidity is scarcely felt in the lowlands, and fogs are never seen along
the southern coast.
In the mountains the amount of humidity is very much influenced by







81

their position, exposure, and the presence or absence of rivercourses,
ravines, and ranges, particularly the latter, for while some mountain ranges
attract the clouds which roll along them, as does the central range which
forms the backbone of the island, there are small and lower parallel and
cross ranges which do not. Some of these ranges may be very near the
central or main range and yet not being directly of it, they do not attract
anything like the same amount of cloud, moisture, and rain.

Rainfall.-Mr. Maxwell Hall, M.A., F.R.A.S., the Government Meteor-
ologist, who has carefully compiled all the meteorological reports of the
island for the last four years, and has had access to nearly all the meteor-
ological reports kept by private individuals for many years before, divides
the island for the registration of rainfall into four districts, stating that this
distribution was observed and described by Sir Hans Sloane 200 years
ago.
From Mr. Hall's observations I conclude that whilst in the southern
division the rainfall during the six winter months averages somewhat above
2 inches per month, that for the west central is somewhat above 3 inches,
for the northern nearly 5 inches, and for the north-eastern over 8 inches per
month. The southern division is thus undoubtedly the driest, and its
mountain ranges most delightful as to temperature, especially the St.
Catherine, Clarendon, Manchester, and St. Elizabeth ranges.
Health resorts.-In the latter, a cross range, called the Santa Cruz
Mountains, is to be found one of the driest climates in the world, at an
altitude of 2,500 feet, a mean annual maximum temperature of 75'3, and a
mean annual minimum of 6680, with but 38-25 inches of rain for the whole
year. In this district and in a similar district in the northern division called
the Dry Harbour Mountains of St. Ann, the soil is dry, with a porous lime-
stone beneath, through which the rainfall quickly percolates; the air is simply
delicious, and the driving roads are excellent.
According to Dr. Clark, of Santa Cruz, the climate is very similar to that
of Algiers plus the altitude. Rarely do Europeans suffer from disease of
any kind in our mountains; they are a perfect Paradise for children, and
frequently do those who live in the lowlands regain in them the strength,
elasticity, and tone of which a long residence m the invariable, rather than
the excessive, heat of the plains has deprived them. Dr. Robb, the Prin-
cipal of the Presbyterian College in Kingston, in an article on the Climate of
Jamaica in the Handbook for 1883, gives, as an instance of European
longevity, the fact that on one day, in the mountains of St. Ann, eight men
met, most of whom were English and Scotch, of whom none had been a
shorter time in the island than 43 years, most of them 50, and whose
united ages amounted to 579 years; and Dr. Clarke, of St. Elizabeth, in
an article on the same subject in the Handbook for 1884, says that during
a residence of 14 years in the Santa Cruz Mountains no death from fever had
occurred in his practice, and that on one occasion he had on his visiting list
7 Europeans and 2 natives whose ages added together amounted to 751 years.







82

Instances of this kind can be multiplied indefinitely, and are known to almost-
everyone who has lived for any time in the country as occurring not only in
the mountains but also in the lowlands. Here old age finds a kindly equable
climate and flourishes accordingly, and, strange to say, it forms one of the
largest items in our bills of mortality.
Rate of mortality in Jamaica.-A general registration has only been
kept for the last 5 years, and we cannot therefore give any longer record,
but the following results as published by the Registrar-General gives a pretty
fair idea of the normal state, the years 1879-80 and 1880-81 being whooping-
cough years-seasons of epidemic:-
1878-79 mortality per 1,000 23-9
1879-80 ,, ,, 27-0
1880-81 ,, 26-0
1881-82 ,, 20-0
1882-83 ,, ,, 23-0
giving an average of 23-9 per 1,000 of population.
Of course some places are more healthy than others, and, strange to say,
the much-maligned Port Royal shows, according to Dr. Scott, late Officer of
Health of the parish, a mortality from all diseases in the whole town, leaving
out those who came from abroad ill with fever and died in the Naval
Hospital in-
1881 per 1,000 of population 15-1
1882 16-3
1883 ,, ,, 19-1
an average of 16-8, by no means large compared with many of the seaports
in more northern countries.
Invalids and others who seek Jamaica in order to escape the ills of
winter, are often doubtful whether in attempting to escape Scylla, they may
not fall into Charybdis; whether in point of fact the diseases indigenous to
the climate may not prove more fatal than those which they desire to avoid,
alleviate, or cure. Precautions are necessary in every climate, and if those
which are taken elsewhere by those whose vital powers are below par are
taken in Jamaica, there is no fear that they will get those fevers which have
been so fatal in past times, in the West Indian tropics, and which still
occasionally crop up, though no longer in the severe epidemic form which
characterized them then, and which they still exhibit in other countries.
It cannot be denied that fevers do arise spontaneously in certain localities
amongst unacclimatised Europeans who have most probably exposed them-
selves to several and generally to the whole of the following conditions-viz.
exposure to the midday heat, wet clothes, wet feet, fatigue, exposure at night
to the chills and malaria arising from lagoons and swamps after sunset, and,
above all, intemperance in drink. Let him avoid these conditions, and the
European will avoid fatal fevers.
In Jamaica there are no large cities with large immigrant populations
crowded together in lodging-houses, lanes, courts, and alleys, as in Buenos
Ayres, Rio de Janeiro, Peru, Cuba, and other states and cities of America;








1.'
83

and our soldiers are no longer crowded together in ill-ventilated barracks
as in former days, so that disease does not get infective strength from
condensation.
Numbers of travellers have been through the length and breadth of the
island, who, by a simple obedience to the advice of old residents and atten-
tion to those hygienic rules which they would follow as travellers in other
lands, have not only been free from illness of any kind, but have returned
to their homes strengthened and improved in health; in spite of all the
inconveniences that have to be borne in a country where travellers are few
comparatively, the population scarce, scattered, and poor, and travelling
accommodation in consequence comparatively destitute of those conveniences
and luxuries which travellers consider necessary in these days.
Next in importance to the presence or absence of fevers fatal to Europeans
in the island, comes the question as to the presence or absence of the disease
which in Europe and America is even more fatal and more widespread than
these-namely, tubercular diseases and more particularly phthisis or con-
sumption. This disease is here, as elsewhere, one of the most fatal and
most common. People born in the most favoured climates are not exempt
from it. Even the inhabitants of Nice," says Jourdannet, himself a
Frenchman, are not free from pulmonary tubercle. Phthisis is not rare
on the shores of the Mediterranean, but let an individual come to these
favoured spots, from the rigorous climate endured for a long time, and he
will find all his functions at ease in the midst of a milder temperature."
Jamaica as a resort for invalids.-Instances abound in this country of
persons who have come from Europe and America, who have found relief and
health even in the lowlands, and to a greater extent in the mountains; and
the development of the disease has been arrested in the persons of their
children and their children's children.
Owing to the fact that there is but about one qualified medical man out
of Kingston to 10,000 or 11,000 of the population, and that the people are
scattered throughout the island, far away from medical men, and as a body
unable to avail themselves of their services, from 80 to 86 per cent. of the
registered deaths are not authoritatively certified, and the registers are
therefore doubtless very erroneous as to the real causes of death when the
diseases are complicated or unknown to the informants.
Consumption, however, is by no means unknown to the unscientific, and
less error is likely to be made about it than other diseases.
All diseases, however, of the respiratory organs of a chronic character are
generally called consumption or decline, and chronic diarrhoea from whatever
cause is associated with it as downward decline."
We may therefore conclude that the Registrar's entry of phthisis or
consumption rather errs on the side of excess than otherwise.
For the last 5 years the number of deaths from this disease has
amounted to between 1,000 and 1,100 in a population of 600,000 averaging
about 1-59 deaths per 1,000, whilst the average of 10 years in Ireland was
S2




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