• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Official register
 Diplomatic and consular servic...
 Argentine republic
 Bolivia
 United States of Brazil
 Chile
 Colombia
 Costa Rica
 Equador
 Guatemala
 Haiti
 The Hawaiian Islands
 Honduras
 Mexico
 Nicaragua
 Paraguay
 Peru
 Salvador
 Santo Domingo
 The United States
 Uruguay
 Venezuela
 British colonies
 Danish colonies
 Dutch colonies
 French colonies
 Spanish colonies
 Reciprocal commercial arrangements...
 Increase of exports from the United...
 Commercial
 World's Columbian exposition
 Coinage, weights, and measures
 Trade-mark laws of America
 Patent laws of America
 Travelers' guide
 Steamship lines
 Cable rates
 Postal guide
 Index






Group Title: Bulletin - Handbook of the American republics - no. 50. January, 1896
Title: Handbook of the American republics
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074004/00001
 Material Information
Title: Handbook of the American republics
Series Title: Its Buletin, no. 50. January, 1896
Physical Description: 604 p. : front., plates, plans. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Bureau of the American Republics
Publisher: Govt. print. off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1893]
Edition: [no. 3] 1893.
 Subjects
Subject: Diplomatic and consular service, American -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Latin America   ( lcsh )
Registers -- Latin America   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000587813
oclc - 22866627
notis - ADB6527

Table of Contents
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    List of Illustrations
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Official register
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Diplomatic and consular service
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Argentine republic
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 40a
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Bolivia
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    United States of Brazil
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 70a
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Chile
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 88a
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Colombia
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 100a
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
    Costa Rica
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Equador
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 130a
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Guatemala
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Haiti
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    The Hawaiian Islands
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Honduras
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
    Mexico
        Page 164
        Page 164a
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 172a
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
    Nicaragua
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Paraguay
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Peru
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 202a
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 208a
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Salvador
        Page 216
        Page 216a
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    Santo Domingo
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
    The United States
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    Uruguay
        Page 244
        Page 244a
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
    Venezuela
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 262a
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
    British colonies
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 280a
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 300a
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
    Danish colonies
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
    Dutch colonies
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
    French colonies
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
    Spanish colonies
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 336a
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 340a
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
    Reciprocal commercial arrangements of the United States
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 428a
    Increase of exports from the United States to Latin America from 1885 to 1891
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 446a
        Page 447
    Commercial
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 458a
    World's Columbian exposition
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 466a
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 472a
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
    Coinage, weights, and measures
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 483
        Page 484
        Page 485
        Page 486
    Trade-mark laws of America
        Page 487
        Page 488
        Page 489
        Page 490
        Page 491
        Page 492
        Page 493
        Page 494
        Page 495
        Page 496
        Page 497
        Page 498
        Page 499
        Page 500
        Page 501
        Page 502
        Page 503
        Page 504
    Patent laws of America
        Page 505
        Page 506
        Page 507
        Page 508
        Page 509
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
        Page 513
        Page 514
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
        Page 533
        Page 534
        Page 535
        Page 536
        Page 537
        Page 538
        Page 539
        Page 540
        Page 541
        Page 542
        Page 543
        Page 544
        Page 545
        Page 546
        Page 547
        Page 548
        Page 548a
    Travelers' guide
        Page 549
        Page 550
        Page 551
        Page 552
        Page 553
        Page 554
        Page 555
        Page 556
        Page 557
    Steamship lines
        Page 558
        Page 559
        Page 560
        Page 561
        Page 562
        Page 563
        Page 564
        Page 565
        Page 566
        Page 567
        Page 568
        Page 568a
        Page 568b
    Cable rates
        Page 569
        Page 570
        Page 571
    Postal guide
        Page 572
        Page 573
        Page 574
        Page 575
        Page 576
        Page 577
        Page 578
        Page 579
        Page 580
        Page 581
        Page 582
        Page 583
        Page 584
        Page 585
        Page 586
        Page 587
        Page 588
        Page 589
        Page 590
        Page 591
        Page 592
    Index
        Page 593
        Page 594
        Page 595
        Page 596
        Page 597
        Page 598
        Page 599
        Page 600
        Page 601
        Page 602
        Page 603
        Page 604
Full Text






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1893.


BURaAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS,
Washington City, U. S. A.


Bulletin No. 50. January, 1893.
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LATIN
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BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS,
NO. 2 LAFAYETTE SQUARE, WASHINGTON, D. C., U. 8. A.



Director.-WILLIAM E. CURTIS.
Secretary.-HENRY L. BRYAN.
Translators.-Portuguese, JOHN C. REDMAN.
Spanish, Jost I. RODRIGUEZ.
Clerk.-JOHN T. SUTER, Jr.
Stenographers.-IMOGEN A. HANNA.
LUCRETIA JACKSON.
Distributing Clerk.-HENRIETTA P. DUNN.
Librarian.-TILLIE L. PHILLIPS.
Copyist.-ROSABELLE S. RIDER.



While the greatest possible care is taken to insure accuracy in the publications of the Bureau of the
American Republics, it will assume no pecuniary responsibility on account of inaccuracies that may
occur therein.
2


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LIST OF PUBLISHED BULLETINS.


I. Hand Book of the American Repub-
lics, No. i.
2. Hand Book of the American Repub-
lics, No. 2.
7. Hand Book of Brazil.
9. Hand Book of Mexico.
31. Hand Book of Costa Rica.
32. Hand Book of Guatemala.
33. Hand Book of Colombia.
34. Hand Book of Venezuela.
5. Import Duties of Mexico.
8. Import Duties of Brazil.
Io. Import Duties of Cuba and Puerto
Rico.
ii. Import Duties of Costa Rica.
12. Import Duties of Santo Domingo.
20. Import Duties of Nicaragua.
21. Import Duties of Mexico (revised).
22. Import Duties of Bolivia.
23. Import Duties of Salvador.
24. Import Duties of Honduras.
25. Import'Duties of Ecuador.
27. Import Duties of Colombia.
36. Import Duties of Venezuela.
37. Import Duties of the British Colonies.
43. Import Duties of Guatemala.
44. Import Duties of the United States.
45. Import Duties of.Peru.
46. Import Duties of Chile.
13. Commercial Directory of Brazil.
14. Commercial Directory of Venezuela.


15. Commercial Directory of Colombia.
16. Commercial Directory of Peru.
17. Commercial Directory of Chile.
18. Commercial Directory of Mexico.
19. Commercial Directory of Bolivia,
Ecuador, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
26. Commercial Directory of Argentine
Republic.
28. Commercial Directory of Central
America.
29. Commercial Directory of Haiti and
Santo Domingo.
38. Commercial Directory of Cuba and
Puerto Rico.
39. Commercial Directory of European
Colonies.
42. Newspaper Directory of Latin Amer-
ica.
3. Patent and Trade-Mark laws of Amer-
ica.
4. Money, Weights, and Measures of the
American Republics.
6. Foreign Commerce of the American
Republics.
30. First Annual Report, 1891,
35. Breadstuffs in Latin America.
40. Mines and Mining Laws of Latin
America.
41. Commercial Information Concerning
the American Republics and Col-
onies.


5// 73


I
















CONTENTS.

Page.
Bureau of the American Republics ........................................ 7
Official register..................... ....................................... 9
Diplomatic and consular service .................. ...................... 14
Argentine Republic....................................................... 33
Bolivia .......................................................... .... .... 53
United States of Brazil................... ................... .............. 62
Chile................ ....... ....... ..................... ....... ......... 81
Colombia .................................. ........................... 96
Costa Rica ........................................................... 113
Ecuador........... ..................................................... 126
Guatemala ................... ....................................... 136
Haiti...................................................... ......... 143
Hawaiian Islands .................................... .................... 148
H onduras ........ ................................. ... ... ...... 57
Mexico ................................................................. 64
Nicaragua ................................................................ 183
Paraguay .......................................... ........................ 9go
Peru ...................................................................... 200
Salvador................................ ..................... ................ 216
Santo Domingo .................... ................... .................... 222
United States .................. ........................................ 227
Uruguay........................................... ...................... 242
Venezuela .............................................................. 259
British colonies .......................................................... 274
Danish colonies ........................................................... 316
Dutch colonies........................ ..... ......... ................ 320
French colonies......................................................... 326
Spanish colonies ................................. ............................. 334
Reciprocal commercial arrangements with the United States .................. 352
Exports from the United States to Latin America 1885, i89 .................. 429
Commercial statistics.................................................... 448
World's Columbian Exposition............................................ 459
Coinage, weights, and measures ............................................. 479
Trade-mark laws of America ............................................. 487
Patent laws of America.................................................. 505
Traveler's guide........................................................ 549
Steamship lines .......................................................... 558
Cable rates............................................................... 569
Postal guide .......................................................... 572
t' S















MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page.
Map of South America.................................... ....... Frontispiece.
Buena Vista, Palerino Park, Buenos Aires ................................. 35
Gold-mining in Tierra del Fuego .............. ............... ........... 41
Mint, Potosi, Bolivia ............... .. .. ................................. 5 55
Native bridge, Bolivia ................ .... ............ ... ....... 59
Manaos, capital of Amazonas, Brazil ....................... ... ........ 65
Nictheroy, bay of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ................ ... ........... 71
Ancient bridge, Santiago, Chile ..................... ................... 83
Island of San Juan Fernandez ...................... ..................... 89
Capitol, Bogota, Colombia............ .............. ..... .............. 101
Loading bananas, Central America.................. .................... 117
Custom-house and wharf, Guayaquil, Ecuador ................. ............ 131
Cathedral at Guatemala City......... .................................. 139
Cape Haitien ...................... ...................... ........... 145
Patio of President's palace, Tegucigalpa, Honduras .......................... 159
Mexico City .............. ................. ....................... 165
M exican warehouse ........... ....................................... 173
Government palace, Managua, Nicaragua ................................. 187
City of Asuncion, Paraguay ......... .......................... 193
Dictator's palace, Paraguay............ ................ .. ................ 193
Scenes in the Andes .......................... .. ............... 2 203
Palace of the Incas, Lake Titicaca ........................................ 209
Map of Central America ............... .. .......... ....... ........ .. .... 7 217
Capitol, Washington City, U. S. A ................................. ........ 227
University, Montevideo, Uruguay ..................... .. .............. 245
Capitol, Caracas, Venezuela ......................... .. .............. 263
Windmill, Barbados ................ ........ ... ..... .................. 281
Pitch Lake, Trinidad ....................... .... ........... ............. 301
Sugar-boiling, Cuba .................... ............ ................... 337
Life-saving station, Puerto Rico .............................. .............. 341
Bird's-eye view of Nicaragua Canal............................................. 429
Dredges, Nicaragua Canal ............... ... ............................. 447
Site of World's Columbian Exposition ...................................... 459
Fisheries Building, World's Columbian Exposition ........................... 467
Gallery of Fine Arts, World's Columbian Exposition ......................... 467
Convent of La Rabida .......................................... .. .. ... 473
Agricultural Building, World's Columbian Exposition ............ ......... 473
Chart of steamship lines ................................................... 549
Chart of cable communication ............................................. 569
6












Bureau of the American Republics.


The International American Conference, in session at Wash-
ington from October 2, 1889, to April 19, 1890, at which all of
the independent nations of North, Central, and South America,
and the Republic of Haiti were represented, recommended the
establishment of an association under the title of "The Interna-
tional Union of American Republics for the Prompt Collection
and Distribution of Commercial Information," to be represented
at Washington, under the supervision of the Secretary of State,
by a Bureau of the American Republics.
It was recommended that this Bureau should publish from time
to time bulletins, in an attractive form, which should contain in-
formation that may be useful to producers, merchants, and manu-
facturers, and others interested in the development of commerce
between the countries of the Western Hemisphere, including
customs tariffs, official circulars, international treaties and conven-
tions, local regulations, and, so far as practicable, statistics regarding
the resources, products, and commerce of those countries.
It was considered proper, also, that the Bureau should at all
times be available as a medium of communication for persons
desiring reasonable information in regard to the customs tariffs
and regulations, and the commerce and navigation of the Ameri-
can Republics. While it may be expected that the utmost care
will be taken to secure accuracy in the publications of, and the
information furnished by, the Bureau, the International Union
will assume no pecuniary responsibility on account of inaccuracies
which may accidentally occur.







8 BUREAU OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS.
It was recommended by the Conference that the Government
of the United States should advance the funds necessary to pay
the expenses of the Bureau, and that the other Republics which
thought proper to enter the association should, at the close of each
fiscal year, be assessed for their share of the same in proportion to
their population. In accordance with this recommendation the
Congress of the United States authorized the establishment of the
Bureau of American Republics and has made appropriations to
sustain it.
The director of the Bureau will appreciate any suggestions that
may be offered for increasing the value of the bulletins and their
usefulness in fulfilling the purpose for which they are intended.
All figures relating to the commerce of the United States are
taken from the reports of the Bureau of Statistics of the Treasury
Department, or kindly furnished by that office for this publication.





















Official Register.





EXECUTIVES OF THE AMERICAN NATIONS.


Countries. Capitals.


Argentine.......
Bolivia ........

Brazil ..........
Chile...........
Colombia .......
Costa Rica......


Ecuador .......

Guatemala .....

H aiti ..... ....

Hawaii .........
Honduras ......
Mexico .........
Nicaragua......
Paraguay .......
Peru............

Salvador ........
Santo Domingo..

United States....

Uruguay .......

Venezuela ......


Buenos Ayres...
La Paz..........

Rio de Janeiro...
Santiago.........
Bogot ..........
San Jos6........


Quito......... ..

Guatemala ......

Port au Prince...

Honolulu........
Tegucigalpa......
Mexico .........
Managua ........
Asuncion........
Lima............

San Salvador.....
San Domingo....

Washington .....

Montevideo .....

Caracas .........


Executives. Vice-Presidents.

Luis Saenz Pefia.......... Jos6 E. Uriburu.


Mariano Baptista..........

Floriano Peixoto*. .......
Jorge Montt............
Rafael Nufez, Aug. 7,1884.
Jos6 J. Rodriguez, May I,
189o.

Antonio Flores, June 30,
1888.
Jose Ma. Reyna Barrios...

L. M. F. Hyppolyte,Oct. 17,
1889.
Liliuokalani ............
Ponciano Leeiva.........
Porfirio Diaz, Dec. I, 1884..
Roberto Sacasa, Aug. 1889.
Juan G. Gonzalez........
Gen. Remijo Morales Ber-
mudez.
Carlos Ezeta, June, x89o...
Gen. Ulysses Heureaux,
Sept. I, 1886.
Benjamin Harrison. Mar. 4,
1889.
Julio Herrera y Obes, May
1, 189o.
Gen. Joaquin Crespot.....


Severo Fernandez
Alonzo.


Carlos Holguin.
Panfilo Valverde.
Carlos Duran,
Joaquin Lizano.
P. Herrera.

Prospero Morales,
Arturo Ubico.







P. A. del Solar.

Antonio Ezeta.


Levi P. Morton.

Miguel Herrera y
Obes.


*Succeeded to Presidency upon resignation of President. No successor as Vice-President elected.
tThe successor to the President in Venezuela is the first member of the federal council.







10 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS.

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLICS.


Offices.


Argentine Republ






Bolivia..........


.0


Names.


ic. President ....................
Minister of Foreign Relations...
Minister of Finance...........
Minister of Public Instruction,
Justice, and Worship.
Minister of War and Navy.....
Minister of the Interior .......
... President.....................
Minister of Foreign Relations
and Worship.
Minister of Finance and Indus-
tries.
Minister of War..............
Minister of the Interior ........
Minister of Justice and Public
Instruction.
.. President ....................
Minister of Foreign Relations..
Minister of Finance...........
Minister of War..............
Minister of the Interior, Public
Instruction, Posts, and Tele-
graphs.
Minister of Justice ............
Minister of Navy... .. .......
Minister of Agriculture, Com-
merce, and Public Works.
President ...................
SMinister of the Interior .......
Minister of Foreign Relations,
Worship, and Colonization.
Minister of Public Instruction
and Justice.
Minister of Finance............
Minister of War and Navy.....
Minister of Industries .........
. President....................
Vice-Presideni.............
Minister of Foreign Relations .
Minister of Finance...........
Minister of Public Instruction..
Minister of War..............
Ministerof the Interior........
Minister of Justice............
Minister of Treasury..........
Minister of Public Works......
President ....................
Minister of Foreign Relations,
Public Instruction, Justice,
Worship, and Charities.
Minister of Finance and Com-
merce.
Minister of War and Navy.....
Minister of the Interior ........


Countries.


Luis Saenz Pefra.
TomAs S. de Anchorena.
Juan J. Romero.
Calixto de la Torre.

Benjamin Victorica.
Manuel Quitana.
Dr. Mariano Baptista.
Severo Fernandez Alonzo,ad
interim.
Eduardo Guerra.

Dr. Severo Fernandez Alonzo.
Luiz Paz.
Emeterio Tovar.

Floriano Peixoto.
Victorino Monteiro.
Innocencio SerzedelloCorrea.
Gen. Francisco A. de Moura.
Fernando Lobo, Leite Pereira.



Custodio Jos6 de Mello.


Jorge Montt.
Ramon Barros Luco.
Ysidoro Errazuriz.

Maximo del Campo.

Enrique Mac Yver,
Francisco A. Pinto.
Vincente Davila Larrain.
Rafael Nufez.
Carlos Holguin.
Antonio Roldan.
Jos6 Manuel Goenaga.
Jos6 I. Trujillo.
Olegario Rivera.
Antonio Roldan, ad interim.
Luis A. Meza.
Primitivo Crespo.
Marcelino Arango.
Jos6 J. Rodriguez.
Manuel V. Jimenez.


PAnfilo Valverde.

Rafael Inglesias.
Jos6 Margas M.


Brazil............









Chile ..........







Colombia.......








Costa Rica.......









EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 11

Executive Departments of the American Republics-Continued.


Countries.

Ecuador...........





Guatemala.........





H aiti..............







Honduras ..........




Mexico.............










Nicaragua ..........





Paraguay............


Offices. Names.

President......... ..........Antonio Flores.
Minister of Foreign Relations Francisco J. Salazar.
and Interior.
Minister of Finance ........... Gabriel Jesus Nuinez.
Minister of Public Instruction Elias Laso.
Worship, and Public Works?
Minister of War and Navy..... Gen. Julio Saenz.
President..................... Jose Ma Reyna Barrios.
Minister of Foreign Relations.. Ramon A. Salazar.
Minister of the Interior and ILicenciado Manuel Estrada
Justice. Cabrera.
Minister of War and Promotion. Prospero Morales.
Minister of Finance ........... Salvador Herrera.
Minister of Public Instruction.. Licenciado M. Cabral.
President............. ...... L. M. F. Hyppolite.
Minister of Foreign Relations Edmond Lespinasse.
and Justice.
Minister of Public Instruction.. Macdonal Apollon.
Minister of War and Navy ..... Gen. T. Gilles.
Ministerof the Interiorand Police Saint Martin Dupuy.
Minister of Public Works...... Fabius Ducasse.
Minister of Finance and Com- Frederic Marcelin.
merce.
President..................... Ponciano Leiva.
Minister of Foreign Relations.. Jer6nimo Zelaya.
Minister of Finance .......... Prospero Vidarrueta.
Minister of War............... Gen. Carlos Alvarado.
Minister of the Interior ........ Jesus Bendafla.
President .................... Gen. Porfirio Diaz.
Secretary of Foreign Relations Ignacio Mariscal.
Secretary of Finance and Public Matias Romero.
Credit.
Secretary of War and Navy .... Gen. Pedro Hinojosa.
Secretary of the Interior........ Manuel Romero Rubio.
Secretary of Justice and Public Joaquin Baranda.
Instruction.
Secretary of Commerce and Manuel Gonzales Cosio.
Public Works.
Secretary of Promotion, Indus- Manuel Fernandez Leal.
tries and Commerce.
President .................... Roberto Sacasa.
Minister of Foreign Relations.. Jorge Bravo.
Minister of Finance and Public Federico Marenco.
Credit.
Minister of the Interior ........ Escolastico Rizo.
Minister of War............... Escolastico Rizo.
Minister of Public Works...... Francisco J. Medina.
President .................... Juan G. Gonzalez.
Minister of Foreign Relations. Venancio V. Lopez.
Minister of Finance ........... Jose S. Decoud.
Minister of Public Instruction.. Benjamin Aceval.
Minister of War... ........... Col. Egusquiza.
Minister of the Interior........ Jose T. Sosa.
Minister of Justice ............ Benjamin Aceval.








12 EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS OF AMERICAN REPUBLICS.


Executive Departments of the American Republics-Continued.


Countries.

Peru ...............





Salvador...........






Santo Domingo .....






United States ......








Uruguay ..........





Venezuela.........


Offices.


President........... ....... ..
Minister of Foreign Relations..
Minister of Finance ..........
Minister of War and Navy.....
Minister of the Interior........
Minister of Justice ..........
President .....................
Minister of Foreign Relations,
Worship, and Justice.
Minister of Finance, War, and
Navy.
Minister of Public Instruction
and Public Works.
Minister of the Interior ........
President.....................
Minister of Foreign Relations..
Minister of Finance ..........
Minister of Public Instruction
and Justice.
Minister of War...............
Minister of the Interior........
Minister of Public Works......
President ....................
Vice-President................
Secretary of State.............
Secretary of the Treasury .....
Secretary of War..............
Secretary of the Navy.........
Secretary of the Interior ......
Secretary of Agriculture......
Postmaster-General ............
Attorney-General.............
President.....................
Minister of Foreign Relations..
Minster of Finance............
Minister of Public Instruction
and Justice.
Minister of War and Navy.....
Minister of the Interior.......
President ...................
Minister of Foreign Relations..
Minister of Finance.........
Minister of Public Instruction.
Minister of War and Navy ....
Minister of Foreign Relations
and Justice.
Minister of Progress...........
Minister of Public Works......
Minister of Post-Offices and
Telegraphs.


Names.


Remigio Morales Bermudez.
Engenio Larrabure y Unanic.
Rafael Quiroz.
Bruno Morales Bermudez
Carlos M. Elias del Consejo.
Ismael Puirredon.
Gen. Carlos Ezeta.
Salvador Gallegos.

Daniel Angulo.

Esteban Castro.

Domingo Jiminez.
Ulysses Heureaux.
Ygnacio Maria Gonzalez.
Juan Francisco Sanchez.
Tomas D. Morales.

Evaristo Demorisi.
Wenceslao Figueredo..
Te6filo Cordero.
Benjamin Harrison.
Levi P. Morton.
John W. Foster.
Charles Foster.
Stephen B. Elkins.
B. F. Tracy.
John W. Noble.
J. M. Rusk.
John Wannamaker.
William H. H. Miller.
Julio Herrera y Obes.
M. Herrera y Espinosa.
Carlos M. Ramirez.
J. A. Capurro.

Louis Eduardo Perez.
Francisco Bauza.
Gen. Joaquin Crespo.
Pedro Exequiel Rojas.
Juan Pietri.
Gen. M. A. Silva Gandolphi.
Gen.Manuel GuzmanAlvarez.
Gen. Leon Colina.

Gen. Victor Rodriguez.
J. Mufoz Tebar.
Leopoldo Baptista.








COLONIES, PROTECTORATES, AND DEPENDENCIES.


COLONIES, PROTECTORATES, AND DEPENDENCIES.

UNDER THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT.

Bahamas.-Capital, Nassau. Governor, Sir Ambrose Shea.
Barbados.-Capital, Bridgeton. Governor, Sir J. S. Hay.
Bermudas.-Capital, Hamilton. Governor, Lieut. Gen. E. Newdigate-Newdegate.
Canada.-Capital, Ottawa. Governor-general, the Right Honorable Frederick Arthur
Stanley, Baron Stanley of Preston.
Guiana, British.-Capital, Georgetown. Governor, Right Honorable Viscount Gor-
manston.
Honduras, British.-Capital, Belize. Governor, Sir C. Alfred Moloney.
Jamaica.-Capital, Kingston. Governor, Sir Henry Arthur Blake.
Leeward Islands.-Capital, St. John, at Antigua. Governor and commander-in-chief,
Sir William Frederick Haynes-Smith.
Newfoundland and Labrador.-Capital, St. John's. Governor, Sir J. Terence N.
O'Brien,
Trinidad.-Capital, Trinidad. Governor, Sir F. Napier Broome.
Windward Islands.-Capital, St. Georges, in Grenada. Governor and commissioner-
in-chief, Sir W. F. Hely-Hutchinson.
FalklandIslands.-Capital, Stanley. Governor, Sir Roger Tackfield Goldsworthy.

UNDER THE FRENCH GOVERNMENT.

Guadeloupe.-Capital, Pointe-A-Pitre. Governor, Le Boucher.
Guiana.-Capital, Cayenne. Governor, Louis Albert Grodet (ad interim).
Martinique.-Capital, Fort de France. Governor, C. Casse.
St. Pierre and Miquelon.-Capital, St. Pierre. Governor, D. Morrachini.

UNDER THE NETHERLANDS GOVERNMENT.

Curafao.-Capital, Willemstad. Governor, C. A. H. Barge.
Surinam, or Dutch Guiana.-Capital, Paramaribo. Governor, M. A. de Savornin
Lohman.
UNDER THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT.

Cuba.-Capital, Havana. Governor-General, Exmo. Sr. Don Camilo Polavieja.
Puerto Rico.-Capital, San Juan. Governor, Exmo. Sr. Don Jose lasso y Perez.

UNDER THE DANISH GOVERNMENT.

St. Croix.-Capital, Christianstadt. Governor, C. H. Arendrup.
St. Thomas and St. John.-Capital, Charlotte Amelia. Governor, C. H. Arendrup.


















Diplomatic and Consular Service.


DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPRESENTATIVES OF THE UNITED
STATES IN MEXICO, CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, AND THE
WEST INDIES.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

John R. G. Pitkin, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.. Buenos Ayres.
George W. Fishback, Secretary of Legation ....................... Buenos Ayres.

Consuls.

Bahia Blanca .............. Walter T. Jones .......... Agent.*
Buenos Ayres ............. Edward L. Baker ......... Consul.
Do .................. Edward L. Baker, jr ...... Vice-consul.
C6rdoba ............... ...... .. ............... Consul.
Do ................... John M. Thome........... Vice-consul.
Rosario ................. Willis E. Baker........... Consul.
Do .................. Augustus M. Barnes ...... Vice-consul.

BOLIVIA.

Thomas H. Anderson, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.... La Paz.

BRAZIL.

Edwin H. Conger, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.. Rio de Janeiro.
Charles F. Markell, Secretary of Legation ...................... Rio de Janeiro.

Consuls.

Bahia ................... William O. Thomas....... Consul.
Do .................. S. S. Schindler ............ Vice-consul.
Aracaj .................. Luis Schmidt............ Acting agent.

NOTE.-The title agent" means consular agent" in each case except when other-
wise stated.
14









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.

Par.. .................... James M. Ayres ........ Consul.
Do .................. F. B. da S. Aguiar........ Vice-consul.


M anios ......... .........
Maranhao ................
Pernambuco .............
D o ................ ..
Cear. ...................
M acei6 ...................
N atal ................ ....
Rio Grande do Sul.........
D o ...................
Porto Alegre ..............
Rio de Janeiro ............
D o ...................
V ictoria...................
Santos ...................
Desterro ..................


James Baird.............. Agent.
L. F. da S. Santos ......... Agent.
Edwin Stevens .......... Consul.
Arthur B. Dallas ......... Vice-consul.
William H. Murdock...... Agent.
Charles Goble ............ Acting agent
Lyle Nelson .............. Agent.
Charles Negley........... Consul.
W A. Preller ............. Vice-consul.
A. H. Edwards ........... Agent.
Oliver H. Dockery........ Consul-general.
Claudius Dockery ........ Deputy consul-general.
Jean Zinzen .............. Agent.
Edwin A. Berry........... Consul.
Robert Grant ............ Agent.


BRITISH COLONIES.

BERMUDA.

Hamilton ................ William K. Sullivan ...... Consul.
Do ................. James B. Heyl............ Vice and deputy consul.
St. George's ..................................... ... Commercial agent.
Do ................. William D. Fox .......... Vice-commercial agent.

WEST INDIES.


Antigua..... .............
D o ...................
Anguila...................
Dom inica .................
M ontserrat ... ............
N evis .....................
Portsmouth ...............
Barbados .................
D o ...................
St. Lucia..................
St. Vincent................
St. Christopher ............
D o ...................
Trinidad ..................
D o ...................


Richard Herbst........... Consul.
Samuel Galbraith ......... Vice-consul.
Wager Rey............... Agent.
William Stedman ........ Agent.
Richard Hannam ........ Agent.
Charles H. Simmonds..... Agent.
Alex. Riviere....... ..... Agent.
Edward A. Dimmick...... Consul.
James C. Lynch .......... Vice-consul.
William Peter ........... Agent.
W. J. Shearman........... Agent.
Stephen W. Parker....... Commercial agent.
John W. Parker .......... Vice-commercial agent.
William P. Pierce ........ Consul.
James S. Toppin ......... Vice-consul.


Scarborough .............. Edward Keens ..........
Turks Island............. Joseph L. Hance...........
Do .................. Jeremiah D. Murphy......


Agent.
Consul.
Vice and deputy consul.








10 DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.

Cockburn Harbor.......... John W. Tatem ........... Agent.
Salt Cay .................. Daniel F. Harriott ........ Agent.


N assau ...................
D o ...................
Albert Town ..............
Dunmore Town ...........
Governors Harbor .........
Green Turtle Cay..........
Mathewtown ..............



Kingston...................
D o ...................
D o ...................
Falmouth .................
Montego Bay. ...........
Old Harbour..............
Port Antonio .............
Port Maria................
Port Morant...............
Savannah-la-Mar .........
St. Ann's Bay .............


BAHAMA ISLANDS.

Thomas J. McLain, jr .....
Henry R. Saunders, jr .....
Howard H. Farrington ....
Norman E. B. Munro......
Charles A. Bethel..........
Jabez A. Lowe............
Daniel D. Sargent.........

JAMAICA.

Louis A. Dent............
Richard W. Bayley........
S. H. W right.. ...........
Charles A. Nunes.........
G. L. P. Corinaldi..........
D. H. Mendez ...........
George E. Davis ..........
I. I. Lyon ................
Lorenzo D. Baker, jr ......
Ch. S. Farquharson........
R. W. Harris .............


Consul.
Vice-consul.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.



Consul.
Vice-consul.
Deputy consul.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.


HONDURAS (BRITISH).

Belize .................... James Leitch ............ Consul.
Do .................. John E. Mutrie .......... Vice-commercial agent.

GUIANA (BRITISH).

Demerara ................ Philip Carroll ........... Consul.
Do .................. James Thomson.......... Vice-consul.


CHILE.

Patrick Egan, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.......... Santiago.
Fenton R. McCreery, Secretary of Legation............................. Santiago.

Consuls.


Coquimbo................ William C. Tripler........
Do .......................................
Iquique .................. Joseph W. Merriam .......
Do ................. Maximo Rosenstock ......


Consul.
Vice-consul.
Consul.
Vice-consul.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


Talcahuano ............... John F. Van Ingen........ Consul.
Do ................... .......... ............ Vice-consul.
Valparaiso ................ William B. McCreary ..... Consul.
Do .................. August Moller, jr......... Vice-consul.
Caldera ................... John C. Morong ......... Agent.


COLOMBIA.

John T. Abbott, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary .........Bogota.
Jeremiah Coughlin, Secretary of Legation and Consul-General .............Bogota.

Consuls.

Barranquilla ............. Johnson Nickeus......... Consul.
Do ................ Edward H. Ladd.......... Vice-consul.
Rio Hacha ................ T. V. Henriquez.......... Agent.
Santa Marta .............. Manuel J. Mier........... Agent.
Bogot .................... Jeremiah Coughlin ....... Consul-general.
Do ................. William G. Boshell ....... Vice-consul-general.
Bucaramauga ............ Charles Keller............ Agent.
Cfcuta...:................ Christian Andersen Moller. Agent.
Honda ................... Henry Hallam./.......... Agent.
Carthagena .............. Clayton I. Croft .......... Consul.
Do ................. Adolphus Lecompte ...... Vice-consul.
Colon (Aspinwall) ......... William W. Ashby ........ Consul.
Do ................. Tracy Robinson .......... Vice-consul.
Bocas del Toro ............ George Fitzgerald......... Agent.
Medellin ................. ......................... Consul.
Do ................ Lucius Santa Maria ....... Vice-consul.
Panam ................... Thomas Adamson ........ Consul-general.
Do ................. Jos6 G. Duque ........... Vice-consul-general.


COSTA RICA.

Richard C. Shannon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary ............................................... Managua, Nicaragua.

Consuls.

San Jos6 ................ Beckford Mackey......... Consul.
Do ................. Harrison N. Rudd ........ Vice-consul.
Port Limon .............. W. B. Unckles........... Agent.
Puntarenas................ R. H. Gadd .............. Agent.
Bull. 5-- 2









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.

DANISH COLONIES.

WEST INDIES.


St. Thomas .............. Samuel B. Home.........
Do .................. Joseph Ridgeway, jr ......
Fredericksted ............ William F. Moore.........
Santa Croix ............... Joseph L. Taylor .........


Consul.
Vice-consul.
Agent.
Agent.


DUTCH COLONIES.


GUIANA (DUTCH).

Paramaribo................ William Wyndham........ Acting consul.
D o ................... .......................... V ice-consul.

WEST INDIES.


Curaao....................
D o ...................
Buen Ayre ...............
St. Martin ................
D o ...................
St. Eustatius..............


Leonard B. Smith......... Consul.
Jacob Wuister ........... Vice-consul.
Lodewyk C. Boye......... Agent.
D. C. Van Romondt ...... Consul.
Lewis H. Percival ........ Vice-consul.
J. G. C. Every........... Agent.


ECUADOR.


Rowland B. Mahany, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ......Quito.


Guayaquil..................
D o....................
Bahia de Caraquez ........
Esmeraldas................
Manta ....................


William B. Sorsby ........
Martin Reinberg .........
Edward T. Goddard......

Pedro A. Moreira.........


Consul-general.
Vice-consul-general.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.


FRENCH COLONIES.

GUIANA (FRENCH).

Cayenne ................. Leon Wacongne .......... Consul.
Do.................... .......................... Vice-consul.

WEST INDIES.


......... Charles Bartlett....


....... Consul.


Do.................... .......................... Vice-consul.
Martinique ................ Alfred B. Keevil.......... Consul.
Do .................. Henry L. Tifft ........... Vice-consul.
St. Bartholomew .......... R. Burton Dinzey......... Commercial agent.
Do................... J. O. Florandin........... Vice-commercial agent.


Guadeloupe..










DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


GUATEMALA.

Romualdo Pacheco, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary... Guatemala.
Samuel Kimberly, Secretary of Legation and Consul-General ............Guatemala.

Consuls.


Guatemala ................
D o......... ..........
Champerico ...............
Livingston ................
O cos......................
San Jos6 de Guatemala.....


Samuel Kimberly ......... Consul-general.
Edward Shamp ........... Vice-consul.
Florentine Souza.......... Agent.
John T. Anderson......... Agent.
L. F. Cadogan............ Agent.
Robert H. May .......... Agent.


HAITI.


John S. Durham, Minister Resident and Consul-General ............Port-au-Prince.

Consuls.


Cape Haytien..............
D o....................
Gonaives.................
Port de Paix..............
Port-au-Prince ............
Do....................
Do....................
Aux Cayes...............
Jacmel ....................
Jerem ie...................
Miragoane.................
Petit Goave ...............
St. M arc ...................
D o ................. .


Stanislas Goutier.......... Consul.
.......................... Vice-consul.
Etheart Dupuy............ Agent.
Theodore Behrmann....... Agent.
John S. Durham.......... Consul-general.
John B. Terres............ Vice-consul-general.
Alexander Battiste........ Deputy-consul.
Henry E. Roberts......... Agent.
Jean Vital .............. Agent.
L. T. Rouzier............. Agent.
Francis W. Mitchell....... Agent.
F. Merantie............... Agent.
Charles Miot.............. Agent.
Alexander Battiste........ Deputy-consul.


HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

John L. Stevens, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary .......Honolulu.

Consuls.

Honolulu.................. Henry W. Severance...... Consul-general.
Do................... W. Porter Boyd........... Vice anbdeputy consul-
generalb
Hilo .................... Charles Fureaux......... Agent.
Kahului................... August F. Hopke......... Agent.
Mahukona................ Charles L. Wight.......... Agent.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


HONDURAS.

Romualdo Pacheco, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ..Guatemala.
Samuel Kimberly, Secretary of Legation.................................Guatemala.

Consuls.

Ruatan .................. Wm. C. Burchard......... Consul.
Do................... Philip S. Burchard........ Vice-consul.
Bonacca.................. William Bayly ........... Agent.
Utilla .................... Robert Woodville......... Agent.
Tegucigalpa ............. James J. Peterson......... Consul.
Do .................. George Bernhard.......... Vice-consul.
Amapala.................. Theodore Kohncke........ Agent.
Ceiba..................... S. Toca............... .. Agent.
Puerto Cortez............. William E. Seymour....... Agent.
Truxillo.................. Manuel J. Izaguirre....... Agent.
Yuscaran................ .. .. ....................... Agent.

MEXICO.

Thomas Ryan, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.......... Mexico.
Charles A. Dougherty, Secretary of Legation............................. Mexico

Consuls.

Acapulco.................. James F. McCaskey...... Consul.
Do .................. Herman Stoll............. Vice-consul.
San Benito. ................ .......................... Agent.
Tehuantepec and Salina James W. Jeffries......... Agent.
Cruz.
Chihuahua.......................................... Consul.
Do .................. William Heimke.......... Vice-consul.
Durango ................. John S. McCaughan....... Consul.
Do.................... Allan C. McCaughan...... Vice-consul.
Toreon .................... Thomas R. Acres......... Agent.
Ensenada............ ................................. Consul.
Do .................. Anthony Godbe........... Vice-consul.
Guaymas................ .......................... Consul.
Do .................. Charles E. Hale........... Vice-consul.
La Paz .................... James Viosca............. Consul.
Do.................... James Viosca, jr.......... Vice-consul.
Magdalena Bay.- ............................... Agent.
San Jos6 and Cape San Abraham Kurnitzky....... Agent.
Lucas.
Matamoras ................ John B. Richardson....... Consul.
Do.................... John F. Vails............. Vice and deputy consul.
Do.................... John G. Waste............ Deputy-consul.









DIPLOMATIC ATD CONSULAR SERVICE.


Camargo ................ Julian Lacaze............ Agent.
Mier .................... Henry Vizcayo............ Agent.
Santa Cruz Point.......... John G. Waste............ Agent.
Mazatlan ................ Richard Lambert......... Consul.
Do .................. William L. Zuber... ..... Vice-consul.
Merida .................. Edward H. Thompson..... Consul.
Do .................. John M. Gilkey........... Vice and deputy consul.
Campeachy............... Gasper Trueba............ Agent.
Laguna de Terminos....... W. H. Bell............... Agent.
Progreso ................. Anastasio C. M. Azoy..... Agent.
Mexico.................... Richard Guenther......... Consul-general.
Mexico ................. William M. Edgar ....... Vice-consul-general.
Do ................. F. E. Trainer............. Deputy consul-general.
Guanajuato ............... Dwight Furness .......... Agent.
Zacatecas ............... Edmond von Gehren...... Agent.
Nogales ................. Delos H. Smith........... Consul.
Do .................. Josiah E. Stone........... Vice and deputy consul.
Nuevo Laredo ............. Warner P. Sutton......... Consul-general.
Do .................. Charles A. Andrus....... Vice-consul-general.
Do ................. LouisA. Coddington...... Deputy consul-general.
Garita Gonzales ........... Charles A. Andrus........ Agent.
Monterey .................. Ellsworth J. Wiggins...... Agent.
Victorio ................. Murdock C. Cameron .... Agent.
Paso del Norte ............ Archibald J. Sampson..... Consul.
Do .................. William B. McLachlen .... Vice and deputy consul.
Piedras Negras ........... Eugene O. Fechet ........ Consul.
Do ................... Samuel M. Simmons ...... Vice-consul.
Ciudad Porfirio Diaz....... Samuel M. Simmons...... Agent.
Sierra Mojada ......................................... Agent.
Saltillo .................. John Woessner........... Consul.
Do ................... ..... ................... Vice-consul.
San Bias ................... ........................ Consul.
Do ................ .......................... Vice-consul.
Guadalajara ............... Frederick A. Newton ..... Agent.
Tampico ................ Adam Lieberknecht....... Consul.
Do .................. Neill E. Pressly .......... Vice-consul
San Luis Potosi ........... James P. Turnbull....... Agent.
Tuxpan .................. John Drayton ............ Consul.
Do ........................................... Vice-consul.
Vera Cruz ............... W. W. Appperson ........ Consul.
Do .................. Paul Guma............... Vice-consul.
Coatzacoalcos ............. Frank W. Carpenter ...... Agent.
Frontera ................ Michael Girard ........... Agent.

NICARAGUA.

Richard C. Shannon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary... Managua.









22 DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.

Consuls.

Managua .................. W illiam Newell........... Consul.
Do ................... H E. Low ............... Vice-consul.
Corinto ................... Henry Palazio............ Agent.
San Juan del Sur .......... Charles Holmann ........ Agent.
San Juan del Norte ........ Sigmund C. Braida ....... Consul.
Do ................... Frank Von Phul.......... Vice-consul.
Bluefields ................. Louis Bamberger ......... Agent.
Corn Island ........................................ Agent.

PARAGUAY.

George Maney, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,
...... ................... .... ........................ Montevideo, Uruguay.

(CnsIuls.

Asuncion ................. Edmund Shaw ........... Consul.
Do ................... Eben 31. Flagg ........... Vice-consul.

PERU.

John Hicks, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary ...............Lima.
Richard R. Neill, Secretary of Legation................... ..................Lima.

Consuls.

Callao .................... Aquilla J. Daugherty ..... Consul.
Do ................. John Eyre................. Acting vice-consul.
Cerro de Pasco............ M. C. McNulty .......... Agent.
Chiclavo .................. A lfred Solf............... Agent.
Mollendo ................. W illiam R. Griffith......... Agent.
Paita ..................... John F. Hopkins, jr ...... Agent.
Piura ..................... Em ilio Clark ............. Agent.
Truxillo ................... Edward Gottfried......... Agent.
Tumbez........... ....... W illiam Baldini.......... Agent.

SALVADOR.

Richard C. Shannon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,
.......................................................... Managua, Nicaragua.

Consuls.

San Salvador .............. James W. Love............ Consul.
Do ................... G. J. Dawson............. Vice-consul.
Acajutla .................. Frederick Koncke ........ Agent.
La Libertad ............... Emilio Courtade........... Agent.
La Union ................. John B. Courtade.......... Agent.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


SANTO DOMINGO.

John S. Durham, Charg6 d'Affaires.................................Port au Prince.

Consuls.
Puerto Plata............... Thomas Simpson ........ Consul.
Do ................... Washington Lithgow..... Vice-consul.
Monte Christi ............. A. S. Grullon ............ Agent.
Samana ................. .......................... Commercial agent.
Do .................. Jean M. Villain........... Vice-commercial agent.
Santo Domingo............ Campbell L. Maxwell..... Consul.
Do ................. Juan A. Read............. Vice-consul.
Azua .................... John Hardy ............. Agent.
Macoris.................. Julio Pardo ............. Agent.


SPANISH COLONIES.


CUBA.
Haracoa ................. William B. Dickey........
Do ................... Frank N. Gomez..........
Cardenas................. S. P. C. Henriques .......
Do .................. Julius B. Hamel..........
Cienfuegos ............... Henry A. Ehninger .......


D o ...................
Trinidad de Cuba..........
Zaza .... .................
Havana ...................
D o ...................
D o ...................
Matanzas..... .............
D o ...................
Sagua la Grande .........
Do ...................
Gibara ....................
N uevitas ..................


Juan D. Carbo.............
Daniel Quayler............
Sinesio Balesta...........
Ramon O. Williams.......
Joseph A. Springer........
Adolph S. Dolz...........
Elias H. Cheney ..........
Henry Heidegger .........
Daniel M. Mullen........
Anthony Pelletier.........
Jos6 Homobono Beola ....
Richard Gibbs.............


San Juan de los Remedios...........................
Do .................. James H. Springer ........
Santiago de Cuba ......... Otto E. Reimer...........
Do ................ Robert Mason ...........
Do ................... Angelo Girandy............
Guantanamo.............. Frederick F. Morris.......
Manzanillo .............. W. Stakeman .............
Santa Cruz ................ William Voigt............


Commercial agent.
Vice-commercial agent.
Commercial agent.
Vice-commercial agent.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Agent.
Agent.
Consul-general.
Vice-consul-general.
Deputy consul-general.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Commercial agent.
Vice-commercial agent.
Agent.
Commercial agent.
Commercial agent.
Vice-commercial agent.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Deputy consul.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.


PUERTO RICO.
JIayaguez ................ A. A. Saliva ............. Agent.
an Juan ................. Lewin R. Stewart ......... Consul.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


San Juan ..................
Aguadilla .................
A recibo...................
Fajardo ...................
Guayama..................
Naguabo .................
Ponce............... ......
Viequez...................


Raleigh F. Haydon .......
Aug. Ganslandt............
John J. Ball, jr...........
John V. Lopez............
J. C. McCormick ........
Antonio Roig............
Felix W. Preston ........
H. N. Longpr ...........


Vice and deputy consul.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.
Agent.


URUGUAY.


George Maney, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary...... Montevideo.

Consuls.

Colonia ................. Benjamin D. Manton..... Consul.
Do ................... Manuel Caballero......... Vice-consul.
Montevideo ............... Frank D. Hill........... Consul.
Do ................... Thomas W. Howard ...... Vice-cousul.
Paysandi ................. J. G. Hufnagel .......... Agent.


VENEZUELA.

William L. Scraggs, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary..... CarAcas.
Richard M. Bartleman, Secretary of Legation ........................... Caracas.

Consuls.


Ciudad Bolivar...........
La Guayra ................
D o ...................
Barcelona.............. .
Caracas...................
Carupano.................
Cumana..................
Maracaibo................
D o ...................
D o ...................
C oro .....................
San Cristobal ..............
Tovar.....................
Valera ....................
Puerto Cabello ............
D o ...................


Peter Scandella .......... Consul.
Philip C. Hanna.... ..... Consul.
Thomas D. Golding....... Vice-consul.
Ignacio H. Baiz .......... Agent.
Charles R. Rohl .......... Agent.
Juan A. Orsini............ Agent.
Jos6 G. N. Romberg ...... Agent.
E. H. Plumacher.......... Consul.
Eduard Beekman ......... Vice-consul.
William Volger ........... Deputy consul.
Josiah L. Senior ......... Agent.
Johannes A. Lallemant .... Agent.
.......................... A gent.
Marquard Bodecker....... Agent.
William G. Riley.......... Consul.
William H. Volkmar ...... Vice-consul.


Valencia .................. T.H. Grosewisch ......... Agent.








DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPRESENTATIVES OF LATIN AMERICA
IN THE UNITED STATES.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

S Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Roque Casal Carranza, Charge d'Affaires ad interim, First Secretary of Legation, 1837
Corcoran street, Washington, D. C.

Consuls.

New York................ Carlos Carranza .......... Consul-general,
Do .................. Carlos R6hl.............. Consul.
Do .................. Felix L. de Castro ........ Vice-consul.
Bangor .................. J. Swett Rowe............ Consul.
Philadelphia .............. Edward Shippen......... Consul.
Baltimore ................. C. M. Stewart ............ Consul.
Boston .................. Andrew Cutting .......... Consul.
Do .................. Arturo Donner ........... Vice-consul.
Portland, Me.............. Stephen R. Small......... Consul.
Brunswick, Ga ............ I. G. Collins ............. Vice-consul.
San Francisco, Cal......... J. F. Schleiden ........... Consul.
Richmond, Va............. George A. Barksdale...... Vice-consul.
Wilmington, N. C......... George Harriss .......... Vice-consul.
Brunswick, Ga ............ Rosendo Torras........... Consul.
Pensacola, Fla ............ Manuel S. Macias......... Consul.
Do .................. L. M. Merritt............. Vice-consul.
New Orleans .............. Juan O. Bigelow .......... Consul.
Fernandina, Fla ........... N. B. Borden............. Vice-consul.
Chicago ................. Polhemus Learing Hudson. Consul.
Savannah, Ga.............. Rafael Salas.............. Vice-consul.


BOLIVIA.

Consuls.

New York ............... Melchor Obarrio ......... Consul-general.
Boston .................... W. H. Bowdlear......... Consul.
Mobile .................. Lloyd D. Batre............ Consul.
St. Louis, Mo.............. Paul H. Ravasies ......... Consul.


BRAZIL.

Salvador de Mendonga, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 1523 New
Hampshire avenue, Washington, D. C.
Mario de Mendonga, Second Secretary of Legation, 1523 New Hampshire avenue,
Washington, D. C.





-
le~j leP









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


Consuls.

New York, 23 State st...... Antonio Augusto de Cas-
tilho.
New York, 148 Pearl st..... Gustavo H. Gossler .......
Baltimore ................. Epaminondas Chermont...
Do ................... Charles Mackall ..........
Savannah, Ga.............. William H. Adams........
Norfolk and Newport News. Barton Myers............
New Orleans .............. Jos6 Manoel Cardozo de
Oliveira.
Do ................... Allain Eustis.............
Wilmington, N. C......... Oscar G. Parsley.........
Charleston ................ Charles F. Huchet ........
Pensacola ............... Manuel F. Gonzales ......
St. Louis, Mo.............. Affonso de Figueiredo.....
Brunswick, Ga ............ John R. Cook ...........
Philadelphia ............. John Mason, jr ..........
Jacksonville, Fla .......... S. G. Searing.............
Fernandina, Fla .......... N. B. Borden.............
Cedar Keys, Fla.............. do ....................
Boston ................... Manuel P. F. d'Almeida...
Richmond, Va............. Herman R. Baldwin.......
Mobile, Ala ............... Andrew Jackson Ingersoll.
Calais, Me ................ W illiam A. Murchie.......
Darien, Ga............... Charles S. Langdon .......
St. Mary's and Satilla, Ga... Augustus Baratee..........
Washington, D. C ......... John C. Redman.........


Consul-general.

Vice-consul.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Consul.

Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.
Vice-consul.


CHILE.


Anibal Cruz, First Secretary of Legation and Charge d'Affaires ad interim, zoig Con-
necticut avenue, Washington, D. C.
Moises Garcia Huidobro, Attache.

Consuls.


New York ................. F. A. Beelen ............
Philadelphia, Pa........... Edward Shippen...........
Port Townsend, Wash...... Federico L. Macoundeay..
Portland, Oregon.......... Fernando G. Ewald.......
Savannah, Ga............. Robe-o B. Reppard.......
New York. .............. Justo R. de la Espriella....
San Francisco, Cal......... Naftali Guerrero...........
Do ................... Waltr, ,. CottU .......


Consul-general.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul-general.
Vice-consul.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


COLOMBIA.

Jos6 Marcelino Hurtado, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 1903 N
street NW., Washington, D. C.
Julio Rengifo, Secretary of Legation, 818 Eighteenth street, Washington, D. C.

Consuls.

New York, 24 State street... Climaco Calder6n......... Consul-general.
Philadelphia, Pa........... Leon de la Cova.......... Vice-consul.
Baltimore ................ J. T. Gaibrois ............. Consul.
Charleston, S. C............ Rafael S. Salas............ Consul.
Boston, Columbus avenue.. Jorge Vargas Heredia..... Consul.
San Francisco, Cal., 319 Adolfo Canal............. Consul.
California street.
New Orleans ............ Augusto Ferrandou....... Consul.
Detroit .................. Herman Freund .......... Consul.
New York................ Anastasio G. Rib6n........ Vice-consul.


COSTA RICA.

Joaquin B. Calvo, Charg6 d'Affaires ad interim, 1616 Nineteenth street, Washington,
D. C.

Consuls.

New York and Philadelphia. Charles R. Flint.......... Consul-general.
New York ............... Cecilio A. Delgado........ Consul.
San Francisco, Cal......... Rafael Gallegos........... Consul-general.
New Orleans .............. Lamar C. Quintero........ Consul-general.
Boston .................... Charles E. Sanborn ....... Consul.


ECUADOR.

Jos6 Maria PlAcido Caamafio, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
(absent), Washington, D. C.
Antonio Echeverria, Secretary of Legation (absent), Washington, D. C.

Consuls.

New York, 51 Liberty street. Domingo L. Ruiz.......... Consul-general.
Philadelphia, Pa., 532 Wal- Edward Shippen.......... Consul.
nut street.
San Francisco, Cal., 640 Juan J. Wright........ ... Consul.
Market street.
Do................... Newton Woodward Hall... Vice-consul.
Boston, 37 Center street ... Gustavo Preston.......... Consul.
Charleston, S. C........... Guillermo Oliveras Hall... Vice-consul.









DIPOLMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


Washington............... Chas. A. Marquis de Cham- Consul.
brun.
Chicago, Ill., 223 Wabash Luis Millet.............. Consul.
avenue.

GUATEMALA.

Consuls.

New York ............... Feliciano Garcia.......... Consul-general.
San Francisco, Cal......... Enrique Torriello......... Consul-general.
New Orleans ............ Francisco Villacarta....... Consul-general.
Do .................. Lupercio Martinez ....... Vice-consul.


HAITI.

Hannibal Price, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, z340 I street,
Washington, D. C.
John Hurst, Secretary of Legation.

Consuls.

New York, 1to Pearl street.. Joh. Haustedt ............ Consul-general.
New York ................ Wilkelm Klatte........... Vice-consul.
Bangor................. Pre. Mc. Conville......... Consul.
Boston, 55 Kilby street..... Benjamin C. Clark........ Consul.
Wilmington, N. C., 12 Prin- William M. Cumming..... Vice-consul.
cess street.
Philadelphia, Pa........... A. H. Lennox............. Consul.
Baltimore ................ Lee Wolff .............. Vice-consul.
New London, Conn........ William Belcher .......... Vice-consul.
Mobile, Ala ............... Charles M. Bancroft ...... Vice-consul.
Boston, Mass.............. Henry Kundhardt......... Vice-consul.
Chicago, Ill ............... Cuthbert Singleton........ Consul.


HAWAII.

J. Mott Smith, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Wormley's Hotel.

Consuls.

New York................ E. H. Allen ............. Consul-general.
San Francisco, 302 Califor- D. A. McKinley.......... Cc.nsul-general.
nia street.
Philadelphia ............. Robert H. Davis ......... Consul.
Boston, 40 Water street..... Lawrence Bond........... Consul.
Port Townsend, Wash...... James G. Swan ........... Consul.
San Diego ............... James W. Gowin ......... Consul.
Seattle, Wash.............. George R. Carter ......... Consul.








DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


New York ................
D o....................
D o....................
San Francisco, Cal.........
Do....................
New Orleans ..............
Do.......... ...........


HONDURAS.

Consuls.

Jacobo Baiz .............
E. Grant Marsh...........
F. Spies..................
Wm. V. Wells ...........
John T. Wright...........
E. A. Lever...............
Eduardo Hernandez.......


Consul-general.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Consul-general.
Consul.
Consul.
Vice-consul.


Philadelphia, Pa........... Salomon Foster........... Consul.
Washington, D. C ........ R. W. Stevens............ Consul.


MEXICO.

Matias Romero, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 1413 I street,
Washington, D. C. (Absent.)
Cayetano Romero, First Secretary of Legation and Charg6 d'Affaires, 1023 Connect-
icut avenue, Washington, D. C.
Miguel Covarrubias, Second Secretary of Legation, 1307 Connecticut avenue, Wash-
ington, D. C.
Enrique Santibaftez, Second Secretary of Legation, The Hamilton, Washington, D. C.
Edmundo J. Plaza, Third Secretary of Legation, 1336 I street, Washington, D. C.
Antonio Leon Grajeda, Third Secretary of Legation, 1336 I street, Washington, D. C.
Jose Romero, Attach6, 1413 I street, Washington, D. C.

Consuls.

New York, 35 Broadway ... Juan N. Navarro.......... Consul-general.
Boston, Mass.............. Arthur P. Cushing........ Consul.
Brownsville, Tex .......... Manuel Trevino .......... Consul.
Chicago, Ill .............. Felipe Berriozabal ........ Consul.
El Paso, Tex ............. Jos6 Zayas Guarneros..... Consul.
Galveston, Tex ............ Francisco de P. Villasana. Consul.
Kansas City, Mo........... Hiram S. Thompson ...... Consul.
Laredo, Tex............... Salvador Maillefert........ Consul.
Los Angeles, Cal.......... Joaquin Diaz Prieto....... Consul.
Nogales, Ariz ............. Felipe A. Labadie ........ Consul.
New Orleans, La., 13 Com- Manuel GutierrezZamora.. Consul.
mercial Place.
Rio Grande City, Tex ...... Carlos Fernandez Pasala- Consul.


Roma. Tex...............
San Antonio, Tex.........
San Diego, Cal ............
St. Louis, Mo., 216 N. 8th
street.


gua.
Jose M. Quinones ........
Plutarco Ornelas..........
Antonio V. Lomeli. ......
John F. Cahill.............


Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.








DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


NICARAGUA.

Horacio Guzman, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, 1623 Massa-
chusetts avenue, Washington, D. C.
J. B. Sacasa, Attach6, 1623 Massachusetts avenue, Washington, D. C.

Consuls.

New York, 62 West Thirty- Alexander Cotheal........ Consul-general in the
sixth street. United States.
Do ................... Gerardo Canton........... Consul.
San Francisco, Cal........ William L. Merry......... Consul-general.
Baltimore ................. James W agner.......... Consul.
Philadelphia, Pa........... Henry Cardwell Potter .... Consul.
New Orleans .............. J. G. W oods.............. Consul.
Mobile .................... William A. Le Baron...... Consul.

PARAGUAY.

Consuls.

Washington .............. John Stewart ............. Consul-general in the
United States.
New York ................... ............. ......... Consul-general.
Philadelphia, Pa ........... E. Brainard ............. Consul.
San Francisco, Cal......... Petrus J. Van Libeii Sels. Consul.
Chicago ................. Alejandro Ste. Croix...... Consul.

PERU.

Pedro A. del Solar, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary (absent),
Washington, D. C.
Jose Maria Yrigoyen, Secretary of Legation and Charg6 d'Affaires ad interim, 1839
Corcoran street, Washington, D. C.
Manuel Elguera, Attache, 1839 Corcoran street, Washington, D. C.

Consuls.


New York............... Juan Quintana............
Do ................... Francisco Perez de Velasco.
San Francisco, Cal...................................
Boston. Mass.............. Mateo Crosby ............
Savannah, Ga.............. Ramon S. Montblanch ....
Key West ............... Jos6 de Pozo y Estenos ...
Portland, Oregon .......... John Stuard MacDonald...


Consul-generai
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.


SALVADOR.

Manuel L. Morales, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Federico Mora, Secretary of Legation, New York.
Mariano Pinto, Attache, The Arlington, Washington, D. C.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.


Consuls.

New York ................ Frederick Baruch.........


San Francisco, Cal.........
New Orleans ..............
Boston ..... .. ...........


New York ................
Boston, Mass.............
Philadelphia, Pa...........
Chicago, Ill ............. .


Jos6 Mariano Roma.......
Emiliano Martinez ........
J. C. Blume y Corbacho ...

SANTO DOMINGO.

Consuls.

Francisco Leonte Vasquez.
Edwin M. Fowle..........
Thomas B. Wanamaker ...
Carlos Lemale ............


Consul-general in the
United States.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.


Consul-general.
Commercial agent.
Consul.
Consul.


URUGUAY.

Consuls.

Washington, D. C ......... Prudencio de Murguiondo. Consul-general.
Baltimore, Md............. Leonce Rabellon.......... Consul.
Bangor, Me ............... Roland W. Stewart........ Vice-consul.
Boston, Mass.............. Arthur Carroll............ Vice-consul.
Brunswick Ga............. Henry T. Dunn........... Vice-consul.
Calais, Me ............... William A. Murchie ...... Vice-consul.
Charleston, S. C........... Charles F. Huchet....... Vice-consul.
Chicago, Ill................ Carlos Corning Turner.... Consul.
Fernandina, Fla............ N. B. Borden............. Vice-consul.
Galveston, Texas .. ...... Arthur Homer ........... Vice-consul.
Mobile, Ala .............. Alfred Thomas Shaw...... Vice-consul.
New Orleans, La .......... Gilbert H. Green ......... Vice-consul.
New York................ Thomas H. Eddy ......... Consul.
Norfolk, Va............... James Houghton.......... Vice-consul.
Pensacola, Fla............. Thomas C. Watson. ...... Vice-consul.
Philadelphia, Pa ........... Eduardo Fornias.......... Consul.
Portland, Me ............. James C. Marrett ......... Consul.
Do ................... S. K. Small .............. Vice-consul.
Richmond, Va............. George A. Barksdale...... Vice-consul
St. Augustine, Fla......... Francisco B. Genovac..... Vice-consul.
San Francisco, Cal......... William E. Holloway ..... Consul.
Savannah, Ga............. Rafael Salas .............. Consul.
Wilmington, N. C.......... William N. Harris ........ Vice-consul.


VENEZUELA.

Francisco E. Bustamante, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Wash-
ington, D. C.









DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR SERVICE.

Consuls.


New York, 18 Broadway....
New Orleans..............
Savannah, Ga.............
St. Louis, Mo.............
Boston, Mass.............
Chicago, Ill................
Philadelphia, Pa ..........
Baltimore .................
Pensacola, Fla............
Boston, Mass, 23 Court
street.
Philadelphia, Pa.,613 South
Second street.
San Francisco, Cal., 615
Taylor street.
Norfolk, Va..............


M. P. Coronel............
Emiliano Martinez ........
Antonio Gogorza .........
I. A. Browder ............
Dudley Hunt.............
David V. Whiting ........
R. Luna, jr...............
Eduardo Meyer............
I. L. Borras ..............
A. Escobar...............


Consul-general.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Consul.
Vice-consul.
Consul.
Consul.
Consul.


Manuel Maria Ponte, jr ... Consul.

Benigno Campos.......... Consul.

Hugo Arnal .............. Consul.














Argentine Republic.


The Argentine Republic is bounded on the north by Bolivia,
on the east by Brazil and Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean, on
the south by the Atlantic Ocean and Chile, and on the west by the
Andes, which separate it from Chile. It extends from latitude
210 to 50 south, a distance of 2,400 miles, and is mostly included
between 53 and 700 west longitude. Its average breadth is
nearly 700 miles. The climate is generally healthy, the soil fer-
tile and very productive; valuable forests lie along the river banks,
and on the extensive plains millions of sheep and cattle roam.
By a treaty negotiated some years ago the archipelago of Tierra
del Fuego was divided between Chile and the Argentine Republic.
The islands are inhabited mostly by tribes of wild Indians, but
settlers are now going in. Recently gold has been discovered in
that portion of the islands belonging to the Argentine Republic,
and several profitable mines are now being worked there.
The resources of the Argentine are very great and it is one of
the most prosperous of the South American Republics.
Executive Authority.-The President of the Republic is chosen
by an electoral college elected by the people every six years and
composed of double the number of Senators and Deputies. Presi-
dents are not eligible for reelection without an intervening term.
Salary, $36,000. Vice-President, elected in the same manner and
at the same time, is presiding officer of the Senate, but has no
other political power; succeeds the President in case of death or
incapacity. Salary, $18,ooo. Both President and Vice-President
Bull. 50---3 33






ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


must be Roman Catholics, natives of the country, and over thirty
years of age. Cabinet consists of five ministers, namely, of the
Interior, Foreign Affairs, War and Navy, Finance and Justice,
Worship and Public Instruction. Salaries, $12,000 each.
Lcgislative Autlhoritr.-Federal Congress, consisting of Senate
and House of Deputies. Senate consists of thirty members, two
from the federal district, and two from each of the provinces,
elected by the legislatures for nine years, divided into three classes,
the term of one class expiring every three years. Under the con-
stitution senators must have a private income of $2,000 a year.
Salaries, $8,400 per year. Chamber of Deputies, eighty-six mem-
bers, elected directly by the people, one for every twenty thousand
(20,000) inhabitants; must be twenty-five years of age and have
a citizenship of four years. Deputies are elected for four years, but
one-half of the House retires every two years. Salaries, $8,400
per annum. The two chambers meet annually from May 1 to
September 30.
Judicial A4uthority-.-Justice is administered by a Supreme Court
of five judges and an Attorney-General, and by a number of inferior
and local courts, trial by jury being guaranteed by the constitu-
tion in criminal cases.
Political Divisions.-The country is divided into fourteen prov-
inces and nine territories. The several provinces are locally ad-
ministered by separate legislatures and by governors, each elected
by its province, and they are independent of the General Govern-
ment in many important functions of administration. The gov-
ernors of the territories are appointed by the President.
AREA AND POPULATION.
The area of the Republic according to one authority is 1,125,156
square miles, and the population, mainly based on the official esti-
mates of 1887, is 4,o66,492. An Argentine authority places the
area at 1,117,520 square miles and the population for 1889 (esti-






































































BUENA VISTA, PALERINO PARK, BUENOS AIRES.


~i~.
4
as








ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 35

mated) at 3,794,258. The official statistics of the Republic give
an estimate of only 3,456,000 inhabitants for 1890. The area and
population of the Republic by divisions are as follows:

i Area in Eng-
Provinces and Territories. lish square Population.
miles.

Buenos Ayres (capital), S8qo ................ 70 561, I6o
Provinces:
Buenos Ayres ............................. 63, ooo 850. ooo
Catamarca ................................. 31, 500 130, ooo
Cordoba ................................. 54, ooo0 380, ooo
Corrientes ................................ 54,ooo 290,000
Entre Rios.......................... .... 45,ooo 300,ooo
Jujuy ..................................... 27,000ooo 90ooo
La Rioja.......................... ...... 31, 500 oo, ooo
Mendoza................................... 54,ooo 60, ooo
Salta ..................................... 45, ooo 200,ooo
San Juan ................................. 29, 700 125,ooo
San Luis........................... ....... 8, ooo loo, ooo
Santa F. ...... .......................... 18, ooo 240,332
Santiago del Estero ........................ 31, 500 16o, ooo
Tucuman ................................. 13, 500 210,000
Territories:
Pampa............ ..................... 191,842 40,000
Neuquen ................ .... ......... ,
Rio N egro .................... ........ I
Chubut ............... ........... 268 ooo 30,ooo
Santa Cruz................................
Tierra del Fuego ...........................
Misiones. ................................. 23, 932 50,00ooo
Formoza ... ........................ )
Chaco ... .. ..................... ..... 125,612 50, ooo
Total....... .................... 1,125,156 4,066,492


Two of the territories, Rio Negro and Pampa, have recently been
erected into provinces.
The capital of the Republic, Buenos Ayres, had a population
of 177,790 in 1869, 295,000 in 1882, and 538,385, including
suburbs, in November, 1889, of whom over 15o,ooo are for-
eigners. La Plata, the new capital of the province of Buenos
:Ayres (founded in 1884), has a population of 40,000. It is about
40 miles southeast of the city of Buenos Ayres.







ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


Cities of over 5,ooo inhabitants.

Buenos Ayres (ISgo)........ 561, 16o Pasco.................... 15, ooo
Cordoba .................. 66, 247 Santa F. .................. o, 670
Rosario ................... 55, ooo Gualeguachu ............. 9, 776
La Plata............. .. 40, oo San Juan de la Frontera ... 8,353
Tucuman ............... 40, oo Santiago del Estero........ 7,775
Mendoza .................. 20, ooo Chivilcoy ................ 6, 863
Salta ...................... 20,ooo Bajada de Santa F6 ....... 6,ooo
Parand ........... ....... 20, ooo Catamarca ... ..... ...... 5, 718
Corrientes .... ............ 15, 5oo

The increase of population has been greatly due to immigration.
The arrivals in the last six years have been as follows: 1882,
51,503; 1883, 63,243; 1884, 77,805; 1885, 108,722; 1886,
93,116; 1887, 120,842; 1888,155,632; 1889, 260,909, or 931,172
immigrants in that period. The emigration during this period
has varied between 9,000 and 17,000 annually, except for 1889,
when it advanced to 40,649.
In 1890 the immigration amounted to 138,407 and the emi-
gration to 82,981, a net gain to the Republic of 55,246, and in
1891 the arrivals and departures were 75,397 and 90,935, respec-
tively. During a period of 34 years, from 1857 to 1890, the
immigrants numbered 1,683,677 and the emigrants 413,055, an
addition to the population of 1,270,272 inhabitants, 60 per cent
of whom were Italians.
Most immigrants are from the south of Europe. From 1880 to
1887 the Italians formed 70 per cent of the total; Spaniards, 10.25
per cent; French, 7.75 per cent; and all others but 12 per cent.
In 1887 the number of foreigners in the Republic was 600,000,
including 280,000 Italians, 15o,000 French, 1oo,ooo Spaniards,
40,000 English, and 20,000 Germans.
Relgion.-Although the constitution recognizes the Roman
Catholic religion as that of the state, all other creeds are toler-
ated, and there are more Protestant churches in Buenos Ayres
than in any other city in South America. In 1891 the Government







ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


budget contained an estimate of 272,880 pesos in aid of the Roman
Catholic Church. The right of civil marriage was established by
law in 1888.
Education.-As reported by the General Government, in 1890
there were 3,233 elementary schools, with 7,054 teachers and
249,677 pupils, the public schools being under the control of the
ministry of education. The secondary system, also controlled by
the Government, has 16 academies, 450 professors, and 3,127
pupils; 14 normal schools for women, with 5,233 students; 13 for
men, with 4,630 students, and 7 mixed, with 2,883 students, there
being 1,005 professors employed in the normal-school system.
There is a well-equipped national observatory at Cordoba, muse-
ums at Buenos Ayres and La Plata, and a meteorological bureau;
2 universities, comprising faculties of law, medicine, engineering
and mines, with 1,007 students in attendance; also, 2 practical
schools of agriculture, a naval and a military academy.
Finance.-The national debt in 1890 amounted to 355,762,141
pesos. In 1891 it was estimated at 372,880,862 pesos, of which
157,100,330 pesos were external obligations.
The following table shows the revenue and expenditures for
four years:
[The gold peso is worth 96.4 cents, American currency.]

1887. I888. 1890. 1891.

Pesos. Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
Revenue............. 56,882,057 57, 1o, 734 73, 150,856 75,501,077
Expenditures ......... 54, 098, 227 50, 8o, 631 92, 853, 846 67, 882, 483

The actual revenue of 1891 was principally derived as follows:
Pesos.
Import dues ...................... .... ........... 47,465,642
Stamped paper...................................... 3, 284, 300
Post-office, telegraphs, etc ........................... 2,247,837
Port dues, warehousing, etc........................... 294, 528
Land tax .......................................... 3,448, 846
Sundries........................................... 17,759, 924
Total..................................... 75,501,077








ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


The estimates of the budget for 1892 were as follows:
Budget, 1892.


Revenue. I Paper Gold.
currency.

SPesos. Pesos.
Import dues ................ 500, 00ooo
Export dues ............ 3, ooo, ooo
Stamped paper.. 4, ooo, oo ...........
Property tax.... i, oo, ..........
Excise ......... 4, 200,0oo ... .
Licenses ....... 300o 000 ..........
Other receipts I, 230, ooo 2, 330, ooo000
Total..... 12, 230,000 20, 830, ooo


Expenditures.


Interior.........
Foreign affairs ...
Finance.........
Justice and pub-
lic instruction..
W ar.............
Marine .........
Total ......


Paper Gold.
currency.
Pesos. Pesos.
13,625,386 ..........
261, 120 i 256,68o
3,911,145 10,993,657
7, 162,657 ..........-
11,040, 586 ...........
5, 734, 824 ..........
41, 735,718 I1,250,337


Army and Nazr.-The army in 1891 comprised 43 generals.
595 field officers, 261 captains, 496 subalterns, and 6,498 men,
There are 4 divisions, containing in all 5 regiments of infantry,
4 of cavalry, and 2 of artillery. The militia comprises 236,000
men between 17 and 45 years, and 68,000 reserve, between 45
and 60 years. There is a military school, with 125 cadets, and a
school for noncommissioned officers. The naval school has 60
cadets and the school of gunners 80. In 1891 the navy of the
Republic included 1 sea-going armor clad, 2 coast-defense armor
clads (monitors), 2 deck-protected cruisers, 7 gunboats, 2 trans-
ports, 3 screw and 4 paddle dispatch boats, 1 torpedo-school ship,
4 torpedo boats, 4 spar-torpedo boats, and a corvette, besides 6
sailing vessels. Several new men of war are now under construc-
tion in England. and the Government has also reinforced its tor-
pedo material. There are in all about 73 guns. The sea-going
armor clad Almirante Brown is of 4,200 tons displacement, 5,400
horse power, and is protected by 9-inch steel-faced armor. In her
central battery she carries 6 11 -ton breech-loading guns of the
Armstrong type, and has 2 other guns of the same caliber mounted
at the bow and stern respectively. She is also equipped with






ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


Whitehead torpedoes and the electric light. A new cruiser, the
25 de Mayo, one of the best of her type, constructed in England,
is about to be placed in service. The navy is manned by 1,966
officers and men, of whom 445 officers and 1,294 men are in the
marine service and 227 officers and men in the torpedo service.
Resources and Products.-The principal productions of the coun-
try are wool, hides and skins, wheat, maize, hay, linseed, flour,
jerked beef, bran, bones and bone-ash, frozen sheep carcasses, hair,
sugar, wine, grease, and tallow.
Cattle and sheep breeding is the most important industry in
the Argentine Republic and animal products constitute the chief
articles of the export trade. In 1888 the animal wealth was esti-
mated at 369,561,607 pesos, represented by 70,453,665 sheep,
22,869,385 horned cattle, and 4,398,283 horses. The wool ex-
port of 1890 was 118,400 tons, valued at 35,521,000 pesos, and
in 1891 the export thereof advanced to 138,600 tons, the total clip
of 1891 being estimated at 296,000,000 pounds. The export of
sheep carcasses grew from 75,323 pesos in 1885, when this indus-
try was started, to 1,633,105 pesos in 1890.
Agriculture has made rapid strides and now constitutes one of
the great sources of wealth. The land under cultivation in 1875
was only 825,492 acres, and in 1889 the area had grown to
5,899,859 acres, being even then barely 1 per cent of the total
area of the country. The cultivated area of 1891 was estimated
at 6,700,000 acres, about 4,999,000 being in cereals, and the prob-
able yield was stated for wheat at 900,000 tons, maize 1,000,000
tons, and linseed 23,000 tons. The agricultural products exported
in 1889 were of the value of 16,935,547 pesos, and in 1890
25,591,401 pesos, and the harvest of 1889 was valued at loo,-
552,000 pesos.
Great attention is paid to the wine and sugar production.
In 1889 it was estimated that 35,000 tons of sugar, valued at
10,500,000 pesos, were produced. The acreage of the vineyards






ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


is roughly estimated at 70,000, and the industry is rapidly ad-
vancing.
Mining is an important industry, silver, copper, tin, bismuth,
and borate of lime in small quantities being found. The mineral
exports of 1889 and 1890 were 1,629,160 pesos and 673,690
pesos, respectively, silver forming the chief part.
Railways and Telegraph.-The length of railway open for traffic,
to March, 1892, was 7,676 miles, connecting the principal cities
of the Republic with the capital. There were in addition a num-
ber of miles in construction and 10,285 miles projected or under
survey. The total cost of construction of the 22 national lines
and branches open for traffic, to the end of 1890 (represented by
their capital) was $346,493,054. Their receipts for 189 amounted
to $41,157,487 and the expenses to $27,784,942. The great
Transandine Railway, connecting the two oceans, between Buenos
Ayres and Valparaiso, is nearing completion. Six hundred and
forty-eight miles in the Argentine are finished, and the remaining
portion, 149 miles, 109 of which are in the Argentine, is in a
forward state. In 1892 there were 70,415 miles of telegraph lines
in operation, 11,250 miles belonging to the State and the rest to
private companies. The number of telegraphic dispatches sent
in the year 1891 was 2,340,000; number of offices in 1887, 668.
A concession was granted in November, 1889 to lay a direct cable
from Buenos Ayres to Europe, which must be ready within thirty
months. The concessionaire made a deposit of $100,000 in Decem-
ber, 1890, as a guarantee.
The postal movement of 1890 was 60,844,963 letters, 860,716
postal cards, and 43,974,107 newspapers, etc. There are 946
offices (post and telegraph).
Banking.-On November 3, 1887, a law of national banks simi-
lar to the banking law of the United States was promulgated.
There are at present 40 banks in the Argentine Republic, 5 of
which belong to English companies.






































































GOLD MINING IN TIERRA DEL FUEGO.


___


oll 4 : LJl \







ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


Navigation.-The subjoined table indicates the port entries of
the country in the year 1891:

Vessels. Number. Tonnage.
Foreign navigation:
Sailing vessels with cargoes ..................... 2, 736 627, 382
Sailing vessels in ballast ...................... 760 70, 135
Steamers with cargoes ........................ 3, 889 2, 999, 129
Steamers in ballast .......................... 3,480 578, 446
i---- ----
Total .................................... 10, 865 5, 275,092
Interior navigation ................... ..... ... 45, 770 4, 894, 267
Grand total ................................ 56,635 o0, 169,353

COMMERCE.
The financial troubles which have crippled the commerce of
the Argentine have begun, however, to disappear. Gold, which
in February, 1892, was quoted at 280, in December was 170; the
5 per cent bonds, which had declined to 58, have recovered to 7234,
and sterling bonds have risen from 27 to 41.
This improvement in the financial condition of the nation has
been attended by an increase in its commerce. The imports of
the first six months of 1892 were $37,900,000, against $33,200,000
in the first half year of 1891; and the exports for these periods
were, respectively, $66,200,000, against $62,100,000.
The customs receipts for the corresponding half years were
$36,100,000 in 1892 and $24,650,000 in 1891.
An estimate of the exports for the entire year of 1892 gives
$13,500,000 for wheat, $8,1oo,ooo for corn, $1,6oo,ooo for lin-
seed, $5oo,ooo for hay, $600,000 for flour.
The exports of wool will probably reach $40,000,000; hides
and skins, $20,000,000; meat, $9,000,000; tallow, $4,ooo,ooo.
Other pastoral products are expected to give an exportation of
$10,000,000, the total ofall exports promising to reach $108,300,000.
The present political condition of the country under its new
administration seems to be settled, and the nation to have entered
on a period of industrial and commercial regeneration.









42 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

SPECIAL COMMERCE.*

Imports into and exports from the A rgentine Republic by countries from 888 to i8g9, inclusive.
[The value of the peso is 96.5 cents in United States money.]


Countries. i8E


United Kingdom:
Imports from ....
Exports to........
United States:
Imports from .....
Exports to........i
France:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Germany:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Spain:
Imports from .....
Exports to.......
Holland :
Imports from .....
Exports to....... .
Belgium :
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Uruguay:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Italy:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Brazil:
Imports from ....
Exports to........
Paraguay:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Chile :
Imports from ....
Exports to........
Portugal :
Imports from .....
Exports to ......
West Indies:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
Bolivia:
Imports from .....
Exports to........
All other countries:
Imports from .....
Exports to........

Total imports .........
Total exports.........


Pesos.
44,044,851
17,061,411

9, 909, 895
6,665,520

22,966, 857
27,973,561

13, 31o, 094
13,309,546

3,913,811
3,313,864

276, 815


11,084,482
16,679,944

5, 443, ooi
2,681,283

7, 764,023
2,742,960

2,377, 734
2,460,451

I, 762,411
384,373

29,959
I,682,o11

59,670
136,271

2,212
I,246,716

53,359
247,365

5,412,936
3,526,627

128,412, no
Ioo, III,903


1889.

Pesos.
56,820, I
14,931, 3

16, Sol, 7
7,726, 6

30, 237, 4
38,264,41

I5, 477. 7
17,120, 4

4, 565, 4
3,332, 1

831, 3
116, 4

13, 958, 2
16,326,4:

7. 206, 3
5,393,9

10, 188,
3,930,1

2,607,o
7,522,8

1, 377, 5
855, 2

19,5
2,504,7

72, 5
189,5

9
1,290,4

63, 3
328,2

4,342, 3
2,981,8

164, 569, 8
122,815,


1890. 1891.

Pesos. Pesos.
69 57,816,510 28,317.802
94 19,299,095 14,797,740

50 9,301, 541 3.446,691
91 6,o66,958 4,195,966

07 19, 875, 877 7,925,041
14 26,683,318 23,681,722

54 12,301,472 6,204,889
72 11,561,451 11,434,228

70 4,302,284 567,975
15 2,083,817 1,288,359

72 850,121 119,251
79 16, 240 33,485

47 10,986,710 6,475.951
23 12,003,o86 16,644,639

15 5,885,758 2,549,225
60 5,506,675 4,502,845

89 8,663,027 4,205,165
34 3,194,802 3,246,930

17 3,354,566 1,498,289
35 8,442,563 9,087,432

43 1,724,050 1,340, 12
92 336,566 450,471

09 51,114 15.804
27 2,188,951 2,372,343

67 110,182 15,522
8i 456, 701 16,579

io .............. 13,034
72 975,075 1,282,198

13 85,509 149,485
03 296,952I 463,764

.52 6,932, 091 3,321,671
165 1,557,744 ......

84 142,240,812 67, r65,807
157 1oo,818,993 96,703,325


* Not including coin and bullion.









ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


During the same period the commerce in coin and bullion has

been as follows:


Importation.
Year.
Gold. Silver. Total.


Pesoc.
1887........ 9,088,939
18S ......... 44, 613,897
SS9..... .. 11, 576,906
89o........ 6,946,812
1891........ 8,885,388


Pesos.
659,657
I96,253
172,'853
204,439
370,220


Pesos.
9, 748, 596
44, So, 150
II, 749,759
7.151,251
9,255,608


Exportation.

Gold. ;Silver. Total.

Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
9,471,983 405, 202 9, 877, 185
8,492, 374 242, 126 8, 734, 500
27,815,546 615, 705 28,431,251
5,oo9,358 274,542 5,283,900
1,183,891 519,209 703,100oo


Imports of the Argentine Republic by articles, 1887 to 18go.


Articles.


Horned cattle .................
Other live stock ...............
Refined sugar ................
C heese .................... .
Other groceries and comestibles.
Beer, bottled ..................
Brandy, bottled ........ .....
Other liquors and wines........
Tobacco ...................
Cotton fabrics................
Cassimeres ... .......... .
Other spun and woven goods...
Clothing, etc.................
Prepared medicines ...........
Perfumery .................
Other drugs and chemicals .....
Pine lumber ..................
Furniture ................... .
Other lumber and wooden ar-
ticles .... ....... ..........
Printing paper ... ............
Other paper, and manufactures
of ..........................
Leather, and manufactures of..
Wire for fencing ...............
Iron, unmanufactured..........
Other iron, and manufactures of.
Railway materials .............
Materials for other public works.
Jewelry .......................
Metallic belting ...............
Other metals, and manufactures
of ..........................
Building stone ................
Hydraulic cement .............
Other stone and glassware and
ceramics ...................


1887.

Pesos.
156, 393
253, 184
4,353,407
I,073,629
10,497,807
654,723
902,850
13, 930, 864
I,697, 383
8,078,595
2, 651, o96
11,500, 399
7.433,951
668,971
428,503
3,081, 524
6,155,658
952,268

1,633,750
717,257

2,394,589
1,753,183
I,863, 420
I,480,599
II,015.347
3,534,555
I, 505,348
797,289
692,833

1,525,141
692,214
579,555

3,456,092


1888.


Pesos.
93,145
141,830
3,541, 152
998,214
10,021,983
581, 793
615, 708
II,154,328
1,587,571
5,052,507
2,837,620
13. 309,500oo
7,727,798
6oo, 614
341,150
3,384,500
5,026,836
1,083,225

2,289,549
910,038

2,488,457
1,911,830
1,515,368
2,620,495
13,507,451
13,624,351
1,847,981
862,838
607,668

1,334,571
1, 343, o91
674,375

3,975, 123


1889. 1 1890.


Pesos.
35, 748
118, I85
6,275,8So
954,682
II, 120,412
1,077,032
797, 190
13, 427, 385
I,895,788
4,975,647
3,479,846
15,693,749
8,o8o,18o
469,133
461,252
3,826,412
7,813,897
1,385,837

2,907,124
I,308,456

2,632,368
2, 502,796
1.983,194
2,883,058
19, 860, 861
19,249,811
4, 923,938
949,544
625,248

2,297,019
770,422


4, 888, 224


Pesos.
91, 294
309,222
5,021,375
593,967
10,796,116
747,059
540, 306
11,502,975
2,554, 017
5,675, 105
3,999, 541
13, 816, 717
6, 533,603
273, 560
257,624
3, 344, 358
4,263, 132
I, 116,105

2,020, 175
I,254,6o8

2,373,990
1,704,709
571,132
949, 003
8, 046, 617.
34,074,830
2, 198,673
296,030
377,911

1,995,721
778, 786
394, 423

2,962,314










44 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

Imports of the Arg-entine Republic by articles, 1887 to iSgo-Continued.


Articles. 1887. | 1888. 1889. 189o.


Pesos. Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
Stone coal .................... 4,079, 866 3, 337.985 6, 515, 141 5, 145, 820
Kerosene ..................... I,340,299 706,249 90S, 306 833, 877
Other combustibles, etc ........ 289, 998 228, 506 170, 363 270, 314
Fancy articles ................. I, oS6,952 I, 148,799 1, 535, 333 892,377
Apothecary apparatus, etc ...... 08, 420 363, 714 413, 587 182,264
Other various manufactured ar-
ticles ....................... 2, 342, 183 4,933, 177 4,356,906 3,881 162

Total imports .......... I7, 352, 125 128,412,110o 164,569,SS4 142,240, 12


Exports from the .Argentine Republic by article's, ISS7 to IS9o.


Articles.


G oat skins ...................
Sheepskins....................
Ox and cow hides .............
W ool, unwashed ..............
Other animal products and cattle.
W heat ........................
M aize .................. .....
Other agricultural products.....
Jerked beef ..................
Grease and tallow ...............
Other industrial products ......
Forest products ......... ..
Mineral products ............
Other products and articles....


x887.

Pesos.
460, 140
8,408,742
12,047,837
32,749,315
2, 597,459
9, 514,635
7,236,886
4, 516, 620
2,398,424
788, 777
I, 525. 55S
330,214
186, 356
I,661,657


s888.

Pesos.
585,478
5,610,923
14, 631, 009
44,858, 606
5.389, 939
8,248,614
5,444,464
2,605,282
3,456, 787
2,140,393
2, 5oS,667
7SI,793
I. 526,057
2,323,891


1889. 89o


Pesos.
821. 590
1,386, 593
13,709,o014
56.709,774
6,655, 744
1,596,446
12,977,721
2, 361,380
6, 139,875
3,297,471
2, 509, 020
793.257
1,629, 160
2, 228, I2


Pesos.
1,023.478
6,787, IoS
10,931,218
35,521,681
7,043, 112
9,836,824
14, 145,639
I,608,938
3,913,304
1,996,629
3, 089,303
1,413,324
673.690
2, 834.745


Total exports............ 84, 421, S20 0oo, III, 903 122, 815, 057 I'oo, 81S, 993


Destination of .Ar4entine exports, by principal articles.


Articles.


December 31, 1890.

To the Une- To the Umted To France. To Germany. To Belgium.
ted States. Kingdom.


SPesos. Pesos.
Animals .... ............ Io 115,998
Bones and bone ash....... 84, 178 427, 250
Feathers, ostrich.......... 22,717 71
Flour.................... 240 34,440
Grease and tallow.......... 51. 561 618,634
H air..................... 198,473 41, 788
Hides and skins. ........ 3,360, 753 2, 357, 362
Indian corn.............. 10 029 6,804,498
Linseed................... 77,521 574,392
Meat extract. .............. ......... .........


Pesos.
37,860
18, 712
5,673
16.984
176,686
128,863
6,446,356
1,841,046
132,827


Pesos.

14,687
307
35,482
14,So5
37,797
2,240,343
699,322
115, 124
209,428


Pesos.
8,850
14,274
623
55,174
44,464
307,312
2,223 204
1,097 957
154,639
160, 236









ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


Destination of Argentine exports, by principal articles-Continued.


Articles.



Provisions, frozen
Silver... ......
Wheat...........
W ood ...........
Wool, unwashed..
All other articles .

Total ......


December 31, z89o.
To thae Tothne ni ted To France. To Germany. To Belgium.


Pesos. Pesos. Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
sheep ............ 1, 526, 561 o16, 544 ..................
........ .. ....... 181, 275 117, 154 184, 199 10,250
........ 195526 3,867,249 486,397 281,044 1,276,064
...... 68o 607,310 97,725 156,321 35,880
...... 950, 548 1. 444, 209 16,746,254 7.,419,405 6,413,364
........ 103, 722 698,058 324, 237 158, 177 200, 795

........6,066,958 19, 299, o95 26, 683, 318 11, 566, 441 12, 003,086


Source of Argentine imports, by principal articles.


Articles.



Agricultural implements .
Animals .............
Chemicals, drugs, medi-
cines, etc ..............
Combustibles, coal, ker-
osene, etc ..............
Fancy articles, etc ........
Furniture .. ..........
Glass and stone ware......
Iron and steel, and other
manufactures of .......
Jewelry and manufactures
of gold, silver, and other


L

L




P
P

P
S
T


From the
United
States.

Pesos.
477 517
12, 600

428,628

S096, 626
33. 755
198, 545
74,102

180,723


December 31, 1890.


From the
United
Kingdom.

Pesos
99, 152
201, 870

1, 092, 727

4,493,425
262, 133
114,271
931, 102

2,992, 185


From France. From Ger- From
many. Belgium.


Pesos.
II, 540
87, 200

661,432

41,865
554.727
357.331
639, 543

510,441


Pesos.
23, 398
16, 200

713,411

69,862
501,919
167. 350
483, o96

575.227


Pesos.
3,630
29,400

155,834

105,176
184,388
196, o88
983, 131

1,596,928


metals ................ 77, 145 869,695 692,529 313, 138 170,329
weather, and manufactures
of ..................... 19, 156 305,481 712, 932 225,897 275, 590
iquors, wines, and bever-
ages ................... 1,981 403,097 4.847,687 628,636 355,047
Vood, and other manufac-
tures of ................ 4,95,772 595,813 298, 141 400,444 214, 419
Machinery .............. 292,617 1,172,338 357,274 271,0 99 265,861
aper. books, etc......... 61,494 418,127 481,500 986, 570 546, 899
provisions cereal prod-
ucts, groceries, etc...... 168,342 1,095.748 4, 10oo0,935 1,049,023 846, 105
publicc works, materialsfor. 1,266,753 26,599,724 402, 68 481,436 2, 185, 273
pun and woven goods... 490, 664 13, 625,936 2,796, 797 2,88o, 403 1,570, 529
tobacco, and manufac-
tures of ............... 185.446 68, o4 252,464 197,651 419,141
Hearing apparel.......... 3.655 1,687.409 1,635,668 941,782 496, 981

Total imports, all articles. 9, 301 541 57, 816, 510 19, 875, 877 12, 301, 472 1, 986,710









40 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

t. reports of domestic merchandise from the countries specified to the Argentine Republic by
principal articles from 1887 to 189z, inclusive.


From United States:
Wood, and manufac-
tures of ............
Iron and steel, and
manufactures of....
Agricultural i m p 1 e-
m ents ............
Mineral oils, refined. .
Carriages, horse and
railroad cars ........
Cotton, manufactures of
Chemicals, drugs, dyes,
etc .................
Tobacco, and manufac-
tures of ............
Flax, hemp, and jute,
manufactures of ....
Books, maps, engrav-
ings, etc............
Provisions, compris-
ing meat and dairy
products .........
All other articles.....

Total.............

From United Kingdom:
Iron, wrought and un-
wrought ............
Cottons ..............
Machinery and mill
work ...............
W oolens ...........
Coal, cinders, and fuel.
Hardware and cutlery .
Jute manufactures.....
Earthen, china, and
glass ware ........
Apparel and haber-
dashery ............
Painters' colors and
materials ...........
Stationery (other than
paper) .............
Linens, by the yard....
Chemicals and dyestuffi
Leather, wrought and
unwrought ..........
All other articles .....


1887. 1888.


Dollars. Dollars.
1,495,998 1,839,012

617, 584 740, 680


538,814
457,337

446, o00
797,246

94,699

152,950

62,827

198,329


32,567
777,377


877,519
426,654

489,213
486,028

115,836

47,096

133,664

90, 561


49,431
803,717


1889



Dollars.
2,554,658

1.193.881

1,069 320
726,795

719,887
497,894

151,771

100, 96o

179,257

92,038


97,216
992,400


5.671.729 6,099,411 8,376,077


_ __ I. I


5,175,430
8, 216,730

2, 236, 132
4,223,543
I, 172,593
791, 712
1,042,935

471,457

359,834

321,812

150,477
310,239
253,326

180,752
5,409,698


11,398,603
5,247,440

3, 620,949
3, 167.556
1,246,374
910,585
641,483

6o6, 770

389,145

358,817

306,404
284,496
274,295

244,274
8,564,179


13,397.255
7,742,611

4,966.327
4,097.880
2,420,266
775,302
1,408, 141

1.171,045

473,063

443,693

585,644
373,471
473,399

345,930
3. 309, 337


30,316,670 37,261,370 51,983,364 40,957,009 2o, 666,566


,89o.


Dollars.
1. 812,087

1,424,125

I, o65, 445
441,830

1,321,256
476, 079

122, 611

92, 752

316, 986

157,819


65 286
1,026, 351

8,322.627


11.990,365
4,758,906

4,869,478
2,150,307
2,175.345
362,992
1,205,393

739,854

180,625

232,395

545,929
137,663
289,708

139,931
II,178, 118


1891.



Dollars.
586,821

251, 189

200,048
439, 005

505,867
93,389

64,182

67, 166

io6, 193

19. 139


40,206
344, 870

2,718,075


4,057,644
5,331,226

1,910,481
1,424,858
1,547,430
141,756
726,364

149,513

56,813

136,707

208,583
92, 522
199,063

37,944
4,645,562


Total.............








ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


exportss of domestic merchandise from the countries spec ifed to the Argentine Republic by
principal articles from 1887 to 1891, inclusive-Continued.


From France:
W ine.. ............ .
Wood,mannfactures of.
Cotton, manufactures
of ..................
Hides and leather.
manufactures of.....
Clothing, leady-made..
Refined sugar.........
Iron, manufactures of
!Fancy articles (notions
and perfumery)......
Wood, and manufac-
tures of.............
Jewelry (gold and sil-
ver) .. ..........
Spirits...............
Paper, and manufac-
tures of .............
Earthen and china ware.
All other articles ......


1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. I 1891.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
8,038,834 8, 706,412 10,242,643 7 310, 082 ..........
3,887,538 5,378,819 1,816,970 1,643, 728 .........

2,526,006 1,905, 170 2,100,580 1,428,278 ..........

2,473,022 I, 463, 514 2, 527, 684 866,450 .........
1,920,203 1, 558,361 1,455,798 908,684 ..........
1,o74,692 932,321 2,850,343 1, o68,884 ..........
995,993 628,556 863,724 587,300 .........

848, 841 1.793,269 2,711,495 1,626,667 ..........

583,858 613,319 1,018,757 687,719 .

582,669 316,633 359,155 166, 202 ..........
487,244 300,673 383, 314 210, 143 ..........

374,583 580,72( 506, 090 274,473 i..........
336. 385 347, 196 473. 905 226, 754 .........
3,6oi, 697 4,417,343 5,617,098 2,963, 044..........


25,942, 312 32, 751, 864 9, 968,408 .........


Total ............. 27, 732, 165









48 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

Imports from the Argentine Republic to the countries specified by principal articles from
18S7 to IS9z, inclusive.


1887. 1888. 1889. i89o. 1891.

Into United States:
Hides and skins Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. a Dollars.
other than fur..... 2, 588, 517 3,969,203 3, 749, 170 3,441,202 3,912,565
Wool, unmanufac-
tured ............ 695,075 1, 7. oo003 go8,969 1,400, 563 1,378, 116
Hair, unmanufac-
tured ............. 230, 616 237, 303 171, 166 IS4, 916 245,315
Fur skins,undressed. 224, 484 239, 410 48, 973 95,513 145,179
Natural feathers..... 33. 969 47, 122 34, 540 64,033 35, 321
All other articles.... 327, 531 231, 118 541, Soo 215,470 260, 048


Total........ ... 4, oo, 192

Into United Kingdom:
Wheat and other
grain .... .. 4, 314, o075
Skins and furs ...... 405, 815
Tallow and stearine 135, 396
Linseed ............ 2, 197,837
Bones.............. 222, 229
Hides, raw.......... 358, 968
Wool, sheep or lamb. 157. 285
Silver ore.......... 53, 079
Fresh mutton ....... 2, 153, 898
Meats preserved,
other than salted .. 91, 325
All other articles. .. 419, 286


5,902.159 5.454,68 5,401,697 5.976,544


6,042, 529
632, 047
514,603
I,007, 920
435, 776
301,071
244,366
93,456
3,044,229


1, 877, 729
609,490
803. 143
8o. 322
194,81 S
369, 143
855,394
86,463
3. 651, 383


12, 568,933
619, 826
266, 139
(*)
247,768
422,368
339,745
36,747
4,002,628


92,658 102,892 152,356
529, 709 459,980 1,441,171


Total...... ....1593, 93 12,938,364 9,8i, 750 20, 097,681
-


Into France
Wool, unmanufac-
tured ......... 20, 157.700 21, 077,955 25 ,164, 607 19,353,924 ..........
Hides and skins .... 9 9900, 877 9, 347, 440 13.0 o, 195 12, 731, 402
Breadstuffs ..... ..3, 986,628 3, 732, 602 2, 145, 022 6,471, 251 .. .
Seeds, oleaginous ... 755. 881 514, 8S 101l, 155 372.697 ..... ...
Grease ............. 445,853 1,173,268 496906 1, 171.430 ..........
Meats of all kinds... 214, 507 I294, 472 265, 88o 438, 252 ....
Hair ....... ....... 234, 500 oS8, 102 171, 738 226,031 .........
Feathers,ornamental. 36, 362 80, 828 46, 947 5. 72 .........
All other articles .... 328,466 723,468 410.617 602.915 ..........

Totl... ..... ....36, o6, 774 37, 052,936 42.603,067 41. 426, 774 .........

o data


6, 618, 669
625,545
448,497
219 355
598, 633
628,173
634,012
16, 337
3,849,455

I, 212, 191
1,945,534

6, 795,401





Imports from the Argentine Republic by principal articles.


Articles.


SBones, hoofs, horns, etc.........
Breadstuffs ....................
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes .....
*- Copper, and manufactures of....
Fancy goods: Feathers, natural..
Fertilizers ...... ..............
G rease ........................
H air ..........................
Hides and skins ...............
Leather, and manufactures of...
Provisions:
Meats, preserved .........
Mutton, fresh............
Tallow ..................
Seeds: Flax or linseed .........
Silver ore.....................
Tobacco leaf ...............
W ool ........... .... .........
All other articles ..............

Total ...................


Into the
United States,
1889-'9o.

Dollars.
(a)
............,
2,454
82
64,033
. ... ....... .
(a)
184,916
3,441,202
17



............
31, 599


I,400, 563
276,831


5,401,697


Into the
United King-
dom, 1889.

Dollars.
210,086
I,877,729
............
22,863
365
. .. .. . .
............
26,858
978,634


102, 892
3,651,384
803,143,
801,323
86,463
9
855.394
394,606


Into
France, 1889.

Dollars.
60,675
2,145,022
66,791

46, 947

496,9o6
171,738
13,80oo,195


265,880
............,

101, 155


25, 164,607
283,151


9,s81,749 42,603,067


Into Germany, Into Into
888-'89. Spain, 1889. Italy, 1889.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
........ .. ..... ... 18,914
158,746 150,369 261, 901
319, 158 .......................
27,132 .........................
27, 132 . . . . . .

24,752 ..... ...... 579
............ 372,812 ............

1,954,694 1,058,741 1,318,383
12,852 ........... .............

107,814 21, 868 554,296


8 158 ....................
35,700 ............ ............

17,626,994 .......... 599,651
58,310 49,721 85,885

20,407,310 1,653,5II 2,839,609


a Not specified.


Into
Belgilum, 1888.

Dollars.
286,605
1,512,155
189,333


3,474
114,642

4,131,937


241,250


195, 509

11,001
12,732,210
164,050


19,582, 66


-----










Exports to the Argentine Republic, by principal articles.


Articles.




Agricultural implements........
A nim als ......................
Candles.......................
Carriages, carts, and cars.......
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and
medicines ...................
Clocks and watches ...........
C oal..........................
Cotton, manufactures of........
Earthen, china, and glass ware..
Fancy articles .................
Fish ........................
Flax, hemp, and jute, manufac-
tures of. ..................
Fruits .........................
Hair, and manufactures of......
Gunpowder and other explosives
India rubber and gutta-percha,
manufactures of .............
Iron and steel, manufactures of.
Jewelry and manufactures of
gold and silver .......... ..
Leather, and manufactures of...
Lime and cement .............
M alt liquors..................
Musical instruments ...........
Oils:
Mineral, refined............
All other..................
Paints and painters' colors......
Paper and stationery ...........


Domestic exports from-


The The
United States, United King-
1889-'90. dom, 1889.


Dollars.
I, 065,445
57,500

1,321,256

122,611
38,458
1.493
476,079
27,909
i6,326
30,826

316,986
794

4,396

3,697
1,424,125

7,419
30, 899
802
1,337
23,870

44, 830
22, 719
9,448
36, 133


Dollars.

1,825,079

4, 309, 295

6I, 841

2,420,266
7,742,6t
1, 71, 045



2,409,978

............485
235,485


France, Germany,
1889. 1888-'89.

Dollars. Dollars.

196,911 10o,908
...... ............
267,738 ............

323, 771 334, 390
31, i6o 50, 694

2, oo, 580 1,792, 854
473, 905 433,636
2,711,495 298,452
219,781 ... .........


I8 107 ............
19, 704, 072 I, 538, 388


............
552,854
6o6,794
105,519
............


168, 707
443,692
848,883


485,377
2,527,684





I14,493

506,o90


96,628
. . .. . .
............


Spain,
1889.

Dollars.





134,787
............
85, 872
6, 632
279,242
8, 217

3I,401
112,253
6, 601


8 . . .. ...

86,632 ...........
3,480,512 1 2,437

877,744 .. ......
466,004 5, 563

205,394 ............
237,484 4, 906

238 '. ...........
3,094 i 91,487

594, 286 *295, o00


Italy,
z889.

Dollars.





51,917


1,255,465


.. . .


Belgium,
1888.

Dollars.


115,221
917,136


26,

5,
534,
301,
75,


591,931 212,


204,773


10, 808

2, 895
II,966


248
.... g
018 m
224
273
849


300 s


965 -
,.


950, 139


6, 369

579
1,351


895, 134 I2, 9
. 8 12, 931
*1, 388, 442 141,469


I


.... .... .. '
.. ... .. .
.. .. .





Exports to the Argentine Republic, by principal articles-Continued.

Domestic exports from-


Articles.


Provisions, including meat and
dairy products ............
R ice ............... ...........
Salt................... .......
Silk, manufactures of..........
Spirits, distilled ...............
Starch ........................
Sugar, refined .................
Tobacco, and manufactures of..
Vegetables ....................
Wearing apparel ..............
W ine .........................
Wood, and manufactures of.....
Wool, manufactures of.........
All other articles ..............

Total .... .............


The
United States,
1888-'9o.

Dollars.
65,286


190
4. 703
3,041
15, o67
25
92, 752
I, 005
(t)
130
I, 795, o29
242
862, 799

8,322,627


51,983,364 32,751,864


* Including books, etc.


The
United King-
dom, 1889.

Dollars.
261, 993
... ........ .
............
262, 392




............
473, 063


4, o097, 880
3,550,808


France,
1889.


Dollars.
78, 942


319, 969
383, 314

2,850,343
22, 325

1,455,798
10, 242,643
1,489,558
1, 86, 970
2,595.529


Germany,
z888-'89.


Dollars.
............
358,190
............
278, 698

25, 704
99,oo8
82,586

719,474

642, 838
I, 924, 944
1,551,284

14,851,676


Spain,
.889.


Dollars.
117,628
............
265, 667
43,327
6, 64



38,087

2,355,566
6, 121
342,896
164,537

4,414,292


t Not specified.


I


-----i- I I I


Italy,
1889.


Dollars.
556, 998
...........

418,424
107,308





1,999,480
39, 211
462,621
802, 687

9,152, 060


Belgium,
1888.


Dollars.
193
7,334

386 g
1,351 g
46,899 g
o06,922 M
3,474 ,
6,562 Z
8,685 t

21,809
287, 570
399,510o

4,191,767 0






ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.


The money, weights, and measures of the Argentine Republic
and the United States equivalents are as follows:
Money.-The silver peso fuerte, or silver dollar, of 1oo centavos,
the monetary unit, is worth in money of the United States 96.5
cents (January, 1892). The forced paper currency since the begin-
ning of 1885 has caused a great depreciation in the value of the
paper dollar, which was worth in 1891 27 cents, gold. Other
coins are, in gold, the argentine, of 5 pesos, worth $4.824, and
the Y argentine; and, in silver, divisions of the peso, of 50, 20, 10,
and 5 centavos. The copper coins are the 2 and 1 centavo pieces.
Weights and Measures.-The quintal =1 1.28 pounds avoirdu-
pois; the arroba of 2 5 libras= 25.32 pounds avoirdupois; the
fanega = 3.89 bushels; the vara of 3 pies = 34.12 + inches; the
frasco= 2.51 liquid quarts. On January i, 1887, the use of the
French metric system was made compulsory.
The country has adopted the double monetary standard or
bimetallic system, with the gold or silver peso as the monetary
unit, fixing the weight of the first at 1.6129 grammes, 900 fine,
and the second at 25 grammes of equal fineness. The gold coin-
age of the country is limited; that of silver can not exceed 4
pesos and the copper 20 centavos for each inhabitant.
The paper money, extending from the 5-centavo note to the 500-
peso bank bill, had in the latter part of 1890 a circulation of
$212,901,535, besides about $35,116,000 put in circulation with-
out sanction of the law. In March, 1892, the total circulation
was estimated to have increased to $255,300,000.











Bolivia.


Executive Authority.-The executive power is exercised by the
President of the Republic, with certain ministers of state who con-
stitute his cabinet. The President is elected for four years by
direct and secret ballot of all citizens who can read and write. He
can not be reflected to succeed himself. The first and second
Vice-Presidents are elected in the same manner, and they, in the
absence, illness, or other inability of the President, perform his
functions in turn. The annual salary of the President is $24,ooo,
that of the first Vice-President is $6,ooo and that of the second
$5,ooo. The cabinet consists of the following five ministers: Of
Foreign Relations and Worship (who is usually the chief of the
cabinet), of Finance and Industry, of Government and Coloniza-
tion, of Justice and Public Instruction, and of War. The salary
of each minister is $5,ooo.
Legislative Authority.-The legislative power is vested in the
National Congress, composed of a Senate and a Chamber of
Deputies, the former consisting of eighteen members, two from each
Department, elected by direct vote of the people. The Deputies
are elected in the same manner and number sixty-eight. Both
chambers convene annually on the 6th of August in commemora-
tion of the fact that on that day, in the year 1826, the first Con-
gress, called together in Chuquisaca or Sucre, declared the inde-
pendence of the country, which thereby was separated from Peru
and took the name of Bolivia in honor of its liberator, Simon
Bolivar. The salaries of Senators and Deputies amount to $200
per month during the ninety days of the session of the chamber.
Judicial Authority.-The supreme tribunal or supreme court of
53







BOLIVIA.


justice sits at Sucre, the official capital of the Republic, which is
also the seat of the Tribunal of Accounts (valores). There are
also in the Republic seven judicial districts, and in each a superior
court, which sits in each of the department capitals and supervises
the judges, attorneys, etc.
AREA AND POPULATION.
The Republic of Bolivia is divided into 9 departments, one of
them, the Littoral, being occupied by Chile; the 8 remaining de-
partments are themselves subdivided into 46 provinces, 363 can-
tons, and 207 vice-cantons
According to the most recent data, the area of Bolivia is 784,554
square miles, but its extension is uncertain on account of the indefi-
nite state of the eastern and southern frontier line, and other au-
thorities place it at 526,141 square miles, 515,156 square miles, and
even as low as 1o6,177 square miles, the latter being the estimate
of the Bolivian delegate to the International Railway Conference.
The population, according to the last census, is 2,333,350 in-
habitants, of whom 1,ooo,ooo are aborigines or Indians of pure
blood, 700,000 half castes, and the other 6oo,ooo creoles, descend-
ants of Europeans; a recent Bolivan estimate (1892) places the
population (based upon local censuses and calculated approxi-
mately where no census was had) at 1,184,900 inhabitants.
Area and population of departments.

Departments. Areain sure Population.
Departments miles. option.

Sucre or Chuquisaca............................ 72,796 360,680
La Paz .................................... 44,552 642,650
Potosi ............................. .......... 55.400 300,000
Cochabamba ................................... 36,810 450, 300
Oruro ..................................... ... 25,640 170,00ooo
Santa Cruz ........................ ......... 140, 80 200,500
Tarija .................................. 112,545 140,560
Veni ............................ ............. ..... ... ... .. 295, 631 68,650
Total ............. ............ .......... 784,554 2,333,350












- I


I -~
il,1


-a


-" -- __.T ._ -.- .

MINT, POT08osi, BOLIVIA.


-J: -


A\-A






BOLIVIA.


Internal Organization.-The civil government of the departments
is vested in a prefect, who is immediately subject to the executive
power. There are subprefects, who reside in the provincial capi-
tals, as the prefect resides in the departmental capitals. The can-
tons are administered by corregidores and alcaldes.
Population of departmental capitals.

Sucre (capital of the Republic and Potosi ......................... 944
of the Department of Sucre) ... g1, ooo Santa Cruz ..................... xo, 288
La Paz (present residence of the Oruro......................... 8, 520
Government) ................ 56,849 Bernardo de Tarija ............. 8, 380
Cochabamba................... 19, 507 Trinidad ....................... 4535

Religion.-The Roman Catholic religion is alone recognized by
the State and is the only one which can be publicly practiced, but
other religions are tolerated. The government of the Bolivian
church is vested in the archbishop of Sucre and the bishops of La
Paz, Cochabamba, and Santa Cruz.
Education.-Public instruction is divided into primary, second-
ary, and superior. The first, which is free and obligatory, is af-
forded by 493 municipal, private, and parochial schools, distributed
throughout the Republic, with an attendance of 24,224 pupils.
Secondary instruction is given in 19 colleges, of which 8 are for
males, 6 for girls, and 5 are private lyceums. Besides these insti-
tutions for secondary instruction there are also 4 seminaries, the num-
ber of students being 2,658. Higher instruction is afforded by 4
universities, which have 850 students of law, medicine, and theology.
Finance.-According to the report of the minister of finance,
presented to the Congress, in 1890, the internal debt amounts to
4,484,916 bolivianos and the foreign debt to 3,763,273 bolivi-
anos. The latter is being greatly reduced. The national budget
for 1891 estimated the revenues at 3,321,280 bolivianos and the
expenditures at 3,613,697 bolivianos. The budgets for the eight
departments for the same year were as follows: Revenue,
1,384,949 bolivianos, and expenditures, 1,397,025 bolivianos.






BOLIVIA.


Army.-The regular army is at present very small, including not
more than 1,112 men. There is, however, a large national guard,
well organized and disciplined, consisting of not less than 20,000
men, and which can be doubled in case of war.
Resources and Products.-The natural wealth of Bolivia is very
great. In the animal kingdom there are in the cold regions the
alpaca, whose wool is especially fine and much esteemed in com-
merce, and the llama, the guanaco, and the vicugna, which are of
the same species. The wool of the last named is used for very fine
cloth. There are found also the chinchilla, the nutria, and other
fur-bearing animals. In the temperate regions abound th, wool-
bearing animals, the hairy goat, as well as cattle, horses, and mules.
The African dromedary is acclimated in the south of Bolivia, where
it lives and breeds. In the hot regions are found, ordinary cattle,
the sloth, the anta (or great beast), a great variety of deer, birds of
all kinds, and many kinds of fish in its rivers. The vegetable
kingdom is also extremely rich and varied, furnishing very fine
cabinet, dye, and building woods; the coca, whose medicinal
properties the pharmacopoeia utilizes as the best local anesthetic;
the coffee of Tungas, which competes with that of Mocha; the
cacao, which is claimed to be superior to that of other countries of
South America; vanilla; sugar cane; gum elastic, or caoutchouc,
which is found in inexhaustible quantities; corn, wheat, potatoes,
su eet potatoes, yucca, plantains, and tubers of all kinds; all the
fruits, grains, and vegetables known in temperate and tropical
climates; cotton, of three different natural colors; the cork tree,
which furnishes corks; the wax tree; hemp; quillay or vegetable
soap; linseed, agave, hemp, etc. Among medicinal products there
are cinchona, jalap, sarsaparilla, tamarind, palma Cristi, copaiba.
ipecacuanha, gum arabic, camphor, tobacco, balsams, etc.
The chief wealth of Bolivia is her mineral deposits, but insuffi-
cient communications have greatly retarded their development.
Gold and silver are found in great abundance throughout almost






BOLIVIA.


the entire country. The silver production of 1890 was about
603,791 lbs., and for 6 months (in 1891), 373,627 lbs. The total
value of the output of 1890 was estimated at 11,020,691
bolivianos, and that of the silver mines from 1545 to 1826 at
3406,366,035 Spanish milled dollars, and from 1826 to 1846 at
39,101,022 pesos. The copper is of superior quality. There are
also many mines of tin, lead, bismuth, mercury, platinum, iron,
zinc, coal, rock crystal, alum, magnetic ore, talc, etc. Of precious
stones there are found emeralds, opals, agate, lapis-lazuli, alabaster,
berenguela (a species of translucent alabaster); and jasper, mar-
bles of all kinds and colors, slates, pumice stone, granite, syenite,
porphyry, basalt, chalk, saltpeter, borax, common salt, magnesia,
etc., are more or less abundant.
Banking.-The chief bank is the Banco Nacional de Bolivia, at
Sucre, with branches at La Paz, Potosi, etc. Its paid-up capital
amounts to 2,600,000 bolivianos and its circulation to 4,010,293
bolivianos. The Banco de Potosi, with a paid-up capital of
1,ooo,ooo bolivianos, has a circulation of 1,320,882 bolivianos.
These are the principal banks of emission. Other institutions
are the Credito Hipotecario, subscribed capital 1,o0o,ooo bolivi-
anos; Banco Garantizador de Valores, and Banco Hipotecario
National.
COMMERCE.
The commerce of Bolivia is much more considerable than is
usually given in the published statistics, either in Europe or in the
United States, where Bolivia cuts but little figure in commer-
cial transactions. Bolivia has always imported most of its foreign
products through the Peruvian port of Arica and has exported from
the same port all of its rich and varied products; consequently no
reliable data exist as to the imports and exports of Bolivia through
the several channels, whether by the Amazon, by the Plata, by the
Peruvian ports, or by the ports now in the possession of Chile.
During the war of the Pacific there were exported through the
ports of the Argentine Republic, according to data published in







BOLIVIA.


Buenos Ayres in 1881, $15,200,000 worth of unworked silver ore,
and that, too, from the southern departments only. In 1881 the
value of that export rose to more than $17,000,000, and reached
almost $21,000,000 the following year. These facts suffice by
themselves to prove that the insignificant figures set down as repre-
senting the Bolivian commerce are merely conjectural, the statisti-
cians copying one another's figures without making independent
investigations. The foreign commerce of Bolivia may be esti-
mated at more than $35,000,000 a year, of which probably
$20,000,000 are exports. One authority estimates the commerce
of 1887 at 5,720,000 bolivianos for imports and 12,260,000 bolivi-
anos for exports. The direct trade between the United States
and Bolivia amounts to almost nothing, none of the Bolivian
products being imported into the United States-some of them
by reason of the cost of transportation and others because of the
high duties which they have to pay.
In Bolivia, on the other hand, a great quantity of American dry
goods, drillings, hardware, machinery, and kerosene are used. The
trade of Bolivia is principally with England, France, and Ger-
many, and the neighboring countries. The following tables, from
their official statistics, indicate its commerce for several years with
the three principal countries:
Exports of domestic merchandise from the countries specified to Bolizia by principal articles.

Countries and articles. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 189o. 1891.

From the United States:
Iron and steel, and manu- Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
fractures of........... .... .. ....... 7,707 1,278 2,279 169
Cotton, manufactures of.......... I1,304 373 749 3,125 2,296
W ood, manufactures of.... ........ ........ 3,014 ....... 15 50
Tobacco, and manufac-
tures of ........................ ........ 2,369 ............... .. ........
Chemicals, drugs, etc .... .... ... 948 312 ........ 2,659
Provisions (meat and dairy I
products) ................. ... .... 2,036 .............. .....
All other articles ................ ... 4 4,446 4,499 3, 993 I, 1206
Total .................. (*) 1,304 21,893 6,838 II,oo2 6,380
Not stated.













































2Js
L" LaL


NATIVE BRIDGE. BOLIVIA.









BOLIVIA.


Exports of domestic merchandise from the countries specified to Bolivia by principalarticles-
Continued.


Countries and articles.

From the United Kingdom:
Iron, wrought and un-
wrought ...............
Machinery and mill work .
Coal, cinders, and fuel ....
Carriages, railway, and
parts of...............
Cottons .................
Bags and empty sacks ....
Hardware and cutlery....
"All other articles ........

Total ..................

From France:
Sugar, refined ...........
Spirits and liquors........
All other articles .........

T otal ..................


x886.



Dollars.
61, 751
56,130
8, 755

9,548
14,696
8,565
7,051
84,319


1887.



Dollars.
192, 514
80, 205
29,044

7, 514
17. 412
15,539
4, 604
64, 947


1888.


Dollars.
250, 255
64,286
37, 200

66,929
14, 628
4, 887
3, I9
98,955


1889. 1890.



Dollars. Dollars.


Dollars.


260,815 411,779 540,259 None. None. None.


2 7,461 5,946 9,321 4, 856 ......
1, 268 (*) 7,899 (*) (*)
1,348 1,031 24,627 2,274 13,157


2,618


8,492 38,472 11,595


8,o013 ........


Not stated.

Imports into the countries specified from Bolivia by principal articles.


Countries and articles. z886. 1887.

Into the United States: Dollars. Dollars.
Hair............................. ........
Tampico fiber ...........................
All other articles ................ ........


Total ..................

Into the United Kingdom:
Cubic niter ..............
Copper..................
Guano .................
All other articles..........

Total .............. ..

Into France:
Nitrate of soda.........
All other articles.........


i888.


Dollars.


1889. x8go. i 891.


Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
1, 477 ........ ..
........ ........ 3,734
649 30.........


(*) None. None. 2, 26 30 3,734


524, 127 528, 585 362.700 ........................
158, 969 173,199 243,072 ........................
236, 91x ....................................
7,640 8,468 87, 938 ........................

927,647 710, 252 693,710 None ..............


139, 269 (*) 89, 668 473,704 327, 371 .......
1no 3,Ix6 ........ 34,705 59 .......


Total. ................ 139,379 3, I6 89,668 508,409 327,430 .....


*Not stated.


. ... ...
.... ... .
- -j
...~ii ..
- - /








BOLIVIA.


Imports from Bolivia by principal articles.

The The
Article. United United France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Belm
Articles. States, Kingdom, 1889. 888-'. 889. 1889
'889-'go.i 1889.

Dollars. Dllar. Dollars. Dollars. rs. Dollars. Dollars.
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes ....... 362, 700 74 5,474 ....... ....... ......
Ores ................... ....... 243,072 .... 539 070 ...... ..........
All other articles........... 30 87,938 34,7051 29,988 ...6 .........
1~~ ~ 3475 +++ ... ...


16 ..... .
I 1 .


Total.................. 30 693,710 508,4o09574,532


Exports from the following-named countries to Bolivia by principal articles.


Articles.


Carriages, carts, and cars...
Coal ...................
Copper,and manufactures of.
Cotton, manufactures of....
Flax, hemp, and jute, man-
ufactures of..............
Iron and steel, and manu-
factures of...............
Malt liquors ..............
Silk, manufactures of.......
Soap.....................
Sugar, refined. ...........
Wearing apparel...........
Wood, and manufactures of.
Wool, manufactures of...
All other articles...........

Total.................


The i The
United United
States, Kingdom,
1889-'9o. 1889.


Dollars.
980


3,125

280

2,279




(*)
15
410
3,913


Dollars.
66,929
37, 189

14,638


Domestic exports from-

France, Germany, Spain,
1889. i888-'89. 1889.


Dollars.


4,886 .......


317, 661
676

394

I,884


96, ooI


11, 002 540, 258


*Not specified.


9,320



2,274


Dollars.


17, 136
49,028


Italy, Belgium,
1889. x888.


Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.



. . . :::


2,856 ........... ....

27,846 ..............
1o,948 .............. .. ..
12,138 .............. ......


28, 322 ......... ......
3, 570 ...... .... ...... ..
49, 504 ...... ...............
40,460 .............. ......


11,594 241,808 ........ (f) (t)


tSee Colombia.


Railways and Telegraph.-Bolivia has telegraphic communica-
tion with the Argentine Republic on the south, the line extending

from Tupisa to Sucre and Potosi, where it connects with a line to
the port of Antofagasta on the Pacific. On the north it is con-
nected with Peru from La Paz. Connection has been made be-
tween La Paz and Sucre by way of Oruro, with a branch to






BOLIVIA.


Cochabamba. In this way the principal cities of Bolivia are con-
ected by telegraph, and through Chile and the Argentine Repub-
lic there is communication with the rest of the world. The railway
line, which starts at Antofagasta, has reached Oruro, situated in
-he center of the elevated plateau of Bolivia, 573 miles from An-
Yofagasta. A concession has just been made for the extension of
SBolivian line from Arequipa, Mollendo, and Puno, in Peru, as
iar as La Paz. The line from the Argentine Republic has almost
reached the Bolivian frontier.
The postal movement of 1889 amounted to 928,851 pieces, and
the post-offices were in number 81.
Money.-The boliviano, or dollar, of ioo centesimos, was struck
on the basis of the 5-franc piece; present value (January, 1892),
69.1 cents in United States currency. The gold onza is nominally
!equal to 17% silver pesos. The value of the coinage at the Gov-
ernment mint at Potosi in 1889 was 797,793 bolivianos; in 1890,
887,387 bolivianos, and for the first six months of 1891, 808,920
bolivianos.
lWeights and Measures.-The libra, 1.014 pounds avoirdupois;
the quintal, 1014 pounds avoirdupois; the arroba, of 25 pounds,
25.35 pounds avoirdupois; the arroba of wine or spirits, 8.o44 gal-
lons; the galon, 0.999 gallon; the vara, 0.914 yard; the square
!vara, 0.835 square yard.











United States of Brazil.


The Republic of Brazil occupies nearly half of the continent of
South America. It is bounded on the north by Guiana, Venezu-
ela, and Colombia; on the northeast, east, and southeast by the
Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay.
Its greatest length is about 2,600 miles and the extent of its coast-
line is nearly 3,800 miles. Brazil claims the largest number of
navigable rivers of any country in the world. Although situated
mainly in the torrid zone, the climate is generally agreeable and
not unhealthy.
Executive.-The President of Brazil is elected for a term of four
years, by direct suffrage, but he can not be reElected to succeed
himself. He appoints the cabinet ministers and exercises much
the same powers as those vested in the President of the United
States. The Vice-President, who succeeds the President in case
of death or disability of the latter, is ineligible to the Presidency
if he fills that office during the last year of the Presidential term.
Cabinet ministers are also ineligible to the Presidency during their
continuance in office.
Legislative.-The legislature of the Republic consists of a Sen-
ate and a Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber of Deputies con-
sists of members elected by the people of the States and of the
Federal District in the proportion of one for each 70,000 of the
population, and there must be at least three from each State. The
deputies serve 3 years. The Senate consists of 3 senators from each
State and 3 from the Federal District, elected by direct suffrage.
The senators serve for 9 years, one-third going out every 3 years.
Judicial.-The judiciary consists of a Federal Supreme Court
62








UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL. 63

nd of such subordinate tribunals as the legislature may provide.
She Supreme Court consists of 15 members, who are appointed
y the President and hold their seats for life. There are also
municipal magistrates and justices of the peace, elective officers,
hose chief function is the settlement of disputes by arbitration.
besides the Federal courts, each State has its own tribunals, with
jurisdiction within its limits.

AREA AND POPULATION.

The area of Brazil is estimated to be 3,251,829 English square
iles, divided into a Federal District and twenty States. The
ensus of 1872 gave the population at 9,930,478: males, 5,123,-
169; females, 4,806,609. This census, only a partial one, was
ot considered reliable.
The following table, based on an official estimate, gives the
population and area of each State in 1888 and shows the present
arrangement of the country's subdivision into States under the
ew constitution:

Area in Density per
States. English square Popuation square mile,
S miles. 888 1888.


Federal District .................
Amazonas.........................
Par ............................
M aranhao .........................
Piauhy ..........................
Cear..............................
Rio Grande do Norte .............
Parahiba ..... .................
Pernambuco....................
Alagoas ................ ........
Sergipe ........................
Bahia......... ...............
Espirito Santo ....................
Rio de Janeiro ...................
Santa Catharina ...................
Rio Grande do Sul................
Minas Geraes....................
Matto Grosso ...................
Goyaz .........................
Paran .......... ... ...........
Sao Paulo. .....................

Total ................ .....


538
732,470
443, 922
177, 569
iz6,529
40,253
22, 196
28,855
49,575
22,584
7,370
164,650
17,313
26,635
28, 633
91,337
221, 961
532,705
288,549
85,455
112, 330

3, 251, 829


406,958
8o,654
407, 350
488,443
266,933
952,625
308, 852
496, 618
I, II, 831
459,371
232, 640
1, 821, 089
121, 562
1,164,468
236, 346
564,527
3,018, 807
79,750
211, 721
187,548
386, 242

I4,002,335


756.000
o.IIo
0. 110
0.910
2. 700
2. 200
23. 60o
13.900
17. ooo
22.000
20. 000
31. ooo
11. 000
7.000
43. 700
8.6oo
6. i8o
13.580
0.149
0.770
2. 190
12. 340

4.360







UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


Brazil was the last country in America to abolish slavery. The
official return of 1887 gave the number of slaves as 723419, of
the value of 485,325,212 milreis. On May 13, 1888, slavery was
abolished by law, without compensation to the slave-owners. The
Indian population is estimated to be about 600,ooo, and this ele-
ment preponderates in the northern States. In the seaports the
population is chiefly of European descent. In four of the States
the negroes are numerous.
It is estimated that 500,000 immigrants entered the ports of
Rio and Santos in the 17 years from 1871 to 1888. During the
36 years from 1855 to 1890, 883,315 immigrants are estimated
to have landed in the southern ports, more than 36 per cent being
Italians and 33 per cent Portuguese. The subjoined table gives
the immigration for 8 years into the southern ports of Brazil alone:
Immigration.
r882....................... 27,197 1887....... ............... 54,990
1883....................... 28,670 888 .............. ........ 131,745
1884....................... 20,087 1889....................... 65,161
1885....................... 30,135 1890o....................... 107,100
1886 ....................... 25,741 1891....................... 216,659

Of the immigration in 1889 more than 50 per cent (or 34,920)
was Italian and about 27 per cent Portuguese, while in 189o the
Italian immigration had fallen to less than 30 per cent and the
Russian or Polish and Portuguese was 25 per cent each.

Below is found a list of the principal cities, with the population
of each.
Cities of5,ooo inhabitants and over.

Rio de Janeiro*...... ..... 515,559 Campinas ................. 35,000
Bahia ..................... 162,065 Maranhao ............. ...35,ooo
Pernambuco............... 130,00ooo Santos ................... 35,00ooo
Sao Paulo......... ....... 75,000 Porto Alegre................ 3,000oo
Pard ..................... 60,ooo Ceard .................... 25,ooo
Pelotas................... ..45,000oo Ouro Preto ............... 20,000oo
Campos................... 40,ooo Parahiba................. 20,000oo
*The late municipal census gives Rio de Janeiro nearly I,ooo,ooo inhabitants.



















































MANAOS, CAPITAL OF AMAZONAS, BRAZIL.









UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.

Cities of s,ooo inhabitants and over-Continued.


Rio Grande ..............
Cuyab ....................
Sao Leopoldo .............
Matto Grosso ..............
AlagOas..................
M acei6............ .......
Itajahy ...................
Curitiba...................
Diamantina ...............
M acaio ....................
Alcantara...... ....... ...
Braganga..................
N atal .................. ..
Paraty ................ .....
Itl ........................
Caxias .....................
Rio Pardo..................
Cascavel ...................
Mendonga... ..............
Meia Ponte...............


i8, ooo
15,ooo
15,000
15,o00o
5,00oo
i5,ooo
14, 000

12,000
10,000
10,000
Io, 000
10,000
10,000
10,000
10,000


8, 960
8,124
8, ooo


Tamandua..................
Paranagua .................
Castro deAvelaus..........
Olinda..................
Santarem ...................
Theresina .... .............
Goyaz ......................
Ico .........................
Jacarahy ...................
Panagua...................
Campamba ................
Jaguarao ...................
Desterro ...................
M anaos ....................
Aracaty ....................
Cangussh ..................
Campo Major...............
Caravellas ..................
Victoria..................


Religion.-Roman Catholicism was the established religion
under the Empire, but, although the church politically had a large
following, the religious feeling in the cities was not very deep.
The better educated only yielded a discreet assent to the forms
and observances of the church. Under the new constitution there
is a complete separation of church and state. A citizen who is
in any way bound by religious vows is ineligible to office and can
not be an elector. Absolute equality is decreed for all forms of
religious worship. The Government, by a decree, continues to
provide for the maintenance of the existing functionaries of the
Catholic church and for one year to support the chairs in the sem-
inaries. Ecclesiastically Brazil constitutes a province with a met-
ropolitan archbishop, whose seat is at Bahia, 11 suffragan bishops,
12 vicars-general, and 2,000 curates. There are 11 seminaries for
the private instruction of the clergy. Under the new constitution
only the civil marriage is recognized in the federal law and is
celebrated without payment of fee.
Education.-Public education has been divided into primary,
secondary or preparatory, and scientific or higher education. The
Bull. 50---5


8,000
8,ooo
8,000
8,ooo
8,ooo
7,ooo
7,ooo
7,ooo
7,ooo
7,ooo
7,ooo
6,6oo
6,ooo
6,ooo
6, ooo
6,ooo
6,ooo
5,400
5, ooo
5,000








UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


General Government maintains 2 schools each of law and medi-
cine, a school of mines, a polytechnic, a military, and a naval
school. It is provided in the new constitution that all public
education shall be secular. A national college at Rio, with 20
classes, has (1889) 600 pupils. In most of the chief towns of the
States there is a middle class and a normal school. By the new
constitution the Federal Government or the States may establish
institutions of secondary or higher instruction, except in the Fed-
eral district, where the Federal Government alone has that power.
An official announcement in 1889 gives the number of public and
private schools at 7,500, with a total attendance of 300,000 pupils;
1,902,455 of the total population of 1881 were of the school age
(between 6 and 15). The return gives the number of illiterates
at 8,365,997, or 84 per cent of the population.

FINANCE.

The subjoined table shows the actual revenue and expenditures
from 1883 to 1890 in milreis, that of 1886-1887 being for 18
months. Since 1887 the fiscal year corresponds with the calendar
year.
Revenue and expenditures.

Fiscal year. Revenue. Expenditures.

Milrtis. Milreis.
1883-'84 ................................... 130,444,00oo 154 257, ooo
1884-'85 ................ ................. 118,764,000 156, 173,ooo
1885-'86 .................................. 124,275,00ooo 149,774,00ooo
1886-1887 (I8 months)...................... 201,425,ooo 229, 663, 800
1888................ ...................... 144,969,654 147,350,538
1889....................................... 16o,060,744 I84,565,947
1890....................................... 185,924, 000 229, 288, II8
189 1........ .............................. 208,358,ooo 226,ooo,ooo

The official budget for 1892 presented to the Congress esti-
mated the revenues from all sources at 180,444,ooc milreis and
the expenditures at 240,724,558; but these estimates were modi-







UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


fied so as to fix the expenditures at 205,948,264 milreis, with a
probable revenue of 207,992,120.
The expenditures apportioned to the various departments are as
follows: Milreis.
Milreis.
Interior........................................ ... 5,028, 843
Public Instruction, Posts, and Telegraphs................ 13, 593, 320
Justice ............................... .............. 4, 477, 805
Foreign Affairs ..................... .... .............. 1,427, 6oo
Agriculture, Commerce, and Public Works .............. 67,172, 576
Navy .......... ... .................................... 4, 298, 764
W ar... ............. ........................... ... .. 29. 116,028
Finance .................... .................. ......... 70,833,328
205,948, 264
The total public debt of Brazil in December, 1891, according
to an official statement, was $436,890,864. The foreign loans
of Brazil, as officially given in December, 1891, were about
$144,441,o88, the redemption of which is to be accomplished by
a sinking fund of 1 per cent. The internal debt, amounting to
$292,449,776, is chiefly represented by apolices or bonds bearing
5 per cent interest.
Army and Navy.-Under the constitution the army and navy, in
its organization and distribution, are subject to congressional con-
trol. Service in the army, drawn by lot, is obligatory, and there
is no exemption from military service by purchase. By law of
Congress passed in December, 1891, the active force of the army
is limited to 20,000 men, with their officers, 6oo cadets of the
military school and 400 of the school of artillery, the whole stand-
ing army amounting to 24,877, which number may be doubled
under extraordinary circumstances. Enlisted men must be at
least eighteen years of age. Volunteers, and enlisted men who
present themselves for the drawing of lots within the time speci-
fied, serve for three years; but those who do not present them-
selves within thirty days serve for four years, and those who delay
still longer are held to six years' service. The navy in 1889 was
composed of 5 first-class, 6 second-class, and 3 third-class torpedo
boats, 4 seagoing and 6 coast-defence armor-clads, and a torpedo







UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


school-ship. The vessels of the unprotected class include 5
cruisers, 2 corvettes, 17 gunboats, 2 transports, and a number of
auxiliary and other vessels. The naval force consists of 3,012
marines, a naval battalion of 990 noncommissioned officers and
privates, 300 firemen, and 3,000 naval apprentices (midshipmen).
The navy consists of 10 ironclads, 5 cruisers, 3 training-ships, 8 tor-
pedo boats, 15 gunboats for river service, and 2 transports. There
are 5 naval arsenals, situated respectively in Pari, Pernambuco,
Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, and Matto Grosso. The arsenal at Rio em-
ploys from 3,500 to 4,000 men, and in its yards was recently con-
structed the steel cruiser ilm'raintc Tamnandarc, of 4,500 tons burden.
Resources and Products.-Naturally an agricultural country, only
a small part of its soil has been brought under cultivation. Coffee
and sugar are, in the order named, the chief products of the coun-
try. Both its forests and mines are of great value, but compara-
tively little has been done for their development. It is known
that iron abounds, yet lack of coal in the vicinity prevents the
working of the mines in the interior on a large scale. Manganese
is found in Santa Catharina, copper in Rio Grande do Sul, Minas,
and Ceara, lead in Rio Grande and Saio Paulo. In 1888 the
cotton mills numbered 90 and the number was increasing. There
are about 17,000,000 head of cattle. The coffee is cultivated
principally in three states, and the value of this product therein
in 1887 was in round numbers $65,000,000. The coffee sent to
the market of Rio alone in 1891 is estimated at $37,500,000.
The lands suited to the production of sugar are practically un-
limited in extent, cotton produces abundantly, and the cultivation
of the manioc and of cocoa is increasing.
Rubber is the principal product of the Amazon Valley, and
33,000,000 pounds were exported from Pari in 1888.
Railways and Telegraphs.-In 1889 the railways, 84 in number,
were of a total length of 5,582 English miles; 984 miles were in
process of construction and about 5,000 miles projected. Four-
teen of these lines belong to the State directly, and 49 in all are







UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


more or less sustained by its guaranty. These railways are mostly
of a .single track, and about 75 per cent of the 1-meter gauge.
The telegraph system was organized and constructed by the
Government and is under its control. In 1890 there were 12,467
miles of wire, and the total length of the lines was 7,765 miles.
The telegraph stations numbered 197. Brazil has telegraphic
communication by cable with the United States by three lines:
With Montevideo, thence across to the Pacific coast, and by the
Pacific coast cable to the Isthmus, and thence to Galveston; by
the Western and Brazilian cable to Europe and thence to New
York; by the French cable via the West Indies to Florida.
There were in 890 2,733 post-offices; the business of the offices
amounted in 1890 to 18,822,148 letters and about 19,000,000
newspapers and other printed matter.
Banking.--Nineteen banks in 1888 transacted nearly the whole
banking business of the country. Their paid-up capital amounted
to about 101,000,000 milreis, with a reserve of 19,5oo,ooo; the
deposits were in round numbers 132,000,000. In 1889 the sav-
ings bank of the country held 22,851,000 milreis. The circula-
tion in Brazil is almost entirely paper money, amounting in (the
beginning of) 1891 to 448,453,224 milreis, 171,081,414 of which
were treasury notes and 11,337,350 in notes of the Bank of Brazil.
The bank issue on gold deposits was 191,830,460 and on bond
deposits 74,204,000 .The total circulation of paper money on the
ist of June, 1892, is officially given as 525,667,337 milreis.
In the year preceding the downfall of the Empire and in the
first year of the Republic many new banks were established and
the paper currency enormously increased. In the capital alone
the two banks, the Bank of the Republic and the Credito Popular,
by their emissions of paper money in 1891 added about 150,000,000
milreis to the circulation. Par pass with the- inflation of the
currency its value fell, until the milreis was worth only 20% cents
in gold, its par value being 54.6 cents.








UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


COMMERCE.

The commerce of Brazil is principally with Great Britain,
United States, France, and Germany. The principal articles of
import in the order of their value are cotton goods, wines and
spirits, preserved meats and fish, woolen goods, farinaceous food,
manufactures of iron and steel, coal, and manufactures of hides
and leather. The exports of the country are coffee, India rubber,
sugar, raw cotton, hides, and tobacco. In 1891 the exports of coffee
from the port of Rio alone were 425,055,000 pounds, valued at
$42,000,000.
The following figures give the imports and exports for seven
years in milreis.
[The value of the milreis in the money of the United States is 54.6 cents.]

Imports. Exports.

MJilrcis. Milreis.
1883-'84 ................................... 202.531,000 217,072,000
1884-'85 .................. ........... 178,431,000 226,269,600
1885-'86 ................. .............. 197,501,500 194,961,620
1886-'87 (18 months)...................... 31o, 50o, ooo 365,592,000
18S8........................ .......... 260, 999,00o 212, 592,000
1889..................................... 221,621, ooo 309,000 ooo, ooo
1890 ....................................... 26o, 1o ,o oo 317,822,000


The entries in Brazilian ports in 1889 and 1890 were as follows:

Number. Tonnage.

Foreign trade:
Foreign vessels ............................ 5,926 4,954,929
Brazilian vessels........................... 897 355, 115
Coasting trade:
Foreign vessels ............................ 997 2,923,396
Brazilian vessels .......................... 5,258 2,649, 195
Total...... ............................. 14,078 10o,882, 534


The entries into the port of Rio from foreign countries in 1891
were 1,680 vessels.



















" ~ "--- -t C "' ,, .^ .. "- ---
-- 9P a


NICTHEROY, BAY OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.









UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


The commercial intercourse of Brazil with the United States
is shown in the subjoined tables from 1887 to 1891, the figures
being derived from the statistics of the United States for mer-
chandise only:

1887. ,888. 1889. 1890. 1891.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
Exports to the United States 52,953, 176 53, 710, 23460,403, 80459, 318, 75683, 230, 595
Imports from United States .. 8, 127, 883 7, 137, oo8 9, 351, 081 In, 902, 496 14, 120, 246

Commerce with the United States during the nine months
following April 1, 1891, on which date the reciprocity arrange-
ment with the United States went into effect, compared with cor-
responding period in 1890.

,89z. 1890. Increase.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
Exports to the United States ................ 79, 283, 244 52, 861, 383 26,421,861
Imports from the United States............. II,555,447 10, 071,871 1,483,576

There are no complete statistics of commerce issued, but the
foreign trade of the country is usually about double that of Rio
de Janeiro.
In the year 1888 the commerce of that port was: Imports,

133,471,925 milreis, and exports 95,752,919 milreis, divided
among the principal countries as follows:
Commerce by principal countries.

Imports. Exports.

Milreis. Milreis.
Great Britain ............................ 47,061, 811 4, 523, 178
United States ............................. 7, 322, 074 58, 488, 133
France .................................. 16, 969,942 7, 182, 531
Germany .................................. 13,254,684 10,485, 740
Argentine Republic ........................ 11, 069, 193 2, 202, 431
Portugal .................................. 7, 593, 344 337, 126
Belgium .................................. 5,361, 136 2,457,429
Uruguay.................. ............... 19,670, 637 887,259
Austria ............................... .... 346, 297 5,431,066
Italy ............................... .. I. 318, 844 814, 848









UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


Imports by principal articles into Rio de Janeiro in 1888 were:

Articles. Value. Articles. Value.

Milreis. Milreis.
Cottons.................. 26, 665, 390 Crockery and glassware.... i, 437, 963
W oolens. .. .............. 8, 261, 781 Linens ................... 2, 729, 67
Stones, earths, and other Silk ..................... 1,915,921
minerals................ 7,020, 355 Wood, and manufactures of. 1,413, 732
Gold, silver, and platinum.. 21,391, 575 Chemical and pharmaceu-
Meat, fish, etc ............. 17, 338, 941 tical products ........... 2, 103, 049
Vegetables, cereals, and Fruit and vegetable juices
farinaceous foods ....... 9,218,452 I and alcoholic drinks.... 7,364,204
Iron and steel ............. 4, 360, 732 Paints, varnishes .......... 3, 300, 105
Machinery and implements. 2, 589, 322 Hides and skins........... 3, 119, 326
Copper and its alloys ...... 1, 188, 684 Plants, leaves, flowers, etc .. 2, 598, 729
Paper, and manufactures of. 2, 363,730


Domestic exports by principal articles were:

Articles. Value. Articles. Value.

Milreis. Milreis.
Coffee.................. 92, 163, 816 Gold coin and bullion ..... 829, 849
H ides .................... 782, 156 Sugar .................... 566,768
Tobacco, and manufactures Diamonds ................ 88,768
of...................... 815,539 Rosewood ................ 93, 342


Export duties are levied by the states on certain of their own prod-
ucts, and the import duties are high. The subjoined tables give the
commerce of the country in detail with the three principal countries:

Imports into Brazil.


Articles.


From the United States:
Wheat flour............
Refined mineral oils....
Iron and steel, and man-
ufactures of...........
Cotton manufactures...
Lard ..... ............
Breadstuffs (other than
wheat flour) ...........
Wood, and manufac-
tures of ..............
AU other articles .......

Total ...............


1887. 1888.


Dollars. Dollars.
3,596,204 2,778,353
798, 976 832,367

709,686 679,252
705,638 665,986
379,021 369,067

81,939 33, 928


1889.

Dollars.
3, 651,908
937, 819

915, 752
631, 094
484,799

451,143


382, 353 384, 495 438,886
1, 417, 836 I, 320, 444 1,765, 11o


Dollars. Dollars.
3,304, 990 3, 838, 919
929, 8621 1, I25, 927


939,289
813, 700
I,509,255

I, 668, 666

494, 750
, 318, 748


2,243,686
58, 794
I, 304,970

547,202

873,631
I, o0, 575


8,071,6531 7,63,892 9,276,51 11, 902,49614,049, 273









UNITED STATES OE BRAZIL.

Imports into Brazil-Continued.


Articles.


x887.


From the United Kingdom: Dollars.
Cottons ................ 3, 923, 816
Iron, wrought and un-
wrought .............1 I,865,291
Machinery ............. 1,958, 898
Coal, cinders, and fuel .. 1, 312, 563
Woolens .............. I,514,o55
Leather................. i, oo,879
Hardware and cutlery ... 757, 622
All other articles ....... 6. oo. 358

Total................. 28, 344,482


From France:
Manufactures of hides
and leather............
Manufactures of wool....
Butter .................
Clothing, ready-made....
Manufactures of cotton..
Notions, including but-
tons.. ...............
Wines..................
All other articles........


2, I20,647
1,430, 558
1,254,751
1,533, 162
730,382

549,962
504,897
3,383,094


i888. 1 889. 1890. 1891.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
14,172,951 12, 167, 583 14,197,84312, 329,024

2,465,612 3, 193, 09! 5,103,158 5,088,089
2,389,758 2, 358, 369 3, 104,486 5,311,502
I, 536, 193 2, 294, 672 2,409, 380 2,946, 281
1,557,528 1,400,135 662,129 2,036,280
972,234 989, 345; I,262, 755 i, 292, 961
802, 40 6o8, 527 637, 370 868,953
6, 549, 853 7,317, 844 7,920, 292 10,443, 385


J3, 446, 269 30, 329, 566 36, 297, 413


2,364,911
I, 199, 325
, 665,163
I, 126, 161
707,670

925,125
616,775
3,876,735


Total.... ............ 1,507, 5312,481,865


2,217, 138
990, 495
1, 502,694
1,990, 517
724,645


I, 190,420
, 105, 021
2,319, 618
2, 359,092
834,440


40,323,475


311,420 931,530........
581,871 834,456.........
5,216,798 6,087, 772 ..........

13,525, 57815.635, o66.........


Exports from Brazil.


To the United States:
Coffee ............ .....
India rubber and gutta-
percha...............
Sugar, brown ..........
Hides and skins(not furs).
Wool, unmanufactured..
Other merchandise.....

Total.................

To the United Kingdom:
Caoutchouc............
Sugar, unrefined........
Cotton, raw............
Coffee.................
Fruits, including nuts...
Hides, raw.............
Bones (other than whale
fins).................
All other articles........

Total.................


36, 401, 864 33, 460, 595144, 891, 73945, 664, 127 62, 022, 022


8,279,194
5, 787,47E
, 683, 70;
58,415
742,518


[0. 811, 952
6, 752, 555
1,659, 286
65, oo0
960, 845


7, 569, 005
4,838,121
2, 232, 091
53, 752
819, 096


9, 157, 24812, 304,233
I, 659,251 5, 141, 109
2,177,882 2,515,344
163,163 196,453
241,554 265,860


52, 953, 176153, 710, 23460,403,80459 318,756 83,230,595


7, 811,292 7, 806, 392 8, 544, 202 9,285,584 5, 591, 562
2, 336, 241 6,945,698 2,416, 734 I, 262, 219 1,488, 587
7, 516, 804 5,370,348 3,441,238 3, 270, 239 3,314,111
5,335,6o6 2,392,478 7, 207, 437 4, 147,027 2, 885, 299
332, 588 436, 71 224, 341 233,324 774, 903
828, 152 403,438 478, 596 442, 876 551, 321

174, 683 225,650 236,677 226,098 209, 590
841, 1893 758, 660 2, 026,986 2, 305,193 2, 846, 809

26, 177, 259 25, 339, 374 24, 676, 2II21, 172, 560 20, 682, 182


l---i---- ~----I--------










UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.

Exports from Brazil-Continued.


Articles.

To France:
Coffee ..................
H ides..................
Cocoa..................
India rubber...........
Tobacco................
Wool, unmanufactured..
Cotton, unmanufactured.
All other articles........


1887. 1888.

Dollars. I Dollars.
I5, 778, 248 13, 226, 664
2,602,901 1,689,612
2,097, 165 2,625,628
710,063 672,470
372, 5301 443,042
199. 9411 262,374
146, 302 16, 919
631,3281 470,849


1889. 189o. 1891.


Dollars. I Dollars. Dollars.
21,58, 36 739,758........
1,455,664 2,487,734.........
1, 525,243 1,336,582 ..........
631,763 763.570 ..........
320,949 390,652 ..........
275,432 .......... I ..... ....
21,437 34,445 ........
368,679 561.483 1..... ...


Total.................22, 538,478119, 407, 55826, 179,20324,215, 788


Imports of Rio de Janeiro for 1891 compared with those of 189o.

[Only articles for which statistics are yet accessible.]

Articles. 180o. 189i.


Bagging ................................. .bales. 3,951 3,393
J cases.. 40,459 66,426
Beer ............................... .. ... barrels.. 195 483
Butter ........................................ cases.. 59, 807 57, 402
Candles..................................... boxes. 13,44 19, 239
Cement ................................... barrels. o18, 623 z68, o88
Coal (English) ................................. tons.. 391, 788 452, 520
Corn (La Plata) ........................ .........bags.. 426, 841 58,470
Dried beef ................................. kilos. 51,466, 740 50,960,709
Flour ................. ................... barrels.. 326, 750 340,955
Hay (alfafa) .................................. .bales.. 169, 569 272, 873
Kerosene ........ ..............................cases.. 247, 665 430, 119
Lard (American)........ ................... barrels. I91,033 68,363
Scases.. 12, 414 10, 009
Pine lumber (American)..................... ....feet.. 22, 085, 158 34,475,128
Rice ........... ..... .........................bags.. 668,775 866, 588
Rosin .... ............ .......................barrels.. 8, 596 21, 739
Tar ............................................ do.... 2, 238 600
Tea......................... ... .............kilos.. 48, 700 80, 450
Turpentine, spirits of ...........................cases.. 5, 873 8, 604


-;--I-


- ml~-


1





THE IMPORTS FROM BRAZIL.


Imports (except coffee) into the United States from Brazil annually from 1873 to l891, inclusive.

[The imports of coffee will be found in another table.]


Sugar and molasses.


Hides and
skins.


India rubber.


_ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ __I


Years
ending June
30-


1873 .....
1874 -
1875 .....
1876 .....
1877 .....
1878 .....
1879 .....
1880 .....
1881 .....
1882 .....
1883 .....
1884 .....
1885 .....
1886 .....
1887 ....
1888 ....
1889 .....
1890 ....
1891 ....

Total.


Dollars.
2,263,450
1,313,217
2,602,267
1,330, 405
3, 55, 08
3, 165,384
2, 274, 816
5,897, 102
8,148,492
8,447,027
5,418,534
1o,991,952
6, 834,103
5, 506, 507
5,787, 513
6,754, 17
4,838,121
1,659,251
2, 780, 919


Dollars.
I, 274, 704
I, 107,944
1,045,494
735, 729
1, 138, 819
1,288,085
1,442, 756
2, 255,640
I, 875,008
1,445,541
1,397, 876
1,034,029
1,692,437
2, 283,001
1,683, 707
1,659, 286
2, 232,091
2, 177, 882
2,515,344


Pounds.
5,983,545
6,88o, 185
6,031,951
5,204,914
6,305,482
5,876,112
7,007, 754
7, 772,864
9, 988,ooo
11,348, 618
10, 360, 204
11,950,643
14,395,413
17,462,699
16,882,933
24,468,294
19,502,897
20,819,930
21, 340,787


3, 40, 875,231 88, 655, 060 10, 285, 373 229,583,225


Doltars.
3,115,036
3,254,548
2,519,437
2, 141,562
2,598,347
2,457,398
3, 296, 766
4,874,234
5,949, 752
8,193,878
8, 662, 961
7, 246, 828
5,387,063
6, 894, 689
8, 279, 194
1, 811, 952
7, 569, 005
9, 157, 248
12, 304, 283


114, 714, 181


Pounds.
1, 600
17, 600



9, 999
561, 970
456,122
917, 014
1,456, 665
I, 152, 566
1,837,637
1,459, 853
1,540,583
1,322,454
2, 674,903
3,044,548
2, 125,614
3, 925,788


Cocoa.


Dollars.
193
1,773



1,358
108,270
82,367
117,573
196, 201
158,286
224,977
I61,616
214,231
148, o60
297,853
320, 956
192,866
502, 547


All other
articles.


Dollars.
1,025,087
868,473
760, 391
721,975
583, 242
688, 756
457, 732
I, 005, 169
, 083, 525
999,080
1,053,054
746, 530
841,649
624, 954
652, 838
726,431
551,892
467, 382
3, 605,480


I. -1- I-


22, 504, 915 2, 729, 127


Total imports,
including
coffee.

Dollars.
38,540,376
43,888,647
42,027,863
45,446,381
43,498,041
42, 968,973
39, 375,441
51,970,090
52, 782, 536
48, 8oi, 878
44,488,459
50,265,889
45,263, 660
41,907,532
52,953,176
53,710,234
60,403, 804
59, 318, 756
83, 230, 595


17,463,640 1 940, 842, 331


Pounds.
55,669,036
36,894. 454
70,878,273
40,010,416
74, 327, 701
78, 076,553
63,380,355
152,811,613
231,453,343
228,683,398
160, 422, 404
363, 385, 001
329,294,639
223,962,642
324, 321,769
305,866,337
223,925,970
73,800, 970
103,710,357


"All other articles" comprise in magnitude of value about in the order stated:
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines, free of duty; diamonds, rough or uncut; fruits and nuts, free of duty; fur skins, undressed; hair; wood,
unmanufactured; wool, unmanufactured.













Imports into the following countries from Brazil by principal articles.


Articles.




Bones, hoofs, horns, etc .............
Breadstuffs ................ .........
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes..........
Cocoa ................ ... .......
Coffee ............. ................
C otton, raw .........................
Fancy goods .......................
Fruits, including nuts................
Hair...............................
Hides and skins.....................
India rubber and gutta-percha .......
Leather, and manufactures of.........
O il, vegetable ......................
O res...............................
Seeds, cotton.......................
Sugar, brown.......................
Tobacco, and manufactures of........
W ool ...... ........... ........... .
Wood, and manufactures of..........
A ll other articles ....................

Total .........................


The United
States (1890).


Dollars.
(*)
48
47, ooI
192,866
45,664, 127
. .. .
5, 256
62,665
139, 773
2, 177, 882
9, 157,248



(*)
1, 659, 251
138
23, 390
35,337
153, 774


The United
Kingdom
(1889).

Dollars.
263,789
2,492
173,992
208,588
7,207,437
3,441,238

224,341
2, 900
522,560
8, 544, 201



480,265
2,516,735
8,862

51,677
1,027, 134


France (188


Dollars.
105, 8

10, 2
I,525, 2
21, 580, 0
21, 4
io, 6:
8, 1
14, 7
1,455,66
631, 7



13,7:

320,94

275, 4
205, 27


59,318,756 24,676,211 26,179,203

Not specified.


Imports into-

S Germany
9). (1889).


Dollars.
9 ..........
89,488
73 391, 034
44 164, 696
36 18, 776, 772
37 397,698
34 ............
39 ............
92 ...........
64 1,930,18o
63 151,368
17,136
23,800

)2 . .. .
2. ............

49 6,562,136
154,700
)2 62, 594
79 443,394


29, 164,996


Belgium
Spain (889). Italy (889). (lg888)


Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
......... ... 22, 002
1,544 523,802
...... .. 3,281 I1,966
6, 369 7, 527
676,079 6, 593, 073
............. 16,791



io,696 33,968 755,209


. .. ..... . 7, 527
..... .. io, 808
........... .. ... 199, 562
..... 6,948 .........
. 193, 386
.................... 422,477
8, 104 1, 737 .........
4, 169 16,019 259,971

22,969 745,945 9,024, Io





Exports from the following-named countries to Brazil by principal articles.


Articles.


Agricultural implements ............
Breadstuffs ..........................
Candles......... ...................
Carriages, carts, and cars..........
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines.
Coal .................... .......
Copper, and manufactures of.........
Cotton, manufactures of..............
Earthen, china, and glass ware........
Fancy articles .................... ..
F ish ...............................
Flax, hemp, and jute, manufactures of.
F ruits ........... ..................
Gunpowder and other explosives......
Hair and manufactures of............
India rubber and gutta-percha, manu-
factures of ................... ...
Instruments for scientific purposes....
Iron and steel, and manufactures of ...
Jewelry and manufactures of gold and
silver .............. .............
Lead, and manufactures of ...........
Leather, and manufactures of.........
Lime and cement .................
M alt liquors .........................
Musical instruments .................
Oils:
Mineral, refined ................
A ll other..................... ..
Paints and painters' colors..........


Exports from-


The United
States (1890).


Dollars.
49, 6o
4,973,656
17,094
370, 541
165, 657
46,750
I,440
813, 70o
26,092
59,042
11,063
43, 312
7,652
12, 023
4

9,322
85,453
938,659

54,565
19,522
15, 791
669
3,017
i6, 879

929,862
58,508
4,722


The United
Kingdom
(1889).

Dollars.

140,681

204, III
372, 005
2, 294, 671
258,308
12,499 274
467, 022


I,405,893

327,544


176,581

6,806,311


105,987
I,o6I,135
18o,595
73, 649
............


France (1889).


Dollars.


43,265
77,596
459, 155


724,645
194, 942
544, 123
83,066
38,923
30,466

55,248


75,352
528,916

496,887
22,895
2,217, 138


24,326


190, 109 12,010
153,284 49,856


Germany
(x889).


Dollars.

211,582
5,236

497,658

174,216
3, o84, 004
360,332
179,214

227,052




37,366
713,286
1,678,376

624,750
53,788
406,028
73, 304
216, 88
296,072

476
26,656


Spain(1889). Italy (1889).


Dollars.

.......
..........
..........

..........
..........


Dollars.

16, 791


39,372


45,934



3,667


......... ........ .

.......... 2,702


.......... 136..........


Belgium


Dollars.


31, 266
625,320
16, 212
9,457
12,159
148, 996
225,810
32,810

59,637

-** ..


........ ........... .. 573,017


5,597

193



8,492
53.847











Paper and stationery ...............
Provisions, comprising meats and dairy
products .......................
Rice ................... .. ......
Salt. ... ..........................
Seeds .............................
Silk, manufactures of ...............
Soap...... ................ ........
Spirits, distilled ........ ...........
Umbrellas and parasols ..............
Vegetables, including pickles, etc....
W hearing apparel.................. .
W ine ..............................
Wood, and manufactures of ..........
W ool, manufactures of..............
All other articles ...................

T otal .........................

Not specified.


46, 119

I,992,426
86

889
22, II
55,697
225

44, 239
(*)

494,750
2, 780
508, 569


11, 902,496


1oo, 771 474, 995

156,453 1,538,374



. .. .. .... 87,643

. 85,093
26, 629 ............
. ... 272,087
319,792 1,990,517
....... .. 581,871
24, 931 253,878
1,400,135 I,046,404
1,583,695 525,907

30,329,566 13,535,578


468, 384 .........


982,464 ..........
........... 78,819

277, 508 ... ......
35,224 ... ....


. .. . ... .. .. .
709,716 ..........
.. 19,349
239, 428 .......
1,591,744 ........
296, 548 13, 532


13,467,230 II111,700

t Including books.


t48, 250

6o, 602



965
33,196
12,352



73,340
13,896
4,632
96,886


589,229


360,910 '-

579
I,544




1,351

13,317
3,667
386
51,338
o05,957 t
320,766 o

2,662,628


--
I









UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


IMPORTS OF COFFEE FROM BRAZIL.

The following statement shows the quantity and the value of
coffee imported into the United States from Brazil during the
several years ending June 30, 1873, to June 30, 1891, and the
amount that would have been paid in the way of duty had not the
tariff on coffee been repealed by the act of May 1, 1872:

Estimated duty
if rate had contin-
Years ending June 30- Quantities. Values. ued 3 cent per
pound.

Pounds. Dollars. Dollars.
1873 ...................... 206,243,596 30, 861,906 6,187,308
1874 ..................... 196, 358, 671 37, 342, 692 5,890, 760
1875 ...................... 229, 701, 637 35, 099,274 6, 891,049
1876 ...................... 252, 532, 667 40, 516, 609 7, 575, 980
1877 ...................... 227, 306, 837 36,022, 525 6, 819, 205
1878 ..................... 211,654, 60 35,367,992 6,349, 625
1879 ..................... 273,837,142 31,795,101 8,215,114
188o ..................... 296, 731, 718 37, 855,578 8, 901, 952
i88i ...................... 289,298,855 35,608, 86 8,678,966
1882....................... 315,465,986 29,520,151 9,463,980
1883.................... 372,860,370 27,797,748 11, 85,811
1884 ...................... 347,373, oo 30,021,573 10, 421,190
1885 ........... ........ 406, 714, 346 30, 346, 792 12, 20, 430
1886 ..................... 392, 058,002 26,384, 150 11,761,740
1887.. ................... 362, 928, 304 36, 401, 864 10, 887, 849
1888 ...................... 240, I79, O1 33,460,595 7,205,370
1889..................... 373,920,849 44,891,739 11,217,625
189 ...................... 310,005, 21 45,664, 127 9,300, 151
1891 ...................... 324, 403, 880 62, 022,022 9, 822, 116
Total ............... 5,632,574, 053 686,980,624 164,977,221
Average per year.................... 36,156,875 8,683,011


Table of exports of coffee from Brazil to the countries named and export duties collected
thereon.

Duties
Countries. Coffee.* collected.

Dollars. Dollars.
United States (1890) ........................... 45,664,127 3, 196, 489
Great Britain (1889) .............................. 7, 207,437 504, 521
France(1889) ............................ ....... 21,580,036 I,51o, 602
Germany (1889)....................... 18,776,772 I,314,374
Belgium (1889) ............. ................. 6, 593, 073 461, 515
Italy (1889) ............... ...................... 676,079 47, 326

The export duty is 7 per cent.







UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL.


Money.-The milreis of 1,000 reis, par value 54.6 cents in United
States money, is the monetary unit. The gold coins are 5, lo,
and 20 milreis; the silver coins, i and 2 milreis, 200 and 500
reis; nickel, 50, too, and 200 reis; and copper, 10, 20, and 40
reis. The actual value of the milreis in gold (1891) is 54.6 cents
United States currency.
The English sovereign is a legal tender and was worth 8.7
milreis in 1888. Gold and silver coins have almost disappeared.
The only circulating medium of recent years has been an incon-
vertible paper currency, consisting of treasury notes of depreciated
value, together with nickel and bronze coins.
The value of the paper money fluctuates greatly. In the fall
of 1889 it rose above par in gold, and in the spring of 1892 fell
to loj pence per milreis, or about 20y cents.
hVeights and Measures.-The French metric system, which
became compulsory in 1872, was adopted in 1862, and has been
used since in all official departments. But the old weights and
measures are still partly employed. They are: The libra =1.o12
pounds avoirdupois; the arroba = 32.38 pounds avoirdupois; the
quintal = 129.54 pounds avoirdupois; the alqueire (of Rio)=
1.029 bushels; the oitava=55.34 grains; the vara=43.307 inches;
the almude =33.75 quarts, liquid measure.








Chile.


Chile, a Republic of South America, stretches from the south
of Peru to Cape Horn, extending 2,600 miles on the Pacific coast
and varying in breadth from 40 to 200 miles. It is bounded on
the north by Peru and Bolivia, on the west and south by the
Pacific Ocean, and on the east by the Argentine Republic. From
its situation Chile enjoys great variety of climate, from the tropical
heat of Atacama to the perpetual winter of Cape Horn. The
fruits of the several zones abound. Manufacturing industries are
on the increase, and inducements are offered by the Government
to persons introducing late inventions and such branches of indus-
try as are not already established in the country.
Executive.-The President of the Republic is chosen by electors
balloted for by the people of the Provinces in the proportion of
three electors for each Deputy returned to Congress. His term
is for five years and he is eligible for reelection only after an inter-
vening term. Salary, $18,000. The President is assisted by a
Council of State composed of eleven members, six of whom are
selected by Congress and five by himself, and a Cabinet of six
ministers, to wit: Interior; Foreign Affairs, Worship and Colon-
ization; Justice and Public Instruction; Finance; War and Navy;
Industry and Public Works.
Legislative.-The National Congress is composed of two houses,
a Senate consisting of 32 members, elected popularly by the
Provinces for six years, in the proportion of one Senator to three
Deputies, and renewed by halves every three years, and a Cham-
ber of Deputies elected by the Departments in the proportion of
one Deputy for every 30,000 inhabitants or fraction greater than
15,000, consisting of 94 members, and entirely renewed every
three years.
Judicial.-The judicial power is exercised exclusively by judges
named by the President. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction
Bull. 50---6 81








82 CHILE.

over the whole Republic. Besides this there are six courts of
appeal, and subordinate tribunals throughout the country.
Local Government.-The Republic is divided by the constitution
into Provinces, subdivided into Departments, the first governed
by intendentes and the latter having gobernadores as chief officers.
AREA AND POPULATION.
Chile is divided into 23 Provinces and 1 Territory, subdivided
into 75 Departments. The Departments and Territory are sub-
divided into 855 subdelegations and 3,068 districts.
The official area covers 290,828 English square miles. The Chi-
lean Government estimates the population of the country in 1891
at 2,817,552, to which is also added an estimate of 5o,000 aborigi-
nes and 399,889 persons omitted from the census, which makes
the total of 3,267,441, regarded as the correct number to date.
Official area and population of Provinces and Territory.
Area in Eng-
Provinces and Territory. lish square Population.
miles.

Magallanes, Territory, Tierra del Fuego, straits
and coasts as far north as 47 south latitude.... 75, 293 3, 111
Chilo ........................................ 3,993 79,514
Llanqulhue ................................... 7, 823 74, 818
V aldivia....................................... 8,315 60,437
A rauco..... ............ ............ ....... ... 4,247 86,236
Cautin ........................................ 3, I28 42, 411
Malleco ........... ... ......... ............ 2, 857 69, 892
Bio-Bio ....................... .......... .. 4, 158 125, 582
Concepci6n................................. 3, 535 223,850
R uble ........................... ........ ... 3, 556 161, 689
M aule..... ......................... ......... 2,931 127,771
Linares......................... ...... ........ 3,489 116,656
Talc ................. ................ .. ...... .. 3,679 152,719
Curic6 ............ ........... .... .... 2,913 104, 909
Colchagua...................... ....... ....... 3,795 161, 788
O'Higgins ................. .................. 2, 524 92, 063
Santiago .................... .... ............. 5,223 383, 609
Valparaiso ............................... 1,659 221,788
Aconcagua ............ .................... 6,227 153,049
Coquimbo ..................... .... .......... 12,905 191,901
Atacama ...................................... 28, 380 68, 855
Antofagasta.................... .. ........... 72, 204 35, 851
Tarapac ............... ........... 19,306 47,750
Tacna....................... ............ .......... 8,688 31,303
Total.............. ..... ... ........... 290, 828 2, 817, 552

























~p- /


^Ug



'" -^ a


ANCIENT BRIDGE, SANTIAGO, CHILE.









CHILE.


During the year 1889 the increase of population by immigra-
tion amounted to 9,659.

Population of the principal cities and towns.


Santiago ................. 236,870
Valparaiso ................ og, 584
San Fernando ............ 79,742
Rengo .................. 75,945
Talca..................... 70,036
ChillAn ................... 60,767
Ovalle .................... 60, 719
Curic6 .................... 58, 402
Melipilla.................. 54, 713
Angeles .................. 51,354
Quillota .................. 48, 737
Quirihue .................. 46, ooo
Cauquenes ............... 45,950
Linares ..... ............. 45,007
Vichuquen ................ 41, 6oo
Concepci6n ............... 40,302
San Carlos ........ ...... 40. 185
Victoria .................. 38, 170
Serena.................... 36,772
Rancagua................. 35,315
Castro .................... 35,015
San Felipe ............ .... 34,314
San Javier ................ 33, 950
Santa Rosa ............... 33,691
Mulchen ................. 33,424
Tarapac .................. 33,051
Tome ..... ............... 32,945
Constituci6n .............. 32, 195
M olina.................... 32, I2I
Petorca ................... 32,044
Illapel .... ............... 31,695
Curepto........ ......... 31,692
Parral .................... 31,690
Buin. .................... 30,633
Yungay ................... 30,446
San Antonio de la Uni6n... 29, 975
Caftete................... 28,577
Copiap6 .................. 27,531
Arauco .................. 27,077


Osorno....................
Yumbel ...................
Linache.................
Ancud ....... ..........
Traigu6n ........... .....
Florida ......... .......
Valdivia ..................
Peum o ....................
San Luis Gonzaga.........
Coronel...................
Angol ...... .............
Bulnes ....................
U ni6n ....................
Lebu ....................
Nueva Imperial............
Nacimiento ..... ........
Antofogasta ...............
Temuco............ .....
Puerto de Coquimbo.......
Colipulli ..................
Vicuna.....................
Puerto Montt.............
Vallenar ..................
Combarbali..............
Casablanca........... ....
Ligua .....................
Achno ....................
Lota ................. ....
Calbuco ...................
Taltal .....................
Pisagua...................
Tolten ....................
Maullin ...................
Freirina...................
Talcaguano...............
Carrizal Alto..............
Vifa del Mar.............
Cafaral ..................


Religion.-The Roman Catholic is the recognized religion of
the State, but religious liberty is guaranteed in the constitution.
The Roman Catholic clergy are subsidized by the state. There
are one archbishop, three bishops, and two vicars. Civil marriage
only is recognized by law.


26,323
25,445
25,030
24,527
24, 408
24, 137
23, 531
21, 693
20,910
19, 149
19,095
18,473
18,456
18, 004
17, 80
16, 990
16, 549
16, IIn
16, 065
15,989
15, 767
15,690
15,446
15,158
14,406
14, 401
13, 873
12,855
12,693
12,423
12.035
8,951
8, 203
7,490
6,716
5,944
5,063
5.558






CHILE.


Education.-There are 1,201 free public schools, 390 for males,
241 for females, and 570 mixed, with a total attendance of
101,954 pupils. A normal school for the preparation of teachers
and an institute for the deaf and dumb have been established and
teachers for the same have been brought from Europe. The
university, with 1,175 matriculates, and the National Institute of
Santiago, with 1,110 matriculates, provide professional instruction.
There are colleges and lyceums established in the departments
and capitals of the provinces. The attendance at the various
colleges in 1890 was 6,014.
There are besides 547 private schools, having 27,517 pupils, a
naval school at Valparaiso, and a military school.
The libraries are of three kinds, national, departmental, and
educational. The national library contains more than 70,000
printed volumes and 24,048 manuscript volumes; that of the
National Institute, 30,000 volumes, and the Congressional Li-
brary, 5,000 volumes. There are besides many other libraries in
various towns in the Republic. Santiago has a museum of natural
history, an academy of fine arts, a conservatory of music, a botan-
ical garden, and other public institutions.
Seven daily papers are published in the capital, and also a
number of reviews and other papers, scientific and literary. Val-
paraiso and other cities have a considerable number.
Finance.-The public revenue is mainly derived from customs
duties and the chief expenditures are for the payment of the na-
tional debt, public works, and salaries. The ordinary revenue for
189o was 61,003,718 pesos and the expenditures for the same
year were 75,063,376 pesos. The foreign debt amounted to
46,655,488 pesos in 1891 and was contracted principally for
investments in railroads. The internal debt in 1891 amounted
to 63,507,131 pesos, of which 42,383 pesos represented the paper-
money circulation, making a total indebtedness of 110,162,619
pesos.








CHILE.


Budget. 1892.


Revenue. Amount. Expenditures. Amount.

Pesos. Pesos.
Import duties............. 22,000,000 Interior................... 4, 285,252
Export duties............. 25, ooo, ooo Foreign affairs,worship,and
Agricultural tax........... I, I5o, ooo colonization............. 045, 600
Stamps ................... 800oo, ooo Justice and public instruc-
Post-office and telegraphs.. 8oo, ooo tion .................... 7,154, 263
Storage and wharfage...... 270, ooo Finance .................. 2, 534, 586
Railways ................. 14, ooo, ooo War ..................... 6,480, 308
Redemption of "Censos" Marine ................... 5,627, 787
and miscellaneous ....... x,ooo,ooo Industriesand publicworks. 13,174,204
Total ............... 65,020,000oo Total ............... 50,302,000


Army and Navy.-Standing army of 6,671 men, divided into
one battalion and thirteen regiments, two of artillery, three of cav-
alry, and eight of infantry. There is besides a national guard,
which in 1890 was made up of 8,970 cavalry and 42,120 infantry,
or a total of 51,090 soldiers. The navy is composed of eight war
ships, twelve torpedo boats, and eleven other vessels, besides seven
under construction. The personnel of the navy is made up of
1,615 officers and men. There is a well-equipped military and
naval school.
Resources and Products.-The products of Chile are principally
agricultural and mineral. The country is divided into four well-
marked belts, extending from north to south in the order named,
viz: Mineral, mineral and agricultural, agricultural, and the fores-
try and fishery belt. In the first there are extensive guano depos-
its on the coast, and the rich nitrate fields in the center, where
borax and iodine are also found, and many rich mines of gold,
silver, and copper exist in the first two regions. Mercury, iron,
zinc, manganese, coal, nickel, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, sulphur,
cobalt, etc., are the other principal mineral productions. The
mining enterprises of the country have steadily grown in impor-
tance. The nitrate deposits, formerly belonging to Peru, are of
immense value and constitute the chief source of the country's







CHILE.


revenue, the produce thereof in 1888 being about 800,000 tons;
in 1889 the amount exported was about 921,000 tons, of the
value of 36,387,210 pesos; 1,050,000 tons in 1890, and 780,000
tons in 1891. In 1888 Chile's output of copper amounted to
31,241 tons, and the supply is almost inexhaustible. The annual
coal production is about 1,ooo,ooo tons, and silver 350,000
pounds.
The rich agricultural lands constitute almost one-fourth of the
total area, and agriculture is engaged in by about one-half of the
people. About 20,000,000 bushels of wheat are grown annually,
besides about 8,000,000 of the other cereals, and the various veg-
etables and fruits of the temperate zones yield abundantly. Viti-
culture, of a comparatively recent beginning, has acquired great
importance, and the annual wine production is about 24,000,000
gallons.
Valdivia is famous for its woods, and produces a considerable
quantity of cheese, and the figs and grapes, of Coquimbo are
notably fine.
The country has about 12,000,000 sheep, and wool is a consid-
erable item of export. Horned cattle are raised extensively for
domestic purposes, and goats and swine are grown in large num-
bers. Over 500,000 head of cattle and 2,000,000 sheep and
goats are born each year.
There are a number of flour mills and other manufacturing
establishments, such as sugar-refineries, woolen, cotton, and paper
mills, and crockery manufactories.
Railways and Telegraphs.-Chile has 1,682 miles of railroad
and has authorized the construction of 624 additional miles; there
are, besides, about 340 miles projected. Of the railways in op-
eration 663 miles belong to the State, the cost of their construc-
tion, up to 1890, being 52,126,829 pesos. The great Transandine
Railway between Buenos Ayres in the Argentine Republic and
Valparaiso, uniting the railway systems of the two Republics







CHILE.


and connecting the two oceans, is nearing completion; of a total
distance of 850 miles (757 in the Argentine and 93 in Chile),
801 miles (748 in Argentine and 53 in Chile) are completed.
The work on the mountain section, 149 miles in length, is being
rapidly pushed.
The length of the telegraph lines in 1890 was 13,730 miles, with
411 offices; 6,737 miles of these lines belonged to the state.
In 1889 there existed 509 post-offices throughout the Republic
and there were transmitted during the year 43,477,829 letters and
packets, of which 3,465,312 pieces were foreign correspondence.
Banking.-Chile has 21 banks of issue, with a joint capital of
23,111,887 pesos and a registered issue, in 1890, of 18,1 4,617
pesos. There are other banks which loan money at interest on real
estate. The circulation of these in 1889 amounted to 61,537,000
pesos in scrip.
Navigation.-The port entries of 1889, including the coasting
trade, were 11,1o9 vessels of 9,723,998 tons burden. In 1890 the
merchant marine registered under the Chilean flag was composed
of 152 vessels of 102,391 tons, 29 of them being steamers.
Money.-The silver peso of 100 centavos is the monetary unit;
its nominal value is a dollar, but it was struck on the basis of the
5-franc piece. Its equivalent in the money of the United States
is 91.2 cents (1892). Ten-dollar (condor), five-dollar (medio
condor or dobl6n), two dollars, (escudo), and one-dollar (peso)
gold pieces are coined .9 fine, but the currency is practically a
silver one. There are also half, fifth, tenth, and twentieth parts
of a dollar in silver .9 fine. The two and a half, two, one, and
one-half centavos are the copper and nickel coins. The gold coin-
age of 1889 amounted to 45,500 pesos, and that of silver to 241,157
pesos. The circulating medium of the country in October, 1891,
was officially estimated at 67,592,244 pesos, being principally
paper money and small coin, much of which was illegally issued.
Weights and Measures.-The onza 1.014 ounces avoirdupois;







CHILE.


the libra=l.o14 pounds avoirdupois; the quintal= o 1.44 pounds
avoirdupois; the vara, 0.914 yard; the square vara=o.836 square
yard; the quartillo=1.1624 quarts; the fanega=2.575 bushels.
The metric system has been legally adopted in Chile, but the old
weights and measures are yet employed to some extent.

COMMERCE.

The foreign trade of the country for 1888 amounted to 133,807,-
633 pesos, of which 60,717,698 pesos were imports and 73,089,935
pesos were exports. In 1889 the total imports increased to
65,090,013 pesos, while the exports fell to 65,963,100 pesos. In
1890 the commerce of the country aggregated 136,280,460 pesos,
divided as follows: Imports, free, 23,258,280 pesos; dutiable,
44,630,799 pesos; total, 67,889,079 pesos; exports, free, 27,243,622
pesos; dutiable, 41,147,7 q9 pesos; total, 68,391,381 pesos.
The principal exports from Chile are copper, wheat, barley, wool,
nitrate of soda, silver, iodine, gold, coal, guano, sole leather, and
beans.
The subjoined tables give the commerce of Chile for the latest
years for which data are obtainable from the official statistics of
the country, no data of its commerce since 1889 having been pub-
lished.
Imports into and exports from Chile by countries.
[The value of the peso is 91 cents in United States gold.]

Countries. 1887. z888. 1889.

Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
Great Britain Imports from ........ 20,463,584 26,351,1 41 27,891,915
great Britain....... Exports to........... 44, 977,972 56, 898, 407 48, 394, 360
United States Imports from ........ 3, 242, 314 3, 133, 173 3, 842, 078
united States ..... Exports to........... 2,61, 384 2,070,694 3,781,411
German .......... Imports from........ 11,631,891 14,046,577 14,788,852
( Exports to........... 5,071,232 4,751,990 5,413,838
France .............j Imports from ........ 5, 500,949 6, 181, 513 6, 549, 259
( Exports to........... 3,312,223 4,295,055 2,243,453
Peru ............. Imports from ........ 2,670, 548 3, 057, 854 3, 582, 140
"P "" Exports to........... 1,050,786 2,071,304 1,430, 995
Argentine Republic.. Imports from ....... 2, 217, 147 4, 345, 497 5, 236,044
Exports to ......... 49,040 23,600 44,439









































































































ISLAND OF SAN JUAN FERNANDEZ-CRUSOE'S CAVE.


~I








CHILE.

Imports into and exports from Chile by countries--Continued.

Countries. 887. 1888. 1889.

Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
Brazil .............. Imports from .......... 747, 290 682, 557 512, S53
B Exports to......... .... 4,400 115,862 289, 980
Ital Imports from ........ 509, 664 68o, 546 696, 168
S.............. Exports to........... ... 415, 558 II, 8 129, 858

Sruuay j Imports from ....... 363,035 572, 950 390, 129
S.......... Exports to........... 18, 813 262, 758 I, 098, 804
India... .Imports from ....... 334,681 247,051 320,649
.......... j Exports to.............................................
Spain............. Imports from....... 240,524 227,475 250,767
......... .. Exports to........... 8, n o 894 ............
Ecuador............ Imports from ........ 169,271 309,735 303,368
......... Exports to........... 249, 451 582, 412 909, 132
Belgium............ Imports from........ 116,530 138, II 142,772
SExports to........... 107, 264 69, 778 15,090
China............ Imports from ........ 103,989 104,914 135,730
............ Exports to...............................................
Polynesia........... Imports from ....... 88,434 86, 218 43,600
SExports to........... 12,679 1,431 336
Colombia Imports from ........ 2, 300 20, 217 7,827
... ( Exports to........... 44, 187 119, 654 139, 366
Guatemala...... Imports from............ 10,454 13,082 10, 906
.Exports to.......... 21,708 Ic2,68i 184,395
Holland............ Imports from.................... 238,991 33,721
... .... .. Exports to........... 3,034 ........................
Costa Rica..... .. Imports from ........ 36,511 60,937 52,651
SExports to....................... 1 ............
Australia ........... Imports from .................... 27, 818 213,921
Exports to........... ...................................
j Imports from........ 6,055 21,666 to, ilo
Paraguay ........... Exports to...............................................

Portugal............ Imports from ........ 14, 870 6,736 7,857
.... ..... Exports to........... 80 200 1, 521
Bolivia ............. Imports from ....... 4,883 ooo ............
Exports to..............................................
Salvador............ Imports from ........ 352 ........................
SE exports to............................... ............
Imports from ............................................
Nicaragua ...... ... ExImports from .. .
(Exports to.......... 34, 3344 18, 760 159, 819
NorwaN ............ .. Imports from ................................ 625
( Exports to........... I ........................ ..........
Mexico. sportsom ... ...........
exico............. ...................... Imports from...
SExports to .................... ... 6, 50 ............
Islas Malvinas ... ... Imports from...........................................
SExports to........... 12,491 14, 293 | 14, oo
A ustria............. Im ports from .................................. ....
SExports to........... 79, 646 ...... .......
The fisheries ........ Imports from ......... 155, 586 16I,92 66,083
SExports to................................ ............
Rancho............. Imports from ............... ...... ...........
( Exports to........... I,302, 556 I, 571,841 I, 712, 302

Total imports ........................ 48, 630, 862 60, 717, 698 65, 00o, o13
Total exports....................... 59,549958 73, 089,935 65, 963, 100









90 CHILE.

IMPORTS INTO CHILE BY ARTICLES.

Articles. 1887. i888. 1889.

Pesos. Pesos. Pesos.
Articles of food............................ 184, 510 13,494, 896 14, 534, 784
Silk, linen, cotton, etc., fabrics............... 11,469,282 12,682,012 12, 743,080
Raw animal and vegetable materials, etc ..... 6, 211, 190 8, 507,462 8, 275, 119
Clothing and objects of general use ......... 2, 569, 394 3, 604, 004 4, 194, 350
Machinery and industrial objects............ 5, 648, 557 7, 916, 277 8, 167, I8o
Domestic articles .............. ........... 3, 304, 322 3,925, 972 3, 984, 412
Railway and telegraphic requisites and horses. I, 443,827 2,779,888 3,494, 744
W ines, liquors, and beer.................... 1,079,905 232,954 1,420,662
Tobacco, snuff, cigars, pipes. ............... 447, 534 448, 889 507, 526
Minerals and metals (gold, silver, and copper). 10, 279 IO, 099 22,246
Objects of art and science ................. 616, 746 902, 730 936.698
Drugs.......... ......................... 686,446 746,228 893,544
Arms and their requisites.................. 72, 879 113,687 142, 818
Miscellaneous articles.............. ...... 4, 777, 136 4,021, 368 5, 135,390
Specie and bank notes ...................... 98, 854 311,232 637,460

Total...... ...... ............ .. 48,630, 862 60.717,69S 65,090,013

EXPORTS FROM CHILE BY CLASSES.

-gricultural products ...................... 9, 369, 247 8, 784, 363 7,481,478
Mineral products ......................... 49,449, 1 63,206,930 56,452,089
Manufactured products............ ........ 46, oSI 4S, 812 52,966
Miscellaneous articles............. ........ 46, 655 110,0 31 55,453
Specie .................... ............... 317,485 300, 875 794,017
Reiexports:
Articles............................... 299 76 63S924 I, 127,97
Specie ................................i 2I,769

Total ................................ 59, 549,95 73,089,935 65,963,Ioo


The following statements, obtained from the statistics of the
principal countries trading with Chile, indicate their commerce
with that Republic:






Imntorts into the leading countries from Chile, by principal articles.


Articles.


Breadstuffs .........................
Chemicals, drugs, and dyes .........
Copper:
O re............................
Manufactures of .................
Cotton, raw .........................
Fertilizers........................
Hides and skins....................
H oney.............................
Lead:
Ore..........................
Manufactures of.................
Leather and manufactures of .........
Silver ore .......................
Sugar, brown ........................
Tin, in blocks, pigs, etc..............
W ool ..............................
All other articles ....................

T otal .........................


Ir

The United TI he United France 88
States, z889-'9o. Kingdom, i889. 'rnce, 88.


Dollars.
............
2, 970,052

511
...........


| 6,699
(*)




5,596
............
62,281
138, Io


Dollars.
I, 6oi, 804
5, 502,547

I,029, 781
4, 444, 657
103,710
450,867
24,065
...........

60,846
2,554
I, 163
993,963
304,876
65,990
255, 165
I,045,o56


3, 183, 249 15, 887, 044


sports into-

Germany,
z888-'89.


Spain,1889. Italy,1889.


Dollars. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.

323, 838 13, 378,932 ....... .............


460, 662
18, 730

271, 194
28,768




44,609
............

332,222
134,264


298,214

9,044
34,748
94,486



525, 504
182,546

55,454

41,888


I, 614, 287 14, 620, 816


.. ... .

... ... ....


,855


*Not specified.


Helium,
1888.

Dollars.

1,577,003




52, 689










1,158


I,630,850




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