Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Factors that control species number...
 Study of the biomass of parasites...
 Summary: Factors that influence...
 Summary: Macrophytic communities...
 Comment in Retrospect

Group Title: Productivity of Florida springs. NR 163-106 (NONR 580-02) Report to Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research; progress 1953-1957
Title: Productivity of Florida springs
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073979/00006
 Material Information
Title: Productivity of Florida springs NR 163-106 (NONR 580-02) Report to Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research; progress 1953-1957
Physical Description: 4 v. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Biology
United States -- Office on Naval Research
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Freshwater biology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: Frequency varies.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073979
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001871216
oclc - 21432514
notis - AJU6211

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Factors that control species number is Silver Springs
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Study of the biomass of parasites in the Stumpknockers
        Page 11
    Summary: Factors that influence species variety in Silver Springs, Florida
        Page 12
    Summary: Macrophytic communities in Florida inland waters
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Comment in Retrospect
        Page 15
Full Text
4 .^y

NRB 163-10o6
(NONR 80k4)2)

Final Report to Biology Branch
Office of Naval Research

Progress from Dece(iber 31, 1955 to May 31, 1956
by J. Lo Yount and H.i To Odum-
dith a selection by
Dele N. Sirindale

Department of Biology
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida

Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United
States Government


Introduction o o 00 o o .......,t .. .. o 3


Technical Report.o o . o o o .0 0

Publications o . . . o o

Factors That Control Species Numbers in Silver Springs (2)
by J.Lo Yount. 0 a 0 .. . 6

Study of the Biomasa of Parasites in the Stumpknockers
byH, To Odum.n o . ...* o ,.. .. 11

Summary Factors That Influence Species Variety in Silver
Springs$ Florida0 J. Lo Yo unt* . o 0 o 12

Summary: Macrophytic Communities in Florida Irland Waters.
Delle N, Swindala. o o *, 1 . o 13

Comment in Retrospect. H T. Odum 0. 0 o o o o a 1


Prepared by: J9 Lo Yount and Ho To Odum, with a section by Delle No
NRt 163-106
Contract: NONR 580(02)
Annual Rate: $5,000 (4 years)

Contractor: Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville
(with Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research)
Principal Investigator: James L. Yount
Associates: Howard T. Odum (Duke University)
Delle No Swindale (University of Wisconsin)
Title of Project: Productivity of Florida Springs

Objectives: A study of basic factors that control productivity and

of the effects of productivity on community structure
and density by an analysis of the unique conditions
supplied by selected constant temperature springs0



Technical Reports

A hypothesis regarding dependence of community structure and density on
productivity. J. L. Yount, . .2ndAnnual Report 45-6
Application of the analysis of variance to differential distribution of
aquatic insects .W.C,Sloan . 2nd Semi-Annual Report 26-7
Characteristics and Stability of Non-Living Environment. HN T. Odum
(1). . .. 1st Semi-Annual Report
(2). ... 2nd Semi-Annual Report, 4-8
Community Metabolism of Silver Springso II, To Odum
1st Annual Report, I-11
(3rd Semi-Annual Report).
Comparison of an EnIvetolb Coral Reef Comminity with Silver Springs.
H, To Odum . . . 2ndAnnual Report, 17-18
Distribution of Aquatic Insects in Relations to Environmental Gradients.
W. C, Sloan. . .* 1st Annual Report, 19-23
Factors that Control Species Numbers in Silver Springs.
J, Lo Yount.o . 3rd Annual Reportsi AlePo
Fishery Biology Studies in Silver Springs. D. K. Caldwell, F. Ho Berry,
and H, T. Odum . 2nd Annual Report, 35-40o
Macrophytio Communities in Florida Inland Waters, Delle N, Swindale, o
3rd Annual Report
Plant Community Stability During 3 Years, H. T, Odum
S 2nd Annual Report, 19.
Productivity. H. T. Odumn(1) . 1st Semi-Annual Report
(2) . 2nd Semi-Annual Report, 16423
Productivity of Silver Springs. HI T, Odum, 2nd Annual Report, 5-16

Productivity Theory. .I T. Odum (1) 1st Semi-Annual Report
(2) ... 2nd Semi-Annual Report, 24-25
(3) o 1st Annual Report, 2h-25
(4) 2nd Annual Report, 41-44
Qualitative Composition of Communities. H. T. Odum, Wn Co Sloan, Do Ko
Caldwell . .. . o 1st Semi-Annual Report,
Qualitative Composition of Silver Springs o H. To Odum.
o 2nd Semi-Annual Report, 9
Quantitative Composition of Communities (Standing Crop)
(1) IT. T, Odum, J. Ho, Davis, G. B, Broadhead
0 0 1st Semi-Annual Report
(2) Ho T. Odum, 0, Galindo ... 2nd Semi-Annual Report, 10-15
Standing Crop and Community Survey of Submerged Vegetation in Seven Springs.
Delle Natelson ....... .. 2nd Annual Report, 20-34
Studies on Fish Populations D. K. Caldwell, IIo To Odum, To Hellier and
Fo Berry o o a, . o 3rd Annual Report
Studies on Productivity in Silver Springs: Comparisons with 10 other
Springs. H. T, Odumo . o .. 3rd Annual Report
The Species of Algae and Their Distribution in Florida Springso Lo C,
Whitford o . 1 o a Ist Annual Report, 12-18
Times' Speed Regulator; the Optimum Efficiency for Maxlmum Power Output
in Physical and Biological Systemso Ho T. Odum and R. C, Pinkerton,
o o o o l 1st Annual Report, 25-26



Laessle, A. Mo 1953o The use of root characteristics to separate various
ribbon leaved species of Sagittaria from species of Vallisneriao
TurtoxS News 31(12):2
Odums Ho 2o 1993o Dissolved phosphorus in Florida Waterso Rep. Invest
Flao Geol, Survo 9:1-40.

Odum, Ho To 1953o Factors controlling marine invasion in Florida Fresh*
waters Bullo Maro Scio Gulf Carib, 3:134-156o
Odum, Ho To and Bo Parrish, 1954. Boron in Florida Waterso Quarto Jo
SFlao Acad, Sci, 17:106-109o
Ct.Me RL^ kS S n Occc rI&#ce oJ IflyA nypItA rkfA warea. E.o/ogy 3 5(): Ir t
Odum, Ho T. and Do K, Caldwell. 1955o Fish respiration in the natural
oxygen graient of an anaerobic spring in Floridao Copeia: 104-l06o
Odums H. To and J. Johnson, 195$o Silver Springs and the balanced
aquarium ca~troversy. Science Counselor, December: 1284130,
Odum, H. To and Ro, Co Pinkertono 1955o Times speed regu the optimum
efficiency for maximum power output in physical and biological
systems. Aieri:can Scientisto 4h3 331-3U3o

Sloan, Wo C, 19$60o comptrative ecological study of the insects of two
Florida Springsn Ecology, 37:81l-97.

In Press:
Odum, H, T, 1956, P.:,Lo.ry production in flowing waters. Limnology and
oceanography 1. (42 pp. manuscript, 2 tables, 8 figures).
Odum, H, T, 1956. Ifficiencies size of organisms, and community struc-
ture (16 ppo. scriptip, 4 figures). Fcology.
Whitfords L, A. 19i'5o The communities of algae in the springs and spring
streams of Flrxida* Ecology.
Completed Manuscripts submitted for publication:
Caldwell, D, Ki,, i T. Odum, To Hellier, Fo Berry. Some characteristics
of centrbrclh.d fish populations in a constant temperature spring
(28 pp. arauscript, U figures).
Odum, H. T. Prodhetivity of Silver Springs Florida. (120 pp. manuscript
37 figures, 1S tables),.
Odum, H. TV ?ri:tary production measurements in eleven Florida Springs
and a rrirta turtle grass community (25 pp. manuscript, 1U fig.)

Manuscripts in Prepcaation:

Yount, Jo L. Factors that influence species variety in Silver Springs



James Lo Yount

The present report represents a continuation of studies reported in
the Third Annual Report of Uhe present series (Yount, 1956). In this

earlier report, it was found that a number of factors affect species
variety in Silver Springs, notably productivity and time. These factors
were studied by examining diatoms on slides left in a highly productive

place and a place of low production in Silver Springs. In addition, an

intermediate station was studied, but unfortunately, this station was
destroyed twice, so that no attempt is mde here to report those incon-
clusive results.

It is interesting to nbo o (Figs s -7 of Yount, 1956 and 1-3 of the

present report) that the rich station remained more or less static from

about 60 days of age until the :most recent examination at 238 days; this
is reverse the situati-.n at the same station from an age of h to about

50 days of age (Fig.s lo 4 of Yount, 1956), On the other hand, at the poor
station the species variety and numbers of individuals were more or less
static from age 7 to about 80 days, whereas from about age 115 to 205

days, these were dynamic. Those differences were apparently dependent on
the differences in productivity at the two stations and time, so that an

apparent climax formed at both stations after different lengths of time
in the spring. In this connection, it should be mentioned that the poor
station was covered by a mass of floating ittia everytime it was
visited until December of 1955 (age 115 days) when it was noted that no
floating mass was covering the slide box (there was still considerable

shade from an overhanging tree, however), and a mass did not cover the slide

box at any time it was visited since then.

There is apparently some discrepancy in the trend at the rich station,

in that the species variety increased slightly at age 148 and 188 days

(Figs. 2-3 of present paper) over that of age 61 and 93 days (Figo. 5-6 of

Yount, 1956)o The difference, however, is slight enough, I think, to be

accounted for as individualJ variations

In summary, then, as revealed by Figs. 1.3, the rich station (5)

species variety remained rather low throughout the newer slides examined,

but the poor station (12) species variety gradually diminished. At the

same time, numbers of individuals remained high at the rich station at

about 2000 individuals counted in 10 oil immersion fields. At the poor

station, however, during ,iis same period, the numbers per 10 fields in-

creased to almost 2000 individuals, while the species variety decreased.

These facts emphasize conclusions drawm earlier, that where production is

high, species variety is low, and vice versa, provided other environmental

factors are similar in the compared habitats


Yount, J. Lo 1956o Factors That Control Species Numbers in Silver

Springs0 (In) Yount and Odum, Productivity of

Florida Springs; Third Annual Report to Biology

Branch of Office of Naval Research.

S00 v

Fig. 1. Diatom species-individual curves from slYeeledl : 43r 4v 'IA --


--- a--- ,- -J, m, .,us.w usJT near poOU,
SdLas, side pool, Chloorophyll quant r (average of 2 slides from each station) is indicated by the hi
(solid a side pool; clear a near boil). slide 1, near boil; slide 2, near boil; t v ,
*tl~ i^aL~R~l

1* 5


and 115
n ^ &




/ -MT
*V&7 ^^^

and 11^
i4^A ^-i *'



V .t-

o x
0 X


0 ^ iH

of ?~ 1~(1-,* *.+

Lnlg P4A to


u Slide 2, side pool.

too4b_* d 4 w Lbas 3! C AV 4 9P&% :1 %0& -A AC l A4 % w. V A V D i5 A<->A WAVV.0 -& AI D. AAV A MJ 46W4 V A41J& VA A6. VV*4 L UiG J4 4A60C&A 6VW A C& LUU
days, side pool. Chloropbyll quantity (average of 2 slides from each station) ts indicated by the histo|
(solid = side pool; clear a near boill a slide 1, near boil; slide 2, near boil; Z & slide 1, side

L pol7
) pool;


lob 4m


0 f o'

0 slie 2, side pool,

side pool. Chlorophyll quantity averageg of 2 slides from each station) is indicated bTy the histo
4Ia 4t int1 1, -c ,nA,,v. hat 411 1 1RR tF RAnta nn, ~nt. h -- sr Rave nn.r ha 41. Y i ., .


-< I3-

l i:


affd. Z05 days
grams (solid t


Study of the Bicmass of Parasites
in the Stumpknockers

At the request of Ho To Odumt Dro Wanda Hunter assisted by Dro Winona
Vernberg determined the numbers and approximate dry biomass of all parasites
in ten stumpknockers taken in winter and ten taken in summer. The idea of
a pyramid of biomass for the parasitic food chain is much discussed in
ecological circles but rarely demonstrated. The total weight was about 2.27

mg/fish in winter and 3o62 ma/fish in summer Using some rough estimates
of parasite metabolism froa representative measurements made by Hunter and
Vernberg, it is possible to state that the very numerous but slight weighted

parasites are not taking a large part of the total metabolism of these domi-
nant fish Apparently the energy flow to the carnire s is greater than to
the parasites of these fish under the conditions of steady state in Silver

Summary: Factors That Influence Species Variety in Silver Spring., Florida

James Lo Yount

Factors that influence species variety in Silver Springs were discussed

in detail in the Third Annual Report, and some additional data are presented

above in the present report These factors were classified and some were

studied in detail.

Classification of factors affecting species variety resulted in a divi-

sion into two principal factors, the history of the area and proximity of

the area to the general optimum, The history of the area includes isolation,

new species formation and the time fact r or age of the substrate or medium

Proximity of the area to the general optimum includes two chief head**

ings, abiotic and biotic factors Abiotic factors that affect species variety

include physical and chemical factors, as well as geologic factors, etco, eog,*

temperature, pH, currents and the like, Biotic factors include competition,

predation, cooperation and the like Productivity, which combines both

abiotic and biotic factors, was found to be of major importance in influen-

cing the species variety,

It was concluded that there are always a combination of various factors

affecting the species variety of an area, and that productivity and time
were each very important factors, perhaps more than the others, These two

latter were examined and reported on in detail in the Third Annual Reporto

- V I

Sumsmary Macrophytic Comiunities in Florida Inland Waters*

By Delle N. Swindale
During the period from September 1954 to June 195$ an investigation
was made of the communities of large submerged plants in many of Florida's
inland waters Hethods, which were quantitative and qualitative, were des-
cribed in previous reports
Differences in habitat and associated communities in various parts of
the same body of water necessitated the study of communities by stands rather
than by entire lakes, ponds, springs, or rivers. Thus different depths in
a particular area of a lake often had different communities, as did different
parts of rivers, especially some of those with salinity gradients.
Three coastal springs and their runs (Ueekiwachee, IIomosassa and Chassa-
howitzka) were sampled at various locations quantitatively and qualitatively.
The individual stands were weighted by the percentage area of the spring-river
system which they represented and estimates of average standing crop were ob-
tained for each system, The average figures for the three spring systems
were 3941, h000, and 4620 Ibs./acre dry weight, compared to 4686, 3774, and
3667 lbs./acre dry weight for the same three systems, as calculated by Dr.
Davis from his data of 1953. The relatively small discrepancy between the
two sets of results support the reliability of the estimate and suggest a
relative stability in total plant standing crop in these springs from year
to year.
Data on percentage dry weight contributed by each species in six spring-
systems, and importance of each in each stand of four springs were presented
in tabular form Diagrammatic maps of the vegetation in six spring pools
were also presented.
The percentage of joint occurrence of each species and the frequency
of each in the quadrats sampled in each stand were used to formulate a classi-
fication system for the communities in Florida's lakes, ponds, and spring-
systems. The classification was based on the vegetation itself but was sub-
sequently correlated with the environment
The communities studied fall into two main groups, mostly independent
of each other in regard to dominant species. There were few intermediate
stands and hence the two groups were discussed separately
The first group included the springs, their runs, and some of the large
lakes studied. The relative frequency distributions of the species among the
stands arranged in order of the classification system used showed that these
stands constituted a vegetative continuum with species attaining dominance in
the following order: IIrocotle umbellata, Fontinalis s., Nasturtium office
s eChara se., nataJs, SS guadalupens.is, ratopllum deme rsum
Sagiittaria Tlorata sneria g and Potamogeto status
The species vary in the amplitude of their distribution and the species
at one extreme of the above list rarely occur together with species at the
other extreme.
This order of stands is correlated with water quality, the species at

* This work was supported by the University of Florida through a post-doctoral
fellowship, with additional support from this project,


the Iydroo~tyle end occurring in more oligotrophic waters than those at the
PotaS eton pec ti~tt ts end, which are more eutrophic and which include the
most saline waters sampled, Often substrate correlations were also obvious
The relationships of the various species to environmental factors and to
each other were discussed in detail in the January 1956 report
The other main group of stands included the ponds, small lakes and some
of the larger lakes The chemical analyses showed a lower mineeUl content
in their water than in those of the previous group The stands formed a
vegetative continuum with a trend from oligotrophy toward eutrophy, mani-
fested by increase in the richness of the substrate and increase in plankton
content of the water Some bodies of water deviated from the general gradi-
ent of oligotrophy to eutrQphy because of an excess of organic matter. These
brown-stained, peatywsubstrate wateM&'ominated by species seldom dominant
in harmonic waters.
Graphs of the two continue and the dystrophic species' distribution,
and tables of environmental correlations were presented.
Notes on taxonomy and identification of some of Florida's submerged
plants were presented with emphasis on Vallisneria and some species fre-
quently found in a sterile form in submerge- ties



The "springs" project as originally conceived is now coipletedo The

possibilities of the constant environments exceeded even the most optimistic
proposals, New methods were developed for measuring the metabolism, community

weights, and to some extent the species structure of the flowing water en-

vironmenta A very detailed study was made on one spring, Silver Springes

Comparison was then made between Silver Springs and others Efficiencies

of photosynthesis were high and closely related to light intensity under

these conditions of continually renewed medium The data obtained stimulated

thinking that led to two papers on ecological theory Then methods and in-

terpretations were extended in one paper to flowing waters in general, A

study of coral reef structure and metabolism with similar methods was an

outcome of the springs work Seven papers dealt with special features in

the springs environment that were related to production but somewhat aside

from the general theme, These dealt with boron, marine invasion, phosphorus

geochemistry, fish respiration, insect species scarcity, the immensely rich

algal communities, and fish populations at constant temperature, The con-

stancy of the environment permitted data to be additive and made the studies

extremely economical any persons participated as acknowledged in the re-
ports and final papers

According to present hopes all of the manuscripts now in the publication
mill will be printed before the close of 197o, The reprints will be assembled

together and submitted as the final report.

The possibilities of the springs are still hardly touched It would be

very advantageous if a biological station for community research were estab-

lished on one of the springs with a budget such as this present project has


Ho To Odum

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