• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 List of spanish and indian...
 Province of Pinar del Río
 Province of Habana
 Province of Matanzas
 Province of Oriente
 Index






Group Title: Its Publication, no. 16
Title: Road notes, Cuba, 1909
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074006/00001
 Material Information
Title: Road notes, Cuba, 1909
Series Title: Its Publication
Physical Description: 610 p. : fold. maps. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- War Dept. -- General Staff
Wright, John Womack, 1876-
Publisher: Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1909
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: At head of title: War Dept., Office of the Chief or Staff. Second Section. General Staff ...
General Note: On verso of t.-p.: War Dept., Document no. 349. Office of the Chief of Staff.
General Note: "These road notes were made by the various intelligence Officers of the Army of Cuban pacification during the winter of 1906-7 ... Compilation of the notes was prepared by Capt. John W. Wright."--Introductory note.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074006
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000598217
oclc - 22876904
notis - ADC7184

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    List of spanish and indian words
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Province of Pinar del Río
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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    Province of Habana
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    Province of Matanzas
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    Province of Oriente
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Full Text


WAR DEPARTMENT:: OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF STAFF
Second Section, General Staff,. No. 16


ROAD NOTES


CUBA


- 1909 "


WASHINGTON :: GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE :: 1909

































WAR DEPARTMENT,
Document No. 349.
Office of the Chief of Staff.
2











INTRODUCTORY NOTE.


Tlese road notes were made by the various intelligence officers of
the Army of Cuban Pacification during the winter of 1906-7, a remark-
ably dry season. The notes were afterwards compiled in the Military
Information Division, Army of Cuban Pacification. The plan was for-
mulated in said division and carried to completion under the super-
vision of the commanding generals of that army. The compilation
of the notes was prepared by Capt. John W. Wright, Seventeenth
Infantry, who was in charge of the Military Information Division,
Army of Cuban Pacification, November 23, 1908, to April 1, 1909.
Whenever practicable, continuous road notes have been made. In
some instances it was necessary to reverse the notes submitted in order
to do this. These notes were made independently of the Military
Map of Cuba, 1906-1909, and some differences will be noted between
the road notes and map; but it is thought that they will serve as addi-
tional data and, to some extent, a check on the map. Notes on roads
and trails in the Ci6naga de Zapata will be found in Military Notes on
Cuba. To find the notes on any given road, obtain its number on
the provincial map-index and look for the corresponding number
among the road notes of that province. Circles around a number on
a map-index indicate the starting point on the road note. The
numbers designating roads when they reach 99 are continued as
lx, 2x, 3x, etc.
Don Esteban Pichardo has been accepted as authority for the spell-
ing of Spanish names.
Description of settlements and figures of populations thereof are
omitted, as they will be found in Military Notes on Cuba.
Where roads have been macadamized since the taking of these
notes, that fact will be found noted at the beginning of the descrip-
tions.









LIST OF SPANISH AND INDIAN WORDS.



Almacen..............Warehouse.
Algodonar...........A finca devoted to raising cotton.
Andarivel ..........A ferry.
Arroyo............... Small stream; creek.
Arrobe ...............Twenty-five pounds.
Asiento ............. The center of a hato, corral, or plantation.
Azotea...............A walled and paved flat roof which could be utilized for addi-
tional floor space by erecting temporary shelter.
Babiney ...........A low country, swampy during rains.
Barracon............ Buildings constructed on plantations to quarter laborers.
Barrio............... Subdivision of a township.
Batey................The yard surrounding a sugar mill and usually inclosed by a
fence or wall.
Bodega.............. A store selling provisions.
Bohfo (bogio)-........A shack made of palm leaves.
Boyero.............. A corral for oxen.
Caballeria............ A tract of land, 33) acres.
Cacagual ............Cocoa plantation.
Cafetal.............. Coffee plantation.
Cala.................. Cove; a small bay.
Caleta................ A small cala.
Calle ...............Street.
Calzada ............A first-class telford or macadam road.
Cafiada............... A wet-weather stream.
Cantina ............A store where liquor and provisions are sold.
Carretera............. High road; pike.
Ceja ................. Small crescent-shaped piece of woods.
Central.............. A large sugar mill grinding its own cane and that which is raised
on adjoining colonies.
Cerro ...............A craggy mountain.
Ciego................ Name applied toa territory that is so covered with undergrowth
that sight is obstructed.
Cimarron ...........A runaway slave.
Cocal................ A cocoa plantation.
Colonia.............. A farm devoted to the growing of sugar cane.
Colonio ............The owner or renter of a colonia.
Cordel-............... Twenty-four yards.
Corral................A plantation, round in shape, with radius of 1 league; usually
devoted to cattle raising.
Cuartel.........--.....Barracks.
Cuchillas............ Knives; meaning blade-like elevations, when term is used geo-
graphically.
Diente de perro...... Sharp-pointed limestone rocks, over which passage is difficult.
Embarcadero.........A shipping point.
Encrucijada..........A cross road.
Ensenada .............A small arm of the sea, more open and smaller than a bay.
Estancia ........... A small farm devoted to raising garden products.
Estero ..............Mouth of creek flowing into sea.





6 ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.

Farallon ............. Small rocky island.
Finca ................ Farm.
Furnia............... A deep depression in the earth.
Guano................ Dry palm leaves, used to roof shacks.
Hacienda............ Plantation; also used as a term for landed property in general.
Hato................ A grant of public land, circular in shape, with radius of 2
leagues; usually devoted to the raising of cattle.
Itabo................. Low ground, with springs and water courses.
Ingenio.............. Sugar mill grinding cane from its own lands.
Kilometer........... Sixty-two one-hundredths of a mile.
Laguna ............ Lagoon.
Loma ...............An oblong hill.
Mangle.............Mangrove.
Manglar ............Ground covered with mangrove trees; usually swampy.
Manigua ............Ground covered with small, thick growth. This name is also
used in western Cuba for the country.
Merced ..............Name applied to a class of public-land grants.
Mesa................ A truncated cone-shaped elevation.
Mogote.............. An isolated flat-topped hill.
Monte............... In Cuba this term signifies woods or unpopulated territory with
small growth. If the territory is extensive it is called monte
firme. It is also synonymous with the country in eastern
Cuba.
Palenque............. A place of difficult access, where runaway slaves would gather.
Pan ............... Used geographically as a sugar-loaf mountain.
Paso................. Name given to points along streams where there are frequently
used fords.
Pico................ Peak.
Playa...............A sandy beach.
Potrero.............. A cattle ranch or farm with land devoted to grazing.
Quintal ............One hundred pounds.
Rancho ............An isolated palm shack.
Realengo.............Land not included in grants; property of the State.
Sabana..............A flat table-land with but little vegetation.
Sabanalamar.........A low flat tract of coast, without vegetation.
Salto...............Cascade.
Sao.................. Woods.
Siguanea.............A swamp along the coast.
Seboruco............ Sharp, porous rock (limestone).
Sierra ..............A mountain ridge.
Sitio................ A small farm with a few inhabitants, or a very small village or
community.
Sumidero ..........The point where a stream disappears underground. A drain.
Tetas .............. Used geographically as designating nipple-shaped hills.
Tienda...............Store.
Tierradentro.........The interior of the island.
Vega.................Tobacco farm.
Villas, las............ A name commonly given to Santa Clara Province. The city of
Santa Clara is frequently called Villaclara.
Vuelta abajo..........All territory in Cuba from Havana Province west, inclusive.
Vuelta arriba.........All territory in Cuba east of Havana Province.
Zafra ................ The sugar crop; also used to designate the season when the sugar
crop is gathered; harvest.
Zanja.................A canal or stream emptying into the sea; a ditch.













PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


ROAD No. 1.

CAIMITO-GUANAJAY-ARTEMISA-SAN CRIST6BAL-PASO REAL DE
SAN DIEGO-PINAR DEL RIO-SAN JUAN Y MARTINEZ-GUANE-
GUADIANA.
General direction, W. Distance, 151 miles.
NoTE.-During 1908 a metaled road was constructed connecting San Crist6bal and
Santa Cruz, and this road is being continued to Pinar del Rio.
IN GENERAL.

1. From Caimito to Guanajay is an excellent macadam road.
2. From Guanajay to Artemisa is a calzada. Three wagons can
travel abreast; no grades; country level.
3. From Artemisa to San Crist6bal is a macadam road wide
enough for three wagons to drive abreast. Road is lined by wire
fences and continues over level uncultivated country (good grazing)
as far as Candelaria; from there country is more cultivated.
4. From San Crist6bal to Los Palacios is a good dirt road over
rolling and well-cultivated country, passable for carts and light-
loaded wagons in dry season and for cavalry in rainy season.
5. From Los Palacios to Paso Real is a good dirt road over level
country, passable for all kinds of wheeled transportation in dry sea-
son and for horses during rainy season.
6. From Paso Real to Pinar del Rio is a dirt road, suitable for
wagons in the dry season and with fords that can be crossed only by
extra teams.
7. From Pinar del Rio to San Juan y Martinez a single-wire tele-
phone line follows the road. The road is good for army wagons in
the dry season, but during the rains there are mud holes. Good
camping places with grazing are available near streams. In the rainy
season the destruction of bridges would probably cause delay to
troops, as these streams form serious obstacles in times of freshets.
8. From San Juan y Martinez to Guadiana.-There is a masonry
bridge at the edge of San Juan; bridge is 20 feet wide, spanning a
stream with a sandy bottom.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


About 3 miles before entering Guane .the route is hilly and road
rocky and steep in places; passable at all seasons.
This portion of the road is passable throughout for escort wagons.
In the dry season, with 2,000 pounds, very little difficulty is experi-
enced. A wagon train of five wagons went from Vivero, 1 mile north
of San Juan y Martinez, to Guane on December 15, 1906, between
the hours of 6.30 a. m. and 8 p. m., a distance of 25 miles. A tele-
graph line (single wire) follows the road from San Juan y Martinez
to Guane.
IN DETAIL.
ilesm co i- Just beyond Caimito a ridge of rocks called Sierra de
Anafe comes down to road on the right, the latter fol-
lowing its base. This ridge grows more rocky and rugged,
is covered with brush, is uncultivated, and without in-
habitants. In front rises a palisade .of white rock-a
conspicuous landmark marking the Habana calzada in
the vicinity of Caimito-which is plainly visible from
Guanajay. This rock rises perhaps 100 feet above road.
To the left, low, rounded, cultivated hills.
Many houses along road. Less than 1 mile from Cai-
mito road passes on left of mill of a large sugar estate.
Wire fences now and then; stone walls frequent; but in
dry weather cavalry could pass over the country to left.
To right the range of steep rugged hills, often perpendicu-
lar rock, with odd entrances to caves marking their faces,
lies nearly parallel to road and probably 400 or 500 yards
distant. Hills wild and thickly overgrown with brush.
Road gradually but steadily ascending, undulating as it
runs directly toward high white rock mentioned. Road
a magnificent highway; not dusty or muddy, and wide
enough for three wagons to pass abreast. Before reach-
ing 37-kilometer post road ascends a somewhat steep hill,
and passes through a cut in the top, whose walls are 10 or 15
feet high. To left country open, cultivated, and rolling.
This hill commands road toward Caimito and Habana
and to some extent that toward Guanajay, but in that
direction the road runs over more of a plateau, to which
it ascends by the hill mentioned.
3.2 Road passes some 400 yards from the base of white
rock mentioned, which can be seen from the northeast.
From this point ridge on right falls away, running more
toward gulf coast, and leaving a brown, lumpy plateau
between itself and road. Country on both sides is more
open and cultivated.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Another large sugar mill about 400 yards to right of Miesm Cai-
road. Ridge mentioned continues to trend off more to 4.2
right-that is, about north. Road now slightly descend-
ing, but undulating over the many hills of this broken
region. Between 38 and 39 kilometers, and at foot of a
long slope, on whose top is the 39-kilometer post, road
crosses a little stone culvert, spanning a very small
stream; merely a low place. This about 4.5 miles from
Caimito. Beyond the top of this hill, road descends a
little and country continues of same character. At
about 5 miles from Caimito, road passes a little brick
bridge over another very small stream or pool, and just
beyond, at 40-kilometer post, another, over a little stream
of apparently good water. Country on each side open
and rolling, cultivated with cane and tobacco. No
fences now; country good for cavalry maneuvers. Far
away in advance, a little to left, low mountains, con-
tinuing on through the Vuelta Abajo, probably 25 or 30
miles away. At 41-kilometer post, a "sitieria," one of
the suburbs of Guanajay, which lies about 1 mile in
advance, in a sort of hollow, formed by low hills that
generally surround the town. These hills are cleared,
rounded, and cultivated. Pass locations of old ingenios
San Gabriel de Herrera and Jesds Nazareno.
Just before reaching Guanajay road passes over small 9.2
stone bridge spanning an almost dry creek bed, Arroyo
Jibaro, and enters a long street that runs to plaza of
Guanajay. Continuing through town, highway crosses
stream by small wooden bridge, and just beyond, on out-
skirts of Guanajay, divides, the left road being main
calzada leading to Artemisa, San Crist6bal, and Pinar del
Rio, the right branch continuing for 100 yards along
stream, then turning to left and proceeding to Mariel.
This is called a calzada of the second order.
Leaving Martires street the road turns southwest over
what is called Maceo street and crosses the Habana Cen-
tral Railway at edge of town. A dirt road leads off to
the west and passes cemetery, turns south for a short
distance, then east again, and connects with the Mendive-
Cayajabos road about 1.7 miles out.
Calzada continues southwest. Dirt road branches off 10.2
to east and west; west road to Cayajabos. It connects
with branch described above about 0.7 mile from the
calzada. East road continues east for only a few yards,
then turns south. Trail, however, continues east and




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1199.


Mile from Cai- crosses railroad track of United Railroads of Habana, and
mito.
connects with north and south road 1 mile from calzada.
The north road leads to the correctional school reserva-
tion, and the south road goes to Ceiba del Agua.
Going back to where the main dirt road leaves the
calzada and turns south, it continues south for 1.5 miles,
where it connects with an east and west road; the west
road comes from the calzada about 0.5 mile away, and
the east road continues east for a little over 1 mile, where
it connects with the Ceiba del Agua road. This road is
passable for carts the entire distance during the dry sea-
son, and for cavalry and infantry during the wet season.
The calzada continues southwest over level country.
10.7 Dirt road passable for carts branches off to the north-
west and connects with the Mendive-Cayajabos road, a
little over 0.5 mile beyond.
11.4 Calzada turns south by west and 0.2 mile beyond is
Cayados.
11.7 At this point a dirt road, passable for carts in dry sea-
son, branches off southwest and at finca Hevia, 1.5 miles
distant, crosses east and west dirt road; turns south for
0.5 mile, then zigzags south and southwest for 1.2 miles
when it crosses the old Cayajabos road, continues south
for a little over 0.2 mile to finca Conde de la Reuni6n,
where it turns west for 0.7 mile, where another dirt road
comes in from the north, then south and circling to the
southwest to central El Pilar, 1.2 miles .distant. The
total distance from Cayados is 5.5 miles over level coun-
try, the greater portion covered with sugar cane and
tobacco; road passable for carts in dry season, infantry
and cavalry and pack trains in wet season. The calzada
continues a little west of south through level country.
12.2 Dirt road runs to left and 0.2 mile beyond runs into the
central El Pilar road.
12.4 Another dirt road branches to the west, 0.7 mile from
the calzada, crossing the central El Pilar road and con-
tinuing west for 0.5 mile farther turns northwest; 0.5
mile beyond crosses Lima River (10 feet wide and 1 foot
deep in dry season, gravel bottom, low and muddy banks).
Skirts alongside of small lake and swamp for 1 mile, then
rising to higher ground continues on to Mendive, where it
connects with the Cayajabos road. Total distance from
the calzada about 3.7 miles. Carts can be taken over
this road in the dry season; impassable for anything but
dismounted troops in the rainy season. Just after cross-





PROVINCE OF PTNAR DEL RIO.


ing the Lima River a rock road with stone fences leads to mes frm cai-
the south for 1.5 miles, where it connects with an east
and west road, stone fences, and rock base. This is the
old Cayajab6s road.
Dirt road runs off to the east from Capote to Loma, 12.9
which is 2.7 miles distant.
Calzada turns more to the southwest. At this point 13.4
old road, very rocky with stone fences, branches south to
Puerta de la Giiira.
Calzada continues southwest to where an old rock road, 13.9
lined on both sides by stone fences, branches west. This
is the old Cayajabos road. At 0.7 mile another rock road
branches north. The main road continues west 1.5
miles, then turns south; at this point a dirt road continues
west. The calzada continues southwest to El Pitirre.
Here dirt road crosses.
Calzada crosses railroad track which runs to central 16.9
El Pilar. At this point a calzada branches off northwest
1.2 miles to central El Pilar. The calzada crosses the old
road coming down from El Pitirre.
Artemisa. Road starts out southwest from Artemisa 17.9
in continuation of calle Maceo.
Crosses railroad track. 18.2
Crosses a small stone culvert over an arroyo flowing into 19.2
Arroyo Limones. At the 59-kilometer post a dirt road
leaves it northwest, continues in that direction about
1.5 miles and connects with the Artemisa-Cayajabos
calzada about 1 mile west of Artemisa. The dirt road
running southeast continues for about 0.7 mile, where it
connects with a road running northeast and southwest;
this road runs southwest for 1 mile and ends at finca San
Francisco; the one northeast continues in that direction
for 1 mile, where it connects with dirt road to Artemisa at
a point about 0.7 mile southeast of it. The calzada con-
tinues southwest.
A dirt road runs off 1 mile south over pasture land, 19.7
where it connects with dirt road running northeast and
southwest, described above.
Portugubs (1 schoolhouse). At this point dirt roads 20.7
leave the calzada north and southeast. Road north
practicable for carts in dry season. It runs north for 0.5
mile and branches, one branch continues north for 1.7
miles to the Artemisa-Cayajabos calzada about 2 miles
west of Artemisa; the other branch turns to the north-
west for 0.5 mile, then west 1 mile to the town of Pijirigua;




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from (i- this road continues on west 0.2 mile to Las Mangas
station on the Western Railway. Just before reaching
Pijirigua there are several dirt roads which join the main
road, but these roads simply circle around through the
cane fields. The dirt road southeast from Portugu6s,
passable for cavalry in the dry season, continues over
level, uncultivated land 4 miles, where road connects with
what is known as the south coast road at finca La Tierra.
At 1 mile north of La Tierra a branch road runs east 0.7
mile, where it connects with road running west of north to
Artemisa and on the southeast with the south coast road.
At a point 2 miles southeast of Portugu6s another dirt
road, practicable for bull carts in the dry season, turns off
southwest for 2 miles, where it connects with dirt road
running northwest to Las Mangas on the calzada; at the
point where these two roads join a trail runs south 0.2
mile to finca Fr6ire, which is at the end of the south coast
road. The calzada continues southwest past the Laguna
de la Canao on north side of road (lake is about 0.5 mile
long by 0.1 mile wide; good camping places for a brigade
of troops during the dry season; grazing, water, and wood
plentiful). There is another small lake a short distance
beyond called Laguna de la Ceiba.
21.7 The calzada curves slightly around one side of lake,
then continues southwest.
22.7 Las Mangas de Rio Grande. Besides the road men-
tioned above, which runs southeast from Las Mangas to
finca FrBire, there is a trail running north 1 mile, where it
broadens into a cart road and continues north 1 mile to
Las Mangas station and from there 2 miles north, where it
connects with the Artemisa-Cayajabos calzada at a point
about 3.5 miles from Artemisa. Las Mangas is located
on slightly higher ground than the surrounding country,
and the old walled cemetery and church would afford
good protection against infantry fire. Finca Robaina,
where a dirt road runs south for 0.2 mile, then south-
west between two small lakes for 1 mile, where road
dwindles into a trail which continues southwest to wooden
bridge crossing the Crespo River to finca Guana (river
10 feet wide, high banks, mud bottom, bridge 15 feet
long, and sufficiently wide for one wagon). Road con-
tinues 0.5 mile southwest to Jicara River. This river is
practically a swamp, and road crossing it on each side
is corduroyed. From this point trail continues south-
west about 5 miles to finca El Corojal. Road and trail





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


impassable in the wet season. Calzada continues south- Mile fom Cai-
west over uncultivated country.
Turns west. 23.9
Pueblo Nuevo. From Pueblo Nuevo a dirt road 25.7
passable for bull carts in the dry season, for horses in
rainy season, runs north 1 mile, where road branches
west to Punta Brava station of the Western Railway, 2
miles distant. The main road continues through the
finca Punta Brava and continues on east of north to Las
Mangas station, a total distance from Pueblo Nuevo of
about 4.2 miles. Another dirt road runs south from
Pueblo Nuevo to Embarcadero de Corojal on the south
coast. The calzada continues west, crosses a stone
bridge (30-foot span) over Rio San Juan.
Dirt road branches to the north 2 miles to finca Buena 28.9
Ventura, where it crosses the railroad and turns east and
continues about 1.5 miles to Punta Brava station. Cal-
zada continues west, crossing three stone bridges over dry
runs.
Crosses stone bridge (40-foot span) across the branch of 29.2
the San Juan River. Road crosses three more stone
bridges across dry runs, to where another stone bridge
crosses the Bayate River (80-foot span).
A road branches south for 1.5 miles, where it connects 29.7
with another dirt road from Candelaria. Road continues
south 3 miles over good grazing country to point where
road dwindles into a trail. This trail runs through finca
Berrendos, 0.5 mile from where road ends, continues
south, crosses Rio Santo Domingo 2 miles further south,
and continues along the west bank of same river to the
finca Rinc6n Hondo, 1.5 miles distant. From this point
the trail continues south along west bank of river 5 miles
to finca Canton. This road is practicable for bull carts
and trail for horses during the dry season, but impassable
in rainy season. The calzada continues west.
Crosses the railroad. 31.2
Candelaria. From Candelaria the calzada continues 31.4
west.
Dirt roads branch north and south; another runs north 31.7
1.2 miles to the finca San Jos6, and dwindles into a trail
which divides 0.2 mile west, one trail northwest running
to El Brujo, via fincas Flora and Pluma; the trail north
continues for 0.2 mile where it divides, one to the north-
west running up the valley of the Manantiales River past
finca Frias, the Sarao Baths (now a ruin), to finca Sarao





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mile froi, (ai- and San Bias. The other trail continues north into the
mountains, following the course of the Bayate River,
through finca Descubierto, Santa Catalina, and La Rita,
where trail divides, one east through Casa Blanca,
Santa Paula, Gardenia, Barb6n, and into Cayajabos.
Another trail continues north through finca Ceiba and on
to Bahia Honda, and another runs west through Cuzco,
Casa Dolores, and El Tumbo. These are all good moun-
tain trails passable for pack trains. Road running south
from the calzada connects with the road from Candelaria
to Sabanalamar 1.5 miles south. The calzada continues
west,- crossing a stone bridge over a dry run.
32.4 Crosses another stone bridge (40-foot span) across the
Rio Santo Domingo (about 20 feet wide, high banks). At
this point the calzada turns southwest.
33.9 Calzada turns west and a short distance beyond crosses
a stone bridge across the Yaguasas River (80-foot span;
river about 20 feet wide, high banks). A short distance
beyond calzada turns southwest.
34.7 Crosses railroad track and beyond that crosses two
branches of the Rio Hondo, each spanned by stone bridge
60 feet long.
35.2 Crosses track of the Western Railway. At this point
dirt road (passable for bull carts in dry season, impass-
able in rainy season) runs south over level country for
3 miles to finca Isabel, where dirt road runs north along
east bank of the San Crist6bal River to the calzada at
the bridge across the San Crist6bal River, about 200 yards
east of San Crist6bal. The calzada continues southwest.
37.7 Crosses the railroad. From this point calzada runs
west, crosses a stone bridge (40 feet long across branch
of San Crist6bal River) just beyond the railroad crossing.
38.2 Crosses iron bridge over the San Crist6bal River.
38.4 San Crist6bal. (This bridge is of iron, two spans, rest-
ing on solid masonry abutments, each span about 65 feet
long; bridge 30 feet above water, river about 75 feet wide,
gravel bottom, running water. There is a ford just below
the bridge, water about 2 feet deep, banks cut to ford.
Impossible to ford in rainy season. Both approaches to
the ford lead to the calzada.) From San Crist6bal a good
trail runs north leading into the mountains to the large
hacienda of El Brujo. A dirt road passable for bull carts
in dry season, impassable during the rainy season, runs
south on the. west bank of the San Crist6bal River 1 mile
to finca San Crist6bal. There is a ford at this point where




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


branch road crosses the San Crist6bal River. The river Mles on cai-
is about 75 feet wide by 2 feet deep, gravel bottom, banks
cut to ford, passable for bull carts in the dry season, im-
passable in rainy season. This road joins the finca Isabel-
San Crist6bal road. At finca Isabel this road joins the
Candelaria-Sabanalamar road. ,From finca San Crist6bal
main road runs southwest through finca Mayari, 1 mile
beyond, and continues from there over level, uncultivated
country, southwest about 3 miles to finca La Angostura.
An eighth of a mile north of finca Mayari the road from
San Crist6bal crosses the San Crist6bal River (Santa Teresa
branch), and the road from finca Mayari to finca La An-
gostura crosses the same river again just about 0.2 mile
southwest of Mayari. The river is about 75 feet wide by 2
feet deep at both crossings, gravel bottom, banks cut. to
ford, impassable in rainy season. One and a half miles
beyond the road crosses a branch of the San Crist6bal
River, and 1 mile beyond that a small branch of the Taco
Taco River, both of which are small, about 15 feet wide by
6 inches deep, gravel bottoms, mud banks, passable in dry
season, impassable in rainy season. The road from finca
San Crist6bal is hardly more than a trail, and would be
impassable for even horses in the wet season. At finca San
Crist6bal another bull-cart road runs west about 1 mile to
finca Los Pinos, where one road runs north 1.5 miles to the
town of San Crist6bal and another road south about 3 miles
to finca La Angostura. At finca La Angostura a good cart
road passable for bull carts in the dry season, impassable
in the rainy season, runs west 5 miles to the town of Taco
Taco on the Western Railway, crossing the Taco Taco
River about 1 mile west of La Angostura (river about 30
feet wide, 2 feet deep, gravel bottom, muddy banks, cut to
ford, impassable in the rainy season). From finca La An-
gostura a trail, passable for horses in dry season, impassa-
ble in the rainy season, runs southeast 1.7 miles, crosses
the San Crist6bal River(river about 60 feet wide, 2 feet
deep, gravel bottom, banks cut to ford), and continues 0.2
mile to finca Piedra, and trail continues southeast from
there about 6 miles to Sabanalamar. Another trail passable
for horses in the dry season, impassable in the rainy sea-
son, runs south from finca Angostura about 6 miles to finca
Bacunagua Abajo, and from there a trail runs east to
Sabanalamar, about 6 miles. Main road leads southwest
from San Crist6bal in continuation of the main street, on
north side of railroad past the cemetery.





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Cai- A road branches west 3 miles to finca Puerto Moraio,
mito.
38.9 where a trail runs north into the mountains to Bahia
Honda, via finca Rosario, Vega de Morales, and Aguacate.
At the cemetery another dirt road runs southeast, crosses
the railroad, and continues to finca Los Pinos, 1 mile dis-
tant, and from there south to finca La Angostura. Road
continues southwest on north side of railroad past a small
pond, Laguna de los Pozos.
39.4 A trail runs west to the mountains, and at this point
road turns more to the south.
39.9 A road branches to the west, continues for 1.5 miles to
a tobacco plantation, and ends.
40.4 A small stream (Arroyo Matatoros), almost dry in the
dry season, gravel bottom, high banks cut to ford.
Road ascends slightly and continues over level ground.
41.4 Chirigota, a tobacco plantation. Road continues
southwest. Crosses Rio Grande (or Arroyo Carmona);
river 40 feet wide by 2 feet deep in dry season, low banks,
gravel bottom, unfordable in rainy season, good location
for a camp of a brigade; wood, grazing, and water
plentiful.
42.0 Village of Santa Cruz de los Pinos. At Santa Cruz a
dirt road runs south 1 mile to the village of Taco Taco
on the Western Railway. The road north of the railroad
leaves Santa Cruz almost south.
43.2 A small stream (Arroyo Capote) which empties into a
large swamp crosses the road. It is about 8 feet wide by
6 inches deep, low banks. Road rises steadily to a
palm grove and descends.
44.9 Crosses the Taco Taco River, which is 20 feet wide by
1 foot deep, gravel bottom, high banks cut to ford,
impassable during portions of the rainy season. The
tobacco plantation of Progreso is located on the south
bank of river. From this point road is wire fenced.
45.9 Finca Ceiba, where wire fence ends; road turns
southwest.
46.2 Road branches, west branch circles to southwest and
joins main road about 3 miles farther south. Road
continues southwest over rolling ground.
47.4 Crosses dry river bed, gravel bottom, channel about
20 feet wide, high banks cut to ford.
47.7 Finca Atio.
48.9 Crosses Rio Santo Domingo, 15 feet wide, 2 feet deep,
running water, steep banks cut to ford. Good camp for
regiment of infantry or cavalry. Road ascends slightly,





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


turns south a short distance, then continues southwest mleS f~ cal-
and ascends long slope.
Road joins from Taco Taco from the north. The road 49.9
now shows signs of considerable travel.
Crosses small stream 10 feet wide by 6 inches deep, 51.9
called Pinal Sucio. At this point a road branches to
the west to finca La Sierra. Road turns south over level,
grassy country.
LosPalacios. The Los Palacios River (or Rio Macuriges) 55.2
at this town is spanned by a steel bridge sufficiently wide
for two wagons to pass. It has two spans with solid
masonry abutments in center and on each bank; spans
50 feet long, bridge 30 feet above water.
Road crosses four stone culverts. 55.9
Small stream, 20 feet wide, 1 foot deep, running water, 56.7
high banks cut to ford, gravel bottom. Regimental
camp site; 100 yards south of ford stone bridge is being
constructed, 40-foot spans, steel girders resting on solid
masonry abutments, bridge 10 feet above banks of river.
Santa Clara, a tobacco plantation. Here there is a 57.7
small stream 15 feet wide by 1 foot deep, high banks cut
to ford, gravel bottom. Regimental camp site.
Ruins of old town of Paso Real de San Diego. 59.2
Paso Quemados, tienda La Campafia on left, cross 60.9
roads. Road northeast by east to Palacio, road south-
east by south to Paso Real.
Road on right to San Diego; on left to Paso Real. 60.6
Rio San Diego, 20 feet wide, 3 feet deep, ruins on left, 60.7
small ferry, practicable for two horses.
Stone ruins on left; bamboo on right. 61.4
Small shack on right. Here a road runs to Paso 61.6
Quemados.
Stream 3 feet wide. (Arroyo Soledad.) 61.9
Dry bed of small stream. (Arroyo Manacas.) 63.3
Stream 3 feet wide. Crossing, a wagon here requires 63.8
extra teams. (Arroyo Baracaldos.)
Small stream. (Arroyo Pil6n.) 64.9
Road becomes two well-defined roads, one to the left to 65.3
Paso Real, the other to the right to San Diego de Los
Bafios. Road here overgrown with grass.
School on right. 66.3
House on right where there is a tienda. 66.4
Tienda Herradura on right. 66.7
Macadam road being constructed on left. 66.8
8120-10---2





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Cal-
mito.
67.0 Rio Herradura, 12 feet wide; also called Rio Portugal.
67.8 Road on left to Herradura; water tank and windmill
on right.
68.1 Road on right to San Diego de Los Bafios.
68.3 Road on right to San Diego. Road on right to Las
Lajas.
68.4 Trail crosses road.
69.0 Cross roads; left to Herradura, right to Las Lajas.
69.9 Lake on left, 0.5 mile in diameter-Laguna La Tille
(or Laguna Espiritu Santo). Road on far side of lake to
Herradura.
70.2 Cross roads; left to Santa Clara, right to Las Lajas.
71.3 Rio Santa Clara, 8 feet wide.
71.4 Road on right to Las Lajas. Tienda Santa Clara on
left.
71.9 House on right.
72.3 Rio La Cruz, 3 feet wide.
72.6 Small stream.
73.1 Rio Santa Maria (or Arenas), 3 feet wide. Pass
through Consolaci6n del Sur.
74.1 Arroyo de Las Piedras.
75.7 Small stream.
75.9 Road on left to Puerta de Golpe.
76.2 Road on left to Puerta de Golpe.
76.9 Road on right.
78.0 Small stone bridge over stream.
78.4 Road on right to Pilotos.
78.9 Tienda La Espol6n.
79.2 Rio Hondo, 20 feet wide, 1 foot deep; could water a
squadron; steep banks; small wooden ferry, practicable
for two horses at a time, used only in rainy season.
79.4 Stone house on left.
79.6 Tienda on left.
79.9 Small stream.
80.3 Small stream.
81.2 La Jagua; Tienda of same name, crossroads here, left
to Puerta de Golpe, right to Pilotos.
81.4 Rio Ajiconal or Los Serranos, 20 feet wide; water a
troop at a time; wooden bridge, 20 by 5 yards; bad con-
dition.
81.6 Tienda Ajiconal on left.
82.3 Crossroads, left to Ovas, right to Pilotos.
83.0 Trail on left at hilltop and road on right.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL BIO.


Tienda La Punta de San Juan on left. Stone house on es fm cai-
the right. This place is called Ovas; trail on left to town 84.7
of Las Ovas.
Tienda on right. 85.0
Tienda on right at hilltop. 86.8
Cross Rio San Felipe at Paso Viejo; river also called 86.9
Paso Viejo; 20 feet wide, 3 feet deep; wooden bridge 15
feet high. Crossing here difficult, banks steep and muddy.
Paso Viejo; large stone house on left. 87.0
House on left at hilltop. 88.8
Tienda La Aguadita on left. 89.1
Small stream, 3 feet wide. (Rio Guam6.) 89.3
Road on right to Visales and San Jos6. 89.6
Enter Pinar del Rio by calle Velez Cabiedes. Leaves 90.2
calle Marti, passing east end of Hotel Ricardo. At outer
edge of Pinar del Rio passes down slope 2.50 for 300 yards
and over a causeway 200 yards long, over bed of Arroyo
Galiano, then rises gently for 0.5 mile.
Top of flat ridge; passes up a grade of about 50 for 50 91.2
yards before reaching top, continues level; 0.5 mile small
stream, sandy bottom. Road to left to San Luis; con-
tinues up a slight grade.
Road to west front to Rio Sequito; road continues level 92.2
from this point.
Gentle down slope begins (dirt road good for army wag- 92.7
ons in dry season). Surrounding country gently rolling
and practically all cultivated in tobacco. Numerous to-
bacco barns scattered about over the country. Tienda to
the left; telephone line, single wire. Wire fences on either
side bearing 2050. Gentle down grade.
Bottom of slope, road changes direction, bearing 2550 93.2
up a gentle slope.
Pacaramao; tiendas right and left; road crosses at right 94.2
angles. Country rolling, scattering palms. Top of a
commanding ridge, cultivation on both sides, but not so
general as before. Changes direction bearing 2000. At
this point a clump of trees and bushes on top of ridge
extending from road 200 yards to right. Apparently a
good water hole 800 yards to the left in low ground. Low
ridge overgrown with palms and underbrush running par-
allel to road about 1 mile distant on left.
Top of low ridge, evidences of bad mud hole in wet sea- 94.7
son. Road to left to large finca; clumps of bushes scat-
tered about, which offer good concealment. Road con-
tinues level.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mes from ca- Clump of brush to left (stone fence 0.5 mile long, on
mIto.
95.2 right side of road and parallel to it; bearing at this point
about 2350). Road continues level for 400 yards, then
up 3 grade. Dense bushes on right 200 yards distant
and parallel to road; scattering palms, cultivation.
95.4 Water hole on right. Good camp site for regiment.
Continues level for 500 yards, thence upgrade. Large
masonry house on high hill 100 yards to left. Masonry
gateway not in use; house and trees on right. Masonry
building, tienda 200 yards farther on left.
96.2 Bearing 2100 to bridge over Rio Feo; wood resting on
masonry abutments, 250 feet long, 50 feet high. In very
bad repair; almost impassable. Brush and trees along
banks. On east side of river Taironas, road to left pass-
ing tienda of Rio Feo. Road to right to Rio Sequito.
West side tienda of Herrera 100 yards farther; wooden
bridge 10 feet long 2 feet high over small drain. Signs
of bad mud hole just beyond. Road to right, up west
side of river; also on down river on west bank.
96.4 A large tienda to the left, schoolhouse to right, road to
left to San Luis. From this point road turns a little more
toward west and continues sandy and level for 0.7 mile,
then rises to top of long commanding ridge on about 30
slope. Country well cultivated and very open. Wire
fences on right.
97.2 Top of long ridge perpendicular to road, which com-
mands country in both directions. Road continues
straight ahead and for about 400 yards down 30 slope
bearing 2600.
97.4 Water hole 100 yards to right. Road level to a small
stream, Arroyo Trancas, just before reaching Trancas.
98.2 Trancas. Large masonry tienda and masonry residence
on a low ridge. Numerous other houses; tobacco barns
in the vicinity. Road changes direction to 2050, passes
through a cut 5 or 6 feet deep, 200 yards long on ridge
just beyond, then passes down a gentle slope for 500
yards, where it becomes sandy for 200 yards. At this
point a road turns off to the left between wire fences on
both sides. Water tank for irrigation on hill 150 yards
to right of cut.
98.7 Bearing 2400 runs up a gentle grade.
99.2 Passes through shallow cut 2 or 3 feet deep for 300 or
400 yards. House to left; commanding ground to left
within easy rifle range, but cut forms an excellent para-
pet at this point. Road turns down grade same general





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


direction. Trail to right and left. Water hole or spring Miles fm' cai-
to left, about 100 yards from house.
Road curves around through hollow with bushes on 99.7
each side and crosses small stream, sandy bottom; no ob-
stacle. In this vicinity cultivation not so general, but
numerous tobacco barns in sight. Trail to right 400 yards
farther on crosses small stream, then turns about south
and passes along a hillside with high ground on right. A
stone fence on left for about 0.7 mile; the road then fol-
lows the left bank of Rio Seco.
Fragata. A large tienda on left; 200 yards beyond 101.2
road crosses the Rio Seco on a wooden bridge 40 feet long
and 30 feet high and enters the Rio Seco plantation of
the American Tobacco Company. The crossing is known
as Paso Real de Rio Seco.
House. 101.7
Tienda on left. Road level and sandy to this point. 102.2
Tienda on left. Country rolling, and at this point road 103.2
runs down a 2.50 slope to Rio San Sebastian, which is
crossed by fording. Banks of road sloping; sandy bot-
tom. A bridge 200 feet long, 45 feet high, spans the
stream, but is impassable. It has been condemned for
traffic.
Road turns to right, sandy and level for 1 mile, then 103.5
climbs a hill of 3 grade for another half mile. Near this
point a pumping station on left for irrigation. Engine
and tank.
Small house on right. A road runs off to right through 103.9
tobacco land. Road passes over ridge, turns toward the
south for 0.5 mile, then toward the west, passing along
open ground. Gentle down slope.
Gate to left to Vivero, headquarters American Tobacco 104.2
Company in this part of island. From this point the
road winds around a ridge, high ground to left, and for
250 yards before reaching the San Juan River runs down
steep slope with high bank on right. Crosses river on a
wooden bridge 50 feet long and 25 feet high.
Road enters San Juan y Martinez at north end of town 105.2
perpendicular to main street.
Road crosses small stream (Arroyo de los Negros) about. 105.7
100 yards beyond evidence of mud hole.
Bad mud hole. 106.2
Evidence of bad place in wet season. All land culti- 106.7
vated; country rolling, numerous vegas and tobacco





BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


uies fom cal- barns. Road passes along side of ridge, high ground to
right; large vega entered by gate with tile overhead.
107.2 Down grade for about 400 yards, sandy road.
107.7 Crosses stream about 10 feet wide (Arroyo Ahoga
Mulas), old wooden bridge in bad condition.
108.2 Water hole right side of road; about 400 yards beyond
evidence of mud holes.
108.7 Road runs up a grade to top of high commanding ridge.
House to left over highest point.
109.3 Road down grade 500 yards, thence winding across
flat. Sandy bottom stream.
109.7 Water hole on right side, road level and sandy for a
mile. Clumps of bushes to left. Continuing on in same
general direction, winding to Galafre. Railroad close to
left during last 2 miles, 100 to 400 yards away.
110.7 Road crosses small stream (Arroyo Papayas).
111.2 Road meets railroad and turns to right, mud hole in
center of road about 100 feet long. Four hundred yards
beyond, an iron bridge 50 feet long, 20 feet high, floor in
bad condition over Rio Galafre. Country becomes less
cultivated; small houses scattered about.
111.7 Flat, sandy; wire fences on both sides.
112.2 Evidences of bad place in wet season.
112.7 Crosses dry arroyo, steep banks. Road turns toward
south passing over table-land cut up by arroyos, which
road crosses in three places in the next 1.5 miles; branches
of Arroyo Yaguas.
113.7 Road goes through small ravine with small mud hole in
center.
114.2 Road turns toward west, small houses on left, road
crosses very small ridges. Little cultivation, wire fences
on both sides.
115.2 Houses scattered along both sides of road. Sea to the
south in sight, 1.5 miles distant. Crosses a small stream
(Arroyo Ramones).
116.2 Masonry bridge over small stream, Arroyo Malao, about
15 feet wide, 400 yards beyond road goes through a small
ridge.
117.2 Houses on both sides and more cultivation appears,
cornfield on left, country rolling and open and does not
appear very productive.
117.7 Road goes through small ravine and crosses stream,
Arroyo Camarones. Passes over a commanding ridge
from which church of Sabalo can be plainly seen, among
trees.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Miles from Cai-
mito.
Small stream (Arroyo de Puercos). 117.9
Small stream crossed by wooden bridge, in fair condi- 118.2
tion (Arroyo de las Mangas).
Sabalo. 118.7
Small stream, Rio del Sabalo (or Rio Mantua) road 119.2
leading over rather rough ground; 300 yards beyond
another small stream (Arroyo Cabezadas de Mal Paso).
Road leads through cut in bank and crosses small 120.2
stream, 100 yards beyond a marsh.
Road crosses small stream (Arroyo de Naranjo). 121.7
Crosses stream (Arroyo de Esmeralda). 122.2
Road leads through a bottom and crosses a small 122.7
stream (Arroyo del Horno).
Small stream (Arroyo de las Mangas del Valle), sandy 123.7
road beyond.
Crosses small stream, rather deep. 124.2
Small stream, bad ford. 125.7
Road leads down a ravine for about 1.5 miles, heavy 126.7
timber and underbrush on both sides of road.
Rio Cuyaguateje, gravelly bottom, steep banks. 128.2
Guane. On entering town, road crosses a wooden 128.7
bridge, 25 yards long, good condition. (Guane appears
on old maps as Filipina.) Leaves southern end of
Guane, crossing a small wooden bridge over Arroyo Bar-
rancas, 0.3 mile out. Road runs between Cuyaguateje
River and the railroad; passes near the railroad station
about 0.7 mile out of Guane.
Road west to Juan G6mez, cultivation. 129.8
Crosses the railroad and the Arroyo Bagazal and enters 131.6
Paso Real de Guane, crossing stream over wooden bridge,
50 feet long, 15 feet wide; stream 5 to 6 inches deep,
current good, bottom sandy, banks 15 feet high and very
steep. Crossing by ford, impracticable after heavy rains.
Trail through woods to Embarcadero Catalina de 131.8
Guane. Main road divides; a branch following telegraph
line to San Julian.
Turns more south, savanna country. 132.3
Turns a little east of south; a road runs to west. 132.9
Turns due east, trail to west to San Julian, cultivation. 133.7
Trail north to Paso Real. 134.7
Ascends ridge, grade 60, bed good, sand and clay. 135.3
Embarcadero Catalina de Guane. Road turns south 135.7
along Cuyaguateje River; country under cultivation;
swamps to west of road.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Cai- Catalina, center of district, one tienda. Trail west to
mito.
137.0 El Barro through swamps, known as CiBnaga de La
Siguanea.
138.2 Passes two houses, trail to southeast to Cuyaguateje
River.
139.0 Trail to east to Cuyaguateje River. Crosses Arroyo
Jagua by ford, stream low and wide, little current.
Impassable after heavy rains.
139.2 Crosses Arroyo Hediondo on wooden bridge, 2 feet above
water, 30 feet long. Would probably be submerged after
heavy rains.
139.5 Puerta de Catalina. House. Road to southeast to La
Grifa. Road turns southwest. Sand. Savanna from
this point to Guadiana.
140.5 Santa Barbara, small cultivated district. Road to
south to Las Martinas. Sparse growth of underbrush.
141.5 Road west to Los Orejones.
141.7 Road to south to Las Martinas.
143.5 Quiros, a finca. Road north to Los Orejones.
144.3 Palmarejo, a finca. Road north to Los Orejones.
Road south to Las Martinas.
144.5 Telegraph line crosses road. Cross road; to north to
San Julian; to south to Las Martinas.
145.5 Cross roads, Asiento Viejo, to north to San Julian; to
south to Las Martinas.
146.8 Road northeast to San Julian; pine growth.
147.7 Passes small lagoon, Laguna del Asiento.
148.2 Turns north. Crosses Rio Verde; ford 4 feet wide,
banks low, bottom sandy. Depth 2 to 3 inches. Always
passable. Road to northeast to Vizcaino.
149.0 El Lim6n, a finca. Road turns southwest and divides
into two, both of which run parallel into Guadiana.
151.0 Guadiana.

ROAD No. 2.
EMBARCADERO DE LA ESPERANZA-SAN CAYETANO-MALAS AGUAS-
Rio DEL MEDIO-BAJA-BARTOLO-DIMAS-SANTA ISABEL DE
BORREGA-LAS CRUCES-PUNTA COLORADA (OCEAN BEACH).
General direction: S. Distance: 88.7 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. From Embarcadero de la Esperanza to San Cayetano the road
bed is clay and sand, grades short and easy, but washed out in places.
2. From San Cayetano to Malas Aguas is a dirt road 7 feet wide,
condition good except in jungles along Rio Duque. This bad stretch




PROVINCE OF PINAB DEL RIO.


is 0.7 mile long. There is wood for repair along the roadside. No
bridges; country rolling; hills covered with scrub growth. River
courses very swampy. Near Malas Aguas the country opens out
and becomes a prairie. Rio Duque, 20 feet wide, 2 feet deep, velocity
2 miles per hour, rock bottom, banks steep, ford difficult.
3. From Malas Aguas to Santa Lucia is a dirt roadway, condition
good, 7 feet wide, easy grades, timber for repair along road. Country
rolling, pine growth, soil sandy, and no cultivation.
4. From Santa Lucia to Rio del Medio there is a good road practi-
cable for wagons. At places it would be very muddy during rains.
5. From Rio del Medio to Baja there is a good dirt road, practi-
cable for wagons.
6. From Baja to Bartolo is a good wagon road.
7. From Bartolo to Dimas is a wagon road 8 feet wide, practicable
for wagons. No grass or camp sites. Private telephone line runs to
Pinar Oscuro.
8. From Dimas to Las Cruces is an ordinary dirt roadway 10 feet
wide; plenty of wood for repairs along sides.
9. From Las Cruces to Punta Colorada (Ocean Beach) there is a good
wagon road passing through a country with a sparse palm growth;
brush along streams.


IN DETAIL.


Miles from Es-
peranza.


Road divides. Both roads run to San 'Cayetano. 1.9
Road east via tienda San Francisco, connecting with
main road along coast through El Rosario, Berracos, and
Rio Blanco. Both roads practically level and passable
at all seasons.
Join San Cayetano road above mentioned; turn more 2.5
east.
Roads from San Cayetano to Esperanza, El Abra, 2.8
Malas Aguas, San Vicente, La Jagua, Berracos, and
La Palma.
Road to left to Abra. 3.5
Road to left to Abra. 4.4
Road to right to Esperanza. 4.8
Road to right to Esperanza. 5.2
Road to right to Embarcadero de las Playuelas. 5.5
Hatico San Bernab6 de Morales. Road to left to Abra. 6.3
Road to right to Embarcadero de las Playuelas.
Roads to right to Embarcadero de las Playuelas. 7.8;
Cross small branch of Rio Pan de Azdcar, flowing 9.2
northwest.
Road to right to Embarcadero de las Playuelas. 9.4
Road to left to Abra. 10.8


0.3; 8.8




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Es-
peranza.
11.0 Cross Rio Pan de Azdcar, flowing north.
11.3 Cross small branch of Rio Pan de Azdcar, flowing north.
12.5 Cross small branch of Rio Malas Aguas, flowing north.
12.8 Cross small branch of Rio Malas Aguas (Arroyo
Ramirez), flowing north.
14.2 Malas Aguas, a crossroad.
14.3 Cross Rio Malas Aguas, 20 feet wide, 4 feet deep, very
sluggish, banks steep and 5 feet high; cross river on very
light bridge 4 feet wide, 5 feet above water; not service-
able for wagons. Road runs over gently rolling country.
16.7; 17 Two small streams flowing north into Rio Malas Aguas,
3 feet wide by 1 foot deep, sandy bottom.
17.3 Small settlement of Las Maniguas.
19.2 Cross Rio Santa Lucia.
20.3 Cross branch of Rio Santa Lucia (Arroyo Las Nieves).
21.2 Road turns sharply to northwest. Road to west to
Embarcadero de la Cuchilla. Road to south to Mata
Hambre.
22.3 Cross small stream, sandy bottom, at tienda of Santa
Lucia, which is on the left of the road. Tramway runs
from it crossing road to small wharf 75 yards to right of
road. This is Santa Lucia.
24.3 Small creek.
26.3 Arroyo Biajacas, small stream with good ford.
27.6 Rio Nombre de Dios, 10 feet wide, 1 foot deep, good
ford, but steep banks. Scattered vegas.
28.7 Nombre de Dios, a small district composed of about 15
vegas.
30.3 Rio del Medio, 8 feet wide and 0.5 foot deep; good ford;
vegas scattered about.
33.3 Rio del Medio.
35.6 Arroyo Hicacos, good ford.
35.5 Rio de Baja, good ford.
36.6 The road from Baja to Coniego runs southeast to a
range of hills parallel to the Macuriges-Baja road, and
about 1 mile from it. It then runs southwest. Half a
mile from the point where the road changes direction is
the Zarzal River. Near this river it joins the Macuriges-
Baja road. From Coniego a wagon road runs in a
westerly direction for about 0.7 mile to Macuriges. From
this road a wagon road branches to the southwest for
about 1 mile, where it joins the Bartolo-Dimas and the
Bartolo-Macuriges roads at the crossroads 1 mile west
of Birtolo.




PROVINCE OF PINAB DEL RIO.


Miles from Ee-
peranza.
Cross San Bartolomb River; 12 feet wide, 3 feet deep, 42.0
4-mile current flowing northwest; fordable, approaches
steep; sandy bottom; fluctuates 8 feet. A small cable
with a ferryboat, capacity 4 men, is provided for the
rainy season. Water supply good and ample.
Bfrtolo. 42.2
About 1 mile out of Bartolo a wagon road branches to 43.2
the northwest and joins the Dimas-Bartolo road about 1
mile east of Cruz del Pino.
About 1 mile farther the road branches (to Dimas in a 44.2
western direction). The road to Pinar Oscuro continues
in a southern direction for about 2.5 miles to Pinar
Oscuro.
A sawmill has telephone connection with Coniego and 44.7
Dimas. The road branching from the Bartolo-Pinar
Oscuro road runs to Dimas in a northwest direction.
About 1 mile from where it leaves the BArtolo-Pinar 47.7
Oscuro road, a small, shallow, fordable stream, running
southwest, crosses the road.
About 1 mile farther a similar stream crosses the road. 48.7
Between these streams a trail branches to the north and
runs to Pueblo Nuevo.
The road joins the BArtolo-Dimas road (main western 55.5
road) at La Ceja, about 0.2 mile from Dimas.
Dimas.-The country traversed is uncultivated except 52.7
a small place between the two streams, and is covered
with a growth of pine scrubs and wire grass. Heavy
underbrush lines the road from Dimas for about 3 miles
eastward. Leave Dimas at shore end of main street.
Road to left to Pueblo Nuevo. 53.2
Road to left to La Jagua. 53.5
Road to left to La Ceja. (San Francisco de la Ceja.) 53.7
Road crosses small stream flowing west. (Arroyo de 54.2
Yaguasas.)
Cross Rio Diego (Santa Rosa), 15 feet wide and 0.5 55.7
foot deep, bottom rocky, banks shelving, good ford.
Settlement of Navarro; three roads to left to La Ceja. 57.2
Cross one fork of Rio Camarones. 58.7
Cross another fork of Rio Camarones (both small 59.2
streams).
Cross roads of Santa Isabel de Borrega, small tienda on 59.7
right of road. Road to left to La Jagua. Road to right .
to La Cana.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Es-
peranza.
60.0 Road to right to La Cana.
60.7 Road to left to La Jagua.
62.7 Cross roads. Tienda and schoolhouse. On the last
2 miles the road crossed six unimportant streams.
64.0 Cross Rio Buena Vista, width 12 feet, depth 6 inches,
velocity 1 mile per hour; rocky bottom, banks shelving,
ford good.
65.2 Meeting point of five roads. MAntua road runs due
south. Road to northwest to La Cana. Road to south-
east to MAntua. Guane road. Road to southwest to
brick yard of Mantua.
67.2 Road crosses Arroyo Malcasado, small stream flowing
to left, sandy bottom.
67.7 Church at Mantua.
68.2 Road to left, main road to Guane, an incompleted
calzada.
69.0 Road to right to Damuji; trail to left to Guane road.
70.5 Small log bridge 15 by 7 feet, 5 feet above water; very
little stream, with steep dirt banks; no fords.
71.0 Lizaro tienda on left of road; road to right to Damuji.
71.5 Road to right to Damuji.
72.7 Settlement of Navarro.
74.2 Cross very small stream flowing to left.
74.7 Las Cruces de Abalos; ford of Mantua River, 35 feet
by 1.5 feet; sandy bottom, shelving banks, stream
sluggish.
75.7 La Ceiba. Road turns east to Guayabo. Roadbed
sand and dirt; good condition.
77.2 Guayabo. Road to north to Santa Lucia and Monte-
zuelo. The road passes through a gate and divides.
Turns southwest. Road to east from this point to Santa
Lucia, to south direct to Punta Colorada. Road crosses
dry bed of creek.
77.7 Crosses dry bed of creek, Arroyo Guayabo.
78.0 Turn southeast around shack. Road to north to Santa
Lucia.
78.2 Road to east to Hato Guane.
78.5 Road to southwest joining direct road to Punta
Colorada.
78.7 Road to southeast and northwest joining road to Punta
Colorada. Crosses dry bed of stream, Arroyo Hicaco.
Sandy bottom.
81.2 Cross Arroyo Aji; dry; sandy; banks low.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RBO.


El Roblar (finca). Roadbed very sandy after leaving M ie r o~ Es-
this point. 81.5
Cross Rio Salado; crossing sandy; 15 feet wide, banks 82.2
4 feet high, water 12 inches deep. Good camp site.
Road divides; to southeast to Guadiana; to southwest 82.5
to Punta Colorada; to south connecting road.
Connecting cross roads; pass small lagoon (Laguna 83.2
de Las Orillas).
Turn more south; trail direct to Roblar joins; country 84.7
covered with growth of pine and scrub palms; very sandy.
Road leaves connecting direct route to Guayabo- 86.0
Punta Colorada.
Direct road from Guayabo joins. 86.7
Punta Colorada (Ocean Beach). 88.7


ROAD No. 3.

GUANAJAY-CABANAS-BAHIA HONDA-SAN MIGUEL DE LOS CAL-
DERETEROS-LAs POZAS-LA MULATA-Rio BLANCO.
General direction: W. Distance: 70 miles.
NOTE.-On September 30, 1908, a metaled road was under construction connecting
Cabafas and Bahia Honda.
IN GENERAL.

1. Guanajay to Cabaias.-An excellent road in all seasons of the
year for all classes of transportation. Sufficiently wide for two
wagons to drive abreast. Stone and wire fences entire distance.
All bridges in excellent condition. Telephone line following road
entire distance.
2. Cabafias to Bahia Honda.-The calzada continues nearly south-
west from Cabafas for 2.5 miles, passable at all times of the year for
any wheeled transportation; from this point the dirt road, passable
for carts during the dry season only, continues on southwest to Bahia
Honda, through the old ingenios of San Agustin, Recompensa, San-
tiago, Nazareno, and Montaina, over small hills, crossing small
rivers that are easily fordable in the dry season but impassable in
the rainy season. Wire fences follow the road most of the distance.
After leaving the calzada the telephone line takes a more direct line
and is only visible at long intervals. Country north of the road
fairly level; that south of road very hilly, and as you approach
Bahia Honda it becomes quite mountainous. Large number of cattle
in fields. Sugar cane grown only in fields in vicinity of central
Orosco.





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


3. Bahia Honda to Las Pozas.-A dirt road about 10 feet wide,
passing through rolling country. Suitable in dry season for escort
wagons.
4. Las Pozas to La Mulata.-A trail which in places broadens into
a road suitable for bull carts. It is low and marshy and is practicable
for escort wagons in dry season, but during rainy season is prac-
ticable for pack trains only.
5. La Mulata to Rio Blanco.-A good dirt road over slightly rolling
country. It is passable in the dry season for wheeled vehicles, but
during the rainy reason should be attempted only by mounted or
foot troops; and in places, especially in the vicinity of the Rio Puer-
cos, would be very difficult for mounted men on account of the mud.
The better trail in the wet season would be the south road following
the telegraph line from near San Marcos to Ceja Aradores.
IN DETAIL.

Miles from Leaving Guanajay via Luz Caballero street, road con-
tinues west for a short distance, then turns northwest,
ascending steadily to low ridge. There is an old forti-
fication, now a ruin, on hill north within 600 yards of
the road. This ridge and hill commands the road as
well as the town of Guanajay.
1.0 Reaching top of ridge road descends slightly and con-
tinues over fairly level country well cultivated. Road
2.2 reaches a place called Jabac6 (location of old ingenio of
same name). At this point a dirt road branches to the
southwest, continues in that direction through cane
fields for about 3 miles to where it joins the Guanajay-
Mendive-Cayajabos road, between River6n and Chacon,
at a point about 3 miles west of the Guanajay-Artemisa
calzada. One and a quarter miles from where this dirt
road leaves Jabac6 another dirt road branches to the
northwest for 1 mile to finca Sias. This is the terminal
of the east branch of the plantation railroad owned by
the Industrial and Mineral Cuban Company running
from San Juan Bautista (Guanajay) to Mariel via cen-
tral San Ram6n. From this point the road follows the
railroad through cane fields 2 miles to the calzada to
central San Ram6n. Both of these roads are good cart
roads during the dry season, at other times practicable
for foot troops. Mounted troops might travel over them
with difficulty. A short distance beyond Jabac6 the
calzada zigzags down a steep slope (about 150 for a
short distance). An old fort is located just northeast of
the road at beginning of descent. The high ground from





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


which the road descends commands all approaches along 'sil rom
the road from the northwest.
At the bottom of the descent a dirt road branches 3.1
north, ascends hill to finca Martin Mesa 0.5 mile from
where it leaves the calzada, continues on, crossing ridge
on which Martin Mesa is located and descends, joining
the old Mariel-Guanajay road 1.5 miles from the cal-
zada. This road is passable for carts during the dry
season. The calzada continues northwest for 1.3 miles,
crossing four stone culverts over dry runs, which during
the rainy season are branches of the Cafa River, to
point where calzada divides, one branch running north to 4.5
Mariel, the other continuing on west to Cabanas. A
short distance beyond the junction, road to Cabafas
crosses small stone bridge (10-foot span) over a branch
of the Cafa River, and 0.2 mile from the junction another
stone bridge (30-foot span) crosses the Cafa River. 5.0
Just beyond two roads cross the calzada from the south;
one comes up from finca Sias and the other from finca
Regalado, 1.5 miles south. At finca Regalado this road
branches on, continuing southwest 1.5 miles to San Juan
Bautista (Guanaj ay). The branch southeast runs through
cane fields for a short distance, then becomes a trail and
continues on south for about 3 miles, where it connects
with the Guanajay-Cayajabos road at finca Mendive.
This road is passable for carts during the dry season and
is practically impassable during the rainy season, owing
to the fact that entire bottom is flooded by the Mariel
River. Where the two roads cross the calzada they
merge into one road which continues through central San
Ram6n, turns east and joins the Mariel calzada one-
eighth of a mile from the junction.
Plantation railroad crosses the road, which at this 5.5
point runs a little north of west. A short distance beyond
a dirt road branches west, continues for 1.2 miles, where
dirt road leaves to the south; the other continues west
for 0.2 mile, crosses the Mariel River (about 15 feet
wide, 2 feet deep, gravel bottom, high banks cut to ford,
impassable in rainy season), then turns north 0.5 mile to
the calzada. The branch running south continues for
one-eighth of a mile, then west an eighth of a mile, where
it crosses the Mariel River, then southwest 0.2 mile,
where it crosses a branch of the Mariel River, then south-
west for 2.2 miles to finca Paraiso, circling around to the
east and south of a ridge of hills. At Paraiso a trail,





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miinaj fo practicable for horses, branches northwest, circling to
west and north of same ridge to Quiebra Hacha; this
trail becomes a dirt road about 0.5 mile south of Quiebra
Hacha. Total distance from Paralso to Quiebra Hacha,
about 4 miles. At Paraiso the main dirt road continues
south for 0.2 mile, then branches, one to east 1 mile to
San Juan Bautista (Guanajay); the other branch con-
tinues south about 3 miles and, ascending ridge, joins the
Mendive-Cayajabos road at Ave Maria. Total distance
back to the calzada about 7 miles. This road is practi-
cable for carts in dry season, practically impassable in
rainy season for anything but foot troops and very diffi-
cult for them. At the point where the last-mentioned
6.0 road leaves the calzada is Cafias. At 0.5 mile from railroad
crossing the calzada turns northwest. Three-quarters
6.7 of a mile beyond an iron bridge (114-foot span) crosses
the Mariel River. Banks very steep; river muddy and
about 6 feet deep, impossible to ford. Road turns west
after crossing bridge; dirt road comes in from the south
7.2 from Paraiso. This road continues north of the calzada
to the old ingenio of Angosta, about 2 miles. Calzada
continues west for short distance, turns slightly to the
north, ascends gradually to the town of Quiebra Hacha.
8.5 At Quiebra Hacha a good dirt road leads north over
small hills 2 miles, where another dirt road turns off to
the east, continues east for 0.7 mile, then north for 0.7
mile, where a branch road turns off to the east, descends
ridge to Fort San Elias on a peninsula in Mariel Bay,
about 2.5 miles from where it branches. The other
branch continues north 0.7 mile to the old ingenio of
Tinaja; from there a road runs down the ridge 1.5 miles
to the quarantine station on Mariel Bay. Total distance
from Tinaja back to where road first branches, about
2.2 miles. The main road from Quiebra Hacha continues
north, circles to west and descends rather sharply to
small stream, crosses wooden bridge and ascends short
distance to central Asunci6n. Total distance from
Quiebra Hacha, about 3.2 miles. Just before reaching
Asunci6n another dirt road leads off to the northwest
which circles around to Tinaja. From Asunci6n a
macadam road leads north, crosses a small wooden
bridge close to mill (about 10 feet wide), and continues
north about 2 miles to a small bay, where there is a ware-
house and small dock. Another dirt road leads west
from Asunci6n 0.5 mile to the old ingenio of Menocal,





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


conunuing on from there 1 mile northwest to finca Cafna; Mlna fro
from there west through small woods and over pasture
lands about 5 miles over a poor trail to Herradura;
and from there on, 1 mile west to Constante on the
eastern peninsula, at the entrance to Cabafas Bay.
This trail is used only for getting out timber and would
Sbe impassable in the rainy season. Carts go over it
during the dry season. About 1.5 miles west of finca
Cafna a trail branches south which leads to the potrero
of Dos Hermanos. Another dirt road leads south from
Asunci6n about 3 miles to where it connects with the
calzada at the 16-kilometer post, about 0.5 mile west of
Quiebra Hacha. On this road about 0.5 mile south of
Asunci6n a road branches to the west, turning southwest
to the old ingenio of Verela, 2 miles from where it branches.
From Verela road continues south 1.2 miles to the cal-
zada 2.7 miles west of the sixteenth kilometer post.
All these dirt roads are used by carts for hauling cane in
the dry season, but are only practicable for men or horses
during the rainy season. At Quiebra Hacha another
dirt road leads to the south for about 0.5 mile into the
cane fields, then dwindles into a trail practicable for
horsemen, which runs to Paraiso between two short
ridges of hills. Calzada leaves southwest from Quiebra
Hacha, turns west to where road comes in from the north
from Asunci6n. A quarter of a mile beyond, a dirt road 9.2
leads off to the southwest to finca San Jos6, 2 miles dis-
tant. One-quarter of a mile north of San Jos6 another
branches to the northwest 0.2 mile, where it divides,
one north 1.7 miles to the calzada 1.2 miles west of where
the road left it. The other branch runs southwest for
1.5 miles, dwindles into a trail, runs on south for 1 mile,
where trail divides, one southeast around ridge to finca
San Nicolas, the other southwest 1.5 miles to finca San
Francisco on the Cabafias-Cayajabos trail. These roads
are passable for carts in the dry season, but impassable
for anything but cavalry or infantry during the rainy
season. Short distance beyond where last-mentioned
road left the calzada another dirt road branches to the
southwest for 0.5 mile to finca Begofia, then turns north
0.5 mile, where it connects with the calzada about 1 mile
west of where the other road left it on the calzada.
Returning to the point where the dirt road ran south-
west to finca San Jos6 the calzada turns northwest, then
8120--1---3




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mile from west to iron bridge (35-foot span) which crosses the
Maizal River (about 15 feet wide, 2 feet deep, muddy
bottom, high banks and muddy; impossible to ford; in
case bridge were down could ford 0.5 mile south).
11.6 Calzada turns west and continues to where road comes
in from the north from ingenio Verela. Continues west
0.5 mile where macadam road branches south 0.5 mile
12.1 to the potrero of Santa Isabel de Pefalver. There is
also a trail leading off from the calzada to the north at
this point through the potrero of Dos Hermanos and con-
nects with the trail running to Herradura on the east
peninsula of Cabafias Bay.
12.8 Calzada continues west to another stone and brick
bridge (30-foot span) across the Dominica River (river
about 20 feet wide and 5 feet deep, muddy banks and
bottom, impossible to ford). Calzada turns northwest
crossing two stone culverts each about 20 feet long, to
another stone bridge (about 30-foot span) across dry
13.4 ravine 25 feet to bottom, Arroyo Guabinas. Calzada
turns west and a short distance beyond a plantation
railroad belonging to the Mercedita Sugar Company
13.5 crosses the calzada, and just beyond that a macadam
road branches to the north 0.2 mile to central Mercedita.
The hills on the north and south side of the calzada near
Mercedita command all approaches along the calzada.
Just before the calzada crosses the railroad, a dirt road
branches to the south for 1 mile through the cane fields.
Here good road dwindles into a trail, turns southwest for
0.5 mile farther where it connects with the road to San
Juan Bautista (Cabailas). At central Mercedita there
is a dirt road running north 1 mile to swamp; another
runs northeast 1 mile to the Dominica River, and another
southeast for 1 mile to same river. These are plantation
roads only. They both are blocked by the river, there
being no bridges. The river is about 20 feet wide by 5
feet deep, muddy bottom, steep muddy banks, impossible
to ford. Where macadam road branches to Mercedita
a dirt road branches south from the calzada, continuing
south for a short distance, then southwest to a point
1 mile from the calzada where road branches, one north-
west 1 mile to Cabafias where a dirt road joins it coming
in from the south just about an eighth of a mile before
reaching Cabafias. Going back to where road branches
the other branch continues south 0.5 mile where road
branches again, one running southwest for 1 mile where





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


it connects with an east and west road, the one east going Mnes from
to San Juan Bautista (Cabanas), the west one continuing
west for 0.5 mile, the north 2 miles to Cabafas. Going
back to where road branches southwest the other branch
turns southeast 1.5 miles to San Juan Bautista (Cabanas).
This is a thickly settled country and roads are numerous,
but the terminals of all of them are Cabanas on the north
and San Juan Bautista (Cabanas) on the southeast. All
these roads are passable for carts in the dry season, and
for only infantry and cavalry in rainy season. From San
Juan Bautista (Cabafas) a trail, passable for infantry
and cavalry, runs into the foothills south, 1 mile, where
it branches, the one continuing south for 1 mile, where it
branches again, one branch runs west 2 miles through
finca Santa Isabel to another north and south trail, the
one north connecting with road from San Juan Bautista
to Cabanas about 2 miles south of the calzada; the other
branch runs south through finca Roble, then southeast,
connecting with the Cabanas-Cayajabos trail about 2
miles northwest of Cayajabos. Returning to where trail
branches to finca Santa Isabel, the other branch con-
tinues south through the hacienda of Rosario, turns
southeast and connects with the Cabafias-Cayajabos trail
about 2.5 miles northwest of Cayajabos. The main
Cabafas-Cayajabos trail, after branching 1 mile south of
San Juan Bautista, continues a little east of south through
finca San Juan de Dios to finca San Francisco, about 3
miles from San Juan Bautista (Cabanas). At this point
another trail turns east to finca San Nicolas. Main
trail continues east of south about 4 miles to Cayajabos
via finca San Isidro and connects with trails from finca
Rosario and finca Roble at about 2.5 and 2 miles, respec-
tively, from Cayajabos.
Returning to calzada where road leads to Mercedita,
calzada continues west past two small hills north of
calzada, to point where another dirt road crosses one 14.0
north around the hills to Mercedita, the one south to
San Juan Bautista (Cabanas), connecting a short distance
south of the calzada with roads just described running
from Cabanas to San Juan Bautista (Cabanas). Calzada 15.0
continues west 1 mile to Cabanas. At this point a mac-
adam road runs 0.2 mile north to the beach, which is
really a continuation of the principal street of Cabanas,
and extends south up to the hill where Cabanas is located.
A dirt road leaves Cabanas running south. At an eighth





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Means rom of a mile out it branches. Branch running southeast;
at 0.5 mile main road branches again, main road turning
west, branch road east. At 1 mile out main road branches
again, branch road running northeast, main road south-
west. At 1.5 miles out main road connects with dirt
road from the north; main road continues south for 0.2
mile, then turns east and continues in that direction for
2.2 miles to San Juan Bautista (Cabafas). All branch
roads lead to San Juan Bautista (Cabafas) to the south-
east, or central Mercedita to the northeast, all connect-
ing into one road before reaching there. The dirt road
coming down from the north that joins the dirt road from
Cabafas, connects with the calzada five-eighths of a mile
southwest of Cabafias, crossing the Cabafias River one-
eighth of a mile south of the calzada. The ford at this
point is practicable in the dry season only, when carts
can cross it; during the rainy season the river over-
flows its banks and the road is impassable for infantry.
Calzada leaves Cabafias southwest, crosses small stone
culvert, and just beyond crosses an iron and wooden
bridge across the Cabafias River (30-foot span); just
beyond, dirt road leaves calzada south to San Juan
Bautista (Cabafias).
16.1 Calzada continues southwest, turns west, and zigzags
17.4 in that direction to where calzada ends.
18.7 From this point dirt road begins to turn south to where
road branches to south. South branch continues in that
direction for five-eighths of a mile to finca Vigia, where
trail practicable for infantry and cavalry runs east 1
mile to Cabanas River, crossing same (river 8 feet wide
and 6 inches deep in dry season, low banks, gravel bot-
tom), turns northeast 1 mile through pasture land, and
connects with dirt cart road to San Juan Bautista
(Cabafas). The main road turns west a short distance,
19.2 then northwest to where road again divides; branch
runs north 1.5 miles to Cabafas Bay; main road turns
west, descends ridge, crosses small stream (which in
rainy season is impassable for horses owing to muddy
bottom), ascends ridge, turns south to where road con-
19.9 nects with it from the southeast from finca Vigia 1 mile
distant. Main road turns southwest along ridge, de-
scends same, crosses a plantation railroad track, which
20.9 leads 1 mile north to Cabafias Bay and 0.5 mile south
to the old ingenio of San Claudio. From San Claudio a
trail practicable for infantry and cavalry runs southwest




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


along the old railroad for 0.5 mile to bridge across the Miles rom
San Claudio River. From this point three trails branch
out to the southeast, south, and southwest. The trail
southeast runs into the mountains through finca Baracoa,
about 3.5 miles from the bridge south of San Claudio.
From there the trail ascends a steep hill and connects
with trail from Cabafas to Cayajabos halfway between
finca Santa Ana and finca Roble. The trail is but little
used and is frequently cut off by wire fences. The south
trail continues on to Ceiba via finca Senemo and from
Senemo runs through the mountains to Candelaria.
The southwest trail continues into the foothills to San
Diego de Nufez about 7 miles from San Claudio, and
connects there with a cart road to Bahia Honda. At
San Claudio another trail leaves west, crosses the Bahia
Honda River, ascends hill, and connects with the main
road beyond. This is the trail used by men on foot and
horsemen during the rainy season when the river is so
high it can not be forded where main road crosses. The
river here is about 15 feet wide and 1 foot deep in the
dry season; water excellent; gravel bottom; high banks
cut to ford; current rather swift. Returning to the
main road, after crossing the railroad, road crosses San
Claudio River just beyond; no bridge; river about 15 feet
wide, 1 foot deep, gravel bottom, low banks. Impossible
to ford in rainy season; ford 0.5 mile south.
After crossing river road ascends hill to the old inge- 22.1
nio of San Agustin. Here another old plantation rail-
road (ties and rails all gone) runs north 2 miles to a
peninsula of Cabafas Bay, where the railroad ends. A
trail continues north 1 mile farther to Torre6n Reina
Amalia (now practically a ruin, which at one time com-
manded the entrance to the bay). This trail is prac-
ticable for carts to end of railroad; from there for infantry
and cavalry. Another trail practicable for infantry and
cavalry runs south from San Agustin, which about 0.5
mile out branches west 1.5 miles, where it connects with
the main road. The other branch continues south for a
mile, descending hill where it branches again, one branch
turning off northwest 1.5 miles where it connects with
the first branch just before it joins the main road. The
other branch turns northeast 1.5 miles back to San
Claudio, and still another branch continues south for 0.5
mile, where it connects with trail from San Claudio to
San Diego de Nufez. The main road turns north a




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mies from short distance from San Agustin, then west to where
Guanajay.
23.1 three roads branch; one north to the dock of central La
Luisa 2 miles north. The other northwest 5 miles to
central La Luisa, as it is called by the people living in
that vicinity; its proper name is central Orosco. From
there the road leads to Bahia Honda. The road south-
west leads to Bahia Honda; it is not much used, how-
ever, and joins the Bahia Honda road at the old ingenio
of Santiago 4 miles beyond. The main road continues
28.1 northwest to central Orosco, crossing a wooden bridge
over a small stream about 1.5 miles east of the mill. At
central Orosco the road crosses a small stream; no bridge;
ford is fairly good, banks sloping. Road continues south-
29.1 west, crosses Rio Santiago over wooden bridge (20-foot
span). This place can not be crossed in the rainy season,
as the water rises much higher than the bridge and floods
the entire bottom. Road continues southwest over
30.1 small hills to the old ingenio of Santiago (or Falguera).
From there the road west runs to the old ingenio of San
Juan de Dios. At this point a road runs west 1 mile to
the old ingenio of Candelaria.
30.4 Road to Bahia Honda leads south for 0.2 mile, where
road branches south to the ruined ingenio of San Gabriel,
only 0.5 mile away. The main road turns off southwest,
continues in that direction for about 0.1 mile, then west
over small hills to point where road comes in from the
southeast from San Diego de Nufiez.
33.1 From this point road leads west for about 100 yards,
crosses the Nazareno River (2 feet deep, 15 feet wide,
high steep banks cut to ford, gravel bottom, good running
water; impossible to ford in rainy season; banks 15 feet
high).
34.1 Road rises steadily along ridge to the old ruined ingenio
of Nazareno. From this point road descends, crosses
small wooden bridge over small stream 0.2 mile from
Nazareno and continues southwest over good grazing
35.6 country, partly cultivated, to the ingenio of Montafia.
Just beyond Montafa road crosses Rio Montafa (Cirilo),
(20 feet wide by 2 feet deep, running water, excellent
quality, gravel bottom, high banks cut to ford, impossible
to ford in rainy season; river is said to rise suddenly as
high as 20 and 25 feet, flooding entire bottom).
37.1 Road continues southwest to Bahia Honda.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Concrete bridge. Macadam road. Wooden bridge mes te"m
short distance beyond. Marshy some distance to the 38.0
left.
Macadam road ends. 38.1
Concrete bridge. 38.4
Twenty-foot concrete bridge. Marshes on the left. 38.6
Twenty-foot wooden bridge in poor condition. 38.8
Small stream; could water 12 horses. 39.0
Buena Ventura on right. Road runs through planta- 39.4
tion of orange trees, property of American company.
Small gate. Turn to right. 39.7
Scattered clumps of bamboo at base of low ridge. Pass 40.0
through small gate.
Finca Los Apuros. A circular masonry ruin on left 40.7
25 feet in diameter and 3 feet high; ruins of sugar mill.
Large bamboo jungle on left 75 yards distant. Rolling 41.2
grassy country with scattered palms from here to Bahia
Honda.
Pass through small gate, crossing faint trail. 41.3
Marsh on both sides. 41.4
Rio San Miguel (or Rio Manimani), 15 feet wide, fair 41.7
crossing. Road difficult to follow on account of many
branches and trails. Few houses. No cultivation.
Cross Arroyo Peneque and take trail.
Two shacks on right. 42.3
Pass through small gate. Barb-wire fence across road. 42.4
Meet another road at right angles. 48.6
Trail on left. 48.7
Trail on right. 42.8
Faint cross trail at top of short steep hill. 43.4
Pass through gate; pond on right. 43.8
Two trails on right. Tienda Los Reyes on right. 44.0
Trails coming in on both sides just before reaching
tienda.
Two shacks on left and one on right. 45.7
Arroyo de las Pozas; bad mud hole here. 46.0
Arroyo de la Legua, 6 feet wide. Bad place for 46.6
wagon, and requires extra team.
Las Pozas; ruins of old stone church, steeple stand- 46.8
ing. Road branches twice. Go to right first, and left
the second time.
Rio Las Pozas, 20 feet wide, sandy bottom; could 47.0
water one troop; banks steep. Shack on left.
Marsh on left. 48.0
Marsh on right. 48.3




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from
Guanajay.
48.5 Trail on left; barb-wire fence both sides.
48.7 Arroyo Hondo, 10 to 12 feet wide.
49.2 Trail on left.
49.3 Cross trail; turn to right; small shack on left.
50.1 Rio San Marcos; bad crossing; muddy; water one
troop. Trail to left.
50.6 Grass clearing on right.
50.8 Small stream, and a bridge for one horse. Trail used
by bull carts, but is difficult. Ground low and marshy.
Not practicable for escort wagons in rainy season.
52.2 Trail runs through marsh, nearly dry. Open grass on
left. Dense brush on right.
52.9 Rio San Marcos.
53.4 Small trail to left.
53.6 La Mulata (tienda).
54.0 Join road from Mulata to San Marcos.
55.5 Reduan.
58.5 Margarita (Buenavista).
61.0 Media Luna.
63.5 Rio del Cdimito, 30 feet wide, gravel bottom, banks cut
for wagons.
64.0 Tortuga. Country low and level.
64.2 Cart road runs north to Embarcadero Tortuga.
66.2 Cross Rio Puercos on wooden bridge. River 25 feet
wide, shallow; low, muddy banks.
66.4 Rio Puercos, 2 houses.
68.0 Arroyo Rico, settlement.
70.0 Rio Blanco (Guacamayas).



ROAD No. 4.

BAHIA HONDA-SAN CRIST6BAL-CANDELARIA-SABANALAMAR.
General direction: S. Distance: 41.5 miles.

IN GENERAL.
1. From Bahia Honda to San Crist6bal is not suitable for wheeled
transportation. The entire course of the San Crist6bal River along
this trail indicates that it is impassable in the rainy season. The
current is evidently strong and the river rises high.
2. From San Crist6bal to Candelaria is a macadam road, practi-
cable for transportation in all seasons, passing through a cultivated
country.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


3. From Candelaria to Sabanalamar is a dirt road practicable for
horses from Rio Hondo to Sabanalamar and Canton. In rainy
season practicable for horses as far as Rio Hondo and from there
impracticable for anything but men on foot. Wire fences line the
*road most of the distance.
IN DETAIL.
Miles from
From point on Bahia Honda-Cayajabos trail where Baha Honda.
trail comes in from Llano, take trail following generally
south for 2 miles, up two steep ascents where trail 4.0
branches, one east to finca Chipi, the main trail con- 4.5
tinues south to finca Llano. Here trail branches to west
going to Aguacate, main trail continues through finca,
then southeast up rocky ascent between two high peaks, 5.5
along ridge descending slightly to river (San Crist6bal); 7.5
15 feet wide, 3 feet deep; gravel bottom; easy approaches;
general direction of stream southeast. Trail crosses
stream, leaves it southeast, ascends small hill where it
crosses trail running east to El Brujo and southwest to
Vega Morales. Main trail continues southeast, descends
to San Crist6bal River, follows along bank for short dis-
tance, then ascends slightly and enters quite an exten-
sive valley; grazing good; water plentiful, and of excel-
lent quality. This is part of the hacienda Brujo. Trail 8.5
continues through this pocket to San Crist6bal River,
follows along same, crossing several times. The river
grows steadily larger and bottom and banks very rocky.
It is about 15 feet wide, and at fords from 1 to 3 feet
deep, with numerous deep holes along the course. In
places the river divides for short distances, forming small
islands. These islands, as well as banks on both sides,
are covered with small growth of trees. Banks grow
more precipitous and in places ledges of rock run up to
a height of 100 feet. Just before arriving at the finca
El Tumbo, trail leaves river and crosses three small hills
near El Tumbo, which consists of three shacks. Trail 10.0
leaves finca southeast to river; course of river at this
point is southwest, continues so with trail following it
for 0.7 mile, where a high white wall of rock changes its
course southeast; trail crosses river; at this point ford 10.7
is very difficult owing to great number of large round
rocks; trail continues in a general southeasterly direc-
tion; owing to precipitous banks trail leaves river in
numerous places, crossing small hills and returning to
river, continuing to finca Soledad, descending long slope 13.2




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Smiles rom to river, where trail branches off east to Brujito. Trail
Bahia Honda.
to San Crist6bal continues along bank 1.5 miles to finca
16.5 El Bohio. Trail continues along bank for a short dis-
tance, then crosses hill, descends to river, and a short
distance beyond river widens out into a deep pool caused
by dam-like formation of rocks where river turns east.
Trail continues south through practically level country,
houses numerous, trail becomes cart road, continues
18.5 southeast through sitio Herrera to San Crist6bal.
For description of the San Crist6bal-Candelaria road,
see Caimito-Guanajay-Artemisa-San Crist6bal-Paso Real-
Pinar del Rio-San Juan y Martinez-Guane-Guadiana road,
from 22.2 to 29.2 mile points.
26.0 Candelaria. From Candelaria road runs south, crosses
the railroad just before leaving Candelaria.
28.0 Finca Teneria. From here the road turns more south-
west and continues over level, uncultivated fields (good
grazing).
29.0 Tobacco plantation of Santo Cristo.
31.5 Road crosses Rio Santo Domingo (or Rio de los Colo-
rados); no bridge; river about 20 feet wide by 1.5 feet
deep, running water, rock bottom, banks 15 feet high cut
to ford. A short distance beyond road turns more to
the south and continues south over grassy and wooded
country.
36.0 Finca Santa Isabel de Mayari. At Santa Isabel a trail
comes in from the east from the potrero of Rinc6n Hondo
about 1.5 miles distant. From this point the road con-
tinues south.
39.2 Rio Hondo (20 feet wide by 2 feet deep, rock bottom,
low banks). From this point the road is swamp; it con-
tinues for 1.2 miles.
40.5 Road dwindles into a trail; this trail continues south
to where the trail comes in from the northwest from
Taco Taco.
41.5 Sabanalamar. A trail comes in from the west from
Bacunagua. The trail continues southeast 0.5 mile
through the finca La Jagua to Loma Colorada, on the
Rio Hondo. Loma Colorada is part potrero and part
tobacco plantation and would make a good camp for a
battalion of infantry or cavalry. Between Santa Isabel
de Mayari and Sabanalamar are Arroyo Corralillo del
Blanquizal and Arroyo del Conuco, or del Mulo. Both
are small. From Loma Colorada a sandy road runs
south 0.5 mile to Canton on the Rio Hondo. Canton is





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


located about 2.5 miles from the sea, which can only be Miles arom
Bahia Honda.
reached by the Rio Hondo owing to swampy lands. At
Loma Colorada a trail comes down from the north along
the Rio Hondo from Rinc6n Hondo and one comes in
from the northeast from finca Jejenes. These trails are
all poor and used only by hunters and fishermen.


ROAD No. 5.

COLOMA-PINAR DEL RiO-VINALES-ESPERANZA.
General direction: N. Distance: 44.8 miles.

NOTE.-During 1908 a metaled road was constructed connecting Pinar del Rio and
Esperanza.
IN GENERAL.

1. From Coloma to Pinar del Rio is a good macadam road, running
through a flat country. During the rainy season portions of this road
are covered with water.
2. From Pinar del Rio to Vifiales is a broad dirt road for about 7
miles, generally level and practicable for wagons with full loads in the
dry season. Two of the short grades require double teaming. Road-
bed is gravelly for about a mile before reaching the foothills. A
cart road runs over the foothills, which is steep in places, but not
rocky, and is practicable for carts at all seasons. Near Viiales the
road is a good broad wagon road, fairly level and practicable for
wagons in the dry season.
3. From Vifales to Esperanza is a wagon road with bed of clay and
sand. Grades short and easy.
IN DETAIL.
Miles from
Coloma.
Road to left to Palizadas. 0.7
Cross Arroyo Jucaral, swamps on both sides (Laguna de 1.0
Las Garzas). Country from this point to Coloma gen-
erally swampy and covered with thick brush.
Branch road from Marcos Vazquez and Ovas. 1.2
Cross Arroyo Flamenco over a culvert. 5.2
Cross two small arroyos over culverts. 5.7
Cross small arroyo over culvert. 6.2
Branch road to left to Palizadas. 7.5
Cross small creek over a culvert. To this point country 10.2
west of road fertile and generally tobacco land. From
this point to kilometer 23 on both sides of road country





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from low, uncultivated, and barren; covered with scrubby
Coloma.
growth of palm and pine.
11.0 Cross small creek over culvert, concrete, single span.
Country on east flat and barren.
11.5 Tienda to left. Country cultivated.
12.0 Cross GuamA River (locally known as Rio Taironas)
over wooden bridge 60 feet long, 40 feet high; condi-
tion good. Ford 25 yards west of bridge, steep banks,
gravel bottom; dry season 1 foot deep and 12 feet wide.
12.5 Cross small creek over single-arch concrete bridge.
13.0 Tienda to right.
13.5 Cross small creek over single-arch concrete bridge.
15.5 Enter Pinar del Rio at south near Malec6n. Leave
Pinar del Rio over road bearing about northeast from
calle V6lez Caviades. Ice plant on right of road near
end of wooden bridge, 125 feet long, 35 feet high, over the
Rio San Felipe. Practically level dirt road, 24 feet wide,
for 0.5 mile. Crosses low ridge. Two tiendas and a
tannery on the right just after crossing the bridge.
15.7 Tienda La Defensa on the right, and road to Puerta de
Golpe. Country on both sides of the road cultivated.
Numerous palms.
16.1 Small tienda in fork of road. Straight ahead to Con-
solaci6n del Sur. Road to left, following telegraph line,
to Vifiales. Country to this point open and cultivated.
Road takes a northerly direction from the fork and rises
gently, following along a low ridge.
16.6 Plantation Paraiso on the left. House in an inclosure
of young palms. Windmill and water tank. Small
tienda on the right. Road broad; bed of fine gravel;
follows low ridge for some distance. Wide expanse of
rolling country visible on both sides. Scattered houses
and cultivation. Considerable sage grass.
17.2 Vega San Luis.-House and white barn on left of road.
Windmill and water tank.
17.4 Road on the left. This road meets a road running
north from the Cuartel (Pinar del Rio) at a point about
4.5 miles out.
17.7 Tienda Gobo on the right.
18.0 Cross arroyo containing a little water. Course of
arroyo marked by thick line of palms. Road continues
in same general direction, rising gently. Country open;
for the most part grassy, with scattered houses and culti-
vation.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Road turns to the right, going due north down grade. Miles from
Another road to the left front. Large vega about 1 18.2
mile to the northwest.
Arroyo with a little water. Road coming in from the 18.5
right rear. Steep bank on near side. Double teaming
necessary with heavy load.
Road on left to Laguitinas. House and barn, with 18.7
tobacco and several mango trees, on left. Road broad,
fine, firm, gravel.
Crossroad. 19.1
Tile-roof house and barn on the right. Stone ruin just 19.2
beyond. Road goes down short, steep grade and turns
to the right. Double teaming necessary for full loads.
Rio San Jos6 (or Rio San Felipe) crossed by steel 19.7
cantilever bridge 110 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 20 feet
.above water. In excellent condition. River bed about
'20 feet wide. Very little water at present, but good
-quality. Steep banks on both sides. Possible to water
a troop at a time. Road turns to the right after leaving
the bridge.
Small tienda on the right. Two stone ruins on the 20.1
right just before reaching the tienda. Number of scat-
tered houses and considerable cultivation at this point.
Not much cultivation for the last 1.5 miles. Mostly sage
grass and scattered palms.
Large stone tienda, San Jose, on left. Good camping 20.4
site here for a regiment. Plenty of grass and water, but
not much wood. After leaving San Jos6 the country
continues open and grassy, with very little cultivation.
Large vega about 2 miles to the west near the Loma las
Flores.
Road turns to the left. Small tienda on the right. 21.7
Several houses scattered about, with patches of tobacco.
Road on right, along low ridges, to Pilotos.
Road on the left. Low, scattered brush on both sides. 22.0
Does not offer resistance to movement of troops, but
affords some concealment. Road turns to right. Still
broad. Up to the last tienda the road continues gravelly,
but from here it is light clay and dirt. Old ruts show
that it is heavy in the rainy season.
Road turns to the left, crossing small plank culvert over 22.4
dry arroyo. Faint road on right just before reaching
this point. Few shacks and a little tobacco cultivation
on top of ridge just beyond. Numerous scattered shacks





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles fom and palms, with considerable tobacco, in valley straight
Coloma.
ahead.
22.7 Cross arroyo containing a little water.
22.8 Rio Ajiconal, stony bottom, 8 to 15 feet wide. Water
20 horses. Quality not very good. Fairly steep grades,
both sides.
23.0 Tienda on the right. Considerable small dense brush
about 200 yards off to the left.
23.1 Tienda Guao on left. House on right. Road on the
left just beyond.
23.3 Take road on the left, descending gentle slope. This
road rapidly degenerates into a narrow dirt trail, which
takes a general direction toward the hills, crossing a
number of small trails. Country open and grassy to
this point and on to the hills. Small scattered brush
and a few palms. Practically no houses or cultivation.
23.9 Base of first foothill. Trail crosses another broader
trail near the top.
24.4 Joins the above-mentioned trail and the telegraph line.
The hills traversed by this trail are not so very steep and
are generally open and grassy. There is rarely enough
brush to afford concealment.
24.5 Top of first ridge.
.24.6 Rio Ajiconal in valley on the left. Several shacks
and patches of tobacco in the valley to the left front.
24.9 Crosses a small trail and rivulet (stagnant water) just
beyond.
25.4 Trail meets the main cart road.
25.6 Highest point of foothills. Fairly dense underbrush
on both sides. Trail on left just beyond.
25.7 Trail on right. House on left just beyond.
26.0 Tienda Murguia (generally called the Spanish tienda)
at top of bare hill. Road on right just beyond. Large
expanse of country visible from this point in all directions.
Road begins to descend from this point.
26.6 Small rivulet, nearly dry. A few scattered pines and
some brush.
26.9 Small trail on the left. Good view of the valley straight
ahead. Contains few houses and practically no culti-
vation. Fairly level. Scattered brush and pine. Few
palms. No large trees. Road turns to right and begins
to descend.
27.1 Road turns to the left. Trail on the right.
27.7 At foot of descent. Rolling, uncultivated, grassy
country. From tienda Murguia to this point, broad dirt




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


road, practicable for half loads. From here to Vifiales, M"le from
Coloma.
road is broad and level, practicable for full loads in the
dry season.
Deserted house, tile roof, on the right. Two shacks 28.3
on the left. A little tobacco cultivation.
Road turns to the right. Small scrub pines on both 28.5
sides. Two low hills, nearly bare, off to the left.
Road broadens. Bed, light yellow clay and fine 28.6
gravel. Country fairly level.
Two small rivulets within 100 yards of each other. 29.0
Not practicable for watering. Country more rolling from
here on.
Top of gentle rise. Plenty of sage grass, but very 30.0
little of scrub pine. No cultivation and no houses.
Good broad road.
Small trail on the right. House and little tobacco on 30.4
the same side. Just beyond, the road begins to descend
into the valley of Vifiales, the town being visible from
this point.
Small rivulet, not practicable for watering. 30.9
Circular cistern, or well, 10 feet in diameter, on the 31.0
right; water fair quality. Bridge of railroad rails, about
24 feet wide, 15 feet long, and 3 or 4 feet high. In good
condition.
The church in Vifales. 31.5
Road to northeast to Laguna de Piedra, La Jagua, and 32.2
La Palma. No grades; road sandy in places. Road bed
firm. Crosses dry bed of stream and turns a little west of
north.
Tienda Guasasa. Road to east just before reaching 33.9
tienda connecting with Vifales-La Jagua-La Palma
road. Just beyond tienda road passes through notch in
the sierras and divides; road to left to Ancon and El
Abra.
Turns northwest to Bafos de San Vicente. From this 34.4
point the road follows the valley of El Rosario River to
San Vicente.
Turns north. Several short rather steep grades varying 35.5
from 6 to 120. None difficult. Road good.
San Vicente. Tienda and crossroads. Road to west 37.3
to El Abra. To northeast to La Jagua and La Palma.
Road turns northwest.
Road to east joining San Vicente-La Jagua-La 38.1
Palma road. Road follows ridge lines and is in good
condition; road bed of firm clay and sand.





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mlo rom Cejadel Toro. Small farming district. Road descends
38.6 ridge of gradual slope, crosses small stream over log
bridge before entering Ceja del Toro. Leaving Ceja del
Toro, road ascends similar ridge. Roadbed through
valley would be soft and muddy during rains.
39.3 Cayo Lim6n-small farming district of two or three
shacks; tienda on right of road; wagon shop on left.
Road divides. Road to north direct to Esperanza; the
other, more west, to Esperanza via San Cayetano.
39.7 Turns due west. Character of roadbed same. Scrub
oak.
40.3 Turns northwest. Character of roadbed same. Scrub
oak.
41.2 Crosses small stream, banks high and steep. Road
divides. To north to Esperanza; to west to San
Cayetano.
41.5 San Cayetano. Road turns to north about center of
town.
41.8 Joins Esperanza road above mentioned. Turns more
east.
42.4 Road divides. Both roads to Esperanza. Road to
east via tienda San Francisco, connecting with main road
along coast through El Rosario, Berracos, and Rio Blanco.
Both roads practically level- passable in all seasons.
44.3 Esperanza.
44.8 The sea and harbor.


ROAD No. 6.

PUNTA DE CARTAS-SAN JUAN Y MARTINEZ-LOS ACOSTAS-LA
JAGUA-CABEZAS DE HORACIO-PUEBLO NUEVO (VERONA)-
DIMAS.

General direction: N. to La Jagua and from there W. Distance: 60 miles.
NoTE.-During 1908 a metaled road was constructed connecting Punta de Cartas
and San Juan y Martinez.
IN GENERAL.

1. Punta de Cartas to San Juan y Martinez.-First 2 miles of road
through swamp, the remainder through level country. Is a good
dirt road which is being converted into a calzada. General direction
of the road is north.
2. From San Juan y Martinez to Los Acostas is a bull-cart road.
having many bridges over small streams. Difficult to pass in rainy
season.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL BIO.


3. From Los Acostas to La Jagua is a good, broad, unimproved
dirt road. Wagon road from Los Acostas to hills, thence a good
cart road to Asiento Viejo, and thence a wagon road to La Jagua.
The road crosses the high hills and consequently has many steep
grades. Wagons should carry only light loads in view of grades.
The stretch from Los Acostas to the hills is over level, cultivated
land and the road would be muddy and heavy during wet weather.
The road over the hills has a hard gravel bed and sheds water. The
natives use the road in the hills during the rainy season.
The country is cultivated in the Los Acostas valley and in patches
at Asiento Viejo, but the hills are covered with a scanty growth'of
pine trees and wire grass.
Asiento Viejo has telephone connections with Manaja and with
Cafetal and from there to Dimas on the coast (private line).
4. From La Jagua to Cabezas de Horacio is a wagon road running
west on the first range of hills. Good condition. No cultivation
except at La Jagua. No houses. Hills are covered with pine trees
and grass. Some pasture land on right of ridge. Camp site for
squadron at Cafetal (south of Horacio) and for a detachment at La
Jagua. Practicable for all classes of transportation.
5. From Cabezas de Horacio to Pueblo Nuevo is a good wagon
road running over practically level land. Most of the country is graz-
ing land and pine woods. Cultivated patches at La Ceja. Water
scarce. Road forms a right angle. Road practicable for all classes
of transportation. No camp sites.
IN DETAIL.

Leaves Punta de Cartas, which is a shipping point Mies from Puat
de Cartas.
made up of a dock, two warehouses, a tienda, and a few
scattered huts; runs through marshy underbrush, where,
in places, it has been necessary to build up and corduroy
with railroad rails and poles.
Leaves swamp. 2.0
Road branches, one going north to San Juan, the other 3.5
north to San Luis. Tienda on right of road. Settle-
ment at this point is called La Tea. From La Tea road
runs north, crossing several roads of no importance, to a
tienda on right of road, where the direction changes to 7.5
the northwest.
Laguna Viamones on right of road. 7.7
Crosses railroad track. 8.7
Enters San Juan. Leaves San Juan y Martinez in 9.0
continuation of the main street going north. Turns
sharply to the west at tienda, crosses San Juan River.
8120-10--4





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miesfrm Punt" a Turns sharply to the north and runs over level country,
turning gradually to the northeast and enters the foot-
hills. Tienda on the right. From this point road
winds very much, crossing many steep hills, gradually
ascends, reaching an elevation of between 500 and 600
feet about 1 mile from Luis Lazo. From this point there
is a continuous very steep descent into the valley of Luis
Lazo. There are 15 bridges along this road, all wooden,
averaging about 30 feet in length; all in good condition.
These bridges cross small arroyos running into the San
Juan River, and 9 of them cross the Ratones branch
of the San Juan River. The three bridges within 2 miles
of Luis Lazo cross the Arroyo del Hato on the western
side of the divide.
23.0 Road runs northeast to Sumidero.
23.5 Road runs southwest to Punta de la Sierra. The main
tienda of the Luis Lazo settlement is situated at the cross-
roads. From this point road turns to the west through
a pass about 0.5 mile wide between sierras. From this
point the general direction is southwest to Los Acostas,
running in a westerly direction for 3 miles through the
San Carlos valley, which is a break in the sierras of
about 6 square miles, containing 6 tiendas.
27.0 The main tienda of the San Carlos settlement is situated
about 1 mile from the mouth of the gorge which the road
enters upon leaving the valley. From the tienda the
road runs southwest.
28.0 Road enters San Carlos gorge and follows the course
of the Cuyaguateje River which flows through the gorge
between almost perpendicular walls of a height of be-
tween 300 and 500 feet for a distance of about 1 mile.
Road through the gorge is very rocky. This river at
various places flows underground, leaving a dry river
bed.
29.0 The road leaves the gorge and reaches La Guiira. At
this point a road runs west connecting at a distance of
about a mile with the Gramales-Los Acostas road.
30.0 Road continues to Los Acostas through cultivated
country. The road leaves Los Acostas about 50 yards
south of the tienda and runs southwest.
30.3 Crosses a small creek which flows east.
31.4 Hills are reached after road turns west and ascends
150 feet. It then runs a little south ofwest.
32.4 Road branches to left for 0.7 mile to a farm named
Martinez.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Ascends 100 feet to top of small ridge. Runs south- Milefrom unta
west on this ridge from one knoll to another. Road be- 32.7
comes a cart road.
Trail branches south into hills, finally running into 33.8
Los Portales. Road continues southwest, descending
100 feet.
Road turns due west. 34.3
Cart road branches south, running to Montezuelo. 34.9
Trail to west (short cut through deep arroyo). Here 35.2
road turns to north to avoid arroyo and follows ridge
line.
Road turns northwest. 35.3
Trail joins from east (short cut). 35.8
Trail branches due west into part of Asiento Viejo, 36.4
while main road continues northwest into Asiento Viejo.
Road descends 200 feet to Rio Mantua.
Asiento Viejo and Rio MAntua. Asiento Viejo situ- 36.9
ated on the banks of the Rio Mantua in a deep cut be-
tween the high hills. Rio Mantua is 12 feet wide, 2 feet
deep; 4-mile current, fluctuation marks 8 feet; fordable,
approaches easy, and bottom gravel and rocky. River
has its source in the hills north of Asiento Viejo. A
bridge 30 feet long, 12 feet wide, made of wood with
wooden abutments. Flooring rotten; not in use; in
poor condition; could easily be repaired; spans the river
at Asiento Viejo. Two roads leave Asiento Viejo; both
are wagon roads. They join on the hills west of the
place, and road runs to Manaja. A cart road runs north-
west to Naranjo. A trail runs northeast to the road from
Pesquero to Manaja. A trail runs south to Los Ocujes.
Good camp site at Asiento Viejo for a small detachment.
Road (wagon road) turns nearly due north. In leaving 37.4
Asiento Viejo the road ascends 200 feet to the top of
the hills.
Ascends 50 feet and runs on ridge over numerous knolls. 38.8
Descends 50 feet. 41.0
Turns due west. Descends 150 feet and crosses a 41.3
small creek flowing south (branch of the Rio MAntua).
A road runs north to Manaja. Continues west. 42.1
Turns south and enters La Jagua. Leaving La Jagua, 43.0
it runs west for 0.7 mile to the top of the ridge of hills.
Ascends 150 feet.
Road branches northwest and divides, one branch 43.9
running northeast to Manaja; the other runs northwest





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Punta to Pinar Oscuro. Road turns southwest on ridge. Tele-
de Cartas.
phone line from Pinar Oscuro to Cafetal joins and runs
along the road.
45.3 Road crosses trail. Trail comes from the east from
Naranjo and runs southwest to Cabezas de Horacio.
45.9 Road turns west and descends 50 feet. Trail branches,
southwest (short cut). Telephone line branches with
trail.
46.1 Wagon road branches southeast. This road ascends
50 feet and at 0.3 mile from junction turns south. Trail
joins it from northeast (short cut). Telephone line joins
and runs along the road. Road continues south and at
1.2 miles from junction it circles a hill and turns south-
east. At this point a trail branches southwest. (Trail
cuts across to the Cabezas-Cafetal road.) Telephone line
branches with trail. Road descends 150 feet and at 1.5
miles from the junction it divides. Both branches then
join the Cafetal-La Jagua cart road. The main wagon
road at the junction continues west, running through a
dry pasture land.
47.5 Cabezas de Horacio.-Hog ranch. Trail joins from
northeast from Naranjo. Wagon road branches west to
La Ceja. A road runs south to Cafetal. Take road west.
Leaving Cabezas de Horacio the road runs a little south
of west through small hills.
48.1 Road runs around a hill.
49.0 Crosses a small creek flowing south.
49.4 Wagon road branches south to MAntua.
50.1 Wagon road branches southwest to Santa Isabel and
Santa Ana. Road turns northwest.
52.1 Trail branches south to the Santa Ana road. Trail
branches west to Navarro.
52.7 La Ceja.-A district consisting of a number of scat-
tered houses and cultivated patches. Wagon road
branches west to Navarro. Wagon road branches north
and northwest to Dimas. Road turns east.
53.2 Road turns north.
53.8 Wagon road branches northwest and joins La Ceja-
Dimas road. Road turns northeast.
56.2 Trail branches east to Portales on the Pinar Oscuro-
Dimas road.
56.5 Ascends 100 feet and crosses the Pinar Oscuro-Dimas
road, which runs northwest and southeast. Turns north-
west and descends 100 feet.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Pueblo Nuevo (Verona).-Wagon road runs northeast Miles from Pnta
to BArtolo. Wagon road runs northwest to Dimas. 57.3
Wagon road runs southwest to La Ceja.
The road to Dimas then runs in a northwesterly direc- 60.0
tion from Pueblo Nuevo for 3 miles. Several small unim-
portant trails cross the road in this stretch running to a
few scattered houses, surrounded by cultivation, on both
sides of the road. On the outskirts of the town of Dimas
is a small settlement on the Birtolo-Dimas road called
San Francisco la Ceja. It is about 0.2 mile out from
Dimas. Here the road is joined by a wagon road from
the southeast, running from MAntua and other small
towns. A small shallow stream crosses the Bartolo-
Dimas road on the right of the tienda, and empties into
the ocean 0.2 of a mile north of Dimas. The left of the
road from La Ceja is lined with small houses. Between
Pueblo Nuevo and Dimas there is a heavy growth of
undergrowth, including many palm trees. These palms
are used as telephone poles.'

ROAD No. 7.
ASIENTO VIEJO-Los OCUJES.
General direction: SW. Distance: 7.8 miles.
IN GENERAL.
A small, narrow, well-defined trail running on the high ridges in a
general southwest direction. Hills covered by a scanty growth of
pine trees and grass. No houses and no cultivation. Practicable
for pack animals only. No camp sites.
IN DETAIL.
Starting at the house, west of river, road runs south- Milesfro-
west to Rio MAntua.
Crosses Rio MAntua (12 feet wide, 2 feet deep, 4-mile 0.5
current, fluctuation marks 8 feet); fordable. Approaches
steep, bottom gravel. Ascends 200 feet to the top of
the most prominent ridge.
Turns southwest. 0.8
Ascends 100 feet and crosses several knolls. 1.5
Descends 100 feet. 3.2
Crosses the Montezuelo-Los Acostas cart road. 3.6
Gradually descends 200 feet and crosses a small stream 4.6
(branch of the Rio Frio) flowing southeast and reascends
150 feet.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Descends a steep slope 150 feet to another small stream,
Asiento Viejo.
6.1 which it crosses. Stream is a branch of the Rio Frio and
flows southeast. Trail reascends 150 feet.
6.9 Descends 100 feet and crosses another small branch
of Rio Frio flowing southeast. Trail then reascends 100
feet.
7.8 Los Ocujes. Trail runs southeast to Guane; south to
Guane-La Cana road; and northeast to Cafetal.


ROAD No. 8.
CABEZAS DE MONTIEL--PENA BLANCA.
General direction: NW. Distance: 9 miles.
IN GENERAL.

A fairly good dirt road in dry season, running between sierras,
rough and hilly after passing point of sierra.
IN DETAIL.

Cabes r Leaves Cabezas de Montiel, going to the northwest.
1.0 Crosses Rio Isabel Maria.
1.5 Turns to the north; passes through gap in the sierras.
9.0 From this point road generally rough and running
through brush to Pefia Blanca. No crossroads of any
importance.


ROAD No. 9.

CACARAJICARAS-PINALILLO (SITIO DEL PINAR)-SAN JUAN DE
SAGUA.

General direction: SW. Distance: 13 miles.
IN GENERAL.

The trail from Cacarajicaras (or Cacarajica) to Sitio del Pinar has
been abandoned for about a year. Narrow, faint trail generally,
steep and rocky in places, muddy and marshy in others. Better
from Sitio del Pinar to branch to right at 7.4 miles. From this point
very bad, muddy and steep. Stony in places. Through dense
jungle all the way. The first and third parts would be difficult even
for pack trains in the rainy season on account of the low marshy
spots.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


IN DETAIL.
Leave Cacarajicaras by trail bearing southwest by west. M from
Number of large rocks at the beginning. Trail branches
short distance beyond. Go to the left, crossing small
stream, rocky bed, about 8 feet wide. Water 12 horses.
Dry rocky bed of stream. Small clearing on left. 0.3
Trail swampy. Getting rocky. 0.7
Trail branches. Go to left. For about 0.3 mile, the 0.9
trail skirts a rocky cliff, 200 or 300 feet high, some 75 feet
off on the left.
Trail branches. Go to the right. Jungle with very few 1.0
palms. Timber up to 6 and 8 inches in diameter.
Dry bed small rivulet. 1.1
Dry rocky bed of small stream. 1.2
Dry rocky bed of small stream. Large scattered rocks 1.3
on both sides.
Dry rocky bed of small stream. 1.6
Number of small palms on both sides. Trail rocky in 1.9
places.
Trail branches. Go to right. Small pond on left just 2.0
beyond.
Trail branches. Go to left. 2.3
Trail branches. Go to right. Rocky spot in trail. 2.5
Small rivulet. Trail for next 0.3 mile more open. 2.7
Smooth and grass grown.
Dry bed of small stream on right. Cross the same 3.0
short distance beyond.
Short, steep, rocky hill. Trail very faint at this point. 3.4
Rocky cliff off to the right.
Cross small rivulet several times. 3.6
Small stream, 8 feet wide. Water 8 horses. Trail 3.7
turns to right after crossing. Another small stream joins
first one short distance beyond.
Rocky cliff on left. Trail rocky and narrow. 3.8
Trail follows partly dry bed of small stream, sandy 4.1
bottom, then turns up a steep hill on the right, meeting
another trail near the top. Go to the left. Large rocks
on the left just beyond.
Faint cross trail. Go straight ahead down steep hill. 4.6
Rivulet at the bottom.
Dry rocky bed of small stream, followed by two other 4.8
streams joining the first at crossing. Water 10 horses.
Pifialillo (Sitio del Pinar). Follow around fence, keep- 5.0
ing it on the right. Small trail on left. Continue in
same general direction and take trail entering the jungle.
Cross two small rivulets. 5.1





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from
Cacarajfcaras.
5.3
5.6
5.7
5.9
6.1
6.5
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.4

7.7
7.8
8.0
8.6
9.0


Rocky rivulet. Trail rocky for next 0.3 mile.
Dry rocky rivulet.
Trail on the left.
Cross two piny ridges. Large timber.
Mountains on the left.
Jungle. Steep ravine on the left.
Trail branches. Go to the left.
A few palms in the jungle.
Faint trail on the right.
Take small trail on right going down hill. This c
of direction is important.
Two rivulets, partly dry, about 200 yards apart.
Small trail on the left.
Trail on right.
Eight-foot stream, rocky bed. Water 10 horses
Sandy-bottom stream. Water 2 horses. Great
mud holes in this trail.


change


many


9.4 small rivulet. Bad mud nole.
9.5 Large scattered rocks on left.
10.0 Scattered rocks and high, rocky cliff on left.
10.4 Bad mud hole. Rocky trail, in places.
10.6 Good trail coming in from right rear. Sudden change
in the vegetation. Large and small trees with long.
narrow, dark-green leaves.
10.7 Small trail on right.
10.9 Good trail on left. Main trail very damp. Light
moss on the trunks of the trees. Soil, light red clay,
with very few stones. High ridge on the left.
11.5 Trail marshy and muddy.
11.6 Trail.on right.
11.7 Partly dry stream. Getting back to the ordinary
jungle and clay trail.
11.8 Trail branches. Go to the right. Stream, rocky bed,
10 feet wide, short distance beyond. Water 8 horses.
Trail on right and large rocks on both sides.
12.0 Cross trail. Large trail on left short distance beyond.
12.1 Jungle more open. Small clearing on left. Dirt trail.
12.2 Leaving jungle behind. Tall brush. Trail branches;
go to the left. Small cultivated clearing on right. Dry
rocky bed of stream, 10 or 12 feet wide.
12.3 Three trails; take center one.
12.5 Open grassy clearing, with about 6 shacks.
12.8 San Juan de Sagua.
13.0 Rio San Juan de Sagua.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


ROAD No. 10.

LA CANA (PART OF JUAN G6MEZ) TO THE GUANE-LA CANA ROAD
(NEAR NARANJAL).
General direction: N. Distance: 5.3 miles.
IN GENERAL.

A fair wagon road not much used. Hills covered with a growth of
pine trees and grass. In the vicinity of La Cana the land is cultivated.
Through hills there is no cultivation and no houses. Slopes, with one
exception, are gradual. Practicable for wagons with light loads.
No camping sites.
IN DETAIL.

La Cana is a cultivated district at the foot of the hills Miles from La
Cana.
and is a part of Juan G6mez. Juan G6mez lies about
1.5 miles southwest. Wagon road runs to Juan G6mez
and one runs east to Guane. The road runs north from
La Cana, entering hills. Ascends 150 feet.
Joins the road from Guane to the Guane-La Cana road, 1.7
which comes from the southeast. Turns northwest and
runs on this road.
Leaves this road (which continues northwest) and 2.0
turns north.
Descends 150 feet to small creek flowing southeast. 2.4
Crosses creek and reascends 200 feet to top of ridge.
(Creek crossing is very difficult on account of large rocks
and deep cut.)
Trail branches northeast to the Guane-La Cana road. 4.0
Road divides. Both branches run to -the Guane-La 5.1
Cana road. 5.3

ROAD No. 11.
CANDELARIA-GINEBRA-SOLON.
General direction: NE. Distance: 7 miles.
IN GENERAL.

Passable for bull carts in the dry season ard cavalry in the rainy
season, over level and well-cultivated country.
IN DETAIL.

Crosses a wooden bridge over the Bayate River; a short Miles from
Candelana.
distance beyond it crosses a stone bridge over a branch of 1.0
the same stream. The first bridge is about 100 feet long





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mles from and the second about 40 feet; both streams about 20
Candelaria.
feet wide by 1 foot deep, good water, gravel and rock
bottom. A good location for a large encampment of
troops, wood and grazing plentiful. Road from there
turns northwest and then north.
1.5 Road branches. One runs south for 0.2 mile, where it
dwindles into a trail running east 2 miles to finca Va-
lencia, crosses Rio Juan (about 10 feet wide, running
water, 1 foot deep, gravel bottom, good ford, good camp
for battalion of infantry or cavalry, grazing good) and
continues east 1 mile where it connects at finca Jagua
with bull cart road running southeast to Punta Brava
station on the Western Railway of Habana. From finca
Jagua a good trail for infantry or cavalry runs north 3.5
miles to finca Solon. Main road runs north.
3.5 Finca Ginebra, where cart road ends. From this point
a good trail for infantry or cavalry zigzags along the foot-
hills.
7.0 Finca Solon. Here trail branches, one northeast along
the foothills 2 miles to finca Purgatorio and from there
to Cayajabos and the other runs north into the mountains,
following the Juan River about 3 miles to finca Gardufia,
where it connects with trails running to Cayajabos on
the east via fincas Barb6n and San Isidro and on the
west with fincas Santa Paula and Casa Blanca and from
there running north to Ceiba and on to Bahia Honda, or
continuing on west to El Tumbo and El Brujo.


ROAD No. 12.

CONSOLACI6N DEL SUR-ALONZO ROJAS.
General direction: SE. Distance: 15 miles.
IN GENERAL.

Over its northern half (to the crossing of the Santa Clara at Paso de
los Mangos) road is well traveled and of sand and gravel surfacing.
South of the above-mentioned river crossing the road runs over open
savanna land and low ground, evidently swampy during the rainy
season.
Escort wagons could easily make this trip in the dry season. Over
the southern half, the road would be difficult for ox-cart traffic dur-
ing the rainy season. The Santa Clara River is bridged at Paso de
los Mangos.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


IN DETAIL.

Leaves town to the southeast by calle del Sur (road to ifes from Con-
solaci6n del Sur.
railroad station).
Leaves calzada bearing off to the southwest to kilo- 1.0
meter post 155. This stretch from the calzada to kilo-
meter post is waterwashed in places, but is high and
with little work could be quickly put into good condition.
Immediately south of kilometer post 155 is a low piece of
ground of swampy character which may be difficult in
the rainy season.
Leaving kilometer post 155, road ascends to ridge south 1.4
of railroad by a very badly waterwashed route. This
portion would need some repairs to prepare it for wagon
traffic.
Crosses ridge and descends by easy slope into a depres- 2.3
sion between two hills. Road east to Punta Santa Clara.
Trail east to Punta Santa Clara. 2.8
Small pond west of road. 3.3
Road south to Colmenar. 3.6
Crossroad (Puerta de Golpe and Hato Quemado) Road 4.1
now enters pine region, heavy with sand but well traveled.
Road southeast, short cut to Paso de los Mangos 5.0
bridge, in very poor condition for wagons or ox carts.
Crossroad, Colmenar, Paso de los Mangos. This road 6.4
is in pine region and well traveled. Continue to Paso de
los Mangos via this road.
Road crosses dry stream bed, of little importance, easy 7.8
approaches, and very little waterwashed. Road from
here to Paso de los Mangos bridge over low savanna land,
badly cut up and very difficult for any kind of transporta-
tion during rainy season.
Crosses Santa Clara River, Paso de los Mangos bridge. 8.3
Road turns abruptly south over low savanna land, 8.5
swampy in rainy season.
Road crosses small dry stream bed, a 2-foot depression. 9.0
Small lake a few hundred yards west. 9.4
Small lake a few hundred yards west. 9.9
Crossroad from Las Vegas, another lagoon with swamp 10.6
growth east of road. Thicket a few hundred yards west
of road.
A small lagoon surrounded by heavy swamp growth on 11.7
east side.
Road now turns southwest, savanna land east, thicket 12.0
west of road. Road now almost invisible and difficult




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mil fom Con- to follow. Continuing south the ground is lower and
solacifn del Sur.
swampy.
13.3 Road crosses small dry stream bed, approaches easy
through cuts 3 feet high. Stream bed of sand and gravel,
banks 20 feet wide, evidence of depth of 3 feet or more
during rainy season. Continuing, the road follows this
stream bed. Road now badly cut up and waterwashed.
14.0 Here road turns southeast, swamp and thicket t6 the
east. Trail northwest to Colmenar.
14.7 Road now turns southerly over savanna land covered
with small growth of thicket. Road now in fair con-
dition, well traveled though soil is heavy and clayey, and
road probably difficult in rainy season.
15.0 Road enters town of Alonzo Rojas.


ROAD No. 13.

LAS CRUCES DE ABALOS-MONTEZUELO-Los ACOSTAS.
General direction: NE. Distance: 28.4 miles.

IN GENERAL.

1. Las Cruces de Abalos to Montezuelo, unimportant dirt road
running northeast through a line of hills. From a point west of
Montezuelo Hills it is a wagon road, good condition; very little culti-
vation; country covered with sparse growth of palms; brush along
streams.
2. Montezuelo to Los Acostas. An old cart road. Has not been
used except as a trail for a long time. Has been used as a cart road
and can still be used as one. Many steep hills with heavy grades.
Practicable only for carts and pack animals. No water along its
entire length. Runs in a general northeast direction over main ridges.
Hills covered with pine trees and grass. No camping sites.
IN DETAIL.
iles from Las Leave Las Cruces de Abalos, a vega.
Cruces.
0.4 A road south to Guayabo.
3.4 Santa Lucia is a small finca. Before reaching this place
the road runs parallel to the MAntua River and is a wagon
road over a hard bed of sand.
4.4 Ascend a ridge, direction northeast.
4.8 High point. The road runs east. Trail to north to
Lazaro and Mantua and south to Guayabo.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RBO.


Two southern tiendas of Montezuelo. From here to Mil from Las
Cruces.
the northern tienda of Montezuelo is 2 miles, over which 5.8
road you cross a small stream, deep and sluggish, 15 feet 7.8
wide. Two branches leave Montezuelo, joining the hills.
The main one leaves at the tienda and runs northeast.
The other one leaves at the creek and, running north,
joins the first one. They both ascend 200 feet.
Two branches join the road running northeast. 9.7
Road ascends 50 feet; runs along top of ridge. 10.5
Trail branches southeast and runs to Teneria, on the 11.0
Guane-Mantua road.
Trail branches a little north of west and runs to 12.2
Naranjal (3 miles).
Road ascends 50 feet. 12.7
Turns east. 12.9
Ascends 100 feet. 18.0
Joins the Guane-La Cana trail and runs east on it. 13.7
Leaves the Guane-La Cana trail and turns northeast. 14.3
Crosses three 100-foot hills.
Crosses the Guane-Cafetal trail, which runs northwest 16.6
and southeast.
Turns east and descends 100 feet and reascends 100 18.3
feet.
Crosses the Asiento Viejo-Los Ocujes trail, which runs 19.0
northeast and southwest.
Turns north. 22.2
Joins the Los Acostas-Asiento Viejo road, which runs 23.7
east and west.
Turns east on this road and runs 4.7 miles to Los Acostas. 28.4


ROAD No. 14.
CRUZ DEL PINO-MACURIGES.
General direction: NE. Distance: 3.2 miles.
IN GENERAL.


A wagon road over level country. There are many
sites in the Macuriges valley.
IN DETAIL.


Leaving Pino the road runs north and northeast.
About 0.2 mile out of Cruz del Pino a small, shallow,
fordable stream crosses the road, flowing northwest
(Arroyo Piedras).


good camp


Miles from Cru
del Pino.
0.2




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


iles from Cruz About 2.5 miles from Cruz del Pino a wagon road com-
del Pino.
2.5 ing from the southeast crosses the road and continues in
a northwest direction (the Birtolo-Santa Paula road).
At these crossroads are a house and several large sheds.
This place is called Yaguasas. The road then con-
tinues in a northeast direction for about 0.7 of a mile into
Macuriges. Macuriges consists of a number of scattered
houses and one tienda, painted white. The road which
crosses the Cruz del Pino-Macuriges road about 2.5 miles
3.2 out of Cruz del Pino is a road which leaves the crossroads
(about 1 mile west of Bartolo). From here it runs north-
west for about 0.2 mile, where a small, shallow, fordable
stream, flowing north, crosses the road. It continues in
the same direction for about 0.7 mile, where it crosses
the Cruz del Pino-Macuriges road at Yaguasas. From
here it runs northwest to Santa Paula (about 0.5 mile).



ROAD No. 15.

FROM 1 MILE EAST OF CUATRO CAMINOS-LA PALMA (CONSOLA-
CI6N DEL NORTE).
General direction: SE. Distance: 5 miles.

IN GENERAL.

A cart road following ridge line along the coast through light
growth of pine. Road bed firm clay and sand. Many long steep
grades, some difficult. This road is used during the rainy season.


Miles from 1-mile
point east of
Cuatro Cami-
nas.


IN DETAIL.


0.2 Trail to northwest to Berracos and Cuatro Caminos.
Ascends ridge; grade, 10.
1.5 Cross trails, north to tienda Guayacan on Rio Blanco.
2.1 Turns southeast.
3.2 Trail to northeast to Rio Blanco. Ascends ridge;
grade, 150.
3.3 Crosses Rio Blanco (Rio Guacamayas) near deserted
farm house. Large pasture here. Excellent camp ground.
River crossing good; banks 4 feet and sloping; bottom,
sandy; depth, 10 inches; width, 20 feet. Passes through
a gate.
4.0 Trail to northeast to Rio Blanco. Turns southwest.
4.7 Turns southeast and joins road to La Palma.
5.0 La Palma.


1T-s




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


ROAD No. 16.

LA FURNIA-BRUJO--NARANJAL-VEGA DE MORALES-QUINTANA-
SAN DIEGO DE TAPIA--SABANILLA-TORO--MAMEYAR--CHAVAR-
RIA--SAN JUAN DE SAGUA-CAIMITO--CATALINA-SAN DIEGO DE
LOS BAROS.
General direction: SW. Distance: 58 miles.
IN GENERAL.

This trail is practicable for pack train and is very mountainous.
There are only three trails leading west into the mountains; the one
mentioned; one which leads west from Aguacate (or Quinones) to
Cacarajicaras and from there to Sagua, connecting there with trail
to Caimito (there is also a trail from Cacarajicaras south to San
Diego de Tapia), and one from the large finca of Rosario west to
Rangel, and from there west to Sabanilla, connecting there with trail
for Toro.
IN DETAIL.
La Furnia is a coffee plantation. During the rainy Milesfrom La
season to go to Brujo from La Furnia it would be neces-
sary to continue northwest 3 miles to San Bias, then 5
miles southwest to Brujo. During the dry season trail
follows dry run up steep slope.
"Horseshoe" ridge, located between Los Hoyos and 1.0
Brujo. Trail continues west.
Brujo.-Trail continues west. 5.0
Naranjal. Trail runs southwest. 7.5
Trail divides at Vega de Morales. Both trails run into 9.5
the Bahia Honda-Quinones-Vega de Morales-San Cris-
t6bal trail about 500 yards beyond and about 0.2 mile
apart. Take trail running west.
Bahia Honda-San Crist6bal trail; continue south over 9.7
this trail.
Trail branches to the northwest along ridge overlooking 10.0
valley to the south. Trail takes a general westerly direc-
tion and is a good mountain trail.
Vega Portal. 12.5
Quintana River. The river is about 50 feet wide in 13.0
places, filled with large rocks, running water of excellent
quality, about 1 foot deep at ford by 25 feet wide, rock
bottom; during the rainy season it could not be forded.
Trail follows along bank of river.
Crosses river. 14.7




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


es from La Quintana, wh6re a tributary stream empties into the
15.0 main stream. The main stream flows in a general north-
easterly direction. At Quintana there is a sufficient
cleared ground for a battalion of troops to camp, water
and wood plentiful, grazing good. Trail runs southwest
through a valley along the west bank of the river.
18.0 Vega San Diego de Tapia is situated on south slope of
Sierra de Cacarajicaras. There is a trail running south
from there about 4 miles to Rangel; this trail, however,
is not very good. Trail leaves south across the Quintana
River.
18.2 Trail crosses river, continues southwest through valley.
19.0 Ascends long steep mountains (Sierra del Rangel and
Sierra la Comadre).
21.0 Reaches top of mountain, then descends steadily.
22.7 Trail comes in from the east from Rangel about 4 miles
distant. Trail runs west.
23.0 Vega Sabanilla. The trail to Rangel continues from
there east to El Rosario, where it connects with trails to
Candelaria, San Crist6bal, Bahia Honda, El Tumbo and
Brujo. Trail follows a general southwesterly direction,
well defined with no branch trails.
27.5 Toro (old Realengo del Toro) is a tobacco plantation
of about 10 houses. The only open trail leading out of
Toro runs southeast about 5 miles through the foothills
to La Sierra, where it connects with roads to San Diego
de los Bafos, Taco Taco, and Los Palacios. The trail
from Toro northwest to Chavarria via Mameyar was at
one time a good mountain trail; it has not been used for
a long time and is not populated. Trail leads west,
ascending steadily along side of ridge.
30.5 Trail badly worn off on side of ridge so that it is dan-
gerous for animals to pass. Trail continues along side of
ridge.
30.7 Trail descends.
31.2 Mameyar. There is a small stream at Mameyar, 10
feet wide by 6 inches deep at ford, shallow banks, gravel
bottom, running water. Trail runs northwest, ascending
steadily; it is frequently blocked by trees, vines, and
brush.
33.7 Top of ascent is reached and trail descends steadily.
34.0 Dry river bed. The trail continues down this river
bed, crossing from one bank to the other.
34.6 Water in river bed; trail follows river, crossing it at
intervals; fords rocky, river gradually widens and deepens




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RfO. 65

from 25 feet wide by 6 inches deep to 50 feet wide to 3 u1es m La
feet deep at fords, with numerous places where river is
10 feet deep. At Chavarria it is called Rio Chavarria
and at Sagua Rio Sagua.
Chavarria. Trail runs northwest. 38.0
Crosses branch of Rio Sagua (20 feet wide by 1 foot 38.5
deep).
Crosses Rio Sagua (Rio San Marcos), 50 feet wide by 40.5
3 feet deep, gravel bottom, running water, low banks.
Trail becomes a wide cart road, jscends sharply along
side of ridge.
San Juan de Sagua is a large tobacco plantation and 41.0
settlement. This is a good location for a regiment to
camp. From Sagua a good trail runs north about 7
miles to the village of La Mulata, connecting there with
dirt road to Bahia Honda. Trail runs south over rolling
country.
Caimito is a tobacco plantation. Trail ascends steep 46.0
hill and continues south over rolling uncultivated coun-
try; hills covered with thin growth of pine.
La Catalina is a large tobacco plantation. At Catalina 55.0
the trail crosses a branch of the San Diego River (20 feet
wide, 1 foot deep, gravel bottom, shallow banks, running
water). Trail ascends steep hill and continues south.
San Diego de los Bafios. 58.0


ROAD No. 17.

MANTUA-CABEZAS DE HORACIO.
General direction: NE. Distance: 14.4 miles.
IN GENERAL.
A good wagon road over the western hills. Hilly, but slopes are
gradual. Cultivated around MAntua. Scattered houses in culti-
vated section near Mantua. Very few houses along the road. No
cultivation except near the houses. Hills covered with pine trees
and grass. Light underbrush in the arroyos. Practicable for all
classes of transportation. No camping sites.
IN DETAIL.
Leaving Mfntua at the monument on the Plaza, the road runs
north on the Mfntua-Santa Isabel road to a small creek flowing
southeast.
8120-10----5





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


l fom Here the road becomes a cart road and turns eastward
M/Mtu.
0.5 and crosses creek. Crosses a 50-foot hill and another
small creek flowing south. MAntua-Santa Isabel road
runs northwest from first creek.
1.4 Joins the Mintua-Naranjal road and runs northwest
on this road.
2.5 Naranjal cart road branches east. Wagon road con-
tinues northwest, gradually ascending 150 feet.
2.8 Trail branches north to three houses.
2.9 Trail branches northwest (short cut).
3.8 Crossroads. Wagon road branches south to Mfntua.
Wagon road branches southwest to Mintua-Los Arroyos
road. Two wagon roads branch northwest to Santa
Isabel (joining about 1.5 miles from the crossroads).
Road to Cabezas de Horacio now runs a little north of
east.
4.7 Trail joins from south (short cut).
5.3 Trail branches to the east to two houses.
5.7 Trail branches to the west to three houses and east to
one house.
7.1 Cart road branches north to Santa Ana.
8.3 Cart road branches southeast to La Cana. Road turns
north.
9.4 Crosses the Cafetal-Santa Ana road, which runs east
and west. Road continues due north, gradually descend-
ing 100 feet.
12.5 Joins the Cabezas de Horacio-La Ceja road. Turns
east on this road.
14.4 Cabezas de Horacio.

ROAD No. 18.
VINALES-SAN ANDRES.
General direction: E. Distance: 9 miles.
IN GENERAL.
From Vifales to San AndrBs there is a wagon road, in parts impass-
able except for pack transportation. The wagon road proper has easy
grades, firm, sandy-clay surfacing, about 16 feet in width, and could
be easily kept in good condition. Passing the one stream of any
importance after leaving Vifiales, the road runs to Ceja Ana de Luna.
Road passes through flat country. Width of road, 16 feet; road-
bed here is soft loam, difficult under influence of rains; no grades.
From Ceja Ana de Luna to San Andr6s the road passes through hills
along ridge.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


IN DETAIL. f
Miles from
Vifiales.
One-fourth mile out of Ceja Ana de Luna road di- 4.2
vides; take road to left; width of road, 8 feet; surfac-
ing, red clay and sand.
Cultivation and pasture land to Ceja Ana de Luna; 4.5
low land grass and very coarse. Country not thickly
settled. Road to La Jagua from Ceja Ana de Luna
leaves main road to north just before reaching tienda
and joins other road 2 miles to northwest. Good wagon
road; grades easy to said junction.
Many grades, but none difficult until road descends 7.0
ridge within 2 miles of San Andres.
No streams until crossing San Diego River (or Rio 9.0
Caiguanabo) at San Andr6s.


ROAD No. 19.

VINALES--SAN ANDRES (VIA HILLS).
General direction: E. Distance: 11.3 miles.

IN GENERAL.

Up to 7 miles the road is a good wagon road, earth surfacing, about
5 feet wide and could be made wider. It is practically level and is
sandy and firm. The trail from 7 miles is passable for carts, but not
for wagons. Most of the traffic passes by way of Ceja Ana de Luna.
The San Andr6s valley is cultivated and contains many scattered
houses. The roads in the valley are good level wagon roads.

IN DETAIL. Miles from
Vifiales.
This road branches to the east from the Vifiales-Pinar 0.5
del Rio road, about 0.5 mile out of ViTfales at the sum-
mit of the first line of low hills, Cuchilla de los Gavilanes.
It crosses the sandy waste lying between the Vifiales
valley and the high hills in an eastern direction.
Crosses the Vifiales-Pifialillo road. 2.5
Crosses a creek flowing south into Rio Hondo. Creek 4.0
is about 6 feet wide, 2 feet deep, has a 4-mile current, is
fordable, approaches easy, bottom soft, fluctuation
marks 2 feet; water supply ample and of good quality.
A wagon road branches in a northeast direction for 4.7
about a mile to Ceja Ana de Luna, where it joins the
main valley road from Vifiales to San Andr6s. The road





BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


vlaS"rm then runs for about 1.5 miles to the foot of the high hills,
where there are about 6 scattered houses to the right
and left of the road. There are small cultivated patches
near the base of the high hills. At the foot of the high
hills a trail runs to the first ridge (slope 0.5 mile; grade
40 per cent) in a southeast direction. It then runs east.
8.0 Trail from the southeast (from Pilotos valley).
9.0 Trail joins from the southeast. The trail here turns
northeast and leaves the ridge and runs into the San
Andres valley. (Slope 0.2 mile, grade 10 per cent.)
About a mile from the hill the trail divides into two
trails. One trail runs nearly due north for about a quar-
ter of a mile, where it develops into a wagon road which
runs into
11.3 San Andres.
11.5 The road crosses a small fordable branch of the Rio
San Diego, which flows southeast.
11.8 Road crosses the Rio San Diego, which flows eastward.
The river is about 8 feet wide, 3 feet deep, has a 4-mile
current, is fordable, approaches steep but firm high
banks; fluctuation marks, 6 feet. Water supply ample
and quality good.
12.5 The other trail (mentioned at 9 miles) continues to the
northeast for nearly a mile, where it joins the San Andr6s-
Pilotos road (via Arroyo de Agua), about 1.5 miles from
San Andres. The country in the high hills is unculti-
vated and is covered with pine trees. Good camping site
near the San Diego River for a squadron. Water and
grass in abundance and fuel in the hills. Rio San Diego
is also known as Rio Guacamayas.


ROAD No. 20.

Los PALACIOs-TACO TACO (SOUTH OF RAILROAD).
General direction: NE. Distance: 10.1 miles.
IN GENERAL.

A fair dirt road in the dry season, passable for light loaded wagons;
impassable except for men on foot in the rainy season. The road
runs northeast over level uncultivated swampy country. Good graz-
ing land.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RiO.


IN DETAIL.

The road crosses the railroad at Los Palacios and con- "Mi ro Los
tinues northeast; wire fences to the west. Road perfectly
straight.
Rio Manso, 8 feet wide by 1 foot deep; low banks, 4.7
gravel bottom. Road continues northeast.
Crosses Laguna Majagua. This little lake is about 100 5.2
feet wide, 2 feet deep at the ford, with gravel bottom.
Impassable in rainy season. At finca Serafina a road
joins it from the west which connects with the road from
Santa Cruz de los Pinos to Los Palacios on the north
side of the railroad. At this point road turns west for a
short distance, then circles northwest.
Crosses Rio Bacunagua, 8 feet wide, 6 inches deep, 6.5
steep banks cut to ford, gravel bottom, running water.
Swampy ground begins. Road crosses swamp, dry 7.5
during dry season but impassable in the rainy season.
Ground becomes higher leaving swamp. 8.5
Road connects with road from the east from finca La 10.0
Angostura, about 5 miles distant; the road descends and
crosses the Taco Taco River. The river is 50 feet wide,
1 foot deep, gravel bottom, high banks cut to ford.
Taco Taco. 10.1


ROAD No. 21.

PASO REAL DE SAN DIEGO--SAN PEDRO DE LAS GALERAS-SAN
DIEGO DE LOS BAfiOS.
General direction: NW. Distance: 9 miles.
IN GENERAL.

A good dirt road for first 5 miles, but quite steep in places, with
evidence of badly washed ruts in rainy season.
About 5 miles out joins calzada from San Diego de los Bafios,
which is in excellent repair, with all streams and gullies crossed by
substantial steel or stone bridges. It is well drained and would be
excellent for wagons at all seasons.
IN DETAIL.

Leaves town to the north; road sandy for first mile. Muies fm Paso
Goes through town of Paso Real Viejo. 1.5
Road ascends by gentle slope; oranges and pineapples 2.0
in cultivation for about 0.5 mile on right.





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles fom Paso Cemetery on left. Valley to west about 150 feet below
Real.
2.5 the level of road. Excellent grazing on both sides of
road.
3.0 Large tobacco plantation on right, after passing which
the road descends 50 feet into gully and up other side
and again goes down hill. The hills are about 200 yards
and quite steep-about 0.2. The gullies contain no
water now, but debris in bottom shows that the rainy
season affords a plentiful flow, in places at a depth of 5
feet or more.
4.0 After entering second gully, the road continues north
for 300 yards and then, still following the bottom, turns
sharply to the left and descends by gentle slope into the
lowlands to the west.
4.5 Turns again sharply north, crossing the now dry bed
of stream and begins ascent into foothills.
5.0 Meets macadam road from San Diego de los Bafos.
5.5 Turns sharply to left and continues west for 600 yards
along ridge 100 feet above valley to the north. This
ridge commands the entire valley and San Diego de los
Bafios can be seen in the distance.
6.0 Turns sharply to right and descends to calzada by very
steep slope difficult for pack animals and impossible for
wagons; however, a calzada will be finished at this point
and this grade, the only present obstacle to wagon trans-
portation, will be eliminated. Small tienda. where road
joins calzada.
7.0 The calzada presents no especial feature other than that
of an exceedingly well-built, well-repaired, well-drained,
well-graded, clean, macadam turnpike. There are
numerous little tobacco farms on either side of the road
for the remaining 2 miles into San Diego de los Baios.
8.0 Small tienda.
9.0 Road enters San Diego de los Bafios.


ROAD No. 22.

SAN CRIST6BAL-HACIENDA EL BRUJO-CAYAJABOS.
General direction: NE. Distance: 41.5 miles.
IN GENERAL.

A good cart road for half a mile, and from there on nothing but
a trail.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


IN DETAIL. Miles from Sue
Crist6bal.
Road leads north from San Crist6bal, crosses Las 1.2
Cruces, a sitio; trail continues to San Crist6bal River.
There is an island in the center of the river where trail
crosses about 60 feet long by 30 feet wide; river on one
side about 20 feet wide, 2 feet deep; on the other, 10
feet wide, 1 foot deep; gravel bottom, high banks cut to
ford. Continues north to low ridge of hills, then northeast 2.7
along foot of ridge for 0.5 mile, then turning north-
west and ascending short distance, descending through
foothills to small stream (Rio Hondo), ascending two 5.0
small ridges, then ascending to where trail branches,
one west to Soledad and El Tumbo. Trail to Brujo 6.0
goes up steep rocky ascent, general direction about 15
points west of north, to vega Pancho Blanco; trail crosses
Rio Hondo, continues along river for 0.2 mile to a store
called "tienda de Zinc." Trail branches here, one
leading off northeast to Los Hoyos and Saroa, one to 6.2
northwest to Brujo Abajo. Trail to Brujo Abajo crosses
stream several times, following, along bank of same to
La Esquina, continuing along stream, crossing several 6.7
times, to finca Rio Hondo. Houses would accommodate 7.5
about 50 men; grazing and water good. Trail continues
northwest through valley, crossing Rio Hondo several 8.0
times in places where the river bed is dry, to house.
Here trail divides, one to left to El Tumbo, and the other
continues to Brujo Abajo via Benito Salabaria, where 8.2
trail again divides; one to left to Brujo Abajo and El
Tumbo, one in center to cafetal El Brujo, one to right
to Los Hoyos. The trail, however, to cafetal El Brujo
is not practicable for pack train; the main ascent is very
steep, and after reaching the top of the ridge the trail is
extremely narrow and at about 3 miles from house men-
tioned connects with trail from Brujo Abajo to Los
Hoyos on top of a high ridge shaped like a horseshoe.
From the house of Benito Salabaria trail to Brujo Abajo
continues northwest of stream, passing several shacks,
finally crosses stream, and ascends steep hill; zigzags to 8.7
top, continues along ridge, winding around valley to the
northwest. Trail descends to stream and Brujo Abajo; 11.5
water and grazing good. Just before last descent
trail branches to left to El Tumbo. Here trail to Brujo
Arriba leads off northeast for 0.7 mile, crossing stream
several times, and then turns southeast. At this




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles roman point trail branches off to San Bias. Trail to Brujo
Crist6bal.
12.2 Arriba continues through valley in an easterly direction
13.7 and ascends to Brujo Arriba, which consists of a large
frame house. Trail zigzags up slope along ridge to top
15.0 of Brujo Mountains to point where it connects with horse-
shoe ridge, where trail comes in from cafetal El Brujo;
trail curves along on top of ridge, then descends a short
16.5 distance to Los Hoyos. There is a trail leading from
Los Hoyos southwest down the valley back to tienda
de Zinc; descent is very sharp into valley. This trail
runs direct to tienda de Zinc through valley, which is
circled by horseshoe ridge. Trail from here leads north-
east, ascends steadily to ridge, continues east along ridge.
From top of this ridge north coast can be seen, and
17.2 bearing directly north from here is an ingenio with what
appears to be the ruins of a town between ridge and
18.5 ingenio. From ridge trail descends steadily to Saroa.
From Saroa a trail leads north to Lola, Moreno, and
San Bias. Trail to Ceiba descends along ridge lined on
one side by a stone wall for 0.2 mile, crosses small stream
19.5 twice, where trail divides, both going to Candelaria
through different passes. One leaving southeast is a
broad, well-defined trail, which shows evidence of having
been at one time a fairly good road, goes direct to Cande-
laria, about 5 miles distant. The other trail turns north-
20.0 east through cafetal Entrada, ascends east along ridge,
circling over ridge descends gradually, turning north-
21.2 west past finca Bebing, circling northeast to small stream;
good water and grazing. Two hundred yards beyond
trail branches, one leading off a little north of east goes
to Candelaria, the other trail continues on north for 0.2
mile, where it joins the Ceiba trail leading northeast, on-
tinuing along this trail, ascending steadily through
22.5 Merced; ascent continues northwest to top of long ridge,
23.5 then descends steadily to Casa Pifa. Continues in a
24.5 northerly direction to Buena Vista. From this point
Cabafas Bay can be seen directly north. Here trail
runs into well-defined trail running east to Cayajabos,
continuing east for about 400 yards, where a branch trail
25.0 runs northeast and continues along this trail to Ceiba,
where it connects with a broad trail running east and
west. The one west goes to San Claudio, and the one
east to Cayajabos, connecting with the other Cayajabos
trail described above. Ceiba was at one time a grinding
ingenio. It is now an entire ruin. Broad trail running





PROVINCE OF PINAB DEL RiO.


east circles to southeast 1 mile to Esperanza, where it is Mes fromsan
completely blocked by wire fencing. The Cayajabos
trail, following this trail east for a short distance, then
branches north and follows a general northeasterly direc-
tion to small stream, crosses same, turns east to Salacain, 25.6
leaves northwest, crosses dry run, circles around on ridge
to point where north coast can be seen, descends sharply
to lower ridge to Tapia. Trail leaves, crosses small 72.2
stream, ascends ridge circling to east to point where trail
runs northwest to San Claudio. To go from this point
to Cayajabos by trail it would be necessary to follow this
trail to San Claudio in order to connect there with trail
leading direct to Cayajabos via Rosario, or return to
point where we left Cayajabos trail. From this point,
however, cut through brush and fences, taking a general
southeasterly direction for about 2.2 miles, to the San 29.6
Claudio-Cayajabos trail. It is broad and well defined and
quite rocky. From this point it is about 9.2 miles to where
it connects with the Cabaias-Cayajabos trail and about 13
miles to Cayajabos. Trail continues southeast for about
1.2 miles, then east across one ridge, ascending a second
ridge to finca Ebisceino, ascends ridge, descending gradu- 32.2
ally crosses a couple of small hills, turns north, ascend-
ing slightly, follows northeast along ridge to Ramona, 34.2
continues east along ridge, descends steadily to small
stream flowing northeast. Trail and valley wind east,
crossing several small hills and connects with Cabafas trail 38.0
about 2 miles from where trail branches, going to Barb6n
and about 3.5 miles from Cayajabos. Cabafias trail is
broad and well defined and continues southeast to San
Isidro, where trail leaves northeast for Guanajay and trail 40.5
a little east of south 1 mile to Cayajabos. At Cayajabos 41.6
trail connects with calzada to Artemisa.


ROAD No. 23.
COLO-M- ARCOS ViZQUEZ-PILOTOS.
General direction: N. Distance: 42.5 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. Coloma to Marcos Vazquez.-A fairly good dirt road in the dry
season, and then passable for all classes of transportation. In rainy
season impassable for anything but pack transportation, and even




BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


that would have difficulty because of flat and marshy nature of
surrounding country, there being not a single rise in the ground
throughout.
2. Marcos VAzquez to Pilotos.-A good dirt road runs through a
generally flat country. Passable in the dry season for all classes of
transportation; in rainy season for pack transportation and native
bull carts.
IN DETAIL.
Mies from Leaves Pinar del Rio-Coloma road at kilometer 23
Coloma.
and runs almost due north.
3.0 Crosses Arroyo Flamenco at Paso del Flamenco, a
small creek; good water, camping ground for troop, a
little grazing.
8.0 Crosses small stream. (Laguna Campantarras region.)
10.5 Lake Juncos; a large lake to left; 0.7.mile long; water
fresh, lake deep.
11.5 Joins Pinar del Rio-Marcos VAzquez road. This road
is intersected by many crossroads of the same general
character. They are of no importance; those to the
west connecting with the Pinar del Rio-Coloma road,
those to the east running to the San Lorenzo ranch about
12 miles southeast of Pinar del Rio. There is no culti-
vation and no house along the entire length, the entire
country being covered with a growth of scrub pines and
palms. Road runs in a northerly direction, leaving
Marcos VAzquez across bridge over Paso Viejo River.
Truss work of this bridge, which is 50 feet long, 30 feet
high, is of iron and in good condition; flooring of wood,
in bad repair. No ford in vicinity. Banks of river are
steep, gravel bottom; in dry season 15 feet wide, 4 feet
deep, current about 1.5 miles per hour.
12.7 Bad mud hole in road.
13.7 Crossroads; To west to Las Ovas, to east to Conso-
laci6n del Sur. Country very flat, sparsely settled, a
little cultivation on right; on left wooded and unculti-
vated.
14.2 Crosses small stream, Rio Jucaral. Several small
lagoons scattered on either side of road.
15.5 Crosses small stream and enters town of Puerta de
Golpe.
15.7 Crosses railroad at kilometer 161, direction changes
to northwest. Branch road continues north to Conso-
laci6n del Sur.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Tienda of La Jagua.-Crossroads from Pinar del Rio "il rom
to Consolaci6n del Sur. Country sparsely settled, little 18.7
cultivation. Road continues northwest.
Tienda on left. 20.2
Tienda on left. Country rolling to northeast, more 20.7
fertile, generally under tobacco cultivation on both sides
of road.
Road runs north; branch road to west runs to Pinar 23.2
del Rio and Vifales.
Branch road runs west to Pinar del Rio. 24.0
Pilotos, a town at foot of mountains. There is a single 24.5
wire telephone from Puerta de Golpe to Pilotos, which
is connected by wire with Consolaci6n del Sur, situated
about 1.5 miles northeast of La Jagua.


ROAD No. 24.

COLOMA--SAN LORENZO-MARCOS VAZQUEZ-PINAR DEL Rio.

General direction: NE. to San Lorenzo, and NW. to Pinar del Rio. Distance: 29
miles.

IN GENERAL.

1. From Coloma to San Lorenzo the road runs through flat country,
covered with scattering pines, palmetto, and coarse grass. Trans-
portation could pass through it in any direction in the dry season.
The coarse grass that abounds furnishes good grazing after having
been burned off and while the new growth is young and tender. The
road is dirt, and its condition is fair during the dry season. Wagon
transportation could pass over it, but loads should be greatly reduced.
Along the route the following streams are crossed: Flamenco,
Manguito, and Col6n, the latter crossing known as Paso del Encino.
They have good running water, sandy bottoms with good camping
places on all of them in the dry season. The country around Coloma
is low and a great part swampy.
2. San Lorenzo to Pinar del Rio.-From San Lorenzo the road
bears generally about northwest via Marcos VAzquez to Pinar del Rio.
It is an ordinary dirt road in fair condition in the dry season and good
for wagon transportation. In the rainy season it would probably
be impassable. Vegas border it on each side. A number of small
creeks are crossed, any of which would furnish water for the horses
of a regiment.




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Mie from IN DETAIL.
Miles trom
Coloma.
1.2 Road leaves calzada running generally northeast.
Gradually rises; waste land; pine trees.
3.2 Good watering place. Flamenco Creek.
4.7 Cross Manguito Creek. Barbed-wire fence to right of
road.
7.5 Pasture and palms. Campantarras lagoons to the left.
Road runs to right through gate in fence. Before enter-
ing gate, first road to left is to kilometers 17 and 13 on
calzada (Pinar del Rio-Coloma). Second road to left is
to kilometer 8. After entering gate, road to left is to
Marcos VAzquez, Las Ovas, and Puerta de Golpe. Cross
several water holes and swamps in Laguna Campantarras
region. Most of these water holes have running water
and sandy bottoms.
9.7 Cross Rio Col6n at Paso del Encino. Three trails: One
to right to Col6n; one to center is the public road of the
south, passing through kilometer 13, Punta de Palmas
and Alonzo Rojas; third runs to San Lorenzo, continuing
almost straight, the direction being about, 200 north of
east.
12.3 Gate; house to left; road turns north at this point.
13.0 Farm on right. Leaving ranch, barbed-wire fence to
right and left. Two houses. Tobacco and pasture.
14.0 Barbed-wire fence continues on each side of the road;
houses to right; left, fine pasture lands.
15.0 Cluster of houses on right; lake to right. Cross small
creek at this point; good watering place.
15.5 Small creek.
16.0 Left, tienda La Reguladora. Chamizo, Laguna Ne-
grito to left beyond tienda.
17.0 House to right; lagoon to right (Laguna Chamizo),
creek crosses road, good clean water, sandy bottom, never
dry.
18.5 Marcos Vazquez. Right, road to Puerta de Golpe;
road to left divides into two; one to right to Las Ovas;
one to left to Pinar del Rio.
19.7 High ground to left from which Consolaci6n del Sur
can be seen to northeast of Laguna Juncos.
20.2 Water hole; road to left to old sawmill; to right to
Las Ovas. Grass and palms; fertile valley; railroad to
right.
24.0 Small creek.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Pass under railroad through culvert; vegas to right; MI~s ro
railroad cut to right; two railroad culverts, one on each 26.7
side of crossing.
Road crosses small rivulet; grass cultivated land. 27.0
Tienda La Defensa; outer edge of Pinar del Rio; road 28.0
to right rear leading to Consolaci6n del Sur.
Wooden bridge over Rio Guama; 100 feet long and 24 28.5
feet wide. Ice plant to left. Earth works east side,
sand bag revetment. Blockhouse to right.
Pinar del Rio. 29.0


ROAD No. 25.

IERRADURA-EL CANAL-CARABALLO--SAN DIEGO DE Los BANOS-
LA CATALINA-CAIMITO--SAN JUAN DE SAGUA-SAN MARCOS-
LA MULATA.
General direction: N. Distance: 33.8 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. From Herradura to San Diego de los Bafios is a good, broad,
dirt road, fairly level, and practicable for escort wagons, full loads,
in dry season.
2. From San Diego de los Bauos to La Mulata is a narrow trail,
steep and rocky, leading through the mountains. Possible for pack
trains in dry season, but hard on the animals. From San Juan de
Sagua, good dirt trail over low pine ridges for 4.5 miles, when it
leaves the hills. Steep in a few places, but good for pack trains.
Fairly level trail for the rest of the distance.. This trail is hard to
follow. In a number of places it passes through closed yards.
IN DETAIL.

Herradura coincides with the 24.9 miles on the Conso- Me from
laci6n del Sur-Paso Real Road.
Cross trails. 0.2
El Canal. Road comes in from right. Two shacks .4
on left. Open grassy country on both sides.
Shack with little cultivation on the left. Road .7
branches.
Scattered trees. 1.0
Muddy in places. 1.4
Road to left. 2.4
Dry bed of small stream. Broad dirt road through 2.5
rolling, grassy country. No houses or cultivation. Main
road is well traveled and easy to follow.





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from
Herradura.
2.9 Broad road from left.
3.4 Road branches.
3.6 Cross small stream running over large flat rock on left.
3.8 Two roads meet at dry bed of small stream.
4.1 Cross grassy country. Another road running in same
general direction.
4.2 Dry bed of small stream.
4.4 Caraballo. Two shacks on left. Take trail running
to right.
4.6 Join another trail at top of gentle hill.
4.7 Trail branches; go to left.
4.8 Trail to left.
4.9 Small cross trail.
5.0 Small stream and bad mud hole. Road on left and
shack on right. Road at this point very faint and
looks like a small trail.
5.1 Road turns to left.
5.2 Barb-wire fences both sides.
5.3 Good-sized native frame house and barn on left. Two
shacks on right. More cultivation here.
5.4 Trail on right.
5.6 Small stream, 4 feet wide, mud bottom, bad crossing.
Steep, short banks on both sides.
5.8 Dry bed of small stream.
6.1 Ten-foot wooden bridge over dry bed of small stream.
6.4 Road grass grown. Barb-wire fence both sides.
6.5 Road to left, a short cut to Consolaci6n del Sur.
6.6 Road turns at right angles to the right.
6.9 Old stone ruins 150 yards to the left.
7.1 Trail to left. Fairly level grassy country with very
little cultivation. Scattered palms both sides of road.
7.4 Trail on right.
7.7 Rio San Diego, 15 to 20 feet wide. Fair crossing.
Can water two troops. Take road north. Cross the
river.
8.0 Enter San Diego de los Bafos. Leave San Diego de
los Bafos by trail running north by west over rocky
ridge, Sierra de Linares, with dense brush on both sides.
Graveyard with stone wall on right. Take small trail
on right after leaving graveyard.
8.6 Small stream, nearly dry. Tobacco on both sides.
8.9 Trail passes through small gate near top of hill.
9.5 Top of first foothill. Considerable dense brush.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL Rio.


Miles from
Herradura.
Small stream, Arroyo Flamena, stony crossing. Not 9.9
practicable for watering.
Open grassy knoll near top of hill. 10.0
Shack about 350 yards off to right. 10.3
Fairly smooth trail, running over open grassy knolls. 10.9
Timber (pine) getting larger, up to 1 foot in diameter.
Scattered palms. Rocky cliff off some distance on the
left. Few pines on right.
Bad spot in trail. Steep and rocky. 11.2
Rio Toro. Can water 6 horses at a time. 11.4
Open grassy knolls. Pines on left. 12.2
Top of ridge. Good, straight pine timber. 12.6
Small stream, Rio Jabita. Trail bad and steep. 13.0
Two small streams. 13.5
Steep place in trail. Valley of Rio San Diego on left; 14.1
open view straight ahead. Pines, a few scattered palms,
and other trees. Two shacks in valley, about 400 yards
on right.
Rio Catalina, 15 to 20 feet wide. Water a troop. 14.4
Steep, rocky descent to this river.
La Catalina. Five shacks. Leave over trail running 14.6
southwest.
Rio Caimito. Water two or three horses. Two 14.8
shacks on left a little farther on.
A shack on both sides. Little cultivation. 15.1
Small stream. 15.3
SA shack on both sides. 15.4
Grass knoll. Shack below on right. 15.5
Trail branches twice. Take one to right both times. 15.7
Shack on left. 15.9
Small wooden gate. Trail branches just beyond. 16.0
Go to left.
Small stream. Fine pine timber so far. 16.1
Pines more scattered. 17.0
Top of ridge known as Sierra de la Cumbre. View of 17.4
sea (Gulf of Mexico) to front and left.
Trail rocky. 17.8
Extremely rocky to here. Pines not so large. 18.6
Trail branches. Take one to right around side of hill. 18.8
Small spring on left. 19.0
Junction of two small streams. Water 8 horses. 19.3
Hard rocky climb to this point. Cross two small 20.0
rivulets.
Large valley on right. Take trail descending on right. 20.3




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from
Herradura
20.4 Trail ascending on left.
20.5 Cross trail. Go to right.
20.6 Small stream bed, nearly dry, Arroyo del Gallo.
Scattered palms and underbrush.
20.9 Trail runs through yard of shack.
21.0 San Pedro del Caimito. Five shacks. Take trail to
left in front of frame house, pass down hill, through gate,
turn to right and then to left. Trail branches just
beyond; go to left.
21.3 Rio Caimito. Water 12 horses. Enter a dense jungle
at this point. Palms, timber, and underbrush. Large
number of small rivulets, not practicable for watering.
21.8 Trail ascends dry torrent bed. Narrow, steep, and
very rocky.
22.7 Small stream. Number of mud holes in last half mile.
23.2 Stream, 20 feet wide, rocky bed. Only about 5 feet
wide at present. Water 12 horses. Take trail to right
skirting river and jungle. Another trail runs up slight
hill from river. Both trails lead to San Juan de Sagua.
The latter is a little longer, but not so steep and rough.
23.7 Small stream.
24.1 Out of jungle. Palms and other trees. Few pines.
24.5 Top of narrow ridge. Two large hills off to the right
oblique. Long ridge off to left. Range in rear.
24.7 Jungle.
25.2 Trail on left. Fenced clearing with four shacks and a
little cultivation.
25.3 Good 12-foot stream. Water 12 horses. -More scat-
tered clearings and shacks.
25.7 Rio San Juan de Sagua (Rio San Marcos) Twenty or
thirty feet wide. San Juan de Sagua just across the
river. Leave from river, following right bank for short
distance. Then cross river again taking trail to left,
passing a shack and beehives on left of trail.
26.4 Small stream. Water 2 horses. Entering timber and
dense underbrush on both sides.
26.6 Trail branches. Take very faint one going to right
and ascending large hill.
26.6 The other trail to San Juan de Sagua comes in on the
left at this point.
27.0 Small stream, rocky bed. From here to 30.2 trail runs
over grassy ridges, well timbered with good sized pines.
Soil dark brownish red.
27.6 Good stream, rocky bed. Water 6 horses.




PROVINCE OF PINAB DEL RIO.


Miles from
Herradura.
Small stream. Water 2 horses. 27.7
Small stream, rocky bed. Water 8 horses. 28.3
Four small bridges of pine logs, about 10 feet iong, bad 28.6
condition.
Small stream at foot of steep hill. 28.7
Pines pretty thick. No underbrush. 29.3
Trail descends into valley on left. View of sea ahead. 30.0
Trail stony. 30.2
Trail on left. 30.9
Palms and other timber. Few pines. 31.0
Good stream, sandy bottom. Water 8 horses. 31.1
Top of grassy knolls. Gravelly trail entering thick 31.4
jungle.
Rio San Marcos on right. 31.6
Small stream. Bad crossing. 32.0
Two shacks on left and trail on right. 32.3
Open spot. Trail branches; take one straight ahead 32.4
(right one).
Rio San Marcos, 20 feet wide. Water a troop. Trail 32.5
goes downstream for a few yards and then to the right.
Footbridge of two palms on left, over Rio San Marcos. 32.9
San Marcos. Five shacks. Large clearing. 33.2
Cross Rio San Marcos. Footbridge of single palm 33.3
trunk. Go through small gate.
Trail branches. Go to right. 33.5
La Mulata. One house, the tienda La Mulata, on the 33.8
right.


ROAD No. 26.
LAS MANGAS-PLAYAS DE GUANIMAR.
General direction: SE. Distance: 14.7 miles.
IN GENERAL.
From Las Mangas road is passable for carts in the dry season as
far as finca Menendez, from there to finca Socorro the road is so
rocky that loaded carts can not pass over it. From Socorro to
Playas de Guanimar road is passable for infantry only.
The country from Socorro to Playas de Guanimar is very swampy;
the road is ditched, but is very soft. Cuban ponies can pass over
it but American horses would be mired. Rio Guanimar parallels
the road and is about an eighth of a mile from it. The source of the
river is a spring just south of finca Socorro. It is about 9 feet wide
8120-10--6





BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


at the source by 1 foot deep, and widens out gradually until it is
about 20 feet wide by 10 feet deep at the mouth, which is located at
Playas de Guanimar. A towpath runs along the west bank, and
oxen are used for the purpose of drawing loaded boats from the mouth
to the source, where the cargoes are transported by bull carts. The
road as far as Socorro is lined with stone and wire fences the en-
tire distance.
IN DETAIL.
le from Las The road runs southeast from Las Mangas over level,
Mangas.
uncultivated country.
2.0 Road joins it from the northeast from Portugu6s
(located on the calzada 2.5 miles south of Artemisa).
Road continues southeast.
2.5 Finca Frire. At this point road turns east.
5.0 Road joins it from Portugu6s at finca Tierra. From
this point road continues northeast. Road joins it from
Artemisa at
5.7 Finca Maravilla.
6.2 Road joins it coming down from the little town of
Cafias. Here road turns south for a short distance, then
east.
7.0 Finca Men6ndez. Half a mile beyond road turns
south (a branch runs east 0.2 mile to finca Pluma).
8.0 Road turns southeast, continues in that direction to
finca Jdpiter.
9.5 Road comes in from the north from Cafias and Dagame.
Road continues southeast, 0.7 mile, to finca La Paz, then
east to finca Socorro.
11.0 Road runs in from Alquizar; continues east for 0.5
mile where it runs south.
14.7 Playas de Guanimar (the south coast road continues on
east).

ROAD No. 27.
EMBARCADERO DE LAS PLAYUELAS (PLAYA BURRO)-ABRA-VIRA-
LES--CAYOS DE SAN FELIPE-PINAR DEL Rio.
General direction: SE. Distance: 30 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. Las Playuelas to Abra is a dirt road 7 feet wide, easy grades,
condition good. Material for repair, wood, near by.
2. Abra to Vifiales is a trail 3 feet wide over rocky hills, steep
grades as far as Guasasa, but from there to Vifiales is a wagon road,
easy grades.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RfO.


3. From Vifales to Pinar del Rio good wagon road, fairly level,
practicable for escort wagons in the dry season, Just before reaching
San Felipe the grades are very steep; probably too steep for more
than half cartloads. Broad, level, wagon road from 12.6 miles to
Pinar del Rio, practicable for full loads in the dry season.
The roads and trails over this route, except for the last 4 miles,
and where they descend into the valleys, are gravelly and firm and
would never be muddy. They are never rocky, but are steep in
places. Good for pack trains.

IN DETAIL.
Miles from Em-
Embarcadero de Las Playuelas (Playa Burro). baaderdelas
Road is double. Trail to right to houses. 0.7
Trail to right to houses. 1.2
Trail to right to houses. 1.4
Trail to right to houses. 1.5
Trail to right to houses. 1.7
Crossroads Hatico San Bernab6 de Morales. Road to 2.5
left to San Cayetano; road to right to Malas Aguas.
Trail to right to houses. 3.5
Arroyo de la Cruz, 3 feet broad, 6 inches deep, velocity 4.7
2 miles; banks sloping, bottom sandy, and good ford.
Road to right to sitio Morales.
Cross small stream flowing southwest. 5.5
Two small bridges 0.2 mile from Abra over Rio Morales; 5.7
wood; 20 feet long, 10 feet wide, 9 feet high; piers of
heavy timber. Ford under first bridge.
Abra. Cross Rio Morales. Tienda to right of road. 6.0
Ford difficult. Cross small ridge.
Settlement of Ancon. Trail crosses Rio Morales; river 7.3
7 feet wide, 1 foot deep, sandy bottom.
Top of steep hill. 9.3
Road to left to Esperanza. 10.0
Paso Guasasa (tienda). From Paso Guasasa to 10.3
Vifiales see Coloma-Pinar del Rio-Vifales-Esperanza
road, 31.5-mile point to 33.9-mile point.
Viflales. Start from the church in Vifiales, going 12.7
down the calle Real to the western end of the town.
Two roads lead out from calle Real; the left to Pinar 13.3
del Rio and the right to San Felipe. Take the latter,
bearing about west.
Palm grove on the left. Road follows general direc- 13.6
tion of the Sierra del Infierno on the right, and about 500
yards from their base. Roadbed red clay.
Road turns. Bearing, southwest. 13.7





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Em-
baer.deros Road forks; go to the left. Right branch goes to
13.8 Guajani, khown as camino del Infierno.
13.9 At this point the road begins to bear away from the
sierras.
14.4 Rocky detached spur of the sierras on the right. A
smaller one on the left. About 800 yards apart. House
on left and water hole on right. Road at this point com-
manded by low ridge about 800 yards to the left and front.
This valley is open and well cultivated and contains a
number of scattered houses. Good grazing; parana
grass. Wood and water scarce.
14.5 Left road at this point, taking short cut by trail on
right.
14.7 Trail on right. Trail branches just beyond; go to left.
14.8 End of the smaller, or Vifales, valley. Trail rises by
steep grade to top of low ridge, passing house on left at
the base.
15.1 Trail bears southwest (2450) following in general the
crest of the ridge. Hills rocky, shaly formation. Small
underbrush, but not enough to afford concealment. Deep
ravine on the left. Bearing from this point to Vifiales, 50 0.
15.3 Trail descends. Two hundred yards it joins the main
road (cart road).
15.5 Road descends into small cultivated valley called
Calvario. Bearing 2040. Twenty or thirty houses in
the valley and some cultivation. Surrounding hills cov-
ered with scrub pine and scattered brush.
15.8 Dry arroyo. House on the right about 100 yards
beyond.
15.9 Road not much more than a trail at this point.
Branches; go to the left.
16.0 Dry arroyo. House on the left just beyond. Trail
branches into cross trail; go to the left; rising gently
out of valley. Scattered brush, scrub pine, and some
larger timber.
16.1 Trail on the right. Soil gravelly and firm.
16.2 Arroyo with a little water. Poor supply and not very
good. Water about three horses at a time.
16.4 Joins cart road, bearing about 1500. Country open
and hilly. Scattered scrub pines. High knoll 50 yards
to the right.
16.5 Trail branches. Go to the right. Bearing 2000. Trail
on the left to Guao. Arroyo containing a little water.
Enough for one horse.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Miles from Em-
Cross two small rivulets. Water one horse. Road a drdelas
ascends short, steep hill. Small scrub pine with some 16.6
larger trees up to 1 foot in diameter. Road bed gravelly
and sandy.
Crosses cart road and joins another just beyond. 16.8
Top of rise. Road getting broader. Good for wagons 16.9
here.
Two shacks, with a little tobacco, off to the right. 17.0
Road follows crest of ridge from here to the descent into
the San Felipe valley. It is broad and has a fine gravelly
bed. Good enough for wagons.
Brush larger and thicker. Two shacks off to the right. 17.4
A little tobacco cultivation.
Cart road on the left. Trail on right rear, short dis- 17.5
tance beyond.
Barb-wire fence on right for 0.7 mile. 17.6
Small wooden cross, 2 feet high, on right. Road good. 17.7
Low hills, thinly covered with pine, to the left for the last
mile.
View of town and valley of San Felipe to right front. 17.8
Long rocky cliff, about 200 feet high, runs along farther
side of valley, which is cultivated and contains 2 tile-roof
houses, and about 20 scattered shacks and a sprinkling of
palms.
Steep descent and climb from hill at 17.8 to this one. 18.2
Highest point of ridge. Steep descent into the valley 18.3
just beyond. From 17.8 road not practicable for wagons,
but with considerable work it might be made passable for
half loads, double teaming.
San Felipe valley. 18.7
Rio Rojero, four or five feet wide. Water 6 horses; 19.0
quality fair; runs into Rio San Felipe.
San Felipe. Tienda called Cayos de San Felipe. Rio 19.1
San Felipe and good grass in the valley, but not much
wood.
Leaving the tienda the road follows the Rio Rojero 19.4
around face of cliff, crossing the river at this point. Cross-
ing fair. A little farther on the Rio Rojero joins the Rio
Bocas.
Cross trail. 19.7
Detached rocky cliff off to the left. Patch of dense 19.8
brush growing among large bowlders just beyond.
Take trail on the left, crossing arroyo nearly dry. 20.0




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from Em-
barcadero de las
Playuelas.
20.1 Pass through yard of native house short distance be-
yond. Little tobacco cultivation.
20.2 Crosses arroyo, nearly dry.
20.3 Shack on left. Turn to the right.
20.5 Turn to the left. Shack on the right. Trail ascends
short and very steep ridge. Narrow dirt trail from 20
miles to top of ridge, where it broadens a little and
branches. Go to the right.
20.8 Three forks. Take the one on the right. Trail
branches just beyond. Go to left.
20.9 Meets another trail near top of hill. Extensive view,
from the crest, of the surrounding hills, and of the plains
beyond through a gap in the foothills straight ahead.
Hills fairly open. Scrub pine and some larger timber.
21.1 Trail branches twice. Go to the right the first time;
to the left the second.
21.7 Small stream of good water in deep arroyo; rocky bed.
Water two or three horses. Timber (pine) much larger.
22.3 Small trail on left. Level for a short distance here. A
succession of hills from 20.8 to 25.5. Extensive view to
the left from this point.
22.5 Two small trails on right, close together.
22.7 Trail on the left, running along the crest of a ridge.
23.0 Highest point of trail. Great expanse of country vis-
ible from this point, especially of the plains to the front.
Small cultivated valley a little distance ahead and to the
right. About 20 shacks and some scattered palms.
23.8 Small rivulet. Water two horses. Quality good.
Long steep descent from crest to this point.
24.1 Trail follows along left bank of Rio Guama, crossing it
at this point. River bed rocky, 6 or 8 feet wide. Plenty
of good water.
.24.3 Guama. Trail branches just before reaching this place.
Go to the left. Good camping site for a regiment.
Plenty of wood and water, but not much grass at present.
Loma las Flores to the east.
24.4 Small tienda on left. Cross Arroyo Guabinas just
beyond; follow trail, keeping to the left, and pass two
shacks on right at base of ridge.
24.9 Level stretch near crest of ridge. Last ascent very
steep. Barb wire both sides of the road. Trail broadens
into cart road. Too steep and narrow for wagons. Cart
road from the plains over the foothills to Guama, prac-
ticable for half-loaded bull carts.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Miles from Em-
barcadero de las
Playuelas.
Small shack on the left. 25.2
Two small shacks on right, near base of foothills. 25.5
Small plank bridge over Arroyo del Cangre, 20 feet 25.6
long, 15 feet wide, and 2 feet high. Broad wagon road
from here to Pinar del Rio. Rather stony at this point.
Fork. Turn to left, joining crossroad. Very little 25.8
cultivation for next 1.1 miles. Dense brush and scattered
palms all along on the left. Country more open on the
right, and grassy (sage). Scattered palms and brush.
Arroyo del Cangre. Barb wire on both sides and for 26.0
0.9 mile. Brush and palms pretty thick.
Country more open at this point. Several shacks on 26.3
both sides, with a little cultivation.
Arroyo del Cangre. 26.8
Two vegas to the left. Covered fields. Road turns to 26.9
the right.
Large tienda on the right-La Luisa. Small house on 27.0
right just before reaching tienda. Country open on both
sides from this point on. Rolling, grassy country, few
scattered houses and palms and a little cultivation.
Palm grove. Most of the trees on the right. Long, 27.5
practically level stretch for next 1.3 miles. Roadbed fine
gravel and white clay. Sage grass both sides. Consid-
erable country visible.
Road on left. Two shacks on right. 28.4
Small frame house, tile roof, on right. Young orange 28.5
grove.
Grass-grown road on left. Shack on right. 28.6
Two-story frame house 200 yards off to right. 28.7
Arroyo Manacas. Course thickly lined with palms, 28.9
especially to the left.
Barb wire on both sides from here on. Considerable 29.0
cultivation.
Large stone ruin 200 yards off to the right. Road turns 29.1
to left, joining road coming'in from the rear. Another
road joins on the right at this point.
Small tienda on the right. 29.
Rio San Felipe, 15 to 20 feet wide, about three or four 29.6
feet deep. Plenty of good water. Fair crossing. Firm,
sandy bottom. Pumping station 200 yards upstream, on
right bank.
Road on right to pumping station. 29.7
Cuartel, Pinar del Rio. 30.0




BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


ROAD No. 28.
PILOTOS-PINALILIO--VIiALES--LA MINA (MINA ROSARIO)-LA
PALMA-RIO BLANCO.
General direction: N. Distance:. 33.7 miles.
NOTE.-During 1908 a metaled road was constructed connecting La Palma and Rio
Blanco.
IN GENERAL.
1. Pilotos to Piialillo.-Wagon road; earth surfacing; average
width about 5 feet, and practically level.
2. Pifialillo to Vifiales.-The trail is very rough and in some
places barely passable for horses. After it reaches the Viiales
valley it develops into a good wagon road. The hills are barren.
The land near the Rio Hondo in the Pilotos valley is cultivated.
The Vifiales valley is cultivated in part. About a mile stretch
from the high hills is a sandy waste. No good camping sites on
this route.
3. Vifales to Rio Blanco.-From Vifiales to La Mina is a wagon
road in good condition, surfacing firm clay and sand, grades easy,
width 16 feet.
From La Mina to La Jagua is a mountain trail almost all of the
distance, suitable only for pack transportation. Very hilly and
wooded. Oak and pine plentiful along route.
From La Jagua to La Palma is a good wagon road during the
dry season, but would be impassable for anything but bull carts
during the wet season. Surfacing mostly a sandy clay, clay pre-
dominating. Width of road 10 feet, and in places runs through
cuts not more than 8 feet wide and 3 to 4 feet deep. Grades easy.
From La Palma to Rio Blanco and the coast is a wagon road in
fair condition and always passable for wagons during dry season.
Width 16 feet, surfacing mostly clay. Road runs through hills as
far as tienda and schoolhouse of Rio Blanco. Through these hills
road passes over a number of steep grades.

IN DETAIL.
Miesfrom Leaving Pilotos the road runs a little east of north
Pilotos.
for 0.5 mile, when it turns nearly due east 0.2 mile to
Pifialillo. The land on both sides of the road is cultivated.
0.9 The Rio Hondo crosses the road about 100 yards west
of Piialillo. It is about 40 feet wide, 4 feet deep; has
a 6-mile current flowing east and southeast; evidence of
about 4 feet fluctuation and 10 yards spread. Crossed
by means of a ford; approaches good but rocky. Water
supply abundant and quality excellent.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Pifialillo.-It is at the foot of the high hills, Loma de M"ifom
La Capitana, and about a mile from Pilotos. A trail for 1.0
Vifiales leaves Pinfalillo in a northwestern direction. The
Pilotos-Pifalillo road continues east for about 0.5 mile
beyond Pifialillo, where it divides into two trails which
lead to different ridges in a northeastern direction. Good
camp site for a squadron between Pilotos and Pifalillo.
Plenty of excellent water with fuel in the near-by hills.
Trail leaves Pifialillo and runs in a northwestern direc-
tion, crossing a branch of the Rio Hondo just outside of
Pifialillo. This stream is about 8 feet wide, 2 feet deep;
has a 6-mile current flowing southwest; fordable; ap-
proaches to the ford easy; bottom rocky; fluctuation
marks 2 feet; water supply abundant and quality good.
The trail ascends a steep slope to the summit of 1.5
the high hills known as La Capitana and Pinar Llano
(about 1.5 miles). It then leads in a northwestern direc-
tion across one peak after another until it reaches the
Vifales valley.
Here it crosses a creek 3 feet wide, 2 feet deep; 4-mile 5.5
current flowing east; fordable; approaches abrupt; bot-
tom sandy; fluctuation marks 3 feet; water supply
abundant, quality good.
About a mile farther a trail branches to the southwest. 6.5
About 100 yards farther a trail crosses the road from 6.6
east to west.
A little farther the trail develops into a road practi- 6.7
cable for wagons.
About 1.5 miles farther it crosses the Vifiales-San 8.2
AndrBs road.
SAbout 1.5 miles from this crossing it joins the Viinales- 9.7
Ceja Ana de Luna-San Andr6s road (main road through
valley) about 2 miles out of Viiales.
Viiales. Leaves northeastern end of the main street 10.7
of Vifiales and turns north at end of street; thence almost
due north. Roadbed sandy; cultivation.
Divides and turns northeast. 11.5
Turns north. 11.7
Turns northeast, passing southern tienda of Laguna 13.5
de Piedra. Road to left to tienda Guasasa.
Passes schoolhouse on left. Cultivation. 13.7
Passes northeastern tienda of Laguna de Piedra. 14.0
Roadbed clay.
Crosses bridge over stream at Mogote Soledad. Stream 14.2
about 4 inches deep and 4 feet wide; at bridge wider,




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miesfrom and from 6 to 8 inches deep; banks low. Good camping
place; grass in abundance. Cultivation and pasture.
Tienda of Soledad on left of road. Road to right to
14.5 La Jagua Vieja and several fincas. Hills commence.
Small tienda on right. Road turns northwest.
15.0 Road turns northeast. Hills; grades easy; road good.
16.2 Small patches of cultivation.
Tienda Encinal Alto.
16.7 La Mina. Three or four houses. Copper mine. Road
17.2 to west to San Vicente. From this point cart road
runs northeast through hills to La Jagua. Hills covered
with growth of pine and oak. No very steep or long
grades. Bed of road firm, sandy clay; not liable to be
seriously affected by rain.
17.7 Trail to south to La Jagua Vieja.
18.0 Turns northwest. Hills and brush.
18.7 Turns northeast. Hills; pine and oak.
21.0 Western tienda and schoolhouse of La Jagua. Road
to north to Esperanza and Berracos; to south to La
Jagua Vieja (schoolhouse and fincas); to east to La
Palma. La Jagua is a cultivated district about 0.5 to
1 mile wide, lying between the sierras.
21.2 Crosses small stream, 2 to 3 inches deep; bottom
sandy; width 2 to 3 feet; banks low.
22.0 Trail to north to Berracos. Crosses dry bed of stream.
22.7 Passes eastern tienda of La Jagua on right.
23.2 Eastern schoolhouse of La Jagua; several farpnhouses
scattered about district. Road bed soft dirt.
23.5 Crosses Rio Blanco; ford, bottom rocky; width 20
feet, depth 12 inches; banks 4 feet high; current good;
excellent camping place. From this point road is low
and would be difficult during heavy rains. Road to
northeast along telegraph line to La Palma.
24.7 Passes to right (south) of a mogote.
25.0 Vegas Nuevas. Tienda and dwelling house on north
side of road, shack on south. Road on leaving tienda
crosses bridge over dry bed of stream; bridge 20 by 16
feet; of wood; poor, but in fair condition. Banks of
stream about 6 feet high. Cultivation. Good pasture
in this vicinity.
26.5 Passes farmhouse and avenue of palms. Cultivation.
27.7 Road divides and turns north to La Palma, passing
around a mogote, and entering La Palma from the west.
Road to east around south side of mogote joins La Palma-
San Andr6s road.





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL BIO.


La Palma. Straight ahead for two blocks and ttn to Mis from
left; cross Rio Blanco and take road passing cemetery. 28.2
Just north of hill road divides; take road to right. Road-
bed of firm sand and clay; good drainage. Cultivation.
Crosses stream; would never present obstacle. Country 28.5
hilly and covered with thin growth of pine and oak to
tienda and schoolhouse of Rio Blanco. The road divides
at several points, but all side roads rejoin; one about as
good as another.
Tienda and schoolhouse of Rio Blanco. Road to east 30.7
to Rio Puerco and Bahia Honda. To north to Almacen
of Rio Blanco; to west to Esperanza. Road passes
through rolling country, most of it under cultivation.
Wagon road.
Calzada commences. 33.0
Almacen of Rio Blanco (Port). 33.7
Cart road from Rio Blanco to tienda of Rio Puerco; Miles from Rio
general direction northeast; distance 3 miles.
Due east from tienda of Rio Blanco.
Turns northeast. 0.3
Crosses small stream; bridge of wood, very small. 0.5
Passes through low, marshy land, and would be impass-
able during heavy rains.
Crosses Arroyo Rico and passes through gate; enters 1.0
finca, land under cultivation or being used as pasture;
scattering liouses. Banks of Arroyo Rico 6 feet high;
depth, 10 inches; width, 10 feet at crossing; current good.
Would be impassable after heavy rain.
Small tienda on left (shack). Road turns north. 2.0
Tienda of Rio Puerco. Road turns east to Bahia 3.0
Honda.


ROAD N6. 29.
MANTUA-NARANJAL-LA CANA-CAFETAL-NARANJO-LA JAGUA-
MANAJA-FRANCISCO-GRAMALES-BAJA.
General direction: NE. to La Jagua, E. to Francisco, and W. to Baja. Distance: 45
miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. Mantua to La Jagua.-A fair cart road most of the way. In
places a mere trail. It runs along and near the Rio Mantua and for
the greater part through heavy underbrush which lines the river.




BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


There are numerous cultivated patches and houses at different inter-
vals along the road. The road is practicable only in the dry season;
in the wet season the hill roads are used. The road is fairly level
throughout. General direction is northeast. Good camping sites
for a squadron at Mantua, Naranjal, and Cafetal. For a detachment
at La Jagua.
2. La Jagua to Francisco.-Primarily a cart road and is not prac-
ticable for wagons. The road has a number of very steep grades.
The wagon road to the western coast runs via Los Acostas, south-
west from Francisco.
3. Francisco to Gramales.-A cart road, but could be made into a
wagon road. It is practically level and has an earth surface.
4. Gramales to Baja.-For the first 10 miles this road passes over
the mountains and is steep in many places; wheeled transportation
can not be advantageously used. For the remaining 4.5 miles the
road is good and is practicable for army wagons in all seasons.
IN DETAIL.
iles from Starting as a wagon road, road leaves MAntua at the
Mgntua.
monument in the Plaza and runs southeast along the most
northern street.
0.4 Turns northeast. Other road continues southeast,
running through Montezuelo to Guane.
0.5 Runs through cultivated land and crosses Rio Mantua.
0.7 Turns north through cultivated land and scattered
houses and recrosses Rio Mantua.
1.9 Cart road branches west (connecting with the road
Santa Isabel to Mantua).
2.0 Trail branches northeast (short cut).
2.7 Turns east and northeast and becomes a cart road, the
main wagon road continuing toward the western hills to
Santa Ana, Cabezas de Horacio, and other points west
and north.
3.4 Trail branches north (connecting trail with the Cafetal-
Santa Ana road).
3.8 Crosses Rio Mantua. Road crosses river three times.
River makes a number of wide swings just before reaching
Mantua. Sixteen feet wide, 2 feet deep, 4-mile current;
fluctuation marks, 6 feet; fordable; approaches easy and
bottom gravel. Road crosses a 150-foot hill, slopes
gradual.
3.9 Joined by a trail from the southwest (short cut).
5.1 Cart road branches southeast to Montezuelo. Road
runs through pasture land and turns north.




PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RfO.


Naranjal.-A cultivated district consisting of many Ku om
scattered houses. The valley is fertile, watered by the 6.1
Rio MAntua, which crosses it from northeast to south-
west. Trail runs southeast over hills for 3 miles and
joins the Montezuelo-Los Acostas cart road. Road runs
north through Naranjal.
Crosses Rio Mantua; flows west, 20 feet wide, 3 feet 6.3
deep, 4-mile current, fluctuation 8 feet, spread 30 feet;
fordable; approaches easy; bottom gravel. Road turns
northeast and continues along river.
Crosses a 100-foot grassy hill. 6.8
Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. 7.2
Runs through heavily wooded section. 7.6
Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. 8.0
La Cana.-A small, cultivated valley with six houses. 8.0
Lies close to the western hills and is surrounded by
heavy underbrush. Trail branches southeast across
river and runs to Guane. A cart road branches north-
west through hills and joins main road in hills running to
Mantua. Road becomes a trail, running nearly due
east along the river and through heavy underbrush.
Runs through long stretch of underbrush crossing three 9.3
small creeks flowing southeast.
Crosses 50-foot grassy hill. 9.4
Caracoles.-A cultivated district consisting of a num- 9.8
ber of scattered farms. Crosses a small stream flowing
southeast. Cultivated land on both sides of the stream.
Cafetal.-Cultivated district containing many scat-. 10.0
tered farms. The name is more particularly applied to a
group of two large storehouses and four other houses at
the junction of several roads. Telephone connection
with La Jagua, and through Pinar Oscuro to Dimas, on
the coast (private line). Line runs along the road in the
hills. A wagon road branches northwest to hills where
it divides, one branch running to Cabezas de Horacio
and other points north and northwest, the other run-
ning to Santa Ana and points west. Trail branches
southeast over the hills to Guane via Los Ocujes. Road
leaves Cafetal and runs in a northeast direction. Light
underbrush broken by an occasional cultivated patch
and a few houses.
Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. 10.7
Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. 10.9
Crosses a 50-foot hill. 11.0
Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. 11.3




ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


Miles from
M&ntua.
11.4 Crosses a 100-foot hill.
11.5 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast.
11.6 Runs 0.4 mile through heavy growth of trees.
11.8 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. Patch of
cultivated land to right of creek.
12.0 Cultivated patch on left; 4 houses.
12.2 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast.
12.3 Crosses Rio Mantua.
12.5 Crosses Rio Mantua. The river at this point comes
out of the hills on the east and makes a bend to the
west. Cultivated land with two houses in the bend.
The road crosses the bend, fording the river twice.
Rio Mantua: Width, 16 feet; depth, 2 feet; current, 4
miles, fluctuation marks 9 feet; fordable; approaches
easy and bottom gravel.
12.6 Road crosses a small creek flowing south. Creek: eight
feet wide, 2 feet deep; soft bottom. Drains the country
north to Naranjo and La Jagua.
12.7 Wagon road branches north across hills to Cabezas de
Horacio and -other points north. Cultivated land.
Pastures and scattered houses on left.
13.2 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast.
13.4 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast. Small wooden
bridge, 6 feet long by 12 feet wide over an arroyo 8 feet
deep.
13.6 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast.
14.1 Crosses a long stretch of grazing land. Crosses a small
creek flowing southeast. Crosses a 50-foot hill.
14.6 Crosses a small creek flowing southeast.
15.0 Crosses a creek flowing south and southeast, 6 feet
wide, 2 feet deep, and having soft bottom.
15.1 Naranjo.-A small cultivated district with 3 houses.
Is part of La Jagua. Cart road branches southeast
over hills to Asiento Viejo. Trail branches west to road
on western hills. Road turns nearly due north. Tele-
phone line joins road connecting Asiento Viejo and La
15.3 Jagua. Crosses a small creek flowing northwest.
15.6 Crosses creek flowing west, 4 feet wide, 1.5 feet deep;
bottom soft.
15.9 Crosses 100-foot hill (pasture land).
16.2 La Jagua.-A large cultivated district. Many scat-
tered houses. Name applies particularly to a large
white house, a large tobacco barn, and several small
sheds, all surrounded by a stockade (3 feet high) built of





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


the stumps of palm trees. Telephone connection with Mis
Asiento Viejo and Manaja and through Pinar Oscuro
with Dimas. Wagon road runs north and northeast to
Manaja. Wagon road runs northwest to Pinar Oscuro,
and a branch runs south and southwest over western hills
to Cafetal, Santa Ana, and other points. Take wagon
road running north for 600 yards, where it joins the
Dimas-Asiento Viejo road. Turn east on this road until
the Manaja road is reached, running north. Turns north,
ascending 150 feet. Wagon road branches west to Pinar 17.0
Oscuro. Trail branches east to Pesquero-Manaja trail.
Road turns northeast. Road descends 100 feet and
turns east.
Manaja. (Casilda de la Manaja).-Leave Manaja, 21.0
going east. Cross a small, shallow, fordable creek, flow-
ing northwest to coast.
Road reaches a ridge, the ascent being 1.7 miles long. 22.0
The ridge then changes direction toward the south and
the road continues on this ridge for 2.5 miles.
Road is crossed by two small, shallow, fordable creeks 23.0
0.2 mile apart. These are branches of a larger stream
flowing northwest 0.5 mile to left of road.
Road joined by trail from Gramales from northeast. 24.0
From this point the road winds around a high peak,
before reaching which there is an ascent from an unculti-
vated valley with numerous high peaks.
Road descends from a range of high hills through a cul- 25.5
tivated valley and enters Limpio Francisco by road run-
ning southeast. (From Francisco to Gramales, see
Guane-Limpio Francisco-Pefia Blanca-Malas Aguas road,
from 22.3-mile point to 27.3-mile point.)
Gramales. 30.5
Road to Francisco turns off to southwest. 36.5
Another road to Baja to southwest. 37.5
Mountains are passed. Rest of distance is through 40.5
plains covered with grass and scattering palms.
Arroyo Hicacos; a small stream with steep banks; 43.0
good ford.
Rio de Baja; steep banks; good ford, 12 feet wide, 43.5
0.7 foot deep. Vegas for one mile on both sides of this
river. Good camping place for one regiment; fuel and
grazing plentiful.
Baja. Two houses and tienda. 45.0





ROAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


ROAD No. 30.
PINAR DEL RO--SALN LUs-TIRADO--PALIZADAS.
General direction: From Pinar del Rio to Tirado, S.; from Tirado to Palizadas, E.
Distance: 22.5 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. Pinar del Rio to San Luis.-A fairly good dirt road in the dry
season. Practicable in dry season for all classes of transportation.
In wet season, for light-loaded wagons.
2. San Luis to Palizadas.-A dirt road through level country.
Road very crooked. Road divides at Tirado, both roads from San
Luis.
IN DETAIL.
Miles from P ar Leaves town from the south, running in a generally
del Rio.
southerly direction.
0.2 Two tiendas and unimportant branch road to west.
0.7 Tienda east of road.
1.0 Top of flat ridge. Small grade for short distance, after
which level.
1.2 Small stream, sandy bottom, Arroyo Galiano.
1.5 Branch road to San Juan y Martinez.
2.0 Crosses railroad 100 yards west of kilometer 180.
Passes through flat country, small lagoons occurring at
intervals on either side of road.
2.5 San Mateo, a large lagoon 200 yards east of road.
3.0 Tienda east of road.
3.5 Crosses small stream.
3.7 Tienda west of road.
5.7 Road follows top of ridge, overlooking Rio Feo valley.
8.7 Tienda east of road.
10.0 Road turns abruptly west, meeting, but not crossing, a
road running east and west; runs west 2 miles into San
Luis. Tienda at junction of roads. Brickyard in rear
of tienda.
10.6 Crosses small arroyo.
10.7 Crosses stream, sandy bottom, over small bridge.
11.0 Crosses small stream, sandy bottom, crossing good.
11.2 Crosses arroyo over small bridge, Rio de Tirado.
12.0 Reaches San Luis, entering town in main street. The
last 0.7 of a mile of this road is a well-repaired mac-
adam road. Country throughout entire length of road
generally low, flat, and, except where otherwise men-
tioned, in places swampy. Sparsely settled on west side;




PROVINCE OF PINAB DEL RIO.


east side practically without settlements, being sandy MUesfro Pinar
and uncultivated; covered with growth of scrub pines
and palms. Swampy, dotted with lagoons of varying
sizes.
Leave San Luis, going south.
Tienda on left. At this point the road reaches the 13.0
river and joins the San Luis-Salinas road south of the
crossing of the Rio Corojo.
The west branch road, after crossing the river, follows 13.2
the river bank closely for about 2 miles.
Road divides, west branch crossing the river and the 17.0
east branch running north to the Pinar del Rio-San
Luis road.
Rio Feo. Settlement of Tirado ends here. 18.0
Cross Arroyo Hicaco. 21.0
Enter Llanada Palizadas. 22.5


ROAD No. 31.

ARTEMISA-CANAS-PLAYAS DE GUANIMAR.
General direction: SE. Distance: 10 miles.
NOTE.-During 1908 metaled roads were constructed connecting Artemisa with
Capellanias and Alquizar in Habana Province.
IN GENERAL.

1. Artemisa to Canas.-A very rough rock road lined with stone
fences, passable for bull carts only. Loaded wagons could not pass
over it owing to rocks and the deep channels worn into the bed rock
by bull carts.
From Cafas a road runs due east 1.2 miles north of the railroad
to finca Teresa and ends. There are two roads from Cafias to Alqui-
zar, one north of the railroad and one south. The road north runs
from Cafas northeast 2.5 miles to finca Nueva. From there road
continues northeast 1 mile, where dirt cart road branches north about
2 miles to Ceiba del Agua. From this point road continues south-
east about 3 miles to Alquizar. Just before reaching finca Nueva
a road branches south to Dagame 1 mile distant, and about 0.2
mile north of Dagame there is a road branching east from this road
that continues east for about 2 miles, where it connects with the
road running to Alquizar from finca Nueva, about 1.5 miles from
Alquizar. The road south from Canas to Alquizar runs directly
south for 1 mile, then southeast for 1.2 miles to finca Isabela, where
8120-10--7




98 BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.

a road runs north connecting with the north road Kfrom Caflas. Main
road continues southeast for 0.2 mile, where road branches off to
the south coast road. Main road to Alquizar runs east from there
for 1 mile, where road runs north to Dagame (1 mile distant), and
from there 0.7 mile east to where a road branches, one continues
east. The main road runs north for 0.5 mile, then northeast for
0.7 mile, crosses the railroad track at the fifty-seventh kilometer
post, and 1 mile beyond joins the north road from finca Nueva 1.5
miles from Alquizar. These roads are all passable for bull carts,
but impracticable for loaded wagons on account of roughness.
During rainy season they would be very slippery.
2. Caflas to Guanimas.-It is an old road, very rocky, lined by
stone fences, practicable for bull carts during the dry season only.
The space fenced off for a road is wide enough for three bull carts
to pass, but there is only one well-used track, which is worn con-
siderably below the surface of the remainder of the ground, with
rock projecting as high as 2 feet above the road in places.

IN DETAIL.
Miles from Road runs southeast from Artemisa in continuation of
Artemisa.
calle Repdblica.
0.5 Crosses the Western Railway. Continues southeast.
0.7 Road turns east. At this point a dirt road branches
southwest, parallels the calzada 0.7 mile south of it and
continues about 2 miles to finca San Francisco and ends.
This road is connected with the calzada southwest of
Artemisa in two places by dirt roads about 0.7 mile
apart.
1.5 A road branches to the southeast. Continues about
4 miles to finca Maravillaon the south coast road, passing
through fincas Gabriela, Santa Ana, Montoto, Tuscano,
San Le6n, and Neptuno. Returning to the Artemisa-
Cafas road at the point where the above-mentioned road
branches to the southwest, another road branches south-
east for 1.5 miles, then east 0.5 mile to finca Waterloo,
south from there 2 miles to finca Calipso. At this point
road branches, one branch running southwest 1 mile and
connecting with the first branch road from Artemisa at
a point 0.7 mile northwest of finca Maravilla; the other
branch runs east 0.25 mile and connects with road coming
down from the Artemisa-Canas road. Road continues
east
1.7 Finca Merced and Trisan. A dirt cart road branches
to the south 1.2 miles to finca Waterloo. Road con-
tinues east





PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Another road branches south 2.5 miles to finca Sim- Mi"e from
patia, from there south 0.5 mile to finca Frontil and south 2.5
from there 1.5 miles where it connects with the south
coast road about 1 mile east of finca Maravilla. Half a
mile north on the road just described another road comes
in from the northeast from finca Frias, connecting there
with the Cafias-south coast road.
Cafas. The road turns south. 3.0
Fincas Rolando and La Rosa. Road continues south. 3.7
Road turns southeast. 4.2
Finca Isabela, where a cart road comes down from the 5.7
north from the Cafas-Alquizar road 0.7 mile east of
Cafas. Road continues southeast.
A road branches to the northeast (this branch road 6.1
continues on to Alquizar with branches running off in
several places, connecting with the Alquizar-Cafas road
on the north and the south coast road). Road turns
more to the south.
A road branches east which, about 0.7 mile beyond, 6.6
turns northeast to Alquizar. This road is also connected
in several places with the roads north and south.
Finca Frias, where a branch road runs southwest 3 6.7
miles to finca Neptuno. Road continues south.
Finca Soledad. Road runs south past finca Mariana. 8.5
Connects with the south coast road 2.2 miles west of 10.0
where the road runs south to Playas de Guanimar.


ROAD No. 32.
LAs CAOBILLAS-PALIZADAS-PINAR DEL RIO-PASO VIEJO-
JAGUA-CONSOLACI6N DEL SUR-LAJAS--SAN DIEGO DE LOS
BAFOs.
General direction: N. to Pinar del Rio, and NE. from there to San Diego de los Banos.
Distance: 46.7 miles.
IN GENERAL.
1. From Las Caobillas to Pinar del Rio is a dirt road to within 3
miles of Pinar del Rio, when it becomes a calzada. This dirt road.
near the coast, is low and sandy, and good in the dry season.
2. Pinar del Rio to Consolaci6n del Sur.-Good, broad dirt road,
fairly level, and practicable for escort wagons, full loads, in the dry
season. The level stretches (to Consolaci6n), which are pretty evenly
distributed, are covered with from 2 to 4 inches of dry, light sand,
making the travel heavy for about half the distance. The wooden
bridges, with the exception of the first one, are impracticable, and




BOAD NOTES OF CUBA, 1909.


most of the river crossings require one. or two extra teams on account
of the steep approaches on both sides.
3. Consolaci6n del Sur to San Diego de los Bafios.-From Consola-
ci6n del Sur to Lajas the road lies entirely south of the mountains, and
in the dry season could be used for ox carts, though on account of the
unimproved condition of the road it would be practically impossible
to use wagons on it at any time. After leaving Lajas, the trail
becomes very narrow and steep in places, rendering its use by any-
thing but pack animals an impossibility. All streams are bridged,
and this trail could be traversed at any season by pack trains.

IN DETAIL.

M'es roLa Las Caobillas (Caobillas de la Llanada).-From this
place a coast road runs northeast to Coloma and a trail
runs south through swamp to Ensenada de GuamA. Take
a road north.
2.0 Palazadas.
5.0 Tienda on the right. The settlement surrounding this
point is called La Llanada.
10.0 Road runs northwest and then north.
12.5 Enters Pinar del Rio-Coloma road near kilometer 6.
Macadam road to Pinar del Rio.
16.2 Pinar del Rio. Leave Pinar del Rio by road running
northeast from calle Velez Caviedes. Ice plant on right
of road and on right bank of Rio San Felipe. River
about 25 feet wide, crossed by wooden bridge, 5 by 75
yards, in good condition. Tienda El Puente on right
just across the bridge. Tienda La Defensa on the right.
Road to Ovas.
16.8 Road on left to Vifiales and San Jos6. Small tienda
on left and right.
12.1 Rivulet, 3 feet wide.
12.3 Large tienda, La Aguadita, on the right.
12.9 House on the right at top of gentle hill.
19.6 Paso Viejo. One large stone house on the right of the
road.
19.7 Rio Paso Viejo (Rio San Felipe); 20 feet wide and
about 3 feet deep. Wooden bridge 5 by 75 yards. In
too bad condition to be used. The crossing here is very
bad, requiring from 6 to 8 mules to handle a load. Banks
on both sides steep and muddy. Practicable to water
half a troop at a time.
19.9 Tienda on the left at top of hill.
21.4 Small tienda on the left.


100




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