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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS,
WASHINGTON, U. S. A.
BULLETIN NO. 58.
[Revised to March i, 1894.1
BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS,
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE, WASHINGTON, U. S. A.
While the utmost care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications of the Bureau of the American
Republics, no pecuniary responsibility is assumed on account of errors or inaccuracies which may occur
By official notification to the United States Department of State in April, 1892, the Dominican Repub-
lic became a party to the support of the Bureau of the American Republics.
WASHINGTON. D. C., U. S. A.:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
LIST OF BUREAU PUBLICATIONS.
i. Hand Book of the American Republics, No. x.
2. Hand Book of the American Republics, No. 2.
50. Hand Book of the American Republics, No. 3.
7. Hand Book of Brazil.
9. Hand Book of Mexico.
31. Hand Book of Costa Rica.
32. Hand Book of Guatemala.
33. Hand Book of Colombia.
34. Hand Book of Venezuela.
51. Hand Book of Nicaragua.
52. Hand Book of Santo Domingo.
55. Hand Book of Bolivia.
61. Hand Book of Uruguay.
62. Hand Book of Haiti.
67. Hand Book of the Argentine Republic.
5. Import Duties of Mexico.
8. Import Duties of Brazil.
xo. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
ii. Import Duties of Costa Rica.
12. Import Duties of Santo Domingo.
20. Import Duties of Nicaragua.
21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised).
22. Import Duties of Bolivia.
23. Import Duties of Salvador.
24. Import Duties of Honduras.
23. Import Duties of Ecuador.
27. Import Duties of Colombia.
36. Import Duties of Venezuela.
37. Import Duties of the British Colonies.
43. Import Duties of Guatemala.
44. Import Duties of the United States.
45. Import Duties of Peru.
46. Import Duties of Chile.
,7. Import Duties of Uruguay.
48. Import Duties of the Argentine Republic.
49. Import Duties of Haiti.
13. Commercial Directory of Brazil.
14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela.
5. Commercial Directory of Colombia.
x6. Commercial Directory of Peru.
17. Commercial Directory of Chile.
18. Commercial Directory of Mexico.
19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecuador,
Paraguay, and Uruguay.
26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine Re-
28. Commercial Directory of Central America.
29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo Do-
38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and Puerto
39. Commercial Directory of European Colonies.
Commercial Directory of Latin America.
42. Newspaper Directory of Latin America.
3. Patent and Trade-Mark Laws of America.
4. Money, Weights, and Measures of the Amer-
6. Foreign Commerce of the American Republics.
30. First Annual Report, 189z.
Second Annual Report, z892.
35. Breadstuffs in Latin America.
40. Mines and Mining Laws of Latin America.
4x. CommercialInformation Concerning the Amer-
ican Republics and Colonies.
53. Immigration and Land Laws of Latin America.
63, How the Markets of Latin America may be
Manual de las Repdblicas Americanas,x89z.
Monthly Bulletin, October,1893.
Monthly Bulletin, November,1893.
Monthly Bulletin, December, 1893.
Monthly Bulletin, January, 1894.
Monthly Bulletin, February, 1894.
Monthly Bulletin, March, 1894.
67. Hand Book of Argentine Republic.
68. Special Costa Rica Bulletin.
The above list includes publications of the Bureau from its organization to April 15,1894. No requests
based upon the above will be noticed.
On the following page will be found a list of publications issued by the Bureau, of which a limited
number remain for distribution.
SALE OF BUREAU PUBLICATIONS.
The following monthly bulletins have been published by the Bureau of the American
Republics, viz: Coffee in America," October, IS93; "Coal and Petroleum in Colom-
bia," etc.. November, 1893; Minerals and Resources of Northeastern Nicaragua,"
etc., December, 1893; Finances of Chile," etc., January, 1894; "Costa Rica at the
World's Fair," etc., February, 1894; Reciprocity Treaties and Trade," etc., March,
1894; "The Republic of Costa Rica," etc., April, 1894; Mexico: Treasury Receipts,
Total Sources of Income for Fiscal Year 1894-'95," etc., May, 1894; Import Duties
of Guatemala" (revised), June, 1894; "American Live Stock," etc., July, 1894.
With the July number will be commenced the second volume of these bulletins, and
subscriptions for the year ending June 30, 1895, will be received at the rate of $I per
annum; single copies, io cents each. Of the publications of the Bureau the following
will be furnished to applicants upon receipt of the prices named in the list. Money
maybe sent by post-office money order, payable to the Director of the Bureau of Ameri-
can Republics. All other remittances are at the risk of the sender. Postage stamps
will not be received.
3. Patentand Trade-Mark Laws of America. 5
4. lMoney, Weights, and Measures of the
American Republics .................. 5
6. Foreign Commerce of the American Re-
publics.. ........................... 20
8. Import Duties of Brazil................ 10
io. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto Rico. 15
xi. Import Duties of Costa Rica ............ 10
13. Commercial Directory of Brazil ........ 5
14. Commercial Diectory of Venezuela.... 5
15. Commercial Directory of Colombia..... 5
16. Commercial Directory of Peru .......... 5
17. Commercial Directory of Chile ......... 5
18. Commercial Directory of Mexico........ 15
x9. Commercial Directory of Bolivia, Ecua-
dor, Paraguay, and Uruguay.......... 5
20. Import Duties of Nicaragua ........... 10
21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised) ...... 15
22. Import Duties of Bolivia .............. 20
23. Import Duties of Salvador ............. 5
24. Import Duties of Honduras.............. 10
25. Import Duties of Ecuador ..............
26. Commercial Directory of the Argentine
Republic ............................. 5
27. Import Duties of Colombia........... 5
28. Commercial Directoryof Central America 0
29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and Santo
Domingo ........................ 5
30. First Annual Report of the Bureau, 1891.. to
32. Hand Book of Guatemala .............. 35
33. Hand Book of Colombia .............. 30
34. Hand Book of Venezuela............... 35
36. Import Duties of Venezuela.......... 5
38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and
Puerto Rico ............. ...........
39. Commercial Directory of British, Danish,
Dutch, and French Colonies .......... 10
42. Newspaper Directory of Latin America. 5
43. Import Duties of Guatemala ............ 25
44. Import Duties of the Unit.d States...... 5
45. Import Duties of Peru.................. 25
46. Import Duties of Chile.................. 25
47. Import Duties of Uruguay .............. 25
48. ImportDutiesof the ArgentineRepublic. 25
49. Import Duties of Haiti ................. ro
50. Hand Book of the American Republics,
N o. 3 .. ............... ............... 50
51. Hand Book of Nicaragua ............... 5
52. Hand Book of Santo Domingo.......... 50
53. Immigration and Land La\\s of Latin
54. Hand Book of Paraguay ............... 50
55. Hand Book of Bolivia .................. 40
57. Hand Book of Honduras ............. 50
58. Hand Book of Salvador ................. 50
61. Hand Book of Uruguay ................ 50
62. Hand Book of Haiti ................... 50
63. How the Markets of Latin America may
be reached ........................... 40
64. Hand Book of Ecuador ................. 50
67. Hand Book of the Argentine Republic... 50
68. Special Costa Rica Bulletin ............. 25
69. Import Duties of Guatemala (revised) ... 25
PUBLICATIONS NOT NUMBERED.
Commercial Directory of Latin America.... 40
Second Annual Report of the Bureau, x892.. 5
Third Annual Report of the Bureau, 1893 ... 15
Manual de las Repdiblicas Americanas, x892. 50
Monthly Bulletins, $z per annum; single
copies....................... ........... to
Code of Commercial Nomenclature, first vol-
unte, 852 pages............................ $3.0
The Code of Commercial Nomenclature," named in the above list, is the first vol-
ume of the first edition of the work suggested by the International American Confer-
ence. It contains 852 pages, and includes something over 28,000 commercial terms in
English, Spanish, and Portuguese. This volume is bound in cloth, and is now ready
CHAPTER I. H historical outline .... .................................. ..
2. Geographical sketch ...... ... .... ......... ........
3. Political divisions and population.......................... ..
4. Constitution and form of government..........................
5. Education, charitable institutions, and religion.................
6. Clim ate and seasons.......................... .............
7. Agriculture and forestry......................................
8. Minerals and mining ......................................
9. Commerce ...................... .. .......
o1 Money, banking, and revenue ..............................
II. Transportation, telegraphs, and mails .........................
APPENDIX A. Constitution of Salvador ..................................
B. Law relating to aliens............. ....... .. ............ ..
C. Parcels post convention with United States .....................
D. Reciprocal commercial arrangement with United States...........
E. Im port duties .................. .. ........... .........
F. Commercial directory ........................................
Newspaper directory ................... ......................
Index ................................... .................
Map of Salvador .................................................. Frontispiece.
Royal Palm, San Salvador .............................................. 10
La Uni6n............................................................... 26
National University, San Salvador................................. .... 30
Sonsonate ................... ................................. .... .... 33
San Salvador-General view from the Park ................................ 35
Coffee estate near San Salvador ........................................... 38
Custom-house at Acajutla ............................ ... .............. 70
The completion of the subjugation of Mexico left its conquerors
free to turn their attention to theregions lying to the south, of which
rumor had given such glowing descriptions. The reports of the
beauty, fertility, and riches of these unknown lands rendered the
allurements to further conquests irresistible, and to Pedro de Alva-
rado was entrusted the task of their subjugation. Leaving the
City of Mexico early in 1522 he swept southward like a tornado
through the Provinces which now form the southern States of the
Republic of Mexico. Tribe after tribe was conquered and their
warriors paid with their blood the penalty of daring to defend
their native land. Still marching southward* the country now
called Guatemala was swept with fire and sword and compelled
to submit to the Spanish yoke. In the summer of 1524, leaving
ruin and desolation in its track, the victorious army passed across
La Paz River into what is now called the Republic of Salvador.
They were at first hospitably received by the natives, but, overcome
by terror at the cruelties inflicted on them by the invaders, they
sought refuge in flight and spread an alarm which resulted in des-
In a fierce battle at Acajutla, Alvarado received an arrow
wound which rendered him lame for the remainder of his life,
but he took such ample revenge that of all the great multitude
of his opponents on that day not one was left alive. The result
of a struggle between the mail-clad, well-armed Spanish veterans
and the poorly equipped and half-naked native warriors could
have but one result, however it might be delayed by the bravery
of the multitudes who sacrificed their lives in defense of their
homes; but it was not until after a second campaign, in the year
1525, that Cuscatlan, the capital, was finally captured and Salvador
became a part of the vice-regal kingdom of Guatemala. For nearly
three hundred years it continued under the Spanish dominion, the
natives wasting away and diminishing in the cruel slavery imposed
on them, as they tilled the soil under the fierce tropical sun or
toiled in the mines for the benefit of their ruthless taskmasters.
The first mutterings of the coming storm of revolution were
heard in 1811, but it was not until 1821 that the successful termi-
nation of the struggle for liberty in Mexico inspired the southern
colonies to shake off the Spanish yoke. This was accomplished
without bloodshed, and on the 15th of September, in that year,
the territory comprised in the kingdom of Guatemala was declared
free and independent. In the following year an attempt was made
to annex the country to the Mexican Empire, under the rule of
Iturbide. The Province of Salvador resisted, but finally had to
submit to a Mexican force commanded by Gen. Filisola, and was
incorporated in the Empire. The following year, however, wit-
nessed the downfall of Iturbide, and a constitutional convention
was'called, which, in 1824, declared the foundation of a federal
republic, called "The Central American Confederation," composed
of the five States, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua,
and Costa Rica, and Gen. Manuel J. Arce was elected its first
This form of government proved impracticable; party jealousies
and personal ambitions brought turmoil and strife, in spite of the
efforts of far-seeing patriots, who recognized the fact that in union
alone lay the hope of peace, security, and prosperity for their
country. For some years Gen. Francisco Morazan struggled to
maintain order and to save the union, but in spite of all his efforts
the federation was dissolved in 1839, and the five States became
sovereign and independent republics. Another effort on the part
of Morazan to reunite them resulted in his death. He was taken
prisoner and shot at San Jose, Costa Rica, in September, 1842.
Since the death of Morazin the several republics have made
many efforts to reestablish Central American nationality, but so
far without success. The last attempt in this direction, made by
Gen. Justo Rufino Barrios, President of Guatemala, in 1885, ended
in disaster. On the 13th of August, 1886, the Constitution which
is now in force was promulgated.
In accordance with this Constitution, Gen. Menendez was
elected to the Presidency in 1887, by popular vote, for the term
ending in 1890.
Upon his death, Gen. Carlos Ezeta was called to the Presidency.
He was inaugurated on the 1st of March, 1891.
At the time in which this handbook goes to the press, Salvador
is under a provisional government headed by Gen. Gutierrez as
The Republic of Salvador is situated between 13 12' and 140
28' north latitude and 87 37"and 900 6' longitude west of the
meridian of Greenwich. It is the only one of the five Central
American Republics not having a coast line on the Atlantic, and
is bounded on the north by Honduras and Guatemala, on the east
by Honduras and the Bay of Fonseca, on the south by the Pacific
Ocean, and on the west by Guatemala. It also possesses the
small islands called Punta Zacate, Martin Perez, Mianguera, and
Conchaguita, in the Bay of Fonseca. It is the smallest of the
Central American Republics, having an area of only 7,255 square
miles. Its frontage on the Pacific is 139 miles in length.
The physical aspect of Salvador is very varied but chiefly
mountainous. On its northern frontier, and near the boundary
line of Honduras, stretches the great mountain chain of the Sierra
Madre or Cordilleras, many of the peaks of which rise to a height
of from 7,000 to 8,000 feet above the level of the sea. This chain
of mountains, which is intersected by the valleys of the Lempa,
Sumpul, and Guarajambala, sends great spurs towards the center
of the Republic. From these mountains the land descends in
great undulations on the northwest to the shores of the river
Lempa, also to the north and northeast, until it rises again in that
direction forming secondary ridges. At a distance of about 15
miles from the coast and parallel to it runs the Coast Range of
mountains, which also throws out spurs of more or less importance
toward the interior on the one side and the sea on the other.
Like the Sierra Madre chain the Coast Range is not continuous
but is intersected by the valleys of the Lempa and the Rio Grande
of San Miguel at a short distance from where those rivers enter
The greater part of the volcanoes of the Republic are situated
either in the Coast,Range or within a short distance from it. Their
names and altitude above the sea level are as follows:
San Vincente ................ 7, 683 Apaneca .................... 5,350
San Salvador................. 7, 370 Izalco ....................... 4, 973
Santa Ana ................... 6, 615 Sociedad ..................... 4, 250
San Miguel .................. 6, 500 Chinameca .......... ............. 4, 2oo
Usulutan .................... 5,400
Most of these are extinct, as will be noticed in the reference
to them in the description of the departments in which they are
Three-fourths of the broad space which lies between the two
great mountain ranges is occupied by the valleys of the river Lempa
and its tributaries, forming a most characteristic topographical
feature of the country. The remaining eastern portion is com-
posed of the valleys of the San Miguel, the Torola, and other
small streams that flow into the Bay of Fonseca. The numerous
small valleys which lie among the branches of the mountain ranges
and the spurs and isolated hills are in general very broken in sur-
face; consequently the plains and level spaces are with few excep-
tions of limited extension.
The principal and largest river of the Republic is the Lempa,
which has its origin in the Republic of Guatemala, flows through
the department of Copan, in Honduras, and enters the territory
of Salvador in the northwestern part of the department of Chala-
It follows a very tortuous course towards the south and east,
and for some distance forms the boundary between Salvador and
the Honduranean department of Intibuca; then again turning to
the south it intersects the Coast Range of mountains and flows into
the Pacific Ocean near the Bay of Jiquilisco.
The other principal rivers are La Paz, which for some distance
forms the boundary line between Salvador and Guatemala; the
Goascorin, which for the lower part of its course forms the bound-
ary between Salvador and Honduras; the Rio Grande, and the
Jiboa. There are also a great number of smaller rivers and streams
tributary to these main water courses.
The principal lakes are those of Guija and Ilopango. There
are also several smaller bodies of water which are chiefly of vol-
canic origin. In January, 1880, Lake Ilopango was the scene of
a very remarkable volcanic phenomenon, which was preceded by
a severe earthquake in the surrounding country. The waters of
the lake suddenly rose 4 feet above their usual level, and flow-
ing into the bed of the Jilva, a stream which forms the usual out-
let from the lake, increased it to the proportions of a broad and
raging river, which soon made for itself a channel 30 to 35
feet in depth. A rapid subsidence in the level of the lake was
thus produced, and by March 6 the surface was 34 feet below its
maximum. Toward the center of the lake a stony island, 500 feet
in diameter, rose to a height of 150 feet above the level of the lake,
surrounded by several smaller islands, while the water adjacent to
them became very hot.
As indicated by this event, and the two volcanoes that are still
active and form the safety valves, the volcanic forces in Salvador
have not yet spent themselves, although all indications show that
they are far less active than in past ages. Earthquakes have been
frequent, particularly in the neighborhood of the capital, which
was wrecked by them in the years 1539, 1575, 1594, 1659, 1707,
1719, 1793, 1815, 1839, 1854, and 1873. It is, in fact, so sub-
ject to rocking and tremblings of the earth as to have acquired
the name of the swinging hammock. The number of geysers
and hot springs which exist in several of the departments are
also evidences of considerable volcanic heat yet existing beneath
the surface. TIere can be no doubt, however, that the volcanic
energy which in remote ages has had such a marked effect on the
topography of the whole of the Pacific Coast of America is grad-
ually dying out in Salvador, as it has done in other parts of the
continent, and seismic disturbances subside and become less vio-
lent in the same ratio.
In the Sierra Madre Range the primitive rocks predominate,
marking their ancient origin, but the Coast Range is entirely of
plutonic material; the basalts, scoriae, and ashes are all volcanic.
The slopes of the mountains, the valleys, and tablelands are
deeply covered with rich alluvial soils, formed by the detritus of
the rocks and decomposed vegetable matter, which are of won-
Salvador has three ports, through which pass all the ocean com-
merce of the Republic, La Uni6n, La Libertad, and Acajutla.
The two latter are little more than open roadsteads, where ships
anchor a mile or two from the coast and freight and passengers
are carried by launches, from which they are elevated by machin-
ery to piers extending out some distance from the shore.
La Union is one of the best ports on the Pacific Coast of Cen-
tral America. It is situated in the Bay of La Unibn, which is an
indentation of the magnificent Gulf of Fonseca, from which it is
entered by a narrow strait. It is a secure and landlocked harbor,
with good anchorage, and large enough to accommodate an im-
mense traffic. Whenever it is reached by a railroad it will without
doubt become the principal port of the Republic.
POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND POPULATION.
Tht Republic of Salvador is divided into 14 departments.
The following table shows the names of the departments, the
number of districts into which they are subdivided, and their capital
cities, with the population in 1892:
Departments. Capital cities. of
Capitals. Iepart- districts.
San Salvador............. San Salvador .......... 30, 000 63, ooo 3
La Libertad .............. New San Salvador ...... ooo 49, ooo000 2
Sonsonate ............... Sonsonate ........... I, 00ooo 41, 00o 2
Ahuachapdn ............. Ahuachapn ............ 12, ooo 37, ooo 2
Santa Ana ................ Santa Ana.............. 33,000 8o, ooo 3
Chalatenango .......... ..Chalatenango ........... 6, 000 54, 000 2
Cuscatlhn ................ Cojutepeque. ........... 8,ooo 62,ooo 2
Cabaras ................. Sensuntepeque............ o, ooo 35,000 2
San Vincente ............ San Vincente .......... ooo 40,500 2
La Paz .................. Lacatecoluca ............ 6, 500 70, ooo 2
Usulutin ............... Usulutn ............... 6,ooo 42, ooo 2
San Miguel .............. San Miguel............. 23, 000ooo 60, ooo 2
Morazan ................. Gotera ................. 3,ooo 35, ooo 3
La Uni6n ................ La Uni6n ............. 3,000 35,000 2
T otal ......................... .. ............ ....... ... 703,500 .
The 14 departments contain 31 districts, 27 cities, 51 towns,
164 villages, and 215 hamlets. As in other parts of Central
America, the upper classes are either of pure white blood or
have a large admixture of it, but the indigenous race is still largely
represented in the country. They are naturally docile and tracta-
ble, and generally honest, orderly, and industrious. Salvador being
smaller in size, more compact, and more densely populated than
some other parts of Central America, it has been easier for the
Government to extend its paternal care over the mental improve-
ment and material progress of the people, with admirable results,
as the inhabitants of the cities have attained as high a degree of
refinement as those of the United States, while the Indians, who
form the majority of the agriculturists and laborers, are exhibiting
marked signs of progress.
Spanish is the language of the country, although in some of the
more secluded parts of the country, such as the Costa del BAlsimo,
or Balsam Coast, not only the old speech but many of the ancient
usages still prevail.
DEPARTMENT OF SAN SALVADOR.
Cities.-San Salvador and Tonacatepeque.
Towns.-Mejicanos, Apopa, Nejapa, Santo Tomas, and Pan-
The department of San Salvador is bounded on the north by
the departments of Chalatenango and Cuscatlin, on the east by
Cuscatlin and La Paz, on the south by La Libertad and La Paz,
and on the west by La Libertad.
The surface of this department is rugged and picturesque. In
the southern part it is crossed from east to west by the Coast Range
of mountains; the center has many small valleys of great beauty
and fertility, while in the north ranges of hills, bare of trees, give a
mountainous appearance to the landscape. There are two volca-
noes in this department-those of San Salvador, or Quezaltepeque,
as it is called in the aboriginal language, and Ilopango, which is
situated in the lake of the same name.
The department dates from 1821, being one of the original
divisions created at that date, when the country was separated from
Guatemala on gaining its independence. Its principal city, San
Salvador, is the capital of the Republic. It is situated in the
pleasant valley of Las Hamacas, on the river Acelhuate, in lati-
ROYAL PALM, SAN SALVADOR.
tude 13 45' north, and 80 8' longitude west of the meridian of
Greenwich. It is 2,115 feet above the level of the sea. It was
founded by Don Jorge de Alvarado, brother of the conqueror,
Don Pedro, on the 4th of April, 1528, at a place a short distance
from the present site, from which it was transferred to its present
location in 1539. It was incorporated as a city in September,
1543. From 1834 to 1839 it was the capital of the Republic, a
dignity which was in the latter year transferred to the city of San
Vincente, but in 1840 it was definitely designated as the capital,
and has since retained that distinction. Its streets are straight,
well lighted, and nearly all paved.
All the offices of the Government departments are located in
the city; also the supreme, civil, and military courts, and the
ecclesiastical government. It has also an academy of science and
belles-lettres, a chamber of commerce, a national library, an astro-
nomical observatory, a museum, and botanical garden. Among
its principal public buildings are the national palace, the.executive
mansion, the municipal building, the national theater, the cathe-
dral, the university, the national institute, the artillery barracks,
the hospital, the palace of justice, the orphan asylum, the poly-
technic school, and ladies' normal college. It has also a handsome
market, which is a private enterprise. It has two handsome public
parks and several plazas or squares, in one of which, called Mora-
zan, is a handsome monument of marble and bronze dedicated to
him as the last President of United Central America.
The city has a well-organized police force, an abundant supply
of excellent water, and in many respects will compare favorably
with the cities of the United States or Europe. It has good
hotels, cafes, and restaurants, where entertainment can be had at
moderate prices. The suburbs and surroundings of the city are
very pleasant, containing large numbers of private houses, with
shrubbery, trees, and gardens. There is a magnificent establish-
ment containing natural baths of various degrees of temperature.
The city has considerable commerce. It has three banks and
a number of mercantile and agency firms. Manufacturing is
carried on to a considerable extent. In the city and suburbs
there are establishments for the production of candles and soap,
cigars, matches, ice, bricks of artificial stone, distilleries, saw and
flour mills, sugar refineries, and mills for cleaning rice and coffee.
A great deal of weaving is also done on hand looms, the products
being shawls and scarfs of silk, flax, and cotton, and cotton cloth.
The city has suffered very much from earthquakes, which have
frequently nearly reduced it to ruins, but on each occasion the
perseverance and patriotism of its citizens have resulted in a recon-
struction of its edifices in better and more substantial style. Profit-
ing by these experiences the buildings have been built in a manner
to render them almost earthquake proof, and recent earthquakes
have proved much less disastrous than those of former days.
The city of San Salvador has for some years been connected
with the city of New San Salvador, or Santa Tecla, by a horse
railroad to miles in length, which is now being converted into a
locomotive road, by whom it was purchased from the company
which constructed it. It will be connected with the railroad to the
port of Acajutla, which is now being built towards Santa Tecla.
Outside of the cities the inhabitants of the department are prin-
cipally engaged in agriculture, producing coffee, sugar, tobacco,
rice, corn, and beans.
DEPARTMENT OF LA LIBERTAD.
Cities.-New San Salvador (Santa Tecla) and Opico.
Towns.--La Libertad, Teotepeque, and Quezaltepeque.
The department of La Libertad is bounded on the north by the
department of Chalatenango, on the east by San Salvador and
La Paz, on the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the
departments of Sonsonate and Santa Ana. The central part of
its territory is very mountainous, being crossed from east to west
by the Coast Range of mountains and the system of the volcano of
Ouezaltepeque; the surface of the southern portion is broken by
a great number of spurs extending from the mountain ranges to the
ocean. To the west of the volcano exists the extensive basin of
Sapopitau. The northern portion is crossed by high ridges between
which extend extensive plains.
The volcano of Quezaltepeque, known also as the volcano of
San Salvador, is extinct. It is 7,370 feet in height above the sea
level; the upper part forms a cone occupied by a crater between 7
and 8 miles in circumference and 1,1oo feet deep, at the bottom
of which is a small lake. The western part of the department is
known as the Balsam Coast. The department was created in
February, 1865, from a part of the territory of the ancient depart-
ment of San Salvador. The valleys and plains are very fertile,
producing rich harvests of coffee, sugar, indigo, rice, timber, and
corn; also the balsam, a product which is peculiar to Salvador. It
has within its boundaries several large sugar refineries and distil-
leries, also many sawmills and mills for cleaning coffee. Its com-
merce is considerable through its port of La Libertad, which is
one of the most important in the Republic, especially during the
The capital city, Santa Tecla, or New San Salvador, is pleas-
antly situated in a picturesque valley at the foot of the volcano of
San Salvador, at an elevation of 2,643 feet above the sea le. el,
and to miles to the southeast of the capital of the Republic and
20 miles from the port of La Libertad. This city was founded
by a decree dated 8th of August, 1854, for the purpose of remov-
ing to it the capital of the Republic, the city of San Salvador
having been ruined by an earthquake in that year; hence the
name of New San Salvador. The old capital was, however,
rebuilt, and the change in the seat of government was not made.
Its streets are wide and well laid out, and it has many handsome
private residences, a large and handsome park, and several fine
drives in the pleasant suburbs. Its principal public buildings are
the hospital, town hall, Government offices, and two handsome
churches. It has about 1 l,ooo inhabitants, and is connected by a
horse railroad with the city of San Salvador.
DEPARTMENT OF SONSONATE.
Cities.-Sonsonate and Izalco.
Towns.- Nahuizalco, El Progreso, and Armenia.
The department of Sonsonate is bounded on the north by the
department of Santa Ana, on the east by that of La Libertad, on
the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the depart-
ment of Ahuachapin. The northern part of its surface is very
mountainous and relatively level on the south on the coast, from
whence the land rises in great undulating terraces, which attain
their greatest elevation in the mountain ranges.
In this department is situated the volcano of Izalco, which is
the most active in Central America, and is of comparatively recent
formation. Previous to February, 1770, it had no existence, but
in that month a series of earthquakes took place, followed by a
tremendous volcanic eruption. A large crater was formed, from
which issued torrents of lava, rocks, and ashes in vast quantities.
resulting in the formation of a cone, which is now 4,973 feet in
height. It is still quite active, and from the light it gives, being
visible at sea, it is known by sailors as the Salvadorean light-house.
There are three other volcanoes in this department, but they are
The seacoast is generally low and marshy, with groves of man-
groves growing down into the sea. This is also known as the
Balsam Coast, from the large number of trees existing from which
this article is obtained. Its principal port is Acajutla, which has
a good iron pier, erected in 1870, and is connected by railroad
with the city of Sonsonate. This department was created by
decree in February, 18SS. Its principal agricultural productions
are coffee, sugar, cocoanuts, cacao, balsam, tobacco, cereals of various
kinds, fruit, and a great variety of cabinet and other woods. It
enjoys a large commerce, both export and import, and its manu-
factures are active, having many establishments for the manufacture
of sugar, cigars, cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, and several
distilleries and salt works. The capital city, Sonsonate, is situated
on the bank of the river Sensunapin, about so miles west of the
capital of the Republic. Its streets are wide, rectilinear, and
paved. It has a handsome city hall, a hospital, several churches,
and a commodious railroad station; its dwellings are well built,
and it is surrounded by pleasant suburbs. It has a population
of about 11,000 inhabitants.
DEPARTMENT OF AHUACHAPAN:
Cities.-Ahuachapin and Antiquizaya.
The department of Ahuachapin is bounded on the north and
west by the Republic of Guatemala, on the south by the Pacific
Ocean, and on the east by the departments of Santa Ana and
Sonsonate. The northern part of its surface is very rugged and
its center mountainous, but it has level plains north of the Coast
Range of mountains, which cross it from east to west. There are
several volcanoes in this department and it is celebrated for its
hot springs and sulphur baths. It was created in February, 1869,
by the separation of a part of territory of the departments of Santa
Ana and Sonsonate. The beautiful valley of Chalchuapa, which
lies to the north of the Coast Range, is famous for its great fertility.
Agriculture is in a very satisfactory condition in this department,
and large crops are produced of coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton,
cereals, and fine fruits and vegetables. It also enjoys a large
commerce, exporting coffee and sugar through the port of Acajutla
and sending large quantities of sugar and cereals to other parts
of the Republic. It imports considerable quantities of foreign
merchandise by sea, woolen goods and mercury from Guatemala,
and cattle and mules from Honduras.
The city of Ahuachapin, its capital, is situated in a picturesque
valley at the foot of the volcano of La Lagunita, on the right
bank of the river Ahuachapin, at an elevation of 2,609 feet above
the sea level, and 72 miles to the west of the capital of the Re-
public. Its streets are straight and the larger number of them are
paved, that called the Riego being the handsomest in the city.
Among its public buildings are the city hall, Government offices,
hospital, a large church, several schoolhouses, and several fine bath
houses. It has about 12,000 inhabitants.
DEPARTMENT OF SANTA ANA.
Cities.-Santa Ana, Chalchuapa, and Metapin..
Towns.-Texistepeque and Coatepeque.
The department of Santa Ana is bounded on the north by the
Republics of Guatemala and Honduras, on the east by the depart-
ments of Chalatenango and La Libertad, on the south by that of
Sonsonate, and on the west by Guatemala and the department
This department has two extensive mountain ranges, one in
the north and the other crossing its central portion from east to
west. There are two volcanoes, Santa Ana and Mala Cara, the
first named the most active. There are also three extinct vol-
canoes, Masatepeque, San Diego, and La Isla. The greater part of
the department consists of two extensive and picturesque valleys;
the northern valley watered by the river Lempa and its affluents
and the southern by the Chalchuapa and the Suquiapa.
The department was created in February, 18S5. Before 1821
it formed part of the ancient Province of Sonsonate. Until 1869
it comprised the districts of Ahuachapin and Antiquizaya, which
in that year were separated from it to form the present depart-
ment of Ahuachapin.
It is a rich agricultural country, producing a large amount of
coffee, as well as sugar, indigo, tobacco, and various kinds of grain.
It has a very active commerce, exporting large quantities of coffee
and importing European and American manufactures. It has
also manufactories for the production of starch from the yucca
plant, confectionery, cigars, and potteries, sugar works, and distill-
eries. Altogether, it is one of the most prosperous parts of the
Its principal city, Santa Ana, is situated in a beautiful valley,
surrounded by hills, on the left bank of a small stream, at an
elevation of 2,093 feet above the level of the sea, and So miles
northeast of the capital of the Republic. It is a handsome city,
with wide and well-paved streets. It is well supplied with water
and has pleasant drives and good public baths. Among its public
edifices are the municipal building, hospital, military barracks and
headquarters, a public market, and several handsome churches.
It is the largest city in the Republic, having a population of
DEPARTMENT OF CHALATENANGO.
Towns.-Tejutla, San Ignacio, San Francisco, Morazin, San
Rafael, and Citali,
The department of Chalatenango is bounded on the north by
the Republic of Honduras, on the east by the same Republic and
the department of Cabafias, on the south by the departments of
Cabafias, Cuscatlin, San Salvador, and La Libertad, and on the
west by that of Santa Ana. Its surface is very varied and, with
the exception of the valleys of the river Lempa and its tributary
streams, very mountainous, especially in the north and northeastern
part of its territory. At least two-thirds of it are occupied with
lofty ranges and the spurs running from them.
The principal agricultural products are indigo, corn, wheat, rice,
and beans. There are several distilleries and manufactories of
starch, turpentine, cheese, earthenware, and candles of vegetable
wax, a substance which is obtained by boiling the fruit of a shrub
which grows wild. The larger part of the commerce of this
department is transacted at the annual fair of Chalatenango,
which is famous throughout Central America. It is attended by
merchants from all parts of this and the adjoining republics, and
extensive transactions take place in indigo, cattle, and native and
The chief city, Chalatenango, is situated to the southeast of the
mountain of La Pefia, on the rivers Tamulasca and Colco, at an
elevation of 1,660 feet above the sea level, and 45 miles northeast
of the capital of the Republic. It was originally a native town,
and the first white people among its inhabitants were sent there
by the Spanish governor of the territory in 1791. The principal
occupations of its citizens are agriculture and cattle dealing. It
has a population of 6,000.
DEPARTMENT OF CUSCATLAN.
Cities.-Cojutepeque and Suchitoto.
"Towns.-San Pedro Perulapin, Tenancingo, San Rafael, and
The department of Cuscatlin is bounded on the north by the
departments of Chalatenango and Cabafias, on the east by the
same and that of San Vincente, on the south by those of San
Vincente and La Paz, and on the west by that of San Salvador.
Its surface is very mountainous and broken, the greater part of
its territory being covered by lofty ranges, separated by narrow
valleys. Towards the north and northeast it is comparatively
level in the valleys traversed by the rivers Lempa and Cuezalapa.
It was created in May, 1835. It then comprised the territory
which now forms the department of Chalatenango, which was
separated from it in 1855. In 1875 it also contributed a portion
of its territory towards the formation of the department of Cabafias.
It has two extinct volcanoes, Cojutepeque and Guazapa. It is
almost entirely an agricultural district, producing coffee, sugar,
indigo, rice, tobacco, cheese, starch, and cereals. Its principal
commerce is transacted at the feast of St. John, in Cojutepeque,
on the 29th of August, and that of the Concepcion, held at Suchi-
toto on the 8th of December in each year. At fhese times there
is a gathering of merchants and dealers from all parts of the
country, and extensive transactions are made in cattle, cheese,
indigo, and other native products, and in foreign merchandise.
Cojutepeque, the principal city, is situated nearly at the summit
and to the north of the peak of the volcano of Cojutepeque, at an
elevation of 2,614 feet above the sea level. It is a very old town,
having been classed as a town in 1756 and as a city in 1846. Its
streets are narrow and crooked, but its suburbs are beautiful and
from the elevated location command fine panoramas of the sur-
rounding country. Among its public buildings are a town hall,
hospital, public schoolhouse, and four churches. It has also good
public baths. It has a population of 8,000, most of whom are
employed in agricultural pursuits.
DEPARTMENT OF CABARAS.
Cities.-Sensuntepeque and Ilobasco.
T'owns.-Victoria, Dolores, San Isidro, Jutiapa, and Tejutepeque.
The department of Cabafias is bounded on the north and north-
east by the Republic of Honduras, on the east by the department
of San Miguel, on the south by those of San Vincente and Cus-
catlan, and on the west by that of Cuscatlin. This is essentially
a mountain district. It is crossed in various directions by high
ranges and chains of mountains, which give it a wild and desolate
appearance, particularly toward the north and east. It has, however,
some very fertile valleys, which produce indigo, rice, corn, and other
grains. Its principal industrial establishments are for the manu-
facture of earthenware, cheese, lime, and several distilleries. It has
considerable commerce, which reaches great proportions at the fair
of Santa Barbara, which is held at Sensuntepeque on the 4th of
December of each year.
Its chief city, Sensuntepeque, is situated on the southern slope
of the mountain of Pel n, at an elevation of 2,316 feet above the
sea and 57 miles east-northeast from the capital of the Republic.
It is a very picturesque city, has a handsome park, fine public
baths, and enjoys a beautiful climate. Among its public buildings
are a fine town hall, two churches, several school buildings, and
a prison which is considered the most secure in the Republic. It
has a population of lo,ooo. The principal industry is the growth
and preparation of indigo.
DEPARTMENT OF SAN VINCENTE.
T~owns.-Apastepeque, Tecoluca, Guadalupe, Verapaz, Tepeti-
tin, San Sebastian, Santo Domingo, San Esteban, San Lorenzo,
and Santa Clara.
The department of San Vincente is bounded on the north by
the department of Cabafias. on the east by those of San Miguel
and Usulutin, on the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west
by the departments of La Paz and Cuscatlan. It is mountainous
in the north and central portions, but level in the south toward
the ocean. It has two extinct volcanoes, Chicontepec and Sigua-
tepeque-the former is the highest volcanic mountain in the
Republic, its summit being 8,661 feet above the sea level. It is
notable for several geysers that exist on the northeastern slope of
the mountain, which emit great volumes of steam, accompanied
with great noise that can be heard at a distance of more than 2
miles. There are also a number of hot springs in various parts of
the department. It was created a departmental division of the
Republic in 1836, embracing the territory which, under the same
name, formed one of the territorial divisions of the country under
Spanish rule, and the eastern portion of the department of Cabafias.
The principal agricultural products are indigo, sugar, coffee,
tobacco, timber, cereals of all kinds, and fine fruits. It has manu-
factories of silk shawls, shoes, hats, salt, starch, and cigars, and
several distilleries. It has considerable commerce, principally
transacted during the fair of All Saints, which is held annually on
the 1st of November, when large quantities of merchandise are
bought and sold, consisting principally of indigo, cheese, cattle,
grain, and foreign goods.
The chief city, San Vincente, is situated on the right bank of
the river Acahuapa, at an elevation of 1,683 feet above the level
of the sea and 45 miles to the eastward of the capital of the
Republic. It is a very ancient city, having been founded in 1634.
It was ranked as a town in 1658 and classed as a city in 1812.
It was the capital of the country from 1834 until 1839. Its streets
are generally straight and well paved; its suburbs are pleasant and
well supplied with shrubbery and trees; it has also many good
public baths. Among its public buildings are a handsome town
hall, a hospital, five churches, and twelve public schools. It has
I ,ooo inhabitants.
DEPARTMENT OF LA PAZ.
T'owns.-Santiago Nonualco, San Pedro Nonualco, Olocuilta,
and San Pedro Mazahuat.
The department of La Paz is bounded on the north by the
departments of Cuscatlin and San Vincente, on the east by the last
named, on the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the
departments of San Salvador and La Libertad. The northern part
of its territory is mountainous, being crossed from east to west by
the Coast Range, from the summits of which the surface descends
gradually, forming great terraces, until within about 9 miles from
the sea it becomes flat and forms a plain which is generally inun-
dated in the rainy season, and is covered by dense forests abound-
ing in India rubber, dye, and cabinet woods, and other useful
timber. The flooding of these lowlands in the wet season and
the evaporation during the hot weather of the dry season render
this region unhealthy for several months in the year, giving rise to
The principal agricultural products of this department are
coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, cereals, and fruit. It has few man-
ufactories, its industrial products being confined to cotton cloth,
palm-leaf hats, and mats. The manufacture of salt in the low-
lands subject to overflow by the sea, is the most active industry of
this region. Its commerce is not large, and consists principally
of transactions in salt, grain, coffee, and foreign merchandise.
Zacatecoluca, the chief city, is on the right bank of the river
Sapuyo, at an elevation of 410 feet above the sea, and 30 miles
to the southeast of the capital of the Republic. It is an old
place, and was raised to the rank of a town in 1825 and to a city
in 1838. Its principal public buildings are a town hall, hospital,
church, and several schoolhouses. In the plaza is a beautiful public
fountain; it has also good public baths and a handsome park. Its
population is 6,500, who are principally employed in the cultiva-
tion of coffee and in the salt industry.
DEPARTMENT OF USULUTAN.
Cities.-Usulutan, Jucuapa, and Alegria.
Towns.-Santa Elena and Jiquilisco.
The department of Usulutan is bounded on the north and east
by the department of San Miguel, on the south by the Pacific
Ocean, and on the west by the department of San Vincente.
The central part of this department is mountainous, being
crossed by a lofty range, north of which the country is relatively
level, but somewhat broken. In the south it is low, and toward
the coast even swampy during the rainy season. It has within its
territory three extinct volcanoes, Usulutin, Jucuapa, and Tabu-
reto. The two last named have small lakes of sulphurous water
in their ancient craters. In a dry ravine, extending from the
southeast of the village of Tecapa toward the river Lempa, are a
number of geysers which emit columns of sulphurous vapors and
dense smoke. The largest of these is called El Tronador (The
Thunderer), which has formed a small crater, from which is thrown
out a heavy column of steam, saturated with sulphureted hydro-
gen and other gases, with a noise which can be heard for a great
distance, from which it derives its name.
This department was created in 1865, having been segregated
from the territory of that of San Miguel. Its principal agricul-
tural products are rice, tobacco, indigo, coffee, coarse brown sugar,
timber, and a great variety of fruits. The principal industrial
products are salt, starch from the yucca, lime, and cheese of good
quality. There are also several distilleries. Its principal com-
merce is in salt, with which it supplies the various northern
Usulutan, the chief city, is situated on the right bank of a
stream called Juano, at an elevation of 420 feet above the sea
level, and 95 miles southeast from the capital of the Republic.
It is a pleasant and picturesque town. In the latter part of the
seventeenth century it was the residence of the authorities of the
ancient Province of San Miguel. It was classed as a town in
1827, and in 1860 it was raised to the rank of a city. Among
its principal public edifices are a town hall, a schoolhouse, and a
building occupied by an institute of higher education, a large
church, and a prison. It has a population of 6,000, who are
principally employed in agriculture and the manufacture of salt.
DEPARTMENT OF SAN MIGUEL.
Cities.-San Miguel and Chinameca.
Towns.-Uluazapa, Moncagua, Chapeltique, Cacaguatique, and
The department of San Miguel is bounded on the north by
the Republic of Honduras and the department of Morazin, on
the east by the latter department and that of La Uni6n, on the
south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by the departments
of Usulutin and Cabafias. The greater part of its surface is
mountainous, although it has a portion comparatively level to the
north of the boundary of Usulutin and in the neighborhood of
the Rio Grande. Its seashores differ from those of the other mari-
time departments, as they are rocky and inaccessible and traversed
by mountainous spurs and ridges. There are in this department
two inactive volcanoes, San Miguel and Chinameca. Although
neither of these have been recently in eruption, the former gives
evidence, by frequent emissions of smoke and steam, that it may
at any day resume its activity. There are a number of valleys
among the mountains which are famed for their fertility; also a
number of hot and medicinal springs.
The principal agricultural products are indigo, sugar, coffee,
timber for building, and cabinet woods, grain, and a variety of
fruits. Among its manufactures are saddlery, shoes, articles of
tortoise shell, pickles, lime, cheese, and rum. It has considerable
commerce, a large amount of which is transacted at the fair of La
Paz, which is held annually on the 21st of November in.the city
of San Miguel, which is largely attended by merchants of the
various Central and South American countries. The principal
commodities dealt in are indigo, cattle, cheese, and a great variety
of foreign merchandise.
The principal city, San Miguel, is situated northeastward from
the volcano of San Miguel and about three-quarters of a mile
from the right bank of the Rio Grande, at an elevation of 360
feet above the sea level, and 107 miles east of the capital of the
Republic. It is an important and handsome city, with broad,
straight, and well-paved streets, and well-built and fine houses.
It does not, however, bear a good reputation from a sanitary point
of view, as it suffers from malarial exhalations arising from
the marshes which exist to the southeast of the city. In its
neighborhood are the remains of an ancient aboriginal city, the
foundations of which can be traced over a large area. San Miguel
was founded by the Spaniards in 1530, and was ranked as a city
in 1586. Among its important public edifices are a fine municipal
building, the law courts, hospital, market, Government revenue
offices and post-office, and several handsome churches. It has
23,000 inhabitants, who are principally occupied in the cultivation
of indigo and cereals, the breeding of cattle and hogs, and in
DEPARTMENT OF MORAZAN.
Towns.-Sociedad, San Carlos, Jocoro, Osicala, and El Rosario.
The department of Morazan is bounded on the north by the
Republic of Honduras, on the east by the Department of La
Union, on the south by La Union and San Miguel, and on the
west by the latter. The surface of this department is moun-
tainous in the northern part, where it is crossed from east to west
by a chain of mountains. In the south and toward the Hondu-
ranean frontier it is level, forming the plains occupied by the trib-
utaries of the river Tocola and the Rio Grande. There are also
many fertile valleys among the mountains. This department was
created in 1875, from territory formerly belonging to San Miguel.
Until 1887 it was known by the name of Gotera, but in that year
the name was changed to Morazan by decree of Congress, in memory
of the last President of the Central American Federation. It has
within its territory some rich mineral districts, in which there are
many silver mines in active operation.
The principal agricultural products are indigo, sugar, rice, corn,
and a great variety of fruits. Among its industries are the manu-
facture of cordage, mats, hats, lime, and earthenware of good
quality. It enjoys an active commerce, which is largely due to
the number of mining establishments.
The principal city, Gotera, is situated on the left bank of the
Rio Grande, at an elevation of 2,119 feet above the sea level, and
137 miles east of the capital of the Republic. It is a small place,
but of very picturesque appearance. Its principal public buildings
are the town hall and Government building. It has a population
of 3,000, who are principally employed in silver mining and agri-
DEPARTMENT OF LA UNI6N.
Cities.-La Union, San Alejo, Santa Rosa.
T'owns.-Pasaquina, Sauce, Anamor6s, Nueva Esparta, Concep-
cion de Oriente.
The department of La Union is bounded on the north by the
Republic of Honduras, on the east by that Republic and the Bay
of Fonseca, on the south by the Pacific Ocean, and on the west by
the departments of San Miguel and Morazan. The western part
of its territory is mountainous; the northern portion, although
rugged, has many extensive plains and valleys noted for their fer-
tility. The coast is low and swampy in the rainy season from the
Honduras boundary, at the mouth of the Guascornn River, to .the
port of La Union; the remainder of its coast line, although some-
what low, is dry and in places rugged. On the peninsula which
separates the Bay of Fonseca from the Pacific Ocean is the great
volcano of Conchagua, rising to a height of 7,000 feet above the
sea level, and about 20 miles in circumference at its base. It was
in eruption in February, 1868, but since that time it has been
This department was created in 1865 by separation from the
territory of the department of San Miguel. It is a rich mineral
region and has a large number of mines in active operation. Agri-
culture is also prosperous, and large quantities of indigo, corn, rice,
LA UNION, SALVADOR.
and a variety of fruits are produced; also timber and dyewoods.
Among its industrial products are lime, palm-leaf hats and mats,
soap, articles of tortoise shell, cheese, hides, candles, dried fish, and
oysters. Through the port of La Uni6n there is an active busi-
ness both in exports and imports, and commerce is active through-
out the department.
The principal city, La Union, is also one of the chief ports of
the Republic. It is situated on the shore of the Bay of Fonseca,
144 miles east-southeast from the capital of the Republic. It is
not a large town, but it is well built and enjoys a large commerce.
Its principal public buildings are a good town hall, a modern
church, custom-house and warehouses, and several schoolhouses.
It has a population of 3,000, who are chiefly occupied in com-
merce and agriculture.
CONSTITUTION AND FORM OF GOVERNMENT.
Salvador is a free, sovereign, and independent Republic, and
its government is democratic, alternative, and representative. It
delegates its sovereign powers to the authorities established by the
Constitution promulgated on the 13th of August, 1886, namely:
The legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative is exer-
cised-by a Congress of Deputies elected by the people, three from
each department, which meets in ordinary session every year and
in extra session whenever the Executive, in council with his min-
isters, may deem it necessary. The executive power is exercised
by a citizen who bears the title of President of the Republic, with
the ministers at the head of the respective departments, four in
number, and are designated as follows: Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Justice, and Religion; Minister of the Treasury, Public Credit,
War, and Marine; Minister of the Interior and Government;
Minister of Public Works, Instruction, and Charities.
The President is elected by direct vote of the people for a
term of four years. He is also commander in chief of the army.
In case of a failure to elect, he is chosen by a majority of votes in
the Congress from the three candidates having the largest number
of votes in the popular election. He is not eligible to re-election
either as President or Vice-President until after the lapse of four
years. He is inaugurated on the Ist of' March following his
The judicial 'power is exercised by a supreme court, which
holds its sittings in the city of San Salvador. Two district courts
are also held in that city and district courts in the cities of Santa
Ana, San Miguel, and Cojutepeque. There are also several cir-
cuit judges and justices of the peace in their respective districts.
The government of each department is in charge of a governor,
who is also commandant of the military in his section, and is
appointed by the Executive. The different municipalities are
governed by their own officers elected directly by the people.
These consist of an alcalde, a syndic, and two or more regidores
or aldermen, according to the population.
As the Constitution is a voluminous document, containing many
items of interest, a full translation of it is given in the Appendix;
also of a law passed in September, 1886, amplifying and explain-
ing the constitutional provisions relating to foreigners.
EDUCATION, CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS, AND RELIGION.
For some years past the Government of Salvador has made
great efforts to improve and develop the educational facilities of
the country. In his message to Congress, delivered February 20,
1893, President Ezeta said:
Profoundly convinced of the beneficial influence which education and instruc-
tion exercises on all social classes, I have continued during the past year to
extend to this important branch the most decided protection.
The large number of educational establishments sustained in greater part by
the State has rendered necessary the investment of large sums in the salaries of
professors and in the purchase of supplies and text-books. Knowing the diffi-
culties under which authors labor in a young country like ours, I have ordered
the printing at the public expense of various important works produced by some
of the best talent of the country. Some of them unite intrinsic merit with
fitness for use as text-books in our educational establishments.
Education in Salvador is divided into three classes, primary,
secondary, and superior or professional.. According to the pro-
visions of the Constitution primary education is nonclerical, gra-
tuitous, and obligatory. Secondary comprises preparatory studies
for a university course and education for commercial life, land
surveying, and for teachers.
Professional education in the National University comprises
law, medicine and surgery, civil engineering, and pharmacy. At
the date of the last report, in 1893, there existed in the Republic
585 primary schools, including those for boys and girls. The
average daily attendance of pupils amounted to 29,427. There
is also in the city of San Salvador a kindergarten, sustained by
private means, which was founded by Sefiorita Augustina Charvin.
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, SAN SALVADOR.
._. ~:`.,. ~~8si~
For secondary education there are three official institutes sup-
ported by the Government, the Western, the Central, and the
Eastern. The Central, which is located at the capital, has a
museum, a cabinet of physical science, and a meteorological
observatory. In the capital the Government also sustains a ladies'
normal college, the polytechnic school, and a normal school for
There are also in different parts of the country the following
private colleges for secondary education: At the capital, the Sal-
vadorean Lyceum, with 125 pupils; Santa Teresa College for girls,
and a theological seminary. At New San Salvador there are two
colleges for males, San Luis and The Sacred Heart, and one for
girls, called Santa Teresa. At Lacatecoluca, capital of the depart-
ment of La Paz, there is one; another in San Vincente; one in
Sonsonate; one in Usulut'in, called the National Institute, and
one called La Concordia in Ahuachapin.
Higher or professional education is regulated by a law passed
February 15, 1886. The government of the university is exer-
cised by a board called "Superior Council of Public Instruction."
The rector of the university is the chief of the establishment.
The faculties are pharmacy and natural science, medicine and
surgery, jurisprudence, and civil engineering. The curriculum
necessary for graduation is, in pharmacy and natural science, three
years; medicine and surgery, six years; jurisprudence, seven years;
topographical engineering, three years; and in the departments of
architecture, mechanical engineering, and bridges and roads, four
years. There is a good public library and free reading room, which
occupies commodious apartments in the building of the National
There has lately been established at the capital a national college
for the higher education of women.
The amount appropriated by the Government for public educa-
tion during the year 1892 was $308,382.50.
The charitable and benevolent institutions of Salvador are under
the direct charge of the Government, and are controlled and regu-
lated by the Minister of Education, Public Works and Benevo-
Standing in the front rank among these institutions are the
hospitals, which are established in the cities of San Salvador, Santa
Ana, Sonsonate, Ahuachapin, Nueva San Salvador, Zacatecoluca,
San Vincente, San Miguel, Alegria, Chalatenango, and La Union,
which are all well organized and equipped. The hospital in the
city of San Salvador in particular is an honor to the country and
the Government as an admirably equipped institution with an
excellent medical staff and the nursing and household arrange
ments in charge of the Sisters of Charity. During the year 1892
3,196 patients were treated, of whom 2,791 were discharged cured,
201 died, and 224 remained under treatment at the end of the
year; the expenses amounted to $80,101.72. During the year
1891, 7,560 patients were cared for in all the hospitals of the
Republic, of whom 598 died, or about 8 per cent. The total
expenses amounted to $156,054.05.
A new and magnificent hospital building is being erected in
the city of San Salvador which will bear the name of the Rosales
Hospital, in memory of the late Don Jose Rosales, who bequeathed
the munificent sum of between three and four millions of pesos
(dollars) for this purpose. Iron is the principal material used in
its construction which is manufactured in Belgium.
There is in the city of San Salvador an excellent asylum and
school for orphans of both sexes, where they not only receive a
good primary education, but the boys are taught carpentry, shoe-
making, and other trades, and the girls the occupations adapted to
their sex; there are also classes in music and electric telegraphy.
The institution is admirably managed by the Sisters of Charity.
There is also in the city an asylum for the aged poor, which is
supported by the Government. An asylum for orphans has also
recently been established in the city of Sonsonate.
The latest report states that the amount expended by the Gov-
ernment for the support of benevolent institutions during the year,
in addition to sums contributed by charitable individuals, was
As a natural consequence of its long ascendency during the
Spanish rule, the prevailing religion in Salvador is the Roman
Catholic, and previous to the liberal revolution in 1871 no other
was tolerated. The consequence of that movement was the proc-
lamation of religious freedom, the removal of the cemeteries from
clerical government, legalizing civil marriage, making education
nonclerical, and the abolition of monastic institutions. All these
changes are embodied in the Constitution promulgated on the 13th
of August, 1886, and under which the country is now governed,
which guaranties the free exercise of all religions without other
limitation than the preservation of morality and public order.
The diocese of San Salvador was created in the year 1842; the
fourth bishop, who is now in charge, is Dr. Don Adolfo Perez y
CLIMATE AND SEASONS.
The lowlands of Salvador are generally hot, as must be expected
in a tropical country, but the high table-lands and mountain slopes
of the interior are comparatively temperate and cool and enjoy a
delightful and healthy climate. There are only two seasons, the
wet, called by the natives winter, and the dry, called summer; the
former commences in May and continues until October, and the
dry season from November until April. The heaviest rains occur
in July and August, in which months strong winds precede the
rain, which finally falls in torrents, frequently accompanied by
heavy thunder and continued electrical discharges. During the
rainy season there are two short intervals when no rain falls and
the skies are bright and serene. These are called the Canicula
(dog days) and the short summer of St. John. September and
October are the two most unpleasant months; while the rain
does not fall in torrent-like thunder showers, it is more continuous.
During this time the lowlands near the coast and river bottoms
are flooded, the roads become impassable, the diligence and carry-
ing lines suspend their traffic, and internal mail routes are delayed
The climate of Salvador is healthy, except that in the low coast
lands at certain seasons malarial fevers prevail, but no other part
of the Republic is subject to endemic diseases. Although exact
mortuary statistics are difficult to be obtained, the annual death rate
for the whole country is estimated at about to in the' I,ooo.
..A .1. *
SAN SALVADOR-GENERAL VIEW FROM PARK.
Dr. David J. Guzman, in a work on the physical aspects of
Salvador, gives some valuable hints to immigrants and unacclima-
tized persons visiting the country, of which the following is a
When the European lands on our shores he soon feels the moist heat which
prevails, particularly in the wet season. His strength begins gradually to fail,
and his appetite, which in his native country (particularly if he is from the
north) was vigorous, soon languishes; his habitual energy declines. He then
begins to realize the influence which the new climate exercises on his animal
economy and the necessity of moderating the hard work to which he may have
been accustomed in his own country, but which here would occasion serious
damage to the health of an immigrant. He will observe that the native, not-
withstanding that he is acclimatized, knows how to resist the heat and escape
fatigue by moderating his work and performing it in the cool hours of the morn-
ing and evening.
He should avoid the immoderate use of fruits which, although to him new
and delicious, will disarrange the gastro-intestinal functions and produce grave
disorders in them. A necessary precaution for the immigrant to take is to pro-
vide against sudden changes of temperature. Frequently, before a rainfall, an
oppressive moist heat is felt, causing a profuse perspiration. While in this con-
dition a fresh breeze frequently springs up which, unless precaution is taken
against a sudden chill, may occasion grave disorders of the organs of respiration
and digestion, producing dysentery and inflammatory affections of the chest,
especially if the immigrant is stout and full-blooded. Light flannel clothing
constantly worn will provide against chills. Although at first they may appear
to be uncomfortably warm, use will soon make them preferable to cotton and
linen, which have the disadvantage of cooling the wearer too quickly, thus pro-
ducing conditions deleterious to health.
The skin should be kept in good condition, as perspiration, which is active in
hot climates, should be unobstructed. For this purpose sea or river baths, com-
bining exercise with cleanliness, are very salutary. Care should be taken to
avoid sleeping in low and damp places. The air, laden with miasma, arising
from decomposing vegetable and animal matter, occupies by its specific gravity
the lower strata of the atmosphere. It is from this cause that houses in low and
damp locations are attacked by fevers of all kinds and types, which at times
occasion ravages among newly arrived people. If situated in the country, houses
should be located on the high grounds and as far distant as possible from swamps
and marshes. Clothing should be loose, so as to admit free circulation of air
and perspiration and unincumbered movement, and should not be dark in color,
as dark colors absorb the heat and light ones best resist the solar radiation.
In hot climates like ours digestion is weak and slow. Animal foods, and fats
in particular, which are heat-producing, are injurious to the inhabitants, as much
from the difficulty of their digestion as from the additional labor imposed on
the liver, which has to secrete a greater quantity of bile to dissolve the excess
of fatty matter introduced. This extra work will in time produce the various
forms of inflammation to which this organ is liable in tropical countries.
The food of the colonist in Salvador should be a properly proportioned
mixture of animal and vegetable substances, without an excess of spices and
condiments, which are generally used in our national food for the purpose of
stimulating the appetite, rendered sluggish by the prevalence of greht heat, par-
ticularly on the coast. It may be found useful to use with the meals good wines
diluted with alkaline mineral waters, such as vichy, etc. All spirituous drinks
should be used very moderately, and only immediately before or with meals.
Persons who use spirituous liquors to excess, particularly foreigners who are of
a sanguine constitution or temperament, will quickly suffer from their destructive
effects, as they cause acute congestion of the liver and the gastro-intestinal
organs, producing in the former active inflammations and in.the latter diarrhea
and dysentery more or less severe.
These causes, and the heat and humidity which prevail in some localities, will,
unless proper precaution is used, reduce the newly arrived stranger to a condi-
tion of weakness injurious both to mind and body.
It may also be logically inferred that the colonist, on arrival in a tropical
country such as ours, ought not to radically change the habits acquired at home.
It will be sufficient to introduce some slight modifications which will not vio-
lently and suddenly change his former methods of life.
The above-named precautions are only such as should be taken
by all natives of northern regions visiting for the first time a trop-
ical country. In the majority of cases where foreigners suffer from
the change of climate the cause can be traced to their own.impru.
dence and careless habits of life. With only ordinary attention
to hygienic laws, and particularly to temperance in eating and
drinking, there is no reason why any person of good constitution
should not enjoy as good health in Salvador as in any other part
of the world.
The Government has of late years bestowed most praiseworthy
attention to the preservation of the public health. Preventive
measures are employed against the spread of infectious diseases,
and vaccination has been made obligatory. In the city of San
Salvador especially, the health officer has shown great vigilance
and skill in these directions, and has subjected provisions of all
kinds to the strictest supervision. These, with the construction
of sewers and other sanitary arrangements, are contributing largely
to the healthy condition of the city.
AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY.
Agriculture has always been the principal industry of Salvador.
It has, within the past few years particularly, attained considerable
development and has given evidence of progress and some improve-
ment on the primitive methods which have been in use from remote
ages, but there is still necessity for a wider diffusion of knowledge
and the introduction of modern methods and improved machinery
As a rule the agriculturists do not understand the use of fertil-
izers, and they conduct all their operations in the most primitive
manner. When they have succeeded in exhausting the soil and
they find their crops diminishing, they allow it to lie fallow and
cultivate a new field. The implements in use are of the most
antiquated patterns, and it is very difficult to introduce new ones
or to induce the native farmers to adopt any novelties.
The chief agricultural products are coffee, indigo, balsam, sugar,
tobacco, India rubber, rice, cacao, cotton, cereals, and fruits.
Coffee is produced in all parts of the Republic wherever the
lands rise from 1,500oo to 4,00ooo feet above the sea level. It is by
far the most important product of the country, as it has for some
years past formed more than one-half of the total amount of the
exports. The best and most productive plantations are in the
departments of Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Ahuachapan, La Libertad.
and San Salvador. Cuscatlin, La Paz, and Usulutin are also
COFFEE ESTATE NEAR SAN SALVADOR.
making considerable progress in this industry, as'within the past
few years many thousands of trees have been planted in those
departments, which will soon enable them to export large quan-
In starting a coffee plantation it is usual to purchase the young
trees about 2 years old from nurseries, as by this method two years'
time is saved and the returns of profit on the investment corre-
spondingly quickened. The average price of the trees at that age
is $10 to $20 per 1,ooo.
The coffee tree is a tender shrub, and needs careful tending and
protection from the sun from the time of planting and even for
years after it has begun to produce crops. For this purpose bananas,
plantains, or other quick-growing, wide-branching trees are planted
between the rows. Careful weeding is also a necessity. It is gen-
erally calculated that the trees will be sufficiently matured when 3
years old to produce a fair crop, which will continue to increase
until the seventh year, when it will have reached its maximum.
It is calculated that the outlay for labor and expenses in produc-
ing coffee to the grower is about 5 cents per pound. The retail
price varies from to to 25 cents per pound. It is estimated that
about one-half of the crop is consumed in the country and the
The last crop was not as abundant as the preceding one, show-
ing a decrease of nearly 18,000 bags, but it has brought higher
prices, ordinary quality selling as high as $30 to $32 Salvador
currency per quintal (loiy pounds). Some drawback, however,
exists on this increased price in the imposition of a new tax of $2.25
gold on all exported coffee in lieu of the former tax of $1 silver.
The botanical name of the plant which produces the indigo of
commerce is Indigofera Anil. The aboriginal name in Salvador
is Yiquilite, and both the plant and its product are called AnOi in
Spanish. It has always been an important product in Salvador,
being only second to coffee in the list of exports. It is grown
principally on the high, rocky soils of the departments of Chala-
tenango, Cabafias, and Morazan, and to some extent in those of Santa
Ana, San Vincente, and San Miguel.
The methods followed in the preparation of the soil and culti-
vation of the plant are very different from the careful attention
bestowed on these points in the indigo plantations of the East
Indies. The usual plan in Salvador is merely to cut and burn
the brush and undergrowth, sow the seed, and let it grow as best
it can. It is generally sown in May, and by September is fit for the
harvest, when the flower buds are about to open, at which time it
is richest in the indigo-yielding matter. It is cut at a few inches
above the foot, and the leaves and stems tied into bundles about
1o inches in diameter, and conveyed at once to the factory, in
which there are three brick tanks, placed in close proximity, each
being on a lower level than the other. The sheaves are piled in
the uppermost tank, covered with water, and heavy weights placed
on them. A fermentation more or less rapid arises, according to
the temperature, but generally in from nine to fourteen hours. The
liquid, which has become of a greenish-yellow color, is then run
off into the next lower tank, where it is necessary to keep it in a
state of violent agitation in order to oxygenize it. For this pur-
pose it is beaten for several hours by men armed with long paddles
or poles, thus constantly exposing new surfaces to the action of the
air. It is then run off into the third and lowest tank, where a
macerated shrub, known as cuaja-tinta (ink coagulator) is added,
which has the effect of precipitating the indigo to the bottom of the
tank, when the water is drawn off, leaving the tinta in the shape
of a purple-colored mud at the bottom, which then undergoes the
process of drying and pressing into cakes ready for packing for
There is no doubt that this industry could be rendered much
more profitable if more careful methods and improved apparatus
were introduced in the cultivation and manufacture of the product.
The quantity of indigo produced in Salvador has been falling off
for some years past, but it is now again increasing, the amount
produced in 1891 being 7,889 serrones (1 serron = 50 pounds)
and in 1892, 9,587 serrones. The prospects of the future of this
industry seem to be encouraging.
The tree which produces this article is the Myrospermum salva-
toriensis, or, as it was called in the aboriginal language, the
Hoitziloxitl, grows almost exclusively on the Costa del Bilsamo,
or Balsam Coast of Salvador, which comprises the seashores of
the departments of Sonsonate and La Libertad, although Great
Britain, ever alert to improve the resources of her Asiatic terri-
tory, has recently introduced it into the Island of Ceylon.
The balsam is a lofty leguminous tree, frequently reaching a
height of loo feet and over. The Indians living on the Balsam
Coast, who are the nearest approach to the aboriginal tribes, have
a monopoly of the balsam product, are supported entirely by it,
and live in the forests in unmolested seclusion.
There are two methods of extracting the viscid liquid, which is
known in commerce as the Balsam of Peru, from the fact that it
was first sent from Salvador to Peru in the early days of Spanish
rule, and from thence found its way to Europe.
The first consists in scraping the skin of the bark to the depth
of one-tenth of an inch with a sharp machete, in small spaces,
some 12 to 15 inches square, all along the trunk and stout branches
of the tree. Immediately after this operation the portions scraped
are heated with burning torches made out of the dried branches
of a tree called "chimaliote," and after this pieces of old cotton
cloth are spread on the warmed and half-charred bark. By punch-
ing the edges of the cloths against the tree with the point of the
machete they are made to adhere. In this condition they are left
for twenty-four or even forty-eight hours (in Januaryl, when the
rags are gathered and submitted to a decoction in big iron pots.
After this the rags are subjected while still hot to a great pressure
in an Indian machine, made of strong ropes and wooden levers,
worked by hand. The balsam oozes out and falls into a recep-
tacle, where it is allowed to cool. This is called raw balsam. To
refine it they boil it again and drain it, after which they pack it
in iron cans ready for market.
The other method of extracting balsam consists in entirely bark-
ing the trunk and heavy branches of the tree, a process which, as
a rule, kills it outright, or at best renders it useless for several
years. The bark is finely ground, boiled, and submitted to pres-
sure, in order to extract the oil, which is considered of an inferior
quality to that obtained by the system first described. Both
methods are defective, but the latter is ruinous and is forbidden
by the authorities.
When ready for market it is a thick, viscid oleo resin, of a deep
brown or black color, and has a fragrant balsamic odor. It has
been analyzed and its percentage composition found to be: Cin-
namic acid, 46; resin, 32; benzylic alcohol, 20. It is used in
perfumery, and in medicine as a stimulative application to indo-
lent sores and internally as a remedy for asthma and other pec-
The climate and soil of Salvador are well adapted to the growth
of sugar cane, which is cultivated to a greater or less extent in all
the departments. With the introduction of capital and improved
machinery the production of sugar would become a great industry.
Even with the imperfect work now done all the sugar used in the
Republic is of home production, and among the exports it ranks
next in importance to indigo. The greater part of that used in
the country is in the shape of small blocks weighing about 2
pounds; it is called panela," and looks and tastes very much like
the maple sugar of our Northern States. A large quantity of it
is used in the manufacture of native rum. Loaves of compact
white sugar, weighing from 25 to 40 pounds, are also manufac-
tured. The mills which produce the "panela" are generally of
wood, of very primitive construction, and the work done by them
is very imperfect. There are in the country a few plants run by
steam, where a better class of sugar is produced, but these are
owned by large operators, who export their whole crops.
A considerable quantity of tobacco is produced in Salvador, as
it grows luxuriantly in all the departments and at different eleva-
tions.* If better methods of drying and preparation of the leaves
were in use a much higher grade would be produced, which would
command attention in foreign markets and lead to a considerable
extension of the industry. In December, 1892, a large quantity
of tobacco seed was introduced by the Government and distributed
gratis among agriculturists with the idea of promoting the culture
of the plant, and at the same time two natives of Cuba were
employed to teach the method of curing and working the tobacco
as practiced in Cuba. At present nearly all the tobacco produced
is consumed in the country, in the shape of cigars and cigarettes,
by men, women, and children. Chewing tobacco and pipes are
The methods of handling the tobacco heretofore in use are very
primitive. The growers allow the leaves to dry in the sun without
detaching them from the stalks, which are cut a few inches above
the surface of the ground. They then pile them in stacks from 6
to 9 feet in diameter and 3 to 4 feet high, on the top of which they
place heavy weights, covering them with a thick layer of banana
leaves. Fermentation ensues which, from its action, brings out
the color and aroma of the leaves. When it is considered that the
process is complete the tobacco is taken from the stack, exposed
for a short time to the air, and the leaves detached from the stalks,
sorted, and tied into bundles for market. The export trade in
tobacco is small and principally to the neighboring Republics.
Although the Government has made many efforts to promote
the planting of India rubber trees, they have not hitherto been
attended with success, and all of the product has been derived
from trees growing wild in the forests which cover the low, moist
plains in the departments of La Paz, La Uni6n, San Miguel, and
UsulutAn. The methods of extracting the sap and making the
rubber are of the same rude and wasteful description as are prac-
ticed in other parts of Central America, and are conducted in a
desultory and shiftless manner by the Indians. The result is that
the amount exported is small and the industry has not attained
Is extensively grown and forms quite an important crop. All
that is raised in Salvador is of the upland variety, and is grown
on the dry table-lands and hillsides. The greater part of the crop
is consumed at home, the exports being confined to small quanti-
ties sent to the neighboring Republics.
Cacao is cultivated in many of the departments, and the quality
produced is good. It is nearly all consumed in the country, in the
shape of chocolate, etc., and has made but a small figure in the list
of exports, although climate and soil are well adapted for its suc-
Frijoles, the brown beans, which form such an important article
of diet in all the Spanish-American countries, are produced in
large quantities in all parts of the Republic.
Indian corn, wheat, potatoes, and vegetables in great variety are
successfully cultivated and produce abundant crops.
The cultivation of tropic fruits for export trade has excited but
little interest in Salvador, as it lies too far from the markets of the
United States, and its geographical position is such as to render
it impossible to compete with the neighboring Republics having
ports on the Atlantic coast; consequently fruit is raised solely for
the purpose of supplying the domestic demand.
The introduction of improved breeds of cattle has, within the
past few years, received increased attention from the agriculturists.
The fertile mountain slopes and foothills furnish excellent pas-
turage, and the future of this industry has a very promising outlook.
Within the past year the Government has established an agri-
cultural educational establishment and model farm in the suburbs
of the city of San Salvador, which is to be stocked with selected
breeds of cattle, horses, hogs, and fowls from the United States.
It is expected that this establishment will prove of great value to
the agricultural interests of the country. The Government has
also offered a prize of $5o for the best breed of cattle, horses, and
mares introduced into the country with the object of improving
the native breeds, which will doubtless have a very beneficial effect
in that direction.
In consequence of the smaller forest area, the exportation of
cabinet woods is not likely to attain the same importance as in some
other parts of tropical America, yet Salvador has an ample supply
of valuable timber, including mahogany, cedar, ebony, granadilla,
etc. The low coast lands produce considerable quantities of dye-
woods, of which, perhaps, the mora, or fustic of commerce, is the
most abundant and valuable. There also exists an ample supply
of timber suitable for all building purposes, such as pitch pine,
which is similar to the long-leaved yellow pine of our Southern
States, ceiba, and others. Of late years several sawmills have
been put in operation.
There are two plants, which grow wild in all parts of the country,
which are very valuable. These are the pita, from the fibre of
which is made thread, twine, cordage, hammocks, and a great
variety of other articles, and the yucca, from which starch is man-
ufactured. The country abounds also in valuable medicinal
plants and others that are useful from a commercial point of view.
MINERALS AND MINING.
The mineral veins of Salvador are found principally in the
rocks of the mountain chain, or cordillera, which extends into
Honduras and Nicaragua and forms the richest mining districts
of those countries. The veins run generally parallel with the
direction of the range, that is, from east to west, but are often
found to be much broken and interrupted by the action of
upheaval. Deposits of gold, silver, copper, and lead are more
generally found in the eastern part of the Republic, iron in the
western, and coal at various points in the valley of the River
Of all the departments of the Republic, Morazan is the richest
in minerals. In it, according to the latest statistical account, there
exist 90 mines, or one-half of all the mining establishments of
the country. They are described as follows: In the mineral set-
tlement of Corozal, in the township of San Carlos, there are 8
mines, viz: Corozal, a gold mine in good working condition and
with good machinery; Miguelito, Barrios, and Agua Caliente,
producing gold and silver, but not very rich; Guarumal, a mine
producing silver ore of high grade; and San Bartolo, Plumora-
Barrios, and Guarumo-Barrios, silver mines.
In the settlement of Encuentros, situated in the same township,
there are 32 mines: Mina Grande, Guapinol, Virginia, Dolores,
La Matilde, and El Rosario, all producing gold and silver ore
yielding to marks of silver and an ounce of gold per ton; El
Cuartel, El Recreo, Crito, Santa Nicolasa, La Plomosa, La Espe.
ranza, La Fe, Chance, Santa Lucia, Persito, Diamante, and Ofir,
all of them producing gold and silver, the Persito having also
lead; La Soledad, La Luz, San Emilio, San Antonio, San Juan,
Santa Emilia, Santa Anita, El Nance, Santa Nicolosa, Santa
Francisca, Santa Isabel, and San Antonio, all producing gold and
silver ores of various grades, and all owned by different persons.
In the Loma Larga settlement, in the townships of San Carlos
and Jocoro, there are 34 mines, all yielding gold and silver as
follows: Loma Larga, Pique de la Sefiora, Socorro, Don Adolfo,
Santa Maria, Santa Elena, Julia, Montecristo, La Perla, Guana-
caste, San Jose, Santiago, La Fortuna, La Providencia, San Pedro,
San Antonio, La Soledad, El Bosque, La Calera, Santa Bar-
bara, Santa Maria, Gigante, Carolina, Flamenco, Divisadero, La
Angela, and Juanita (the last-named four being the property
of the Divisadero Gold and Silver Mining Company), Colombia,
San Jacinto, Pavbn, Nueva San Francisco, La Ventura, and San
In the township of Soledad there are 12 mines, all producing
gold and silver, as follows: Montemayor, Bafiadero, El Caragiiito,
El Carao, Misericordia, La Calabaza, Jimerito, La F6, La Espe-
ranza, Mala Barranca, El Gato, and Huilihuiste.
In the township of Gotera there are the mines of La Concha
and San Francisco.
In the township of Zamabal there are 2 mines, named El Cru-
cero and La Esperanza, and in the township of Cacaopera there
is the Piedra Negra mine.
Of the above-mentioned, the settlements of Corozal, Encuentros,
Loma Larga, Divisadero, and Flamenco are completely equipped
with mills, smelters, and machinery for the reduction of ores and
The'next departments in rank as mineral districts are Santa
Ana and Chalatenango, in each of which there are 28 mines.
The following table, compiled by Senor Don Rafael Reyes,
chief of the Salvadorean Bureau of Statistics, shows the number
of mines in each department and the minerals they produce:
r d S .g
o I r
Departments. b 0 -
~ a iS a .0 S. S
CQ 0 i Ix 4 E. a W
San Salvador......... i .... .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .... 2
La ibeo, d ~] 1 ..... .. ; I. I : : !:...::]:..i i..i. .... : ..............
Santa Ana............ .. ... ... .... .... .... 8 ... .... .. o ... 4 28
AhuachapIn .. ... ... .... .. . ....
La Libertad.......... ... .. .. ... .. ... ... ... .. ..... .
Sonsonate .... ...... 5 .... .... .... .... .... .. 8 ..... .. ... .. .. .. ... 13
Cuscatlin ...... ...... .. .. ... .. .. .... .... .. ... .... ..... ... .. .. .. .... .. .. .
Chalatenango............. i. 2 .... 2 2 1 5 3 6 ..... 38
Cabafias..................... .... ....... ..... ....... 5 ..... .... .... 9 .. 3 .... 1
San Vincente......... ....... ... ............. .. ... .. ... ... .. .. .........
La P az............. .... .... .. . .... .. .... ..... .... .. .... .... .....
lorazan ................ .. .. .... ... ... .. ....... ... ... .... .. .. .. ... .....
San Miguel... ..... .. .. .... ....... ... ....... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .
La U nion............. .... .... .. .. ... ..... ... 2 ... . .. 2
Total........... 6 2 2 3 15 1 20 100 o 7 4 5 i8o
In several of the departments not mentioned as having mines,
mineral claims have been made and are in course of development.
The mining laws of Salvador are embodied in El C6digo de
Mineria (The Mining Code), the provisions of which are substan-
tially identical with those of the other Spanish-American countries.
The following is a translation of the most important clauses:
SEC. 15. The ownership of a mine is acquired by means of a concession
granted by competent authority, under the provisions of the present law, or by
any other way of conveyance or transfer of property recognized by the munic-
ipal law of the country.
SEC. 16. A concession is the formal adjudication or grant of a mine, made in
favor of some one who has complied with all the requisites of law, and it carries
with it the power to work the mine within the limits of a fixed area or extent.
SEC. 17. No concession shall be granted except upon application and all other
regular proceedings provided for by this code.
An exemplified copy of the whole record of the said proceedings shall be the
title of the ownership of the mine.
SEC. 18. A concession granted in full conformity with the provisions of this
law conveys to the grantee the ownership of the mine, and enables, therefore,
the same grantee freely to dispose both of the mine and of its yield, as his own
SEC. 19. The concessions are made for unlimited time, and last so long as the
grantees comply with the conditions imposed on them by this law.
SEC. 20. The refuse and slag heaps of abandoned mines and smelting estab-
lishments shall not be allowed to be worked except upon a special concession;
but if the ground on which they are found is private property, they shall belong
to its owner.
SEC. 21. The tailings and grounds of abandoned mines are integral parts of
the mine to which they belong, and can not be made the subject of a separate
SEC. 22. No concession shall ever be made until after the metal supposed to
exist in the mine is actually found, and without sufficient proof that there is
ground enough to constitute a mining property.
SEC. 61. Miners and all other persons continuously engaged in mining works
shall be exempted from military and municipal service.
They shall be exempted also from imprisonment for civil debt, and no attach-
ment can be made of their wages, on account of the same debts, for more than
one-fourth of their amount.
SEC. 63. Miners and laborers shall be exempted from the tax called the
"beneficiencia," which is levied on all the inhabitants of the Republic.
Notwithstanding the disadvantage under which Salvador labors
of having no ports on the Atlantic Coast and no outlet for mer-
chandise in that direction, the commerce of the country has been
remarkably active, a result largely due to the high prices that have
been obtained for coffee for several years. For some time past,
however, the great fall in the price of silver and consequent high
rate of exchange has exerted a depressing influence, and the year
1892 shows a decrease in the amount of both exports and imports.
The foreign commerce for 1892 was as follows:
Exports............................................ 6 838,25S.74
Im ports ................. ......................... 2,320,941. 30
Excess of exports........................... 4, 517, 317-44
The President of the Republic in his message to Congress of
2oth of February, 1893, in referring to this says:
This immense balance in our favor is such a proportion as perhaps no other
country in the world can show; it represents an accumulation of savings, and
consequently considerable increase in public wealth. Our situation would have
een extremely favorable if circumstances impossible to foresee had not partly
ullified the conditions. These arose from the precautions rendered necessary
ly the prevalence of cholera in Europe, and the crisis brought about in conse-
uence of the extraordinary fall in the price of silver.
The exports, divided by countries, were as follows:
United States ...................................... 2, 878, 649. oo
France ........................ .................... 953, 998.oo
Great Britain....................................... 797, 812. oo
Germany .......................................... 787, 480.oo
Italy............................................... 399, 678. oo
Spain ............................................. 22,663. oo
Other countries ................................... 997, 978. 74
Total. .. ..... ..... .......... 6, 838, 258. 74
The following are the commodities shipped:
Coffee ................. ........................... 4, 526, 755.00oo
Indigo............................................. 1, 151, 169. oo
Sugar ........................ .................... 164,089. oo
Balsam .......................................... 55, 781. oo
Hides ............................................. 32, 734. oo
India rubber ....................................... o1, 578. oo
Silver coin...................................... 550, 68x. oo
Silver bullion ...................................... 149, 872.oo
Tobacco, leaf ................................... 30, 646.oo
Tobacco, manufactured ............................ 108, 040. oo
Other articles .................................... 57, 913. 74
Total....................... ............... 6,838,258.74
The imports consisted of the following merchandise:
Cotton goods ...................................... 877, 468.oo
Linen goods ....................................... 13, 217. oo
Woolen goods .................................... 56, 927. 00
Silk goods ....................................... 79, 170. oo
Mixed goods.................... ................. 5, 837. oo
Flour ..................................... ...... 202,9o6.oo
Liquors, wine and beer ............................ 225, 866. oo
Earthenware and glass ............................ 39, 367. oo
Drugs and perfumery..................... ........ 82, 454.oo
Ironware .......................................... 5,872. oo
Machiner .......................................... 40, 005.oo
Hats, straw ........................................ 15,363.oo
Shoemakers' tools................... ............ 18, 669.00
Jewelry.................................... .. 950.oo
Printed books...................................... I, 494. oo
Coin ..................... ............... ........ 143, 376.oo
Furniture and woods ............................... 33,415. 00
Hardware ............................. ............ 60,689.oo
Tinware ............................... ............ 93, 039. oo
Other articles ...................................... 223,857.30
Total .................. .. .................... 2, 320, 941- 30
The trade between the United States and Salvador has steadily
grown and may now be considered as well and soundly established.
The following report, made by Mr. G. J. Dawson, U. S. vice-
consul at San Salvador, September 3, 1893, gives a clear pre-
sentation of the present conditions:
After a careful investigation of the existing difficulties that our trade has to
overcome in this country in order to successfully compete with European goods,
I have arrived at certain conclusions which I judge worthy of the consideration
of our manufacturers and exporters.
Our commerce in Salvador has grown up slowly, but at the same time steadily,
in spite of the prejudice aroused against it by competitors and in spite of deplor-
able errors committed in the beginning by some of our shortsighted exporters.
The reputation of our goods, now firmly established and daily extending in
these markets, is due to their merit. Two facts, however, almost nullify the
advantages we have already gained. These are our short-credit system and our
lack of transportation facilities; which produces the anomalous result of cheaper
freight rates from European than from American ports.
It has been frequently said, and it is a fact, that American manufactures can
not compete with goods of European make on account of the cheapness of the
latter. This cheapness is generally due either to absolute inferiority of the trans-
atlantic article or to heavier freights paid from American ports. Rather than
debase the quality and the good reputation of our products, it is preferable to
go on as we are going; it is better to be unable to compete, in a certain sense
of the word, because the consumers here understand very well that the higher
prices they pay for our articles are in just proportion to their superior quality.
But if freights were reduced the prices actually demanded for our goods would
naturally fall, and we would then stand a fair chance of becoming the masters
of Central American trade.
Let us compare a few European articles with those of American manufacture,
in order to establish the real difference existing between them, independently
of prices. American cotton "manta" appears in this market as a heavy, soft,
white fabric, 36 inches wide and 40 yards long. English shirtings usually come
in 24-yard pieces, 24 to 28 inches wide. It is of a yellowish gray hue, thin and
brittle in texture, as if the threads of which it is woven were held together by
the lime and glue with which it is entirely coated. European and American
calicoes, muslins, cotton handkerchiefs, braids, and other stuffs of the same kind
likewise differ, those of American make showing at a glance what they are, the
European concealing under a brilliant exterior the poverty of their quality. The
lower classes of the people give the preference to European goods, on account
of their cheapness, but, aware of their bad quality, are constantly striving to
obtain American articles, satisfied that they would gain, though paying higher
Salvadorean importers get in England, on long terms of credit, white cotton
shirtings in 4o-yard pieces, 33 inches wide, at $1.55 per piece; in 24-yard
pieces and narrower widths at 88 cents; gray cotton domestics in 40-yard pieces,
z8 inches wide, at $1.37 per piece; striped cotton towels, 36 by 72 inches, at
$4 per dozen; and white towels, 28 by 64, at $z.zo per dozen.
Cotton yarn, bleached and dyed, is imported only from England and is much
used in the manufacture of native "manta," drills, cotton shawls (or "rebosos "),
napkins, tablecloths, and coarse handkerchiefs woven in the country. It comes
in bales of 45 or 50 bundles, weighing 5 pounds each. According to consular
invoices this yarn, dyed, is bought in Manchester at 20 cents per pound. Ameri-
can cotton yarn could advantageously compete in this market with the English
article, and it would be worth while to give this line of trade a trial, since the
English carry it on with a profit even after buying the raw material from the
United States or other countries.
Sewing thread is exclusively imported from the United States.
Woolen fabrics are mostly imported from France, England, and Germany.
With few exceptions they are mixed with other materials. .They wear very
poorly and sell at prices sufficiently high for first-class goods. American woolen
stuffs could find acceptance in much larger quantities than are now actually
imported. Their only drawbacks are, as stated above, the higher freights and
noncredit system of our tradespeople. Woolen hats of American manufacture
are being imported. Their superiority in every respect is recognized by the
Silk thread and stuffs are generally imported from France. The United States
have lately begun to introduce this kind of goods, and, as regards fineness in
quality, they have nothing to envy in those of European manufacture.
The importation of bottled beer from the United States is growing more and
more every day. English beers are fast withdrawing from this market, which
not long ago they monopolized. The German article is the only one in compe-
tition. Beer is not imported in barrels.
Cheap European wines, cognacs, and rums, generally imported from England
and Germany, are being slowly driven away by the pure articles from California.
With lower freights we would soon become the absolute masters of the wine and
liquor trade of Salvador. Chile is now looking to Central America as a new
field for the exportation of her wines and cereals. Heretofore Central America
has imported from Great Britain Chilean wines adulterated by European dealers,
who sent them back to this continent nicely bottled and gaily labeled. In the
future these countries will import the pure wines and liquors of the southern
Republic, with which we shall have to compete.
Shoes and shoemakers' materials are more rarely imported from Europe than
formerly. We are rapidly gaining ground in this line, and we are the only
exporters to these countries of sewing machines for shoemakers' use, as well as
of many raw materials and tools.
In the commerce of glass and china ware, as also of lamps and the.r accesso-
ries, bric-a-brac, and similar goods, we are improving. The same might be said
of cheap jewelry, paper, blank and printed books, and all stationery. American
watches and clocks have great demand, and their use is steadily growing. Our
trade in drugs, medicines, and perfumery is making rapid progress. Mercury is
largely imported from Europe. In some articles, however, such as rubber and
leather goods, blacking, varnishes, cordage, and umbrellas; we are making great
With regard to machinery, our trade is increasing constantly. Sewing ma-
chines of all descriptions, as well as carpenters' foot-power machines, are
imported from the United States. Sugar-cane mills, turbines, and other water
wheels, coffee and rice cleaning machines, electric apparatus, railway locomo-
tives, and steam engines of American manufacture are more frequently imported
than are those of European make.
The competition between American hardware and that of England and Ger-
many is becoming more brisk and important every day, notwithstanding cheaper
freights from European ports and the difference in credit systems. The great
superiority of our goods is daily more firmly established, and this is proved by
the repeated efforts made by transatlantic manufacturers to imitate our articles
and trade-marks, aided by dealers here who openly declare, when detected, that
English or German goods are "as good as American."
Galvanized-iron wire for telegraphic and fence purposes, as well as revolvers
and rifles, are exclusively imported from the United States. First-class tools,
machetes, axes, wire and cut nails, hunting knives, and steel in bars mostly come
from the United States.
The following are wholesale prices at which Salvador merchants get some of
their goods on credit in English markets:
Axes (good quality, without handles) ....................... each.. 78
Machetes ............................................per dozen.. 2. 36
Kettles ("peroles"), for cane juice.........................each.. xo. 40
Hunting knives ............. ....................... per dozen.. 2. 15
Shears ........................................ .....per gross.. 5.20
Sheet-iron cans, for balsam packing ........... ...........each.. 1.03
Galvanized sheet iron. .. .................... per pound.. oi
Zinc, in sheets ................ ........ ................ do .. .04
Steel, in bars ................ ............................do.... .052
Iron buckets ............................................. do .. 03
Iron "comales" (open flat ovens, for baking corn bread) ....do.... .02
Iron cantaros" (water pitchers)......................... do.... 12
Hoes................... ....................... per dozen.. 1.50
Lead, in bars ........................................per pound .022
Tin, in bars .................. ........................ do... .. 20
With regard to furniture, it may be said that most of that imported comes
from the United States. The same is also true to a very large extent of oil,
paints, brushes, moldings, and tapestries, which were hardly ever brought from
the United States till a few years ago.
Coal, petroleum, gasoline, and naphtha, Portland cement, cotton-seed oil,
tea, lumber, ready-made doors and blinds, preserved meats, lard, fresh and pre-
served fruits and vegetables, Indian corn and maizena, flour, and rice come
exclusively from the United States, as also large quantities of pickles, cheese,
salt fish, and other potted meats.
The exports from the United States to Salvador during the year ending June
30, 1893, were as follows:
Agricultural implements .................................... .......
Cars, passenger and freight, for steam railroads .....number..1 7 I
Cotton, manufactures of:
Cloths, colored and uncolored ................... yards.. 1, 843, 224
All other .................................. ..... ..
Fish, canned, other than salmon......: ....... ..................... ..
India rubber and gutta-percha, manufactures of ............. .........
Iron and steel, manufactures of:
Cutlery .. ..... ....... ........................... ..... ... .
Firearms ........... .................... ... .. .........
Machinery, not elsewhere specified ...................... ..........
Nails and spikes-
Cut ..................................... pounds.. 54,660
Wire, wrought, horseshoe, and all other, including
tacks................................... pounds.. 2,600
Saws and tools.................... .......... ... .........
Steam engines, etc.-stationary engines.........number.. I I
Wire ............ ......... ............. pounds. .II, 356, 863
Leather and manufactures of:
Leather ................................... ........... ..........
Boots and shoes.............................pairs.. 263
Harness and saddles ..... .......................... ..........
All other ...................................................
All other articles ....................................................
Domestic exports ........................... ..................
Foreign goods .................................. ...... ......
Total exports .................... ....... ..... .........
The imports from Salvador with the United States for the year
ending June 30, 1893, were:
Goods free of duty ................ .................. 355,674
Goods dutiable ..................................... 56
Total...................... ......... ......... .. 355, 730
There has been a general complaint throughout all the countries
of Central and South America as to carelessness in packing goods
in the United States. The following report of Vice-Consul
Dawson shows clearly the necessity for careful attention on that
point and explains the rough handling to which merchandise is
subjected in Salvador.
UNLOADING AND LANDING.
The more or less bad condition in which goods reach this country is largely
due to the usage to which packages are subjected on landing at the ports and
during their transportation from the ports to the interior. The knowledge,
then, of the facts concerning the landing and transportation difficulties in Salvador
is bound to be a sure guide to manufacturers and exporters intending to pack
goods destined for this country.
In the first place, goods are hoisted from the holds of vessels in a rough and
careless manner and thrown down into lighters or big open launches, where they
are as roughly put in order, with utter disregard to the size or resistance of frail
packages on which heavy ones are piled, to the detriment of their contents.
Once loaded, the lighters are rowed a distance of from half a mile to 2 miles
(at Acajutla and La Libertad) to the wharf, where the goods are again hoisted
some 30 or 40 feet from the launches to the pier in a somewhat similar fashion
to that observed in unloading them from the steamers. From the head of the
pier the cargo is once more moved, placed on small platform cars, pushed some
4oo feet over rails by hand at La Libertad, and drawn by oxen at Acajutla to
the custom-house, where warehouses are provided pending the registering of
At La Uni6n the process just described varies a little with regard to the pier.
There the lighters, which are long and narrow Indian canoes or "bougos," as
they are called, are supposed to reach the land directly from the steamers; but,
as the water is too shallow for their draft, ox carts are driven up to the axles
into the muddy water, and the bales, cases, barrels, etc., are brought to them
from the boats on the shoulders of cartmen and boatmen who wade waist deep
from to to 25 yards. The carts, once loaded, are driven some 60 yards to the
custom-house, where the goods are thrown out and stowed pending registration.
EN ROUTE TO THE INTERIOR.
At Acajutla the cargo is taken from the warehouse on board. the cars of the
Acajutla Railroad to Sonsonate, or to the terminus at La Ceiba. Goods are
supposed to suffer a great deal less from rough handling by this route than on
the way from La Libertad or La Uni6n to the interior. The transportation
from Sonsonate and other railway stations to the western departments of Sal-
vador and from the two seaports mentioned above to the inland towns is done
by means of carts. These are two-wheeled vehicles drawn by oxen. Their
construction is primitive and strong. Their axles are made of wood, and the
body of the cart sits directly on the axle, without any springs. The length of
the carts is generally 9 feet and the breath 3% feet. In the dry season, when
the roads are supposed to be in good condition, they carry as much as 7 "cargas"
of z1 arrobass" each (z, ioo pounds). This load is reduced to 1,ooo and even
to 8o0 pounds in rainy weather, when the roads are next to impassable. One
hundred and twenty-five cubic feet of bulky and light cargoes can be transported
in one of these carts.
The roads in Salvador are, as a rule, very bad. They are not macadamized,
and can be described as simple cuts on the hillsides of sufficient width to allow
two carts to pass each other. Whenever traffic or a rain storm wears holes or
ditches in the roadbed, bundles of twigs or brush and loose earth brought from
the nearest cut on the roadside and placed therein are deemed enough by the
municipal officials to remedy the imperfection; the consequence is that the high-
ways are always in poor condition. To this it may be added that bridges are
extremely rare; that the ground is generally soft, easily cut by the rain, and
frequently muddy; that no regard has been taken for the grading of the ways,
which go almost straight uphill and down to the bottom of the valleys; and,
lastly, that the rainfall in the wet season is frequent and heavy.
Whenever an axle breaks, which is a very common occurrence, or whenever,
as more usually happens, a cart gets stuck in a mudhole, out of which the oxen-
small, ill fed, lean, and weak beasts-can not pull it, the custom on the road
from La Uni6n to San Miguel is to unload the cargo and to carry it on the
shoulders of the cartmen beyond the difficult pass in order to draw the empty
vehicle to a safe place, where they load again, only to repeat the sticking and
unloading process some z or 3 miles ahead. On La Libertad road a whole
train of carts stops at such times and unite the strength of o1 or 12 couples
of oxen to draw the "stuck cart" over the bad piece of road. Then they move
away, leaving others to meet their fate, without ever giving a thought to mend-
ing the ditch or hole that detained them. In this way they manage to make
the distance of 36 miles from La Libertad to San Salvador or from La Uni6n
to San Miguel in from three to eight days.
The price for carting every "carga" of 300 pounds a distance of 36 or 40
miles varies from 95 cents to $4.50, according to the season of the year. Goods
are carted in the same manner from Sonsonate to Santa Ana, and from the rail-
way terminus at La Ceiba to Santa Tecla and San Salvador.
Once at Santa Ana or at San Miguel, a new kind of handling begins for pack-
ages destined to go further into the interior. This consists in pack mules that
carry from zoo to 250 pounds, and which differ very little from those used on
the Rocky Mountains.
From what has been said, it is only natural to suggest that goods should be
tightly packed in as small cases, bales, barrels, or packages as possible-no larger
than 36 by 2o by 18 inches, and weighing not more than 80 or loo pounds.
Cases containing goods should be made of strong three-quarter inch boards,
capable of standing more rough handling than any that can be even imagined in
the United States, for in this country the mere movement of a cart on a rela-
tively smooth road is enough to shake almost any kind of a box to pieces and to
ruin the contents if not firmly packed and well protected with sawdust, hay, or
other appropriate packing stuff. This should especially be borne in mind when
packing bottled wines, liquors, and other liquids, which, by the way, are fre-
quently rifled in a strange and very effective manner. The cartmen willfully
strike the bottom of a whole case of wine or brandy against a rock until the
board gets broken and with it one or more bottles. The liquid then pouring
out through the box or package is collected and drunk. This is reported and
charged to the broken case from which no bottle has been extracted.
Against heavy packing, however, there is the drawback of customs duties
charged on the box, keg, barrel, etc., according to the actual tariff. Merchants
generally sell the cases or packing of merchandise for more than the equivalent
of the duties paid on them. The question then is, does it suit them better to
pay small duties on a light case and run the risk of heavy-losses by breakage and
robbery or to pay more duties on strong boxing, with a prospective guaranty
against either loss? The latter is generally accepted as preferable.
The actual system of packing bales of dry goods is good enough, but the
weight per package ought to be diminished by putting fewer pieces of cloth in
The fact of packages not being waterproof increases the freight rates about
15 per cent from the ports to the interior during the rainy season.
Casks containing wines or other liquids should be protected by a thick, coarse
mat, covering at least the central or widest diameter of the same.
Petroleum, naphtha, cotton-seed oil, and similar articles should be packed in
cans of thicker tin, and the soldering should be more carefully executed, for they
suffer a great deal in transit, and the leakage, of the first especially, often amounts
to 40 per cent of the whole invoice.
All wooden cases and boxes should have, when possible, iron bands on the
edges, and some device ought to be invented by which the ends of those bands
may be locked and unlocked in some way as a precaution against stealing the
contents by boatmen, cartmen, and porters, particularly when high-priced
goods are packed in them. Custom-house officials openall packages to register
their contents and deliver them opened to the owners or their agents, who shut
them hastily as best they can and turn them over half closed to the cartmen
to be taken to the interior in the manner already described.
Machinery destined for this country should be made in as small pieces as
practicable. The road from La Union to San Miguel is strewn with heavy
pieces of mining machinery, big iron shafts, blocks of granite and marble for
monuments, etc., which have never reached their destination. At this date
there is actually a boiler at the foot of the pier at Acajutla under 12 feet of
water, which broke the chains with which they were hoisting it from -the lighter.
It is sunk, probably never to be recovered.
In conclusion, our merchants should remember that English is not spoken in
Salvador, and that the labels "Handle with care," "This side up," "Use no
hooks," etc., on packages should be written or printed in Spanish if they are to
be read here.
In April, 1893, a decree of Congress was published reestablishing
consular invoices, which must now accompany all shipments of
goods to Salvador. As the details are important to shippers, a full
translation is given, as follows:
The National Assembly of the Republic of Salvador: Whereas it is expedient
to reestablish consular invoices, in order to more effectively prevent the entry
of foreign goods in contraband, to more clearly justify their real origin, and to
augment the receipts of the consular service of the Republic, has decreed:
ARTICLE 1. Whosoever ships articles of commerce, even duty-free goods, from
abroad into the Republic must, for every shipment to a consignee, make an invoice
in triplicate copy.
These invoices must be written in the Spanish language or in the language
of the country of origin, and give the following details:
1. The indication of the quantity of bales, cases, barrels, bundles, or any
other package containing goods.
2. The marks and number of each package and its gross weight, with the
exception of machinery, iron, or wood, which can, even when composed of various
packages, be entered in the invoice with the total price of each shipment.
3. The denomination and kind of goods.
4. The value of the goods in legal currency of the Republic, in the currency
of the country of origin, or in the currency with which the goods were pur-
ART. 2. The shippers of goods must present the three copies of the invoice
to be visded to the consul, vice-consul, or consular agent of the Republic resid-
ing at the place of origin or at the port from whence the goods are to be shipped.
In localities where no agent of Salvador exists these documents must be legalized
by a consul of a friendly country or of a country with which the Republic is not
at war. In default of these agents the legalization must be made by the cham-
ber of commerce, if it should not refuse to do so, and, finally, by two merchants
of the locality.
ART. 3. Consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents must exact from shippers
of goods that the triplicate invoices conform to the prescriptions of the present
law; they can tolerate neither interlineations, erasures, corrections, nor cancel-
ings, and may not authenticate the invoices until after comparison.
ART. 4. When the authentication emanates from agents ot the Republic it
shall be inscribed at the foot of each copy and in the following form: "I certify
that the above invoice, presented by (indicate the name of the shipper) composed
of (indicate, in letters, the number of sheets) is relative to (number) of packages,
of a total weight and of a total value of (state total weight and value in letters)."
The seal of the consulate must be affixed at the end of each certificate and on
each sheet of the invoice, otherwise they shall be null.
ART. 5. When the legalization is made by a foreign consular agent, it shall be
valid when drawn up conformably to his administrative form and when made
by a chamber of commerce or by merchants it shall be valid when drawn up
conformably to the regulations of the country ot origin, or of any other country,
provided that the number of sheets and the quantity of the packages be sufficiently
ART. 6. Consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents of Salvador must keep two
of the three copies of the invoices in their possession, and must give receipt
therefore to the interested party. They shall remit to the latter the third copy
in order that the consignee may, at the port of destination, annex the same to
the bills of lading.
One of the copies retained by the consuls must be transmitted to the admin-
istrator of the maritime custom house at the place of destination and, when pos-
sible, by the same vessel carrying the goods, and the other must be sent by them,
by the next mail, to the direction general of the treasury. These two copies
must be sent under sealed envelopes.
When the legalization was not made by a consular agent of the Republic the
copies of the invoice to be transmitted to the customs and to the direction gen-
eral of the treasury, as above described, must be sent by the interested party.
ART. 7. A register shall be kept in every consular office of the Republic in
which an extract of the authenticated invoices must be entered, and an abstract
of this register must be transmitted half-yearly to the minister of finance.
ART. 8. Consuls, vice-consuls, and consular agents shall collect a fee of z pesos
50 centavos for the authentication of each series of invoices; this fee they must
share with the consul-general of the Republic accredited to the country of their
ART. 9. Invoices for samples and those the amount of which does not exceed
100 pesos shall be exempt from the consular fee, provided, however, that the
,im has not been apportioned among various invoices in order to reduce the total
ART. 10. The customs of the Republic can not effect the verification of goods
when the consignee has not produced the consular invoice.
Should the consular invoice which the consignee must produce miscarry or be
delayed, the examination of the goods may, nevertheless, be effected with the
control of the copy received by the customs, or in default of the latter, by the
one transmitted to the direction general of the treasury.
ART. 11. If for plausible reasons neither of the two documents above alluded
to can be furnished, the verification may likewise be effected by furnishing, instead
of the invoice, a written declaration giving the details of the goods, and pro-
vided that a bond be given guaranteeing the presentation of an invoice in good
and due form within a short delay.
No bond shall be exacted for invoices not exceeding ioo pesos in amount.
The immediate verification may likewise be effected when the owner of goods,
requiring them absolutely, is not in possession of the required documents or when
it is impossible for him to make the detailed declaration alluded to in the pre-
ceding paragraph. In such case the verification must be effected by all of the
"contadoreo-vistas and the administrator of customs.
ART. 12. Should part of the packages declared in an invoice not be found at
arrival, owing to an omission at the time of shipment, such packages may be
declared afterwards by furnishing a duly legalized copy or an extract of the
ART. 13. The administrator of customs who permits the verification of goods
by neglecting the observance of the formalities prescribed by the present law shall,
for every case, incur a fine of loo pesos.
ART. 14. The prescriptions of the present law relative to consuls, vice-consuls,
and consular agents shall likewise be applicable to consuls-general.
ART. 15. The present decree shall enter into force three months after its pro-
mulgation for goods imported via Panama or proceeding from the Pacific coast,
and six months after, for goods imported via the Strait of Magellan.
Given in the Legislative Palace, San Salvador,'April 7, 1893.
ANTONIO J. CASTRO,
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
The metric system of weights and measures was established in
Salvador by decree dated 1st of January, 1886, but. it has been
found very difficult to induce the people to recognize the change,
and with few and rare exceptions the old weights and measures
continue in general use. They are as follows:
Salvador. United States.
Libra ................ .................... I. o0127 pounds.
Arroba. ...... ......... ................= 25. 3175 pounds.
Quintal .......... ...... ................... .=10. 2700 pounds.
Cantara = 4 cuartillas .........................= 4. 263.gallons.
Botella .............. ........... ...... = o. 766 quart.
Fanega=4 cuartillas ........................= 5745 bushels.
The vara, which is the standard measure of length, was fixed by
decree of 14th of February, 1865, at .836 meter or 2% feet, and
the manzana of land as too varas square= 1.726 acres. In com-
merce there are certain denominations in current use, such as the
serron of indigo = 15o libras; that of tobacco = 125 libras, and
a carga, or load for a mule = 8 arrobas.
UNITED STATES CONSULS IN SALVADOR.
San Salvador............ Alexander L. Pollock ....... Consul.
San Salvador ............ Guillermo J. Dawson ....... Vice-consul.
Acajutla ................ Andrew A. Oliver........... Consular agent.
La Libertad ............ Emilio Courtade............ Consular agent.
La Union ............... John B. Courtade........... Consular agent.
Santa Ana .......... H. M. Klein................ Acting agent.
CONSULS OF SALVADOR IN THE UNITED STATES.
New York ............. Samuel Boyd ............. Consul-general.
New York ............. Ernesto Schernikow. ...... Vice-consul.
Boston ................ J. C. Blume y Corbacho..... Consul.
San Francisco........... Carlos F. Irigoyen ......... Consul.
San Diego .............. Herman Welisch............ Consul.
MONEY, BANKING, AND REVENUE.
The monetary unit has until recently been the silver dollar,
which was divided into-
2 Tostones................................. ...... = 50 cents.
4 Pesetas ......................... ......... .... = 25 cents.
S 8 Reales ................. ...................... = i2z% cents.
16 Medios .............. .. ............... = 6% cents.
32 Cuartillos ...................................... = 3N cents.
Divided also as a money of account into loo centavos, or cents.
In small transactions, particularly in the markets, it has been cus-
tomary to divide the cuartillo into 2 raciones= IX cents, and the
racion into 2 medias of three-quarters cent.
In the scarcity of national coins, gold and silver of different
countries has been in circulation, particularly those of Guatemala,
Honduras, Costa Rica, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia,
Mexico, United States, France, and England, also some German
gold coins. Custom has determined the value placed on these
foreign moneys, except in the case of those whose equivalent has
been so well known as to be invariable.
The peso was reputed as equal to 5 francs, French; 5 liras,
Italian; 5 pesetas, Spanish; 4 shillings, English; 4 marcs, German;
and 1 dollar, United States.
The decimal system was adopted by law February 17, 1883,
and made obligatory on January 1, 1886, but the people continue
to make use of the old Spanish coins and methods of reckoning.
The most effective step for the establishment of a national coinage
was the making of a contract by the Government with an English
company, organized under the name of the Central-American
Mint, Limited, in accordance with which the said company has
built and equipped a mint which is perfect in all respects, and
possesses some of the finest machinery in the world. It was for-
mally inaugurated with great ceremony by the President of the
Republic on the 28th of August, 1892. Salvador is naturally
proud of the institution, as it will fill a long-felt want by providing
it with a national coinage which will be a boon to commerce and
the country generally. Immediately following the opening of the
mint, the Government took another important step and established
a gold standard. This is a matter of such importance to the
country, and will have such a far-reaching effect on commerce,
that a literal translation of the law and the decree making pro-
vision for carrying it into effect is given, as follows:
PROVISIONS OF THE BILL ON MONETARY REFORM INTRODUCED ON SEPTEMBER 13,
1892, IN THE CONGRESS OF SALVADOR BY THE MINISTER OF THE TREASURY
AND PUBLIC CREDIT, PASSED SEPTEMBER 30, 1892.
1. Gold shall be the standard. There will be a gold coin called peso, which
shall weigh 1.612903 grams, and will be the unit. The multiples and submul-
tiples of the peso shall be according to the decimal system.
2. Coins, inferior and subsidiary, shall be silver and copper or nickel, in the
Silver: 25 grams, of silver for one gold peso.
Copper or nickel: 1.333333 for one gold cent.
All the coins shall be national money, and shall be coined by the Government
and for its benefit.
3. The revenues as well as the expenses of the Government shall be estimated
in the new national gold coin, the value of the silver to be calculated according
to the rates it may reach at the time in the New York Exchange.
4. Until sufficient quantity of the national gold coin is in circulation in the
country, taxes and all debts due to the Government may be paid in the national
currency, or in foreign gold coin, or in silver coin admitted to circulation, but
in the latter case the value of the silver shall be fixed as above said, and an
additional charge of 5 per cent on the tax shall be made.
Salaries and expenses of all kinds shall be paid by the Government in the
same way; but 70 per cent of the salaries and 60 per cent of all other expenses
shall be paid, unless ad interim, in either gold or silver national coin.
5. The value of silver fixed as above mentioned shall be published by the
Government, in the Official Journal, on the 15th of each month. But during
the period of two months subsequent to the date in which this bill becomes a
law, 60 per cent shall be the legal rate.
During said period 70 per cent of all customs duties, and taxes on liquor,
shall be paid in gold, or its equivalent in silver at the said rate of 60 per cent.
6. Coins not gold shall be issued by the Government to the amount of
500,000 pesos, as follows:
125,000 pesos in silver pieces of 20, to, and 5 cents each.
25,000 pesos in pieces of copper or nickel, from I to 3 cents each.
250,000 pesos in pieces of loo cents each.
200,000 pesos in pieces of 50 cents each.
Coins of the value of one dollar and half a dollar may be represented by
gold certificates issued by some bank in the Republic, on its own responsibility,
redeemable at par on demand. The issue of these certificates shall be controlled
by the Government.
7. The fineness of the coin shall be 0.900. But subsidiary silver coins shall
continue to have the fineness of 0.835. The fineness of the pieces of copper
and nickel will be 1.875 and 0.635, respectively.
8. Until a sufficient quantity of the new national gold coin is put in circula-
tion, foreign gold coins shall be a legal tender at the following rates:
American and Spanish gold at par; English and Mexican, 97 per cent; French,
96 per cent; German, 95 per cent.
9. The Government is given authority to make all necessary arrangements
with the mint to carry these provisions into effect.
10. The present law does not affect any transaction or contract of anterior
11. All former laws in opposition to these provisions are repealed.
PROVISIONS TO CARRY THE LAW INTO EFFECT.
By executive decree of the Government of Salvador, issued on October 21,
1892, in pursuance of the law enacted on the 3oth of September of the same
year, which is the one introduced on the 13th of the same month as a "Bill on
monetary reform," the following was ordered:
I. Gold coins of 10, 15, and o2 dollars shall be coined, with the weight,
fineness, etc., provided by the law aforesaid.
Silver auxiliary coins shall be of 5, lo, 20, 50, and ioo cents.
Minor coins, inferior in value to 5 cents, shall be in circulation only to the
amount of $25,000, the coinage of which was entrusted to contractors by the
2. As long as the new gold coins are not either coined in the country or imported
from abroad in sufficient quantity to properly meet the necessities of circulation
the Government shall grant authority to some of the banks now in existence to
issue notes from $1 to $100 each, payable in gold, which shall be a legal tender
at par, redeemable on presentation to the bank either with national gold coin or
with foreign gold coin, at the rates which shall be established by law, or with
a'national silver coin at the rate of 170 silver dollars for ioo gold dollars.
The silver in this way obtained shall be shipped to such foreign places as may
afford more advantageous opportunities to sell it; and the proceeds of the sale
shall be invested in gold bullion, which in its turn shall be coined either abroad
or at Salvador.
3. Auxiliary gold coins shall be coined only to the amount of $1,ooo,ooo.
But gold coins inferior in value to o5 cents shall not exceed $500,000. These
coins will be used mainly for the purpose of withdrawing the present silver coins
from circulation. They will be exchanged for silver at the rate above fixed.
4. To facilitate the conversion of the silver coins now in circulation into gold
coins, the Government will make an allowance of 15 per cent on all payments
to be made in the custom-houses during six month subsequent to this decree,
when made in gold, provided, however, that the amount paid is not less than
5. The payment of all taxes and customs duties except the export duties on
coffee shall be paid in gold or in the notes above created, at 70 per cent on the
valuation or assessment, but during the first six months subsequent to the pro-
mulgation of this decree maybe paid also in silver at 75 per cent discount.
6. Drafts and bonds on the custom-houses shall continue to be received in
payment at their face value, as if they were silver coins.
7. During the same period of six months the Government will be authorized
to pay all its expenses in silver coins or in gold, or notes. After the six months
are elapsed the payments shall be in gold or its equivalent at the rate above
8. The value of foreign gold coins in relation to the Salvadorean will be as
United States coins, 4 per cent premium; English, Spanish, or Mexican coins,
1 per cent premium; French coins and all gold coins of the Latin Union (Italy,
Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece) at par. German coins, 99 per cent, or i
per cent discount.
9. Nothing in this decree shall be construed as to effect the obligations and
contracts in existence.
o1. One year after the promulgation of this decree all values shall be fixed
Such a radical change as is brought about by this law could not
of course be carried out without some difficulty, and although the
Government has strenuously endeavored to enforce it, it has so far
been only partially successful and it will take some time to put it
in full operation.
The banks of Salvador are the International, founded in August,
1880, with a capital of $1,8oo,ooo (silver); the Occidental, founded
in the city of Santa Ana in 1889, with a capital of $1,ooo,ooo
(silver), which has also a branch in the city of San Salvador; and
the Salvidorefio, founded in 1892, with a capital of $1,ooo,ooo
There is also the private bank of Messrs. Blanes & Trigueros,
founded in 1835, whose capital is estimated at $1,o0o,ooo. In
1893 the Bank of Nicaragua opened a branch office in the city of
San Salvador and is now doing business under the same conditions
as the other banks. These banks are all doing a good business
and are paying large dividends. It is also reported that certain
concessions and privileges have been granted by the Government
to the firm of Linares & Co., of Barcelona, Spain, for the estab-
lishment of a national bank in Salvador with a capital of
,ooo,ooo sterling (gold). Concessions were also granted in
1892 for the establishment of a mortgage bank, but so far nothing
has been done toward carrying them into effect.
REVENUE AND PUBLIC DEBT.
Previous to the year 1887 considerable confusion existed in the
financial affairs of the country, but on March 23 of that year a
decree was issued creating a commission for the purpose of classi-
fying and taking measures for the liquidation of the public debt.
The result was that in October, 1888, when the work was com-
pleted, the internal debt was found to amount to $6,670,736.36, in
addition to which there was a foreign debt of $1,ooo,ooo which
had been incurred on account of railroad concessions.
Notwithstanding great expenses incurred by the Government
during the internal troubles in 1890 and the war with Guatemala,
the internal debt had in 1891 been reduced to $5,496,400, and
on the 1st of January, 1893, it was stated at $3,614,000. The
foreign debt, which consists of a loan made in England, the pro-
ceeds of which were used in railroad investments, at the beginning
of 1892, amounted to $2,175,000, but on the 1st of January, 1893,
had been reduced to $1,954,012. The value of the bonds on the
London market had at the same period risen from 50 to 75 per
On the 13th of July, 1893, the Government published a project
for an internal loan of $1,ooo,ooo silver, offering to pay a premium
of 10 per cent and interest at 12 per cent per annum, the bonds to
be redeemable by a new tax of o1 cents on each bottle of rum sold
in the country to the amount of one-half and the other half by
10 per cent of the customs duties.
Revenue for 1892.................................................. 6, 895,702.65
For various branches of the administration. .... 4, 052,073. 12
For reduction of debt, consolidated and floating.
and payment of interest.................... .. 2, 732. 456. 30
---- 6, 784, 529. 42
Surplus......... ...................... I I, 173. 23
TRANSPORTATION, TELEGRAPHS, AND MAILS.
Salvador has in operation a railroad extending from the seaport
of Acajutla to La Ceiba or Colon, 53 miles in length. It connects
the city of Sonsonate and the smaller towns of Armenia and Ateos
with Acajutla, and only 8 miles are wanting to reach Santa Tecla
(New San Salvador). The section between La Ceiba and Santa
Tecla, which is now being constructed, is the most difficult on the
whole line, on account of the character of the ground. The exca-
vation of three tunnels and an outlay of $400,000 will be necessary
to complete it to Santa Tecla, which will complete the connection
between the city of San Salvador and Acajutla, as there has been
for some time a horse railroad in operation between the capital and
Santa Tecla, which has now been changed to a steam railroad of
uniform gauge with the main line. The gauge of the road is 3
feet and the weight of the rails 40 pounds per yard. The rails
were imported from England, but the locomotives and rolling
stock are from the United States. The Government owns the
road, having purchased it from the builders for $1,460,000. The
receipts for the year 1892 amounted to $191,558.50, and the
expenses to $138,876.14, leaving a net profit of $52,682.36. The
facilities for landing at Acajutla are not good, in consequence of
the smallness of the pier and wharf and the shallowness of the
water. It is the intention of the Government to extend the rail-
road about a mile westward, and will probably build a new pier
CUSTOM-HOUSE AT ACAJUTLA, SALVADOR.
and wharf at Puerto Viejo, where there is deeper water. The
wharf charges for use of the piers at Acajutla and La Libertad are
Packages of merchandise of all kinds ..........................per quintal.. o. 34
Machinery, lead, iron unmanufactured, steel, wheels, nails, tools, shovels, scales,
axes, tin plate, iron safes, and hardware of all kinds ...........per quintal.. .25
Cacao, tea, matches, wax, paper, linseed oil, paints, sardines, earthenware, per-
fumery, drugs, salt, cheese, hams and other provisions, cement, tar, cordage,
barley, potatoes, corks, boilers, preserved provisions, and other small pack-
ages... ................... ............ ... .......... per quintal.. 30
Flour ............................ .... ......... ... ..............do ... .20
Liquors of all kinds, oil, Florida water, and bottled beer, in cases, per 12 bottles. o1
Liquors of all kinds, in barrels.... .......... ........................do.... .08
Liquors of all kinds, in jugs or demijohns, oil, in similar packages or in tins,
per 12 bottles ........................................................... .20
Furniture of all kinds ....................................... per quintal.. .50
Hats, of rush, felt, or straw ......................... ............. do... i. oo
P ianos .......................... .............. ....... ......... each 6. oo
Four wheels ....................................................do.... 12. oo
Two wheels .................................. ............. do.. 8. oo
H horses ............................................................. do.... 5. oo
Fowls ......................................................... do.... I.oo
Passengers...................................................... do.... .50
Baggage ........................................ .......... .per quintal.. .25
Cattle ............................................. .............. each.. oo
Indigo ................... ...................... ......... per quintal.. .40
Tobacco ...................................... ..... ............ do... .16
Balsam ..........................................................do... .48
Hides................ .......................................... do.... .25
C otton .................................... ......... ............ do.... 25
Coffee ................................................ ........ .... do.... .15
Brown. ..................................................... do .... .08
W hite .......................................... .............. .do.... .12
Rice, starch, corn, and beans ..... ................................ do .... .06
Rebozos (scarfs)........................................ ......... do.... I.oo
Mats and hats of palm leaf, and sarsaparilla .........................o 50
Cigars ..... ........................................ .............. do.... .50
India rubber ...................................... .............do.... .20
Water, ballast, and timber ...................................... .do.... .06
Dyewoods ......................................................do.... 06
W ood for building ........................ ........... ..............do.... .06
Coin.......................................................... per cent..
Gold and silver bullion ........................... ........ ... do.... -
Other articles, not mentioned, shall be classed with those to
which they are most similar.
A railroad is in course of construction, which will extend from
Ateos, where it connects with the Acajutla road, to the city of
Santa Ana, a distance of about 39 miles, of which 13 miles has
been completed, and the rails laid, leaving 26 miles upon which
work is steadily progressing. The Government is building this
road and devotes to its construction a tax of 25 cents on each
package, bale, or case of goods imported through the ports of
Acajutla, La Libertad, and La Unibn. This tax produces about
$30,000 per month. The gauge of the road and the weight of
the rails are similar to those of the Acajutla railroad.
Congress has recently granted a concession to build a tramway,
6 miles in length, between the cities of Sonsonate and Izalco. It
has also granted a concession to M. Armand Blanchard, a French
engineer, for the construction of a wharf at the port of La Uni6n
and a railway from thence to the city of San Miguel, a distance
of 36 miles. By its terms, the Government guarantees to M.
Blanchard, for forty-five years, 6 per cent interest on the cost of
the wharf and railroad, estimated at the rate of $40,000, gold,
per mile; after ninety-nine years, the Government to become the
owner of the wharf and road; the rolling stock to be purchased
according to mutual valuation. M. Blanchard can extend the
road from San Miguel to San Salvador, if he chooses, the gauge
of the road and weight of the rails to be similar to the Acajutla
line. As M. Blanchard has also a concession from the Govern-
ment of Honduras to build a railroad from Ampala to Teguci-
galpa, the Congress of Salvador grants him the privilege of con-
necting the Salvador and Honduras lines by a branch to be built
along the shore of the bay of La Uni6n.
A concession has also been granted for the construction of a
railroad from the port of La Libertad to San Salvador.
There are four steamship lines running regularly to the ports
of Salvador, The Pacific Mail Steamship Company, The Kosmos,
The Otis, and The North American Steamship Company. The
Pacific Mail Company formerly received a subsidy of $24,000
per annum, but by a recent contract that is reduced to $20,000,
the company securing a reduction in the number of persons having
a right to free passage. The passenger tariff from La Union to
New York is now placed at $1 to, and from other ports $115, and
to San Francisco $75 from any of the ports. Under this contract
the steamers are to touch at the port of El Triumfo. To induce
immigration, the Government offers to refund one-half of the pas-
sage money to all immigrants presenting a printed or written con-
tract with the Government or its agents, or a certificate of a consul
of Salvador in which they agree to settle in the country. The
Kosmos and Otis lines each receive from the Government $4,8oo00
per annum for carrying the mails. The contract with the North
American Steamship Company of San Francisco grants exemp-
tion from all port charges and taxes on their vessels touching at
Salvadorean ports, in consideration of the said company carrying
the mails without remuneration.
The port charges at all the ports of Salvador are: Entry, $5 to
$15; tonnage, 15 cents per ton.
Within the past two years a considerable extension has taken
place in the telegraph system; old lines have been thoroughly
repaired and new ones constructed. During the year 1892, 1o8
miles of wire have been added and 15 new offices established.
The existing lines, as reported in June, 1893, aggregate 2,421
miles. There were also on that date 321 miles of telephone lines.
Communication with the telegraph systems of the world is had by
connection with the submarine cable at La Libertad. The net rev-
enue derived from these sources in 1892, after payment of expenses,
amounted to $37,534.76, showing an increase of $12,878.32 over
the preceding year.
The Post-office Department is perfectly organized and is in
excellent condition. Salvador entered the Universal Postal Union
in 1879. In 1891 the mails carried 1,654,341 pieces, and in 1892
the number increased to 1,781,589 pieces. On the 1st of July,
1893, a convention went into operation which had been concluded
between the United States and Salvador for the establishment of
a postal money-order system between the two countries. A parcels
post convention had previously been negotiated and concluded
with the United States in June, 1889. As this contains many
regulations, the knowledge of which will be useful to shippers, it
is given in full in Appendix C.
POLITICAL CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SALVADOR, 1886.
TITLE I.- The Nation and the Form of Its Government.
ARTICLE. 1. The Salvadorian Nation is sovereign and independent and can
never be the patrimony of any family or person.
The sovereignty is inalienable and cannot be lost by time. It is limited to
what is honest, just, and useful to society. It is vested in the whole body of
the Salvadorian people, ana no section of the country or group of individuals
can attribute it to themselves.
ART. 2. All public power emanates from the people. The functionaries of
the State are delegates of the people and have no more powers than those
expressly given to them by law. It is by law that they legislate, exercise execu-
tive functions, and act judicially; it is through it that obedience and respect is
due to them; and it is in accordance with its principles that they must give an
account for their actions.
ART. 3. The territory of Salyador has for its limits the following: On the
east, the Gulf of Fonseca; on the north, the Republics of Guatemala an'd Hon-
duras; on the west, the River Paz ; and on the south, the Pacific Ocean. The
special demarcation of the boundary lines shall be made by law.
ART. 4. The Government of the Salvadorian Nation is republican, demo-
cratic, representative, and alternative. It is vested in three different powers
independent of each other, which shall be known as Legislative, Executive, and
TITLE II.-Rights and Guaranties.
ART. No hereditary offices or privileges are recognized in the Republic.
All property is transferable in the manner and form prescribed by the laws,
and therefore all kinds of entailments or mortmain are prohibited.
ART. 6. No taxes shall be levied unless by virtue of a law and for the public
ART. 7. All persons exercising any public office are directly and immediately
responsible for the acts done by them in the exercise of their functions. The
law shall fix the manner and form of enforcing this responsibility.
ART. 8. Salvador recognizes that there are rights and duties anterior and
superior to the positive laws, having liberty, equality, and fraternity as princi-
ples, and family, labor, property, and public order as basis.
ART. 9. All the inhabitants of Salvador have an indisputable right to preserve
and defend their life, liberty, and property, and to dispose freely of their prop-
erty in conformity with the law.
ART. 10. Every man in the Republic is free. No one who enters its territory
can be a slave, nor can any one dealing in slaves be a Salvadorian citizen.
ART. 11. The Republic is a sacred asylum for all foreigners who may be
willing to reside in its territory, -unless when accused of common offenses and
claimed by some nation in compliance with treaties in which extradition has
been provided for. The extradition can not be allowed in any case against the
natives of the country, nor in the case of foreigners for political offenses, even
if a common crime has resulted from such offense.
ART. 12. The free exercise of all religions, without any other restriction than
morals or public order, is guarantied. No religious act shall serve to establish
the civil status of a person.
ARI. 13. All persons have the right to stay in whatever place they may deem
advisable, to travel freely, to emigrate from the country, and to return to it
without a passport, except in case of a final judicial sentence and without preju-
dice to the provisions made in Article 28 of this Constitution.
ART. 14. The inhabitants of Salvador can meet and associate with each other
peacefully, and without arms, for any lawful purpose.
ART. 15. No person can be compelled to do work or render personal service
without just compensation and without his full consent, except in those cases
of public necessity or utility. The law cannot authorize any act or contract
having for its object the loss or the irrevocable sacrifice of human liberty, whether
for labor purposes, education, or religious vows. Neither can it authorize agree-
ments by which a man covenants his own proscription or exile.
ART. 16. Every person has the right to address petitions to the lawfully con-
stituted authorities, provided that they are made in a decorous manner; also to
have a decision made on the said petitions and to be informed of the action
taken on the same.
ART. 17. No person who has the free disposition or management of his prop-
erty can be deprived of the right to terminate his civil contentions by compro-
mise or arbitration. As to those persons who have not the said free disposition
and management of their property, the law shall fix the cases and requisites in
which said compromise and arbitration can be resorted to.
ART. 18. Confiscation of property, whether as a penalty or in any other
character, is forbidden. The authorities who may violate this provision shall
answer at all times with their persons and property for the damages done. Con-
fiscated property can not be acquired by adverse possession.
ART. 19. The penalty of death shall not be applied except for very grave
crimes, purely military, committed on the field, and designated by the military
code; and also for the crimes of parricide, murder, arson, or larceny, if death
Penalties for life, flogging, and all kinds of torture are forbidden.
ART. 20. No person can be deprived of his life, liberty, or property without
being previously given a hearing and sentence in proper form, agreeable to law;
nor can anyone be subject to trial, civilly or criminally, twice for the same
ART. 21. The searching of the person can never be made, except for the pur-
pose of preventing any offense from being committed, or in the course of an
The domicile is inviolable and the invasion of it cannot be decreed unless for
the purpose of investigating the circumstances and authors of criminal offenses,
or in prosecution of the offenders, but this shall be done in the manner and form,
and in the cases provided by law.
ART. 22. No person shall be tried in any otherjurisdiction than that in which
the offense was committed, except in the cases provided by law, or in those in
which the courts are authorized by law to designate some other jurisdiction.
ART. 23. All men are equal before the law.
ART. 24. The laws can not have any retroactive effect, except in criminal
matters, and in case that the new law is favorable to the offender.
ART. 25. No person can be tried except under laws passed previous to the
commission of the offense, or by any court which has been previously estab-
lished by the same law.
ART. 26. The same judge can not take cognizance of the same case in differ-
ART. 27. No power or authority can ever assume jurisdiction over judicial
cases still pending, neither can they reopen decided cases.
ART. 28. Neither the Executive Power, nor the Judicial, nor any other author-
ity whatever can issue orders of detention or imprisonment unless it is in con-
formity with the law. Such orders shall always be in writing, except in criminal
matters, when the offender is caught in the act, in which case he can be detained
by any person to be immediately delivered to the respective authorities. The
detention for the purpose of investigation shall not last longer than 48 hours,
and the investigating judge is bound within said period either to decree the
release of the detained person, or his provisional arrest.
ART. 29. Every man can freely express, write, print, and publish his thoughts
without previous examination, censorship, or bonds; but shall be responsible
before the jury for any offense committed in that way.
ART. 30. Correspondence by letter and telegraph is inviolable. Correspon-
dence shall never be intercepted, nor can it be used as evidence in any kind of
ART. 31. Property of whatever nature is inviolable. No person can be
deprived of his property except for public use fully demonstrated, and upon
previous indemnification. When the condemnation of the property is due to
necessities of war the indemnification can not be previous.
ART. 32. No permanent corporation, whether civil or ecclesiastic, whatever
its character, denomination, or purpose may be, shall have legal capacity to
hold real estate or manage it for its own use, except only when the property is
destined immediately and directly to the service and purpose of the institution.
ART. 33. Teaching is free. Primary instruction is compulsory. The instruc-
tion given in the establishments supported by the State shall be laical and gratu-
itous, and shall 'be subject to the proper regulations.
ART. 34. All industries are free, and no monopoly to the profit of the Nation
under the management of the Executive shall be established, except on brandies,
saltpetre, and gunpowder. There will be no monopoly, or prohibition of any
kind, under cover of protection to industry; but matters relative to the coining
of money and the privileges granted for limited times, according to law, to inven-
tors or authors of improvements in any industry, shall be excepted.
ART. 35. The right of association is guaranteed, but the establishment of con-
ventual congregation and all kinds of monastic institutions is forbidden.
ART. 36. The right of insurrection shall produce in no case the abrogation
of the laws, and its effects shall be confined to removing, as far as necessary, the
personnel of the Government and appointing pro tempore the new persons who
must fill the places until the appointments are made in the regular form estab-
lished by the Constitution.
ART. 37. Every person has the right to ask and obtain protection (amparo)
from the Supreme Court of Justice or the Chamber of Second Instance, when-
ever any authority or private individual restricts his personal liberty or the
exercise of any individual rights guaranteed by the present Constitution. A
special law shall regulate the manner and form of exercising this right.
ART. 38. No one of the powers created by the present Constitution shall
have authority to conclude or approve treaties or conventions by which the form
of government herein provided shall be in any way altered, or by which the
integrity of the territory or the national sovereignty shall be abridged; this to
be understood without prejudice to the provisions made in article 151 of the
ART. 39. Neither the Legislative nor the Executive power, nor any tribunal,
authority, or person whatever shall have authority to abridge, alter, or violate
the constitutional guaranties without becoming thereby liable to respond in the
manner and form established by law. A law concerning a state of siege shall
determine the guaranties which can be suspended and the cases in which the
suspension can take place.
ART. 40. The rights and guaranties enumerated in the present Constitution
shall never be construed as a denial or refusal of other rights and guaranties not
enumerated, but depending upon the principle of the sovereignty of the people
and the republican form of government.
ART. 41. Salvadorians are such either by birth or by naturalization.
ART. 42. The following persons are Salvadorians by birth:
1. Those born in the territory of Salvador, except the children of aliens not
2. The legitimate children of an alien man and a Salvadorian woman born in
the territory of Salvador, if within a year subsequent to the date in which they
reach majority they fail to declare before the respective governor that they
choose the nationality of their father; the legitimate children of a Salvadorian
man and an alien woman, and the illegitimate children of a Salvadorian woman
and an alien if they have been born in Salvador.
3. The legitimate children of a Salvadorian man and the illegitimate of a
Salvadorian woman, when born in a foreign country and not naturalized in it.
4. The descendants of children of aliens, or of an alien and a Salvadorian
woman, if born in Salvador.
ART. 43. Salvadorians by naturalization are those who, in accordance with
the laws up to the present time enforced, have already acquired this quality,
and those who in the future shall obtain the same according to the following
i. The Hispano-Americans who obtain letters of naturalization from the
respective departmental governor, but said governor shall grant these letters
only upon evidence of good behavior on the part of the applicant.
z. Aliens who apply for naturalization to the same authority and obtain it
from him by proving good behavior and two years of residence in Salvador.
3. All persons who obtain naturalization papers from the legislative body.
4. All persons who have acquired naturalization pursuant to article 48 of
the present Constitution.
ART. 44. All Central Americans who declare before the respective governor
their desire to be Salvadorians shall be considered naturalized citizens of Salvador.
ART. 45. Aliens are strictly bound from the moment of their arrival in the
territory of the Republic to respect the authorities and comply with the laws;
and they also acquire at the same time the right to be protected.
ART. 46. Neither Salvadorians nor aliens shall be entitled in any case to claim
from the Government indemnity of any kind for damages and injuries done to
their persons or property by factions, but their rights are left free to claim against
the guilty officials or private persons.
ART. 47. Aliens can acquire all kinds of property, but their property shall not
be exempted from the ordinary or extraordinary burden which may be estab-
lished by law upon the property of Salvadorians.
ART. 48. An alien by the fact of his accepting a public office with salary,
unless it is in the militia or in a branch of public instruction, abandons his
nationality and becomes naturalized in Salvador.
ART. 49. No international compact shall be entered into by which the provi-
sions of the present title are in any way modified.
ART. 50. Aliens shall be subject to a special law, to be enacted hereafter.
ART. 51. All Salvadorians over 18 years of age and those who have not
reached that age but are married, or who have obtained some literary degree,
ART. 52. The rights of citizenship are suspended:
1. By an order of arrest in criminal proceedings where no bail can be admitted.
2. By notorious bad behavior.
3. By mental derangement.
4. By judicial injunctions.
5. By the refusal to fulfill, without sufficient and just cause, a position of pop-
ular election. The suspension in this case shall continue during the whole
period the said position ought to have been filled.
6. By judicial sentence which so orders.
ART. 53. The rights of citizenship are lost:
1. By convicts sentenced to suffer a penalty which carries with it the loss o:
2. By those who have been convicted and sentenced for a grave offense.
3. By those who have become naturalized in a foreign country.
4. By those who, while residing in the Republic, accept offices from other
nations without permission of the Legislative Power.
5. By those who sell their vote in the elections.
6. By those who, subscribing to acts or proclamations, or through other direct
means, promote or assist in the reelection of the President of the Republic.
7. By the functionaries who, while exercising public authority, civil or mili-
tary, restrict the liberty of suffrage.
TITLE VI.- The Legislative Pover.
ART. 54. The Legislative Power is vested in a body called the National
Assembly of Deputies.
ART. 55. The Legislative body shall meet regularly, without the necessity of
being called for that purpose, in the capital of the Republic, between the first
and fifteenth of February of each year, but it shall meet in extra session when-
ever called to that effect by the Executive Power, with the advice of the
Council of Ministers. The Assembly may hold its sessions in any other place
whenever it may so resolve.
ART. 56. The number of its ordinary sessions shall not exceed forty, and the
number of extraordinary ones shall be such as may be required to dispose of the
subjects within its jurisdiction submitted to it by the Executive.
Any. 57. Three representatives assembled in a preparatory committee have
the power to take immediately all the steps necessary to secure the full attend-
ance of the other members of the Assembly.
ART. 58. A majority of the members of the Assembly shall be sufficient to
deliberate, but no decision can be reached when less than two-thirds of the
members are present, if two-thirds of the present ones do not consent to it.
ART. 59. The members of the Assembly shall be renewed every year, but
they can be reelected.
ART. 60. No Deputy shall be elected who is not over twenty-five years of
age, a Salvadorian citizen, a man of recognized honesty and instruction, whose
rights of citizenship have not been lost during the period of five years previous
to the election, and a native or resident of the department which elects him.
ART. 61. No contractor of public works or services of any class paid or sup-
ported out of funds of the Government, and no person who has any personal
interest claim arising out of said contracts, can be elected Deputy. Nor can the
official salaried employs appointed by the Executive be elected deputies until
the expiration of six months to be counted from the day their position was
Bull. 58 -6
ART. 6z. Alternate deputies require the samequalifications as the regular ones.
ART. 63. Deputies can not be appointed for any office during the time of their
term of service, except in case they are called to form part of the cabinet, or to
be diplomatic representatives of the country, or when the office has no salary.
ART. 64. The representatives of the Nation are inviolable. Consequently
no Deputy shall be held responsible at any time for his opinions expressed ver-
bally or in writing.
ART. 65. No civil proceeding of any kind shall be initiated or prosecuted
against the representatives of the Nation from the day of their election until the
expiration of 15 days to be counted from the adjournment of the Legislative
If any representative commits a grave offense between the day of the election
and the day of adjournment, he shall be tried by the Assembly for the sole pur-
pose of expelling him if guilty, and submitting him then to the ordinary courts.
If the offense is not grave, but is a simple misdemeanor, committed during
the same period, the representative shall be tried by the competent court; but
he can not be detained or arrested or summoned to testify until after the adjourn-
If the offense committed by the representative is grave, but anterior to the
date of the election, the Assembly shall have the power, upon the proper inves-
tigation of the fact, to annul the election and submit the guilty party to the
If, during the time of the sessions, a representative is caught in the act of
committing a crime or offense, any private person or authority shall have the
power to detain him and place him, within 24 hours, at the disposal of the
ART. 66. The provisions of the two preceding articles are equally applicable
to the constitutional conventions.
ART. 67. The following corresponds to the National Assembly:
i. To be the judge of the election of its own members, and accept or reject
2. To admit the resignations of their members made or tendered upon reasons
3. To enforce against them a proper responsibility in the cases provided for
by the present Constitution.
4. To call the alternate deputies to replace the regular ones in case of death,
resignation, or inability of the latter.
5. To make rules for its interior government.
ART. 68. The following are the duties of the Legislative Power:
I. To open and close its sessions, and agree to the terms in which the message
of the President of the Republic is to be answered.
2. To open the envelopes containing the votes for President and Vice-Presi-
dent of the Republic, and to count the said votes by means of a committee of
3. To declare the election of the said functionaries upon the report of the
committee said committee to be required to express also whether the persons
elected have or have not the qualifications required by law.
4. To give the President and Vice-President of the Republic possession of
their offices; to administer to them the constitutional oath of office; to take
cognizance of their resignation and to grant or refuse them leaves of absence.
5. To elect by popular vote the justices of the Supreme Court of Justice and
the comptrollers of the Treasury; to administer to them the constitutional oath
of office, and to take cognizance of their resignation.
6. To receive and examine the report and documents to be submitted to it
by the Executive through the respective ministers, in pursuance of clause z5 of
the present article.
7. To designate three persons who shall exercise the Executive Power in the
cases established by the present Constitution, provided that said persons shall
have the same qualifications as are required to be President of the Republic.
The designation herein spoken of may be made in favor of members of Congress.
8. To decide in cases of doubt, or in regard to information given to it about
the inability of the President or Vice-President of the Republic, and of the
election of officers of the same Assembly to fulfill their positions.
9. To enact, interpret, amend, and repeal secondary laws.
to. To establish territorial jurisdictions and place at the head thereof the
proper functionaries, who, in the name of the Republic, shall take cognizance
of all classes of cases and causes, civil or criminal, try them, and settle them by
11. To define the powers and jurisdiction of the different functionaries.
S2. To levy taxes and imposts on all classes of property and revenues, this to
be done in due proportion if the taxes or imposts are direct; and in cases of invasion
or war legally declared, to decree forced loans in the same proportion,if the ordi-
nary public revenue is not sufficient, or if no voluntary loan can be obtained.
13. To authorize the Executive Power to contract voluntary loans, either at
home or abroad, when a grave and urgent necessity may demand it. The loans
contracted in compliance with this article shall be submitted to the approval of
the Legislative Power.
14. To make annually the proper appropriation to meet the expenses of the
Government; but the disbursement of the public revenue shall be made in such
a way as to give preference to public instruction, the administration of justice,
and to the police.
15. To grant, upon due examination of the services rendered, the rank of
lieutenant-colonel and others superior to it.
16. To fix the coat-of-arms and the flag of the Republic.
17. To establish the fineness, weight, and type of the national coin, and to
regulate the weights and measures.
18. To grant to persons or towns titles, honors, and rewards compatible with
the established system of government for great services rendered to the country.
19. To fix, increase, or decrease the amount of the salaries to be paid to the
employees or functionaries, and to create and abolish offices. But the decrees
increasing the salaries of the Supreme, Legislative, and Executive Power shall not
go into effect until the next period.
o2. To grant rewards or privileges for a certain time to the authors of useful
inventions, or to those who introduce in the country some industry of general
utility or who make improvements on the same.
z2. To decree the existence of a state of war upon the evidence submitted to
it by the Executive Power.
22. To grant amnesties and pardons, but the latter shall not be issued except
upon report and favorable recommendation from the Supreme Court of Justice.
23. To declare by decree a state of siege in the cases and for the causes which
a law of constitutional character shall fix, the said siege to be raised when pro-
vided by the same law.
24. To restore the rights of citizenship to those who have lost it.
25. To approve or disapprove the acts of the Executive.
26. To enact laws in acknowledgment of the national debt and to create and
appropriate such funds as may be required for its payment.
27. To grant or refuse Salvadorians the permission to accept offices from other
nations if compatible with the system of government of Salvador.
28. To grant or refuse naturalization to aliens who may request it.
29. To ratify, amend, or reject the treaties or conventions' entered into by
the Executive with other nations; but no treaty or convention which in any
way restricts or affects the exercise of the right of insurrection, or which violates
any constitutional provision shall ever be ratified.
30. To allow or disallow the transit of troops of other countries through the
territory of the Republic.
31. To try cases of impeachment of the officials of superior rank in the manner
and form provided by Title XIII of the present Constitution.
ART. 69. When the National Assembly meets in extra session it shall deal with
no other subjects than those over which it has competent jurisdiction and which
have been submitted to it by the Executive.
ART. 70. No faculty of the National Assembly can be delegated, except the
one of giving possession of their respective offices to the President and Vice-
President of the Republic, the justices of the Supreme Court, and the Comp-
trollers of the Treasury. The decrees or resolutions passed in violation of this
article shall be null and void, notwithstanding any reason on which they may
be founded; and the violators of this article shall be subject to the responsibility
which the present Constitution shall provide.
ART. 71. The initiative of legislation belongs exclusively to the Deputies,
the President of the Republic, through his ministers, and the Supreme Court of
ART. 72. All bills, after having been discussed and passed, shall be transmitted
for approval to the Executive Power, who shall give his sanction to it and shall
cause it to be published as law, if he has no objection to it. The Executive
Power can not make any remarks or refuse his approval to the resolutions of the
National Assembly when passed in the exercise of the powers granted to it in
article 67 and in clauses 3, 5, 7, 8, 25, and 31 of article 68 of the present Con-
ART. 73. When the Executive shall find it unadvisable to approve the bills
passed by the Assembly and submitted to him, he shall return them to the
Assembly within the period of eight days with a statement of his reasons for
refusing his approval; but if within the period above mentioned, the Executive
does not return the bills, the latter shall be taken and considered as approved,
and shall be published as laws by the Executive. In case that a bill is returned,
the Assembly shall discuss it again, and if ratified by a two-thirds vote, it shall
be sent to the Executive, who shall have to consider it as law, approve, and
When the Assembly passes a law during the last days of its session, and the
Executive has not the full legal time during which he can return it with his
objections, the Executive shall be bound to give immediate information of the
fact to the Assembly, in order that it may remain in session until the expiration
of the time above mentioned. If he should fail to do so, the bill shall be con-
sidered as approved.
ART. 74. No bill rejected or not ratified can be introduced again during the
same session of the Assembly, but the introduction of the same shall be per-
mitted in the following session.
ART. 75. All bills passed shall be engrossed in triplicate, each copy to be signed
by the President and Secretaries of the Assembly. One copy shall be left on
file and the other two shall be forwarded to the Executive.
ART. 76. Upon the receipt by the Executive of the said two copies, if no
objection to the bill is found, his signature shall be affixed to both copies. One
shall be left on file and the other shall be returned to the Assembly. The Exec-
utive shall publish the approved bill within 8 days.
ART. 77. The same formalities provided for the enactment and approval of
the laws shall be followed for the purpose of interpreting, amending, or repeal-
ing their provisions.
ART. 78. No law shall be binding except upon its having been solemnly pro-
inulgated. In order to give binding force to a law of permanent character a
lapse of 12 days after its promulgation shall be required. The provisions of
the present article are not applicable to the laws making appointments or declar-
ing the result ot elections.
ART. 79. No bill which has not been introduced in the Assembly by the
Supreme Court of justice, but deals with matters tending to reform or repeal
any provision contained in the codes of the Republic, shall be discussed without
listening to the opinion of the said Supreme Court, and this opinion shall be
given either during the same session of the Assembly or in the following year,
as the importance, urgency, or scope of the bill may demand. This provision
is not applicable to the laws concerning political, economical, or Executive order.
TITLE VII.-The Executive Power.
ART. 80. The Executive Power shall be vested in a citizen who shall, nave the
title of President of the Republic, and shall be assisted by the respective minis-
ters. He shall be elected by the Salvadorian people; but when not elected
by an absolute majority of votes, he shall be elected by nominal vote of the
Assembly, which shall choose him out of the three citizens who have obtained
the largest number of votes.
ART. 81. There shall be a Vice-President elected in the same manner and
form as the President, and he will fill his place in case of death, resignation,
removal, or any other impediment. When there is no Vice-President the Exec-
utive Power shall devolve on one of the three designados in the order in which
they have been appointed. If the legislative power is in session and the appoint-
ment of the said designados has become inoperative, the Assembly shall make
ART. 82. The term of office of the President shall be four years. A citizen
who has been President of the Republic can not be reelected or elected Vice-
President until after the expiration of a second period of four years. The
*The designados are the candidates who have obtained the highest number of votes,