• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Progress
 Qualitative composition of Silver...
 Quantitative composition of the...
 Productivity
 Productivity theory
 Work in other springs
 Plan for the third half year






Group Title: Productivity of Florida springs. NR 163-106 (NONR 580-02) Report to Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research; progress 1953-1957
Title: Productivity of Florida springs
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073979/00002
 Material Information
Title: Productivity of Florida springs NR 163-106 (NONR 580-02) Report to Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research; progress 1953-1957
Physical Description: 4 v. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Biology
United States -- Office on Naval Research
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subject: Freshwater biology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Frequency varies.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073979
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001871216
oclc - 21432514
notis - AJU6211

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Abstract
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Progress
        Page 4
        Characteristics and stability of non-living environment
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
    Qualitative composition of Silver Springs
        Page 9
    Quantitative composition of the community (Standing Crop)
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Productivity
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Productivity theory
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Work in other springs
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Plan for the third half year
        Page 28
Full Text







PRODUCTIVITY OF FLORIDA SPRINGS
NONR 580 (02)


Progress


Wo C. Sloano


SECOND
Seai.annual Report to the
Biology Division
Office of Naval Research
from February l 1953 to wJun 30, 1953


Howard To Odnm
Osilio Galldo0 and Bruce Parish


Department of Biology
College of Arts and Sciences
University of Florida
GainesvAlle0 Florida
July Io 195S







Contents


Abstract
Introduction
Previous semi-annual report
Personnel
Purpose and scope of second half year
Progress
Silver Springs Intensive Study
lo Characteristic and stability of non-living environment
Nitrates and phosphates
Boron, by HoTO Odum and Bruce Parish
Alkalinity, hardness and chlorides
2o Qualitative composition of Silver Springs
Trophie level classification

So Quantitative composition of community (standing crop)
Numbers and dry weights of dominant species
Pyramid of mass
Bacteria; plate counts, ~~lide counts, direct counts
by HeTo Odum and Oailio Galindo
4a Productivity
Oxygen and Carbon-dioxide gradient measurements
Cage enclosure measurements
Bell jar measurements
Measurement of downstream loss
Silver Springs metabolic balance sheet
5. Productivity Theory
A diagram for clarification of efficiency, definitions
Productivity equation and photosynthetic quotients
Work in other Springsa
Application of the analysis of variance to differential
distribution of aquatic insects, by William Co Sloan


Plan for the third half year








ABSTRACT


During this second six months emphasis has been laid
on developing a complete understanding of the metabolism
of the Silver Springs ecosystem as an example of a com-
munity apparently in a steady state. Variation in phos-
phatesA uptake of nitrates, and importance of boron have
been estimated. Fluctuation of some major elements has
been estimated Examination of stomach contents has per-
mitted trophic classification of dominant species and the
standing crops have been estimated for these species by
number and by dry weight. From these a pyramid of mass
has been constructed Special attention has been paid to
bacteria using 5 methods for comparison of Silver Springs
with lakes and estimation of the standing crop The oxy-
genr gradient method has been repeated at half hourly inter-*
valso A carbon-dioxide gradient method has also been used
to check the oxygen and to obtain a photosynthetie quotient
Black and light Bell Jar experiments have been initiated to
obtain checks on the other production measurements and to
obtain a community respiration rate. An approximate balance
has resulted from estimates of production, respiration,
and downstream loss. A flow rate diagram has been con-
structed to clarify definitions of efficiency and their re-
lationship to a steady state system. Mr0 Sloan has sta-
tistically verified the increase of insect number and
variety away from the boils and demonstrated the reliablil-
ity of quantitative dipping for aquatic insectso Plans for
the third half year include detailed and comparative study
of the dominant algae and further estimates of :ates of
growth of all community components.







IITRODUCTI OI


Previous semi-annual report
In the introduction to the previous report the Florida
Springs were described as an opportunity to study qualitative
and quantitative productivity and the factors that control
community structure and metabolism The varied but constant
temperature and chemical conditions in the different springs
permit natural experiments and cumulative studies not poss-
ible in other types of natural environments Work in the
first six months as previously reported established a broad
base by making initial surveys of the properties of a large
series of springs and by developing techiques for study of
productivity
Personnel
During this half year William Co Sloan has continued as
graduate assistant on the project,. Mr. W. Hampton has served
as an undergraduate assistant for several months. The Depart-
ment of Biology has furnished as graduate assistant Bruce
Parish for one month for the Boron work0 Dro Larry Whitford,
phycologist from NoC. State College in Raleigh N.Co has
joined us for full time study of the algae for the summer.
We wish to acknowledge the continuing aid that we have re-
ceived from many persons as partially indicated in the first
reported Some of the results of these studies were presented
in departmental seminar in March, at the association of South-
eastern Biologists meeting in April, and at the Oceanographic
Institute, Fla. State University July 5, 19553
Purpose and cop of second half year
In the present report which includes work in the second
six months, emphasis has been laid on developing as complete
a picture as possible of the community structure and metabo-
lism of one spring: Silver springso In order to do this a
number of additional techniques have been used. At least
rough estimates of all the major components of Silver Springs
have been completed and primary production measurements made
by several methods. The measurement of production rates of
the higher trophic levels has been started As preparation
for the future comparison of other springs with Silver, work
has been continued on basic data for other springs such as
oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, Boron, and Taxonomy. William
Co Sloan has quantitatively confirmed his patterns of insect
variation by analysis of variance.








PROGRESS: INTENSIVE STUDY OF SILVER SPRINGS



1o Characteristics and stability of non-living environment
X"trate&
Seav.rs'. vcyries of nitrate determinations have been made
in Silver .pr'ings and a few other low chloride springs An
attempt has been .a to co to compare the nitrate concentrations
in the boil with those downstream during the day and night to
determine the patterns of nitrate metabolism
As %i.th oxygen and carbon-dioxide discussed below the
spring has been found to be horizontally slightly hetero-
geneous with respect to biologically active elements probably
due to the local action of plants and varying rates of flow
of water in :so,,j of the side pools and eddieso Thus to demon-
atrate boil --t.de, nct~. differences a number of duplicate
analyses have rbu.en run as summarized for nitrates in '.Ioblolo

There is considerable variation inherent in our use of
the phenoldisulfonic acid method as indicated by technique
test In spite of this variation and the variation in the
spring there seems to be a significant drop in nitrate as one
goes downstream G~lo::,.l2y during the day0 Gordon Broadhead
collected a 1cri:c, fr: ,.W- a small spring run at Ichtucknee
springs, and Hampton Ei-Z.lyred for nitrate and again found a
significant drop.
If one uron( the avkp i.~ nitrate daytime minus night up-
take of O040 ppm on c~~ ,.u.'1.tos from the rate of flow that
14,500 -ponnie ir acre a? year protein are being cynth..lca..,od
during the dayo

In general the Spring has been found to be remarlmRbly
constant from day to day regarding nitrate Additional deter-
minations of inoyic'ii phosphorus show continued constancy
of these values for Silver Sprinsas shown n Table 2a The
N/P ratio in the spring water is 10.8 by weight which is of
the same magnitude as required for aquatic organisms In
other springs analysed values of the same order of magnitude
have been found although the N/P ratio tends to be somewhat
lower and thus below that required in protoplasm It seems
that of the two, nitrate is more likely to become a limiting
nutrients Certainly the moderately large concentrations of
both nitrate and phosphate are consistent with the obviously
great fertility of the constant temperature streams*








PROGRESS: INTENSIVE STUDY OF SILVER SPRINGS



1o Characteristics and stability of non-living environment
X"trate&
Seav.rs'. vcyries of nitrate determinations have been made
in Silver .pr'ings and a few other low chloride springs An
attempt has been .a to co to compare the nitrate concentrations
in the boil with those downstream during the day and night to
determine the patterns of nitrate metabolism
As %i.th oxygen and carbon-dioxide discussed below the
spring has been found to be horizontally slightly hetero-
geneous with respect to biologically active elements probably
due to the local action of plants and varying rates of flow
of water in :so,,j of the side pools and eddieso Thus to demon-
atrate boil --t.de, nct~. differences a number of duplicate
analyses have rbu.en run as summarized for nitrates in '.Ioblolo

There is considerable variation inherent in our use of
the phenoldisulfonic acid method as indicated by technique
test In spite of this variation and the variation in the
spring there seems to be a significant drop in nitrate as one
goes downstream G~lo::,.l2y during the day0 Gordon Broadhead
collected a 1cri:c, fr: ,.W- a small spring run at Ichtucknee
springs, and Hampton Ei-Z.lyred for nitrate and again found a
significant drop.
If one uron( the avkp i.~ nitrate daytime minus night up-
take of O040 ppm on c~~ ,.u.'1.tos from the rate of flow that
14,500 -ponnie ir acre a? year protein are being cynth..lca..,od
during the dayo

In general the Spring has been found to be remarlmRbly
constant from day to day regarding nitrate Additional deter-
minations of inoyic'ii phosphorus show continued constancy
of these values for Silver Sprinsas shown n Table 2a The
N/P ratio in the spring water is 10.8 by weight which is of
the same magnitude as required for aquatic organisms In
other springs analysed values of the same order of magnitude
have been found although the N/P ratio tends to be somewhat
lower and thus below that required in protoplasm It seems
that of the two, nitrate is more likely to become a limiting
nutrients Certainly the moderately large concentrations of
both nitrate and phosphate are consistent with the obviously
great fertility of the constant temperature streams*






Table I

.J1: ',--'T .;..: T-.:.- o...dc P SILVER SPRINGS

2'.\ : .vmy of data


.l t


P n.s' ,"


"*.O.: a01a


NOp3N.

pp. m


..- ..7. I .. *. ..on
,, (. *..q... .* L,: k'A. ;.- ." ,, -


May 18

Aprl1 9
April 9
Lay y i

Yo7 14
U7 14


Boil
. .0

C'.\ "..

;1 :~f.

19 .


IA


.499
.468
.331
.40
o34
.4682
.440


T ;.'. A ,
A.)o
7 %\ h1. : I
ppa



s;- .'...

W 00 .
0 ...
^o0rc-^
:arl "E


t .. '. : '.
or. .-. .-'[ -'- .i ,- ; .1 -.


Ueich. 7-8 2.
March 7-8 C .


(Pa l^ :: o .n '
d ';-i .* \", -- : e JVeb 19 P..M:, 1 d a-,"
n.i-.v 1. .-[- ..I .,- '
Plz~ ii


* ~- ...- t..*t:~ ..


041
145

A 49


S- U
ALt''


3 055u:
3 nm-,
5 *7-
4S
fU (H!


.... .n ,w .: "' :. a.i.. f icant
S ,.. ;. the 9:10... of day)
a40 1 v '"
.. 31 1 ;. ..
"~ ... e a.-


Feb 12 'hol.: run,
Nov 7.' 1.c r '... .


0478
. .5 ,-_ ,.--, n ..- R li -


S


Feb 12
ilreh 24


- ....


r i i.7. d a-3 a
10 .G -- r

Sw u..' r 1 rideie caring.
B/P


Jo I t-ltTL '-d'T '^ ^- 6,, """""'
O' e, J' ," o
n-,!'. o ',..., *. v '.

Blue (AT.. ..; '' '.1; 1 ) ay ., '-
I.ch in . T':'... 9, .
Silver, !'t::t.i of :'t'. "'


..!?
.22
al7
.085
.40
o444


SC9?.I
000.'

AG.!


S-,7

0!l,';" <98
902

1008
o~ i
:~. a


~ruTr~Q~;lri~~rr~rrFsra


. *


ara*r
rn
r ur~:irr.rr*i~rran~i~u~







BIUn- inr ;, -: .. '.~:0 and Other Florida Waters
by
ul.,'J C ::. trnce Parish

As -Olp._ .-:' in ? .:. ;-:*:. .vous report the ebmical coroi:..o.i:.t.. n
of QADs '.gi-..nr-, with a:.: .-i ': to the vrjo elements has been r.'.- .."
to be a.7 : h: and ...'.n are avWLll.al for most of the
oy W VV' : .t". .n 1a trace olcomon.ta ho':.ovcr :" .. .1"'.
-A CC... li 1. .... is ... to cOMtblMih which trna3 C7. -... mAy
be i'..lt; or o: .., .. 1: 1 :o:..'tc y important to the sprt -..1..1
.c'F a, It '. an ': .. f~ct that .any spr~Sig with c:2.:.':- ,"-. .y
,M sa.." me I .... : c .? t .- ...tions O1.'fl .r r.-dica.lly in ... :. ,*v
of t1 o n. ;W ,,. e; -.,-v' .

A y',;'ioes of ".... .. ". .. made of water in Silvoer :...
and some o" ..: ..?" -V -. act',- CrsM norms of the element ".'
Flor_': are o y '" 1 :; H.We W M.:.r,- of : :' .' ida
.a.oui.., '.. .. .. o .o m ...r us his OanQ .,;. ...i.. w' is .:VK
r tl ;. : us off to a .-.' :'. ..

Th ... Waters a gin in T?.-.::" 2... .
K -a n.. v:. in V of ". W73O l 'ty of the T--tr. It 001ms
Sa r- b ; ..... 10 a : lati'on ~t .' : ....' toh l ot and 0 1.. '," as
mi. be :-' .. th ':..... L'> L :olubilition. :. s .7oTch.
tion of : ,: k .. 0 -. in also ce.:;:slt.;o;r with the ::.'- o that
the g onar te a o? f : ".-l Mr.tc.' .oud waters is la: :;:y
due to ,;. in -"'T c s du:.' the inat' P1G AQ :v*, > ... *'
In .i-.QX9. r'?t .: E.... -. on .. 7 .i
th Co .; so' rtc sa t 2:n'.l f:'"i. h ." ,...-e
by rain.
T / c' *.. ...........". .... "."
Th P/ .o ( ... a ) is so s small ..
to th P/b- in I *0 7. .4 i L..A; M A.i.Y; T !- 1
Fica,..' Ar is 1 .,..:. ::" .. either i springs or other v~t..Y-.." i. th
high levels .. In i' ':.-. waters wa;.y be growth p c*':. :.'..'... '.'Ti.;". .
not li M . %.' er in .' fouri o5-100 ppm B -= A: ...
promoting off.. on '... .:tr o (:. Wi .
9 1 .t .. -. ,








Table 2
on ir. P Floridt Waters


LOca". .?Y, Date


~~"r-( iu~xl~*~\- t., .1,)0141 111*01(111


C.-.c'.t :'Al3 Lake, U&;
O l. 0-c" ". 1 7
- \..,".... Gulf
so' ',bM ",, y .ul
Sea 'i: -,.., .W
l-o .. :.-; t ,. ;
Salt *t-...r ,


Pouc" r 1 ,,
ChoL'a ow I & LY 3 I


.
: fo Co, 153


'*-", GCo,) Ju:.1:' 17, 19653
i' ) "" 10 ,
( K. C o) Juin 17, 1953
O.r=U 0.) June 6, 1:3?S
f* .'" ) A' 19u 1953
C:,, June 19, 1953
y ..on,) JTurn 20s 1953


455 1 l" >.m
4,4 .,.', 0o

6 MV
5.4 -

',. "b .0

3, '3 ..'. 0
-... ,


LM,:r O,,;;i. .:: at 7 18 1C. M
Ow.: ~,; c :.. ,: (out of c ".,: Ka.) un:, 1, 1953
.... .. .... 0 :" .. 9 -,:.".
F... 11.1. r ." ." 9o 3. 5'-'
, -h..-" Ri r. To .. .- I
...... i.... ..L **; '" "* .*.* 9 9 l/ '';"
Ti"'Cu r: is > ., 7 1...
Silver D .-.. ; of 4 an.lnca)
Hinle MLY,: L o, (t011t.' h iV ?)
NIA TOO ", ) P'- 1, (ofl o.'opho)
Loa.y Fi'1 .- C ') (MAr ,.A yak 1)
.)gnusV 'i 1 n ) June 10, lu00
h . -. Fe. I ,:


t1 lt '1 milc i S .'P.. '..
enna o Q:71! Y )9 .
Werage p 1 "
Ph'i ls ':'' Go' 1


Se a 011. 7' .. ..
Sept. 11 .'


-30: "-.J.71 3u 14,1953
.: .' -..v ille, I ,tun: 14, 1953


,i,,.,.p.',.jg lake,
Hogtownr Crnr
Hatchet CGreeks


. .., i :.
,.71 3 ., ,,
May

lol0 at si,''-:. .:... .. of 5 analy;.r.c. of 1 .3T!Opl_
Downatream .<:.;.. : "-*. t' ..n of 5 rclncr.ti;cn
Silver do.'-i:tr?. ., water: '..ctto analyses(4)


Boron in Si crrr..ry::." : .t;r e algae
Boron in Silver .O':-1. -..ai.

P/0 ratio 811;:..
P/b ratio in plants


2.0 mg/kg dry
806 mg/kg dry

208
5440


water fA-..:.A' ', 3. ^ .1 TUI;.st.irn, Univo of Cal.fo.,"-


C< A"'
C.7


O.TS

I017
J <. *".


e0 ..:i

a 08V
S027


O019


27O
9.
5.
50

7.
4.
80
So
5o
7"
40

8lo
11i
80
70


17o,


0*d'. S


~sruonnr~Dnrrurrxasrruursaaaw4*prrr,,ran -ururiurrrur*l~llllw;irr~rurr~a*~saaarrr


R ai- ._,!,:;t. 4T'.".: .. .. .
Ra.tn;t ",:, [*" ,. "; : ". *,










: ...-.:" i 1..' t. ;...i. '.t, ..-. ..lfC .2 .ifr :. C


A71Tb ....! j: A.. n .o. b:mma the conapdyQ
moaj, 0.0..-OKi ts in ." .."-. OA '' 'on! Ur l.yCa in P.
0" :Wm;ev to C0 :- ;* th -. l actionn C .w 3txco,:.. .,, ': .'
niityca were -1: v, ,V Apqr. t-CjJ uma ; pprnSW D
o ':', ~-' .- ..- u n .: the ouw'-? two I Ut.. W aT.' i
for the r.,; values Whchc :.p-... .:. t lower ..
is "... tha t 10, -a in.





S. of R P in .veor tivver
SP bruaryI. 120 VA ''


'4/.


E. ..l h.L.,' ,'L


-0.. .
. ... ., *


cr
U
8,5
":1
*iU


NIo t "T' ''n'"
(o i., ':s ... ')

(In ,'. j ')






sta 7 (1 M :,: )

eta 8 (2 :... M11-

W 9 (3 .,": )

Sta 1:. (8 .

S,.. ". (4 1/2 5

Stsa 1?, -.,u: "..


..- ,.
1
AM;


S9,. .0


9>5 0
00
'7 o0


99

10.5


9 : .... :




10 ^ CC ^**.


V1.


O ,'"<


I 11 :.t'.Q S Ity V4,was !aJ l *.. ) -,,
ii'.


200..*
... J 0,,









0r 5. ,

.0 .


i :1 .. '"





14A

.' :1:
1.: '-, 0


SI'i- 6


r


- a


*T"l M:-. T i. n f .:." : '
s1;.:.aE in PP M






21 QUALITATIVE CAP:CZ'TIO; OF SILVER SPRINGS


Tropbhi leol classifcM '-

The r. ::: :;'.:,:.: ..on owf the3~ taxonomy and food chains for Silver
Springs ,atv ,.;,. .,v'. ,7'. -- ". "-, has proceeded to the point rhor.
toi.':..-Ive t-'-,'.:.: ..lov. s c. r- .. dra-'n for the dc-inanto with some
Scc bS:...:... '., ..o aant :..vu been examined to dete-i.--T. the
positions of 'soaa 'r:.- :- ; in the food webo Further detail will be
;cddcd as cT,.. ;;'* A c.ho..fica.tion of dominant in Silver Cp': ":~L
is given in ':. :. : :.;:;;s of lesser importance were 1 "'c cT;
in the f-"st ':. ". .:. y:ep .,1:,; W.C. Sloan. At present a clC .. 3, is
litev '"1l".y in1 o ?- .:. ... level or the othere lnter it :&v- ?'", be
possible to ':'': :..co Wti :.rst overlap there ia


T ..' r .-. '.. :

PRIIARY PROD L:j;' ;.


o: Co,'so't3 e

3 V,1:li X77a
tyo*rtach-^--Aw.- J


HERBIVORES;
Ganmarue nsZ'

Teen.a ...
w '.
e as on. B~POX
01 t.


Table 4
nation of Dominl.nto in





. ""- ,- -'- -




'. .;.:.- ^ ..JL

* i .. .... ;. ....


REDUCERS:
.L .. C :.;." ."_ *":.
Eac: .. na in ::180 : :".i


CARNIVORES
Lu' ni.i'-. v .


Silver Si.:',2t; .:


Oscillator'>".


rv=Ua
MEll'zoonium



Gonlabasis zqx







6On$ aoL::v.re


TLr:~ca Smicrolophus
d.Li V' :.*a a- cs
I '. e p osa f a -y .* liliill ilnlr n iH iiiia u iia~ im


SECONDARY C 'iTi; !Y", :: .
Mi cr". :0 :..'..' .': "" ... ..... :.- t 'ou o "..t y'n c L J.-e; -.. ..
.. r. D t' ... ..... -. ,
A fairly c .-'!,';t 1ot less .t,.dl st.:.ns fishes is -"'
by Hubbs .; il Allen (' ... :a: AMd.i..'. of Science, vol 6, .' & 4)

I'~1:r tii. to' of ,j .. :topht,es are being made by Dro A00o Laeoaslo.
a..L-ae by Dr" TIrr i .:. and macrocru-t-ea by Dr.o 7Ho'r.: ";..








s QU..TI. E m. .J.'.. OF THE OCOMOUNIT (STANDING CROP)

,:: '. h. i .cinnr 1t a cls

Fi'.:-'- 1 .."., 2 c :.ase detailed estimates of the i. ', .:.3
and ,r-'" '. ': :...-the major components in Silver "S'."j"
Hot:1.e"o ; :.,; .:. '-: bic .uses have been grouped according to t't'r1'h
levels. -. :.-. oTh es'i: ..., have been made with a l':- ,"-: i..ty:,*.;.
of b.'.'. ; "; .. ', ....ect .. ts as discussed :o'.:-u;
plants by -o foot a:-.'. .by with face obaks aL... by
ac:p .. o ... ..CC.:. X:..;:. ,.a .ttlria blades; perlphyton :. ...J.n
by r.... ... 1 .....: na.l ...' o ma k cropping of 100 ..- feet
quaitl-r^: :.:1 1.. nek oi periphyton with a 1/4 .: ..: : o'.2
prini ? '. .".; i :- : 2motile invertebrates ith a :::.
box trap ec;.:... ... a .... door by hand; minnows by visual
counts over .'- '. ; .r fished by visual f-c- aisk
i'cr'u.i:.rj ~'7,: tou.o .. 'C..., fromn a boat; and turtlesa ;:'.:'7 to be
fthe '.,;', :..'.:.. ,-:. o . :'": i.;:. '-.inga whetvi o L Marchand carr~lx'
out extensive :: *.:-.r '-us t.T.ultea are of couroae cvry
:g: :: aace wJ -vo 7' .t^ .: no varmrcte idea of .. c- t,
and ?:C O we f .* int : in big differTecrO, data
rOprec n ;.-!i ".: ;*-~. '.-- i.": .^ :.o; E.P* Odui B in h? : .:.* .- .
i .t .. .. ., ., S pt 1953) da..-: on ll-
;oru. (tr.n,:' n. 'even for .i::.. 1. ill ustrations o. l.
m.as are ,.- rnon- .t'nt. De '.: of the n; .. "- *
ity of S.Ilz er. .. t is. ..;.. :a to build up such

.tramid of Macs

OC .. : '.: of .' ;i. ri' .. t the idt; rat t: ... ; l..'
,'r:a te c_'o octs, t.y :-:.2.y ,le';:to r lati Ut:a ; -wi .;
to.S a ;:.-... .. ... :-.. :' -r a ,i1.;. t not only of the : -..
Ing numbers T.'.&h .-" :;;,..; ai;:Bal. at thea tc;p of a foc" . ;;.'' :i ;!o
Cr e a",,i-i n v...-:..,:,.. : ': ".tz ::. ,.u organisma at the bt,; 7;t ,.. of thIe f':'"-.
.I .. ".: : .:. can : up I chain

kr .uod of bicmace L,- *..cIr.t Io'..! .0-3 eleaG r.p
t .':-.s of . :-. 1 ... th :.I;.3-l:t.'; to ori;.,y relationships as
discussed in ''. .. -' n b : T ,; :;,.n.. t.. *,-c." :.'".; .tt
'.''i T, L,:o. "..:.: in ... -. 3 to .pt-.3 a pjr.u;:iud of Drass ..' r..v r
.p ..., o Th. .e .. .z :.. 'i Of the d.i,.c ,: ".o ofs nm, .. *
to that fs.'u. in ,.'" '. .- ..it -a Ti.i r. .on of t ... .'_, .'.L; crop
L .. are ..u...- : ;t hi .c y. Thoe for Silver ;. .. .-;: ;

H/P 3.9o ; '0/' 2:' :/CGi 54%; R/Pt-.+1.C-C 1,S








[1;~r;j.d~

If


Diatoms
& alg 1019
fil m 09a
.10


07. i o t U-.,o

SJAMaAla


s



f 1





FigUrS 1, IC, 7t.-1 o- 4.. OPE by tropto levan
Sprimary. ..:..f epectiv )


1o6J
1045
104J


10
'4.O


lo
0i
10


103


53


j


Ga


i .











!- -. .-. .- .. ..--
/.i.... .. .. .ro\ .. .
D3
,,".,...,",,, ,.. .,, ,... ............ ....I

.. Mites
C.opepods


...... ... t. rid.J

.n



1O t or"" "1i 1 10


of St-a...dig c of Doms
Ii / ii ods '







SL nG Scoa e





.j."'. i' M Q oI:.[";,O, Q St";anding Crop of Domrn
.*"iO;"g 2i *m\atGo," of Stcancling Grop of Dom:


SEGONDARY
GAITIVORES




CGARiJ.VH' 3









1IlERBIVOR




PRIMURRY PROUGCIlZS


2 Gx


inants


..-... CGarnivoros o37 gas



iI,
';I
Oarnivou.es *68 Das


i, T*,'AL-vOe3 3.0 O ga Roducera o96 oaa


Pr.,i:.-~, Producora 77a oiis

Figure 83 Pyroir;id of Ilass in Silver Springs
Di;.-./aqo fto dry







Bacteria by HoT* :; *anJ CandG::dl3 Galindo

Sov:. :2.l '~ '... v: I., Henrici and others were n.r- 3 in :an
effort to loto-..t 'c the s'..-3 crop of bacteria and s".n'.M,-
A.'M. :? tp, ti V. ..- -," as ntorips.arra with I1-1- .0 where
t .?o :'.L.: .i.r were :', Nat of all gar P3.'..:. !:.
.;-. :.n;i .. ; ._', .1. : ,,.- ..'.:.-. t1 r : periphyton acrmp.'. V:..
Se '... ;'. ..: .., '. -' n... ud :;, v.n,- 04;, c4u K .T .we
i 'm: '. ",. on c,. r r ;: 'c,.-r lon in sprin.r .'..
. :ect Iut .. .1'...i cots of periphyton and mud .
.T.o:.. v.a ., .. r. r. inS....., nsome counts won, .. A A
poc.:; v. : -..... r-.P and he ^ -.iber of ; **,..,. r
di.f.rzc.ai crn ,, -;-. In t'his wor we nre gzrStful to D,%
Tyler a,,"d the P'a.ler n -;erlology for u.Avioe and :ho loan
S'r.'.'. '. -... .. : an "ic.W tO '"- n H... ,
, .l h:. ". .'.: ; ., .. :

The '" o a:nC =,t; .:- in T:W'blo 5 :. r A
fa 'v c by ;- .. n co l lakes .. 0 ...' the dr.'c bh O. : to:; ....
much s y -... to To what a3:5tt we are a "' i:v.
.c-id bta.'.. i.n Z?L 3t co.ts o. ..:.J nma trial is not I'ioa "wnI.-~
in Liz. r ton re r a 1.: p.. Wi.: .loQ of ;O; '- M;
am like?; U 2 t th -- K ol a I- 'toiar is not 1.2..:.
In tIa- mud in 'one too a.t eniate as one ..; .
4.'.1, In t e ": t -' the pl: te n :.; \ Z .
" .. : *" :; :,r' ; of dc.. ?. -
t.. .. p. cc.. ...... '.. that ja:nt don't giow in M.. a ga
is nio;. in,
n ,..;..;. .; ,., >} b : .v. .J3.''u :. ., ,. : . cih
T' 11,0011. V", -. . '1 .. ..........V
-y.. i ""i "t t "in: t 2 A ; 1 :i" .f-.
a*i-.. t 7' A .., Q y n .- ,horm a ., .. c urve


of r-n a a ... ... :. i ? ..:ly -. ,, ...


is p;p.: I. .it `7 is hmin the ce-.or Is low in or


In o:t'. r: T' -3 ..:.cvork e." ar fac', in the ..Ings
is ;y.-, M : 'l Ti t "; i.. by he ivolum J "% .


2 t. : a ..... ; t '-: 1' .em of .= .
trnplly W.&v.lv.;-.1 : .n the e.a:N.gA.3.-. The lavga tMoA surface
in f 'th 1 ;l 1zv- L rcta5 perlpl TLo.n ba.sin that LiOn I c :lr
th 1 Oi '. I: : -e -. in t por c


Early in the it :-.- -'. wT ..t the spring ....ia
p?...? out: .tural ..".to : 0 Q ,, .1., Ga
1h~i at 37. 1,, In .eement. wiFh I .ch....'tor of aquatic
.pcr.ul ons r -1 -" ...n .:pp i-... late, aft er twi
o W.,; T .- Wh'; 'n '-., ;." 't c ". W in the 11 or : ,'...
.,~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ,, t3o.'' .. ..... o qai








i'a ;a 5

' ..;. IN SIT/: SPRINGS


fi-o. l


S".... ::: cou tod

CilI'. CO W u;ITP '.- .,, : 0.JO,. PE 970X FRESH
10 x 104 am0 5 8
S.o .i; ;,<; ; .v. \ i E : 2
'" *-a6
wV"JO pC lt1, ,, .1 5


1 ic mud 2 aoma '>"


1 cc mud ;4 em doep 1

C.B .T.3 ON :Li- f. "


"1 .ide on r .-A'".
mud .svol.

81:.0~a. 2 ft. '. .~''
i- to:: r^ ".0

PATTY COUNTS 0(


10 x 1.5 em '' -..:
of Sagl r.., 1 ,11


:22 x 1.2 Cm hli.'o "
Sagittaria, p .


0 x 1o2 om b:.-. of
Sagittaria, 0, 'A'. Qt
current

1 cc mud, ;: '...;'f ';



1 cc Mud -.:

1 cc Mud 9 cm '.U,..


1 cc Mud 18 om 0: w. :"

1 cc Mud 27 cm deep

1 ec a:tW 1/4 Ci1.o

:.::-c .. .r on7 nse 1. :


ina n .. t.:
of u. ...:. .. .


774. x .
757. x
468o x ,0

424fo : iN
424. x .'''p


2 72', a :.


" ..G. AN'D "TA Y ED .. .E -.. .- -


60 $277.



84 19Kg
A'B.fli 4~a^,^'fl$1^jt4*4'SAS'A W~lflltS44W4Z*! I~ 0iIfl"4


., WAT~' IA.T


. ..,'' *" L o. hos
J 9


1.'.E0 x .10 "


15 17.6 x t"'



5 "1.9 x V.


5o? x I. '-

4a9 x :V

1, x 106



o24 x 10'

.40 x 106


I'rn~. j' -raaan



:t75,,..


'I



'4,44
4)l


IS,~


4 Ado


..... / "i '\ X 1 4'-


U~~.~a(~*I LYO ~~ i~~k um~Ol4444m 4' 44s444'


*~N*l~~r~C~~Uln~nBIMla~7ZXnBp~*P40~s~Zu


~


r- *"








































r4 eolerdto per ^-e.c. '

;;:a *+.-, +" ; ...*.:: ./ ...) b otcoon 1 : _, ..-... ... .... .1.:
.:f: 1 .- ;..^ ':. **. f : j udi" l..Q .:, C .-* .W
.. r; : .. a -.-2
'." ." + ''

+ '"' "-''- *" n Cl ''"'' .





j+ :/ +. .;- i" .: .. .,


.2 2 ~ tA


-^----*-Y-- --r- -g--r -----:
2 8 ..'


Figur t o 5 Y C rs.b rn ;' t t.o lIn :.now: .k0 area .*.0
nu ber 7. 1 5'. 10~cM3 i ?an lf -, I


s-}
'*Y4 9.4..' Sr
*? 12


Speiesa
-,.oo, no ++, i -!
Spouias


.3 t




Q


*9 "'1


r.^~`~~l-DP-Y-`YI~`~'~1SI~U~lil~iD~n


"& ,
fa





4* fRODOki.v '.r.i"


Oxp- n and CL. :e :,:.' ..... ., .':a.a,&... .

In the 1.; 2r'- ..-.' a. ::-.A-bod for measuring primary ;>.:.: i.v.--
ity for t ho ..lo -..', -5 2 stream community was dscc.;..'ibc. Th,
in';rcaz in Gc;y.*v t.,.:..-.:,1i t:o stations at night was r.i-i.r.c tad
from the d'r,:-:, incFrease ringg the dh.y. Further et'kC 7
this aeto0. J.:^ : C,:Z Sc...c rt with analyses ado cv;ec .' iouro
iaa'la of those .. .' .. .. e IEhofrn in figures 6 and 7V

SIAiTh: v ::. br' have obt.M.i-od for carbon-dioxide ..n in
figure 6., .. ,.-' / ,:.:...c:&.' curve and the area above the
dipping usn-J I ".,'o been used to obtain photo)...,.; 'H;i;-
tic quot.L;L s thus .: .: -/ 's; t-. G- a l vAidity of the ?..:.r-
pretation of ':,,r.i' : ., the result of differences in y.:!.'::-
synthesis cIla ':: -is .g of tLnoo Q-rospr' tcry quaf:. o.' .o
discussed in the zc .to ', :a tci'ry below.


and ceryt -i .-..
;^df 2o.r bl e h ^.. -:--:i. *.
been foIu'd in the 1: -."3
are much ; -" ,. .
accurate end '
p-Eison to L "
.L'iono i v0 .'" are ";
than f ul'. i.i.-:x:.. c1 :
w..tropia ..1. -. sh l
in the -lt. .
thcl.cuyh the ~a.... "
in the c '.::O. of ::
fliuct'<.:\tI .E; Soon :
to the ~a:p;.:. .."i : :.3 Y.
which .:':;i" a t n:
'bacil into x.ri:,L in :.. ::r
fpr to of I:r. '
curves such as .


Community p,:",..,


'an I'." o been ;oclsrCd in both tl: :I:7,-n
From mi nute to mlnuti:e iudi.nti., a conl
*.U thes u.t, Sc!o of this v':.:x lit .cl I.:;
'.: 0. ?::0 irV';, the Coat'o -d,.hi S ': ,, :-.: '
.. ; of t'lhi.;3 is due to the inh.,' eQ:y I l, .
;.. ca' -.: 3--uo:x:do titration ",: "M ... ,oa
*... ;.I n,- c,:- t 5 a seem to ,': ..:"''.
,:' ... those .'., to .:' OquO C".;-i.. ;, ter
;n. L .*l.*-1 .-io (:.7 un-3..:; the .., :.
wt elear ";..L.t :3Z; Q: ; o.t. is mp l lc -.o .:: 1,,


!. c i ::.. A :'c c otc ot i: '.: ; .:. '. s o

iof a _-, :gc: 5ct1vc dratcr Ca T-c" c:i '. ztZ
. I .q ....::.; ti.z .:0 ; cro.o"n,^.. n


ion.
-: J 6 :zr$1 Y isai be Jdl. z'.l a: ... as "- :-trd


It is 1I- .. tizt:;. awe liuan becucc' c i
some of the a..- ... face .~~-!; ,"..eit .ion su.,.:1 vast
numbers of o. ;. .-:;, and .b:,.:.-- ng into the .--o".,
During the ui'.'..-.y '.: ,c ; ..,r soe of a?;;ra c.,,n be .ob vc.'' i to .'.,R 2.h
the aurfai~to .s .-. ; ..i;'.scKl( ." ,, Also a few piv :. .. '.".LL.,.
plant mats ,e ..:. CCtd a:t,'n; ih, ,'; so that f '.t' .. :.";";
tion results ..- los ",. .-: .n-Ln;- t-:h,' day o .in in the ua. ;. a:;:;.rn
oxygen vrluew- are 'L:..:.' :::: :' at night so that not ags mu:ih r:;.-n-
diffuses in from tf/ .-: ....: -'o:3, Our procCu sl to subtract the
night Ve.liuo c. thcr' "1.. day r~I night diffusion wro. the same*
Since th.seo ol;ccl; a ,"... ?... to cause an ~ rA!:'-.trttaMtion of the
primary ;prduc.l ",, :.;.. .. .. the v. staet ]rtl:n,, to ;':').id l.e nor-
mous values such / ;:.;.: in t'liJ. Go


f, # .1:

















8
C'L


(4.

U;


.2~ .,-

.~/q-:~$~ nf....l.A..~f"~--~~- .-
L.i .' eq I.- ar 4 r U Bei
-: ub ),


-I





-I 'i



I I


(I'





'A
*: 7~ C'
1ff


.3

S;~


A ~


MDrot '*.:.
LE3t


j f !ill( I ]. 11, 1f
a*..'*

Febr.ne IE,9 ?'t!


-/,- '-. : a- in Silver D. : ''.';.i r., rga.
g of p .'


0f. .











S1


-Vr


5


..II 3 :r
V YSJL22


-2 4 56 789A. ua.-
2 .54 5 6 '7 89 w V


P:r:c 7 .. ..;, : "~v.riation 3/4 mle do~: ;::;..
t.u Silvoer .... '.,.', ..Ci .


,-'~ S .
At ~.*;C


P


&-6~~; 24rci


Sun-
sun.rJ


r..-..-.-h C~:u


I~YII^^__Y*_IYIYI~~~I~IILP~IIXI~I~U


Vulml;itn.llmr~*lo~raUl?~lru~I~UIY


M~"~'""~1lr~B*El~-**-nYIII~UI~Ulr~UII~






Table 6
.,...... -: '. ". ,'c; r in Silv.er r


C -. nationally
Determined
f rl' -, :.6V


OXYGEN GRADIE,.1D MET]HOD s.yu.'.. of 02-time
Jr i.v *s ppm-hro
< ',, ne s t night


~c o r ',.'. ,'; ? r; t.l ..-
ii'c, 3 -..:.. .. .. .
Feb. 19, 'vi' .1 tT
'A.rch 28', I0.: el7-
--rch 26, 2 .60 c ..':

:J'.L JAR TLlC .


May 14, 1v 7"
1:00 pom.I clear
'y 25, 3' :.-'
1:00 p.m.
It 00 ,%


CAGE^^^^.: ::.._ ,.:,
CAGE iCL .,


,-r 12
";..o 1 12
.. .. I ;:- .. < 7

,. 11 .. 3
S. ',, 9
,-? .t.*, "- :...y 2
:i O~


5.5
12.1
13.1
16.0


Method, Date


*i-"; '': increase Pounds per acrce ...x -.
.r per hour year gluc ;.
145 12,6500.
.60 8,300.
1.85 12,5503
85 8s100.
214 .40,900.
1i,00 54 400
Vri7wt i a


Icrn~,~a ,PZ;


1.9
- ':, ,.3
44
,,59
,8


o68


,19
2,1


lbs/afre/yr'' "., i-ht


19,600.
dec:once
do ?."a ,: o
4,350,
6,130.
28,900.
58,800
14,300.
6,930.


62 ,700o


i GRADIENT [i':i'.i .: pp: '-rdt::l day-rnit~ lbs/aere/hr .'. ,..
"D O "ll '"ST E E M"T ":''"' -10 -- -37 --I 'o '
S/4 mile io~ni :,'.l !
pl.u t:,r?, er- loza '..*'.y 2 112 i./J


SagittiL-e ;:- c. n .U_..
March :0', ,; :'
March SO, 30, .

RESPIRATION --DLACX B:T!LL JAr~
May 14, 1953
May 25, 1.S

June 22, 2 "'.


I9eatn


(losa on ignition) 12,800o
net-
286 g:-.; d ry/hr 3572.
S32, gms. dry/hr 396.


ppm doo're Cs/Jar/hr lbsa /acre/yr. ,':1** asJ
.33 12,700.
.07 3,140.
.22 9,.
.71 18,180.
W 18,740.
1q24 58 400t
0"g


Uncorrected r'iL4Piry
Productivity converted to
Pounds per cr:,'i per year
Pounds "r, acr p::
year gT.le'fne


24,500.
54,000.
58,V00.
71,400,







20
e f -'a '. A ,.n-. a .': ....." ... ** ...

X.p.r:h,.: T..:C.,t';:-: "*'ts u: ..:v: be' made using the cage o ':.'.nn'a 7e
method of weighing wet anr' replanting. New data are included in
t;b7:l 6 jnf:.....r:.- two spring periods when the cloud ;a :';. is
least a.:.i plnc'.'u-)i on is probably greatest are not roprea,.:,.': r2Wo-
c,.,.a.u! the big Pomacea a na.ls found a hole In the samll ci~ t.'n;
a'. .:..3 a"e ni A pi...:. ';I.on. A s;ac:rd period was i-vbi '. by a
Si:n.,a;i :,hn furtle (.;... ;-:...i:t-,lc.all.y we note that undo-r prctr' :..y
'I: It8:,:.t.ii. of 2.8 :" oxygen chicken wire lasts r'.. 8
rv..-,; the ..'... y to astuidy corrosion under known c;., .. '."'.;";
of c;dnt'n f-;:r' lr '. ;" temperature should be obvious)

The annual" ".:.-. : ..: growth rates of the Sagittaria ,c?;:.c:,ted
by the ten fe:l :.-. l..rotcen January and June support .-.
nai... fd.'. : in t : ':. -,.n gradient methods in figure 7. To
look at -t .C- : on t'.-uid haly guess that the ec.; '-:.I..- is
r,; ..:-..,; '*r..: ten ,ti a as ..t in the u'z nuri as in the ,,I.,.":: ...
7C.yt still is at th;e g f (. '"-':' :tur..:':: t e of 25 deg Co 'v;o !' : ..
Sorop r to at :.1. The .,f OnOlosj *i J.. i.."
. tinim %m .^r; ._ ::, ... the .-' :i',. ..c.:Ioloth top cuts out. Cu oitr.-a
nble light, r' Y *.*.-. 113 up of roots diverts ,,",:; .-..,t


A1 ...''. not "7..~, of ir:t.:rrf.L in estimating the l:.-'" .'.,tion
in Silver -: *;. : : of z..'nh rate'of neuston, Pitia
and. h..C. t.ru I bo, t c" ...- .. We think this is ta .,,::,' -i
fo' c tt'. 3- L: .y ... L ,lty in survey work in t:* ;.',.s l 'c:. Ci.;r:u
W!:."c .the t:aI: a'.::; ... in the ,'U:-: is not great eitV,-_ from
week to v .:... :' f'ro '.." pl.-' c of n t can pl.
ed on unlh:- :, a ril.^ value obtained in two :- :
Th values of .;.?'. i-..l." ,.te that in north '.''T,:,
u.1..:. .i. : O'.i- a c13.i.ti' co pens&:tic:t ,, .. is
,..co.'id only in tho wami .' ,-is.






Bell 4 .'c,: 21
As an -.d 1.7-2 : en ot'-..... productivity mo.u.'.ing I .....nds
and in or2 el:vi to .. :... : .?.. 1 ^. the standard li t -.':" .'
bottle rec-..tbi d -l2 7:. ..: .*;..;. .Y. to l.' springs. Light: ar Lt. 2:
bell jars were rplt.:cd over tp-c--. o:.'oan of Sat ari .n .i its at-
tached algae. A Oell :,hc ladir. from theo center of the Ji':.- ".
the outside acr.107'c an oxyg the jar. The 100 cc ca."- for analysis is small compared to h .e 12
liter capacity of the Jar. Analyses are made about an \.:.". r.t.t
so that ch1ai.co i.n "-:.ii..,'fai probably -.., :I.:,.nlsedn, The 7 r.,*r. sur-
ri..o oin the plrn,-'j $',,7.*',.-. prevents the walls of the l. .b":. "'?
.rv.in.g an ..i ...... ".,'...; Smaller bell Jars placed on the ..:"o
".';. .n.o -e. L '.... .' to get some idea of the metZaolUJ.0.i of the
byw';,'t.~w:o -:-. d.iatomn on ..", of the mud. Again as in all r~ji.:. C,
'o:. 1the Cle ar, lla.t .; vwarim vi&;for permits intimate detailed
r;o"'.k 1' l -t th .. O -".- -. ; ok without the uncertc..t.:-t; -. ';. ". ia ,
.i.n2:1o2.0o Resul3ts of :... 5r, monisuremeaaont are given .-; t.-.,,:. 6.
Tl. v-.. ar... caloula t..:. :. ...:2ng the oxygen increase to the ,...,
..ug t of :' ':-"..,..: :,' ch. ,. in the jaro Then thif :,.~!.:. was' ':.'l.*
t-illi 'y .... .o 2- .t:, of plants per square foot.

It seems clear 1 : : L.?.?. jar estimates arD lower t-han the
;.yg. g:.- .. :. ...:"- ', es;: .a ne Although it is too ..;...,, to be
sure, it is .. ".. "1. ti on to t...:: th oxygen -, 'j ,- '
as more corrects t .. :". of .. crumpl, in T.2:,71 jar do
not have .. :;.::. h. ..' t;: mt moved rapidly ,at as ..: .:i they
ae v.n;; n '. "a .c so the similar crrfl" of y',-. .trs
by .. ; .. ., ....t.:.aa .1.t this at least is ,' i" .-, Even
in o;: hour '. .c r.; *-'z.'3d at the top of the ').:.l jar
nl i 3 i .* ., .; ;- *; ;, *' .

Thae rrm'r : '. qa 'o .--,, th.', bell Jar elotp 'r.',:.l:' : do ,.'. of
course i KY y!Tf rf!.. :' to .tbea.

ae sur:T:2; .: of Jr '.; -. los.
hVUttW- **o~'ra" *, c.;.: "rf'B -::. ountw B.*aa iis
Fur.toy r ...':: :. a mount of Sg ta ia clumps '' '.'-,.'* '.!*
doC-;a tr e:fl. have 0 ( "'-.'". ";' -..-:,i,,:: tui:E of PrpE action L..;: .u'. to
th..a ct:nc.I as 1..". '.. .n 7'; ",.. V Although .i;lr.i~.Ive to the Oey to
see the G-w-.', l .: :- .', of .... .. cr 1 i 'l.an.tz coming f.r,. an 18 -..:
producing area:, : .; not an ap.;-.-c:^..'lo part of the ':o,. .. ..:; ..*c7:.,
tion.

Lh.ving l.., ."..A:. *'::. : t that there was as little seston in Sil-
v '`a' ri-.lys'.: wa l'.y .*'.: '-. ''-".' any water in the world, we werv :.;:: On--
shed to find al" ., very su.1.l per liter that o..co tny tiny
.pl rton cc .;.' '::.- ooco :.,.o. the a'ksdo of s pl.::a.n' wa% s aa.a..^;
doi,.n .:':'rm at 1 :,x to ;, '1I'2 l, G~ltoroS a -',,-. '."'.:. ion
of the pr'.-uc.:".'. was .--- the r'; :..:ori i:.rdly r't:oi. as an c.-..: on
al diatoim, fI'1. :" ".;a or r:.- E.n". The inl; c:. f.*-.;:' i n.ltio
limnology as ::;:.w::r...' in. th tl'-,:C..iA'.cal section of the .":.. ..ort
is that utro..l.Jh s ].':,"';'' : 'iti .;..are probably on an acre bac.ln .:,',on:;
the high,3.ot eve- ',.: >:? :: to."t.shoious contributions








One ,.7'*;,.,., e ths -.'.* .r-:," .! downst:eoara loss r"i:- m d by
pouring f'5 lit^:'.. of x. .:-n '..., plankton zit, dryio, in a,
oruieble and c.CI.: to .,c- a loss on .tni.tion as measure of tnU.,
organic :iru'iatto:

Dr ITOslo-n Tc..1.-l of the Oceanographic "Tnstitute F ..,T
S', University by :.-raL.'- 12 gallon samples t1vo-~t .'[, I .. .
centrifuge (tis.4tc2 ~::'4. :xtas of the chlorophyll go.iu.3 dI. ,;u"-.'. .,
He found of course that all the values were extremely le but thIat
-.teov 5/4 e .1.c-r,:::;rt ::..r* station contained 41 mg ch.-c::-iy 1..
cubic mo&nr : con:: c. to a practically zero reading of oC?. 'i : the
boilo If one u;:.:;., a chloophyll/organic sater ratio of o'..:.'
:?.. some '.c. ;.: ..?r. 2 ..-. on .tt,1h 3 an organic matter ia, *..'
,.'CO i., .w.L:W.I a C..':.* :!.. .",, s i ". similar to the one o ,:. ...'
' ". ". "" .p .i-- ., '''. r in 6 .

Sl"eo Ei'a-.r.-. mota'. .>: balance sheet

... ... '..:.. ".'. ...: ,:.'o as yet rough and te tait is
Y.. ...' .r:: to -; "' -, ..:.ous tiv tas to get an .'..
r. th .. *- of '..' ... :. Springs ecosystem to t.Y..... I
It i .'I tI ';i. .' -:.. :, f ,:t of all the uncoR .:..Yi .".' ,'.*y
production ratos ? .r. .,.':, : .t. by adding the isp.'..'. :.... .
fo.. those.. .l ..heci was @athis'r.-- The
r.E.....'1 :.:;" subtr"'ct (In tUh, case of the oxygen n1mtiho.LI Is -' '.*-.
ity F :3 t 1. not .- .: rutP T..:al.on.

If .; 12 s.. :wi:;&- -'.i. .A.t Silver Springs in a
t y ;.' -. '.. .; of organic matter or ..'.- :- in
t..-di,,:i5.s crop5 ''::, "- f .--:'i.;,a relationship must hold:

S.'*-ci t:.. 2', ;7..'.-," -: i:" ) i '.( respiration)5 (rdhownri '..' '. i-,: : )

u.Xnco". r r.'! : ..,,y total ..-,!;
o-,:.- t ion ) .( -.': ":" '..' on) ( h s ) ::.: a t?.o,)- ( ....,.

The Ia.nipal. e- in 7 howt that approximate b:C.c... .' t.:.:c.
t: ?...'wd with the 7. :'. .o:-..::..'.^ os of .'.:i.mry production as in o...T. r
or in bell ;7,.,r t.1 s"...aP:t figures are then c' to ".-
bri'.Jl',s cr. .- .. "'.;. 1 ':...1 high productivities, vACn' b.
..l .1n: c'. '; a 5 .;: ', '-; r .beenh : ,no. t k t,'no w-. ,.-.,. the
:cttLk.$.')rCt;U value.is aro out of i.;. with oLa:j'r! values. .-:'
.t.li .me ans that ... .' ,-' ':..e::'. ,::....,',rk; of respiration by ':i.1 :-';;I I5
aincroct, that ;t(" :. :: t: t-" loss is bci'g undersatimrdr.ct., that i ..-
o matter is .i'-. .:.*...r ng olonoz and lost during ,.0."', or
that -omi.:--~ c;'.r-: : -.:,- will have to be found from further
invo~dr?.gl a 't;.cne. It "-. '.. .',. :l;ing to notice the enormous :17,.',c for
c.r t .. on. '.th c.,- : .sp .-ttion ^.
Where is t J .t a 'i C*on ,L2r.?






T-abla 7


In each line two .*.:l..:, ,:. ..:.'O;.cTc'ci.ta and the one which is I' '?"
t..:.d is .ar.l ,.- ; 1' >. ,' :T,-': on the assumption of b.". .."
All figures in no'n" p rfo pefx~r', year.


Respiration:
24 hra


Downstream
Losses


19,500
(bell jar)


20,100
(bell jar)


p700


71 400. .r:

(D7.r :c ,d!.- ,',.: "' ""

71,400 ?. ,-
(Marpche:-; :'.7 ';) (*' hea s)


116160






(bA.Il jar)


15,320
(June)

13,320
(June)

13,20
(June)

61,350


none


none
'i"BOn8


]i'010


*t3ii-srsraa*)wratia~aaa'^Kntwt^cawiBB3(*tB^ -**


.r.r- 1 --,w -iA .i u j 11 n ri rL iM IO jIr i


~Un~i~bVI~FILVB~Y~YI~nnlilLs~~Y~~L-^I


-~-- -~ --


-B8i Rai~wEwac lw^ii ri


~rrn)),xlwo~~runrw9m~U~WU*U~n*IIIR~~


^" *.... x'o.^" r.71i: Sp~ring
rrtynt'..i-wa iam t'a .n i'r~~u:^,'^ Kw~nilwa .-i, jijtuu iiilf~c>f~ti>ti!Mit


Production: Fs.eCT.t..tion







5* PRODUCTIVITY T2EC2Y S4

A j for clarification of efficient definitions

Because cfflCCn:i.Jo r.n so many things to different people,
the diagram in figure 8 has been constructed to clarify definitions
of throo kindcn of efficiencies at present in use in ecology, The
diagram shows a oc:-.uai.'y in steady state with the lat and 2nd
lsi of thc2iu:c ri r:c 6Afiodo The first is satisfied since the
inflow energy and oEutlow energy are the same The 2nd law is
satisfied ein.'o -:r3; of the energy in each step is lost to heat
since each step is a spontaneous irreversible energy transfer

The first type of efficiency is the percent that the actual
growth p5ror.tc, is of the inflowing food or radiant energy. This
can be called ffice.-.T.cy within the trophic level. On the dia-
gram this isA2/E2 :.:l.
The ccorni '..Y' of energy is the efficiency of energy trans-
fer between tr-oph~s leve This is the percent of the food pro-
duced which gccs into A1.. :2zft step of the food chain instead of
being "lost" to the :.:6~-.:e-c. In the diagram E2/91 is an example
This efficiency bFl't-.:n P^c.ilc levels can be considered 100/5 if one
counts the 'reduca:o as i "-. of the food chain.
The third -, of Ir..',:a i. s the percent that production
at one lv!'/. is o~ :the '-.-:-ctien tat the previous level. This
food chain ,yr:.': ,:cn 'C .'i ioncy is really the product of the
other two eff,...-s .. example on the diagram isA2g/1o

Relations ix of 2',.: c;ro to productionn rate

Asho: in t: :' :... of Figure 8 the standing crop is the
balance 'bF.... the 'f.,'li and outflow rates so that thero is a
definite mathefail:..-:;'l :eoltionhip when the system is in. o~:;. y
state.
Assume a nim:. ic. case as a model Assume that all
efficiencies within' troh .i. levels (within organisms) are :.:o.,-:ont
and equal (for C r.?2~ o 1',i In this case the grams of s:tl' crop are .nve:'-:.ily .... c,...'.al to the production rat'o per ;r..
There will thus t-: to be mny of those species with slow :.;x:r.1-
dual growth rates and 1. of Z'i;h,,r with rapid growth ra.,;,
Since the ot.,et:':C :c .to of organisms tend". to decr.:.o l,.- 1;.:-
(Von Bert,.lI.'.y, L.Vo & Jo K:edy1nc;.eyk 1955o The u.. rule
in Crustacea. a,.I:: r..'ean IN~turalist 87, pp. 107-110) the larger
animals may t"i.,i to b~vo higher stan-ing erops relative to the
amount of energy pu:tl.: , though the trophic level








rotvitlZ actions and l ajotos teto .qu otients
The equation below is a summary or balance sheet for the
process of primary production involving plant photosynthesis and
growth, which are not separable in the ecosystem. This equation
has been constructed using rough assumptions as to the ratios of
elements in plankton from Fleming (1940, Proco of 6th Pacific
Science Congo 3, pp. 535S-5.s) and other sources. By means of the
equation the large amount of oxygen that enters with nitrate
becomes obvious Undcr such an equation of either photosynthesis
or respiration, the RQ is o73 due to a half protein composition and
to the nitrate derived oxygen that does not show up in convention-
al means of mw.-.:'.;. R.Q. If on the other hand protein growth
w'-e, not appreciable the quotient would approach lo The values
for photosynthetic qu.-.lr,. observed in Silver springs were ob-
tained from day c ::.c,1 of oxygen production and 002 uptake at the
downstream ntoti,; ... :x?.;io of the curve areas indicates a
photosynthetic w". otci ; of a 93 on Feb. 19 and .65 on March 26
possibly icdit ...: a .*:.:.1.. nitrogen metabolism at the l.t.i.r
dIteF Thr ';*. :.: : ''.in r'.ti'. on of 14,500 lbs/aore/yr
is consistent v:'lth .a .'..: ,,,hotic quotient between ,65 fiiu', *93
and a total p:.l '.-tieu of :.1, *-,0,000 lbs/acre/yro

Eventually it %.ill io .'- 3',i. by analyses of cheora ct composi-
tion of the pn-l o to orrsEct the ceation above so that it fits
Silver apPr.nr oroe "'.b... oo assumption. Until this is di-.,. pro"
du;:ivit;i e, : obt ':..~ : ih -rx F .;.u'r.eents3 asre rs--rt& as
glucose 5-: ':.l.'. .""..-. .,, L..'.,:.; ,. dry Weighte
106 '. -, Plankton (3258 i;; )
106 C
+ 16 NTOg 16 N
1 P
+ 1 P04 180 H
46 0
+ 90 go1.0 minerals(815 :- )
1 000 Calorio-
^ l,00,0or- G0.0.."0 a Unr';y0 co-., ..
'1..Ia : energy .-..-.-
4+ 815 gmsa :,. "..'. + 154 02

4- 1,287,000 Ocl':ri*?s heat









WORK OETHR SPRINGS



A sg ioaon of th.e r::.y'.- -i 0.7 ;"nr-ne .o differential d-,tr.1' "'.:- ,:"
V ,-, ,--.-' -. -'- .fl t3 aamVM3 at r aflf t3 .' 3 -.,
;.-a.stic inecct.a
-"r, -3 rr -,

by

William 0, Sloan


In the first semi-arnnl report the scarcity of insects in uirsL;-: abn'
as compared togs L.in rtun tws disnca-zc-a In order to substantiate those
observations and aleo to daetermina the relative mambers of species and i:"9'.iUvi.-
ale per unit ~'Ec:., a ,'-..'_'..'.. collecting technique was devised and the result
ing data wero treated A. -,t '..;ll.y by analysis of variance,

An area of thlo Ho:n.os~osaa run was chosen which was as nearly like the boil
area as ccJ.C be fobd7x A '- stations were then picked at >a:r.cLm .I -1 at each
station five -.2 .v e vh5iTh a dcip net and Needham scraper ware '* ?o a .) .o
one metr of :on! '." s..mK :3.': :.-.,- was followed in t1he I:.. The
inssects tkeln eu- di.fox.it : -.*;, -methods were kept separate so that aW
variation could. o tes :" :.:'. ,-- .',, Table 8 shows thS *ean r.. '..v of
.1 .1 1',. 1 :- .1 p tv -' v ..:::'-' e, by both methods and .'.'!' :;'t
areas, .- :*. tv tit s .e '..> :i a Analysis of variancee "
;.,nc~ B7, and. :'.kr z'i2Av i N:how in table 90


Aalysits of van'icnce
an of I:,.'v "- ?.. to to
v? ,..w -. less ta 7..; ,
r.:.-g if9c?'0Lt


shou1c.: tl 'i.5:f:,. nco in both numbers of apecplse
S'.. :..; F ..:. (P of species less than 3:/. P of Inali=
differeaeo in methods of c collecting na not


Figure 5 ooseeas to cu : the number of dips used at each
sufficient. At t.he toe. dip level, a 10V increase in mieber of
is obtained for a ",' incraso in .s.i n: area at the five '.'.
a % increase ifs cbt,.t.:c fr.. a I'... increase in. cjyr,a Five .T'.
to be the standarxi E~..a'er


. : 1..', .. wu a
W'. : ,,.

All contirao


Thia is T .Ai'- rd. to 1,c of "some '.- :P'*nesj since it now seems ''*:.7 that
'vrlnl it. tiv-C .. .;':5s :....' insect populations in the irm-in' ca bo at I--1-;
roughly :_e,'.-.:.i without : ...;t h,;: to time conesniig quadrat -tti..*. "".-', '..l
an.o tito.-.:.e mtethr"od. n for '.lif :::-:; ;, .'. of habitats (logs, C!..'t:"'. are ,:.-:';:
dovelopapc,


:.';& B


'3il


f.4


f rT, I rt "


Needhama sc:r,-1-.


2,8


St. Deov


1.26


6.5


St, DeTo


1.63


Sinivduala 3I4 l36 2892 2,71

# -.po uS 4.6 0o80 5.8 1 1.60
'-i --- nr-r^T; ...-- w-------- --- yss3LJ*=rl^TaT"''>'^^f^' ^-?


6.0


2,28


21.4


3.14


-.- l fltontwo, r' 3


~FDnw=rtz~lficmm=3;-f~~


mFi~SPa~---i-- ---


j :
as~a~arrraEI--;~~.~I-lr;nnrul-rr~slT


f iaudivi.'b.:l s


**"Jf n""*a






Table 9


between areas


correction for c.'r
I,,,1-


na/ly~sis of variance of member of aspct..S


Sir~iria nf {ira-s~':ir 1 Th r:I: o~f? fb'b:C~i't ~P~ d


Variance F value


esa ..:'*;3 1 22020.05 220o.Q5 0'

between W the 1 22,05 22.05 37.50

residual or err o 17 1405.70 82,69

total 1 3 47.75

~rrection for ,..*: f: 1 4351.23


Analysis of variance of ramber of ir iHvi i'.7.





28
Plan 3 e-
/ ,S-
Dr. L. Whitford will complete a comparative study of the dominant algae
in relation to the known differences in chemical media in ten to t-..'n-ty' of
the most different :,-:i:', during the summer. Mr. W. Sloan will .,.2rj.l
his masters thesis on the relationship of insect =mabers and variety to
grPaients of ;rl.'.n:ty and cA7-j.il stability in coastal. runs. ain attention
will be paid to completion of the metabolic understanding of S.v.: Spr~-nas,
metabolism of orc-:.ri.c matter, measurement of light intensities with community
production, and rates of c..rF,- flow through higher trophic levels. As the
imbalances in estimates for Silver Springs are resolved work will begin
using the best of the toc~hniqc8es in comparing the varied spring productions
in relation to their dl'.--ent dhemical conditions such as N/P ratio, Plans
will b made for -.i -:' .':...:! check of production rates in these flotw systems
with P-1. As a cor.llry :- .'.on ta will be accumulated next year on the
seasonal a'pc:g;iow..aria'tion in these constant temperature a ol:ilioents
in relation to '-*,. -..'l';.io changes.




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