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 Title Page
 Letter of Transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Progress
 Plan for 2nd half year (second...







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3ir.t seReport to Bialhogy Mohsion Office of Naval Researah Progress from We 1, 1952 to Jamrary 31, 1953 With section6 bg John 8. Davis, William Sloen, David Cald~mll, and Gordon Broadhead ~eparknsnt of ~ioioglr College of Arte and Sciences University of xlorida (XainesWle, ETorids

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College of Arts and Sciencee Department of Biolq Chief of XawA Research Attns Biology Branch (Code 44.6) Depmtmnt of the Xavg Bdaehington 25, D. C. Herewith please find the first remi-annual report of propese on a proJeqt, NCNR j80(02), concering Qrode tfvity of Florida Spriaa;~.~ You will note that vmrk during the fbst eix montha ht%8 included mach eq3.oratlon af posraibflitfas. X believe that Dr. Odum be made seal. progrese and is now in a positioa to center down on a more Intensive study of the best poaeibilitbr among the numeroue promising opporttudt%es that he has ancovered. Department of Biology

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Pxodu&ivi%y of FSor%i%a Springs FFOlXB 580 (02) PaCseZ Abs trad springs of Florida Purpose and amps of investigation Personnel and acknowledgements ~0ced~6) 1. Characterietics and etability of no~4iving entrirorrment Pbbsphorun Temperature, thermfator current Salinity gradients 2, Qmlitative composition of coxnunitirr~ Sp%t%al dietsibution maps 'Paxonoaic composition Contrar~ting patterns of ineeat distribution, by WLUiam C. Soam Orgardamns and oqgen in anaerobic springrll Ecolog%cEtl formula for a species Peat format iola Ffarh respiration experiment, 'oy David Caldwell Xnvasion of marine fieh Rnd crab@ 3, Wtitative composition of connnunitiee (stamling cmp] Pyramids of inass and mrmber The weight and density of aquatic vegetation in four aprings arad their rivere, by John Ho Davis Xnitfsl experiment in color tagging of fiah, by Gorilon Broadhgad 4, Productivity pa-t productions a, Cage enclosure methad be Downstream drift methad (lo Oxygen pdient metho& 5, ProduBivity theory Aquatic steady states Production pyramide in streams Thermo~ic and food chain efficiencier Eff icilenq, selsoity, and power in food ubine Paen for 2nd mf year

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Productivity of Florida Springs NONR 580(02) Pwe 2 Work has begun on studying the faotore responsible for produotivlty in the Florida springs, which ase nearly constant temperature, constant chemica3, steady state giant laboratories. Progress has been made on five aspectas qualitative deecription, pmtktativo description, completion of kno? rl-e of cbremica% factors, measurement of productivity davelopment of produ&ivity theory. Measurement of the primary produ&W,tiee in Silver Springs and Green Cove Springs by two new rnethodeg the rairring of organisma in cages, and the measurement of ni&t day dif f arences in oxygen downstream we@ roughly, Production in these springs is greater than previous production figures reported for marine, fresh water, and lad areae. Inatantanem measurea of produotion show large variations with season, time of day, cloud cover. Production estt~tes range from 11,000 lba per acre per year to 70,000 lbe. glucose per awe per year during daylight hours. Essential atability of the trprings environment haa been shorn with respeet to temperature, phosphorus, and plant cover. h correlation of speeiea mtl~ber with Xack of stability has been shown with inee&e. quantitative studiee haw shown very lsr@ plaat baee to pamid8 of mass, Correlation of meins invasion with chlorhnity has been shown. The essentisl aspects of pB regulated phosphorus geochemistry in Florida have been outlined. Soma theoretiad. idea8 on productivity hme been evolved, Mapping of aessihe organisms in springs and. taxonomic identification of dominants are half completed. Plans for second six months include measnreraent of herbivore and carnivore production rates and completion of food chain efficienq determinations in Sklver Sprws as a preparation for aubnment comparisone be tv~en springs.

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Productivity of Florida Springs ITOm 5&9(02) pase 4 Funds from ONR, University of Florida, ard a small grant ($500) for phosphate work by Florida Geological Survey have provided eupport of the princbple investigator fall the in mmer, one gradnate student wrd me uridergraduste a0wiatant throngl~out the year, and other students and farmltg wPth field trip expenses. This pro3ect is a cooperative endeavor. Department head Dr. We C. Alles hae made a signifiaant contri-tion in plannine;, Dr, Hood T, Odam has been cooritinator and aa principal investigator emphaaieed chemical composition, produotion rate measuremtmtr, and prodactiviQy theory, Mr. William Sloan har emphasfzecl the qmJPtativo composition of invmtelrate fa-, especially inescts, uebg epecioaambes conrmanity anaQsier. This has been pmt of hi8 work tot.lrarde the maatere degrece. Dr. John $. Daas be imeetigated the qwntitativa standiw mop of aqqattio plants in relation to salinity in coastal spring nms, The Florida Geolo&ca;b Swrvey has supported Mr. Uchard Highton during: tb manner, aP52, for anaJysie of pbsplmrue in these springs and other waterer, Dr. A. 14. L~~sele has developed a herbi~m colleotion of aquatie Ugbr plants from the springe. Essential taxonomic aid has been psovllded by s Dr, Pf, J. \?eatfall, Dr. L. Brnsr, Mr. JQ~ Crenshw, Mr. Robert Cumtinge, Dr, C. J, &in, all of the University of ~lorik: Dr, E. 5. Emm, Oaeaaographio Xnetitute, Florida. State UniversPty; an8 Dr. Iforton Hobba, University of Virginiae Preliminary exparimante in springs Irabeen conducted by Mr. Qordon 33roadP1gsd, and ?&. David Caldtuebl, Udveraity of Pkvrlda. Special coarteaies h~ve been reoeived from Mr. \9211irun Ray, Manager, Silver Springs: Mr. Roes Allen and Mr, VilfreB Neil of Rose Allen ReptiZa Znstitute; Ms. Elmo Real, Managor of Bomoeasss Springs: Mr. ReU. Bullarc%, Manager of Woekiwachee Spring82 Mre. Winifred Dean, ChersahowPt$ka Springs: and Hr. Harve$, Green Cave Springs, Xnvestigations into the factare controlling produotivity can be c1aesif;led wider 5 headings probably in inverse order of importan008 1, Characteristicre and atability of no~l-]Living environment 2, Qaalitative eonposition of communities 30 WtitEltim cop~ition of comnn2n$.ties 4, Productivity 3, Prodnctivity theory During this f*st half yeas an effort ha8 been mads to obtain results in each of the five divisions, Efforts to develop a methodologg for measuring standing state connposit%orm and productivity have been restricted to 7 cobWasting apriage &thou& mysternatic initial sllllreya have been made on 40 eprings, Sintho mea~uremant of production rates 5s at the heart of tb objective8 of the project, these studller h&ve been begun mn though descriptive qwlitative aad quantitative aupectla of the varied epringa are not get completed. Prograss $8 mnnnmxized below Wes 5 badinge,

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Prodactivf ty of Florida Springs XONR 580(02) psee 5 1 CHkRk Ofi4RI STICS ABD STABILITY OF NOILLIVING EI?VIIZONM32?%' To date 125 anrilyses of phosphorus (fnorganic and total have been made in 33 sprfngs to establish the magnitude, variation, and form of phosphrue in these constantly replenished now arstems. The aaa;lys%e in springs have been compared with 300 phosphorm~ analyses from streamsi, lakes, pools, aria estua.rie8 made with financial support of the FXorida Wolo&cab smey. Results so far have establisbd the following patterns of phosphonrs die triBut iom 1, In the large springe with atrong flow the phosphom content ir remarkably constant with distmca down the rua even through heavy plant beds. The dsta from Silver Springs in fable 1 bdioate these propertiem. 2. The phosphoms content of these clear waters is primasily in ' dissolved inorgan30 form. 3. The variation of phosphomaa content with time is low, indicating that even with minor, biologica;lly aative elements, some of the srprixg environmente at least are relatively constant, 4, The dissolveU phosphorua in springs a;lthough moderaw in concentration is available to pllats in apparently excess reserve amounts due to the continual outflavr ~f water. In some springs sue$ as Qreen Cove (table 2) some preliminary evidence show definite modification of phoepbma content. Ed.variabls dise03lvedlp.phospbrus values were obtained over the Hide sluegish lower reaches of Cbssahoorbt&a Springs where the velocity of water relative to plant volume Ibe eIlmlb, 5e The dissolved phsphonra in springs is relatively small in coqarieron to very barge amount8 found in the acid suxfme streams that flew acroes phosphatic rich sedimentary rock formatione. Solubility properties of phosphom andpE seem to be regulative. Soft acid surface waters percolating into artesian aquifers become hard and basic asd lose the e3~~essi'~ phosphorua concentrations. A complete discussion of thia hypothesin with data to support was mbmitted in report to the Flbosida Geological Survey (Hows;sd T. Odum with agreistaaos of RiM Hightons D%ssolved phosplaomre in E'aorlda waten~, ReporO to the Florida Geological Stakvq, January 22, 1953, tentatlveu coneidered for Bul1. of Bla. Qeol. Survey, 70 pp maxiwcript) Table 3 includee compampisons pertaining to phosphorms geochemistry.

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Productivity of Florida Springe HONR 580(02) page 6 Table 1 Phssphoms Valuee in Silver Springe Rtua Awo 9, 1952: CIoudy, 2830 p.m. Boil 118 mile mile 1 mile 3bh miXe 2 mils Z* milea 3 miles 4 miles 5 miles ~e~an ,0431 eO466 Standard Dsviatim 00332 000307 95s of anaasea with leer error than 135 (0sganic phs~phaoruss .0033 ppm, .705$ of total phoapharue,) JIuls 15, 1952 ~oib ,045 AU~, 16, a952 maa 0036 (ID Sqt 3, 1952 ~oiB a ,061 We 30, 19% 5 miles down run .O!jo .OW June 30, 1952 in littoral bell .025 ,027

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Produati~itiy of Elorida Springe NOMi 580(02) -7 Tale 2 and Figure 1 Chemical an8 Biological Properties of Oreen Cove Spr\ ~aterfa~l in e\mnmer only A B C D E 3' Boil Pool Balpida Brdrdge Curve Curve 5 July 16; clear afternoons Temperatwe 25.3 26.1 25.9 25.9 26.2 26.7 OWsn, w 000 1.6 4.6 4.8 5.5 6.1 IfnQrg. P, Ppm 022 .041 .OX8 .OO8 ,005 Aug. 10, night series, 10. p.m.8 o&Ygen, P .3 1.4 40 0 304 304 3.3 Inorg. P', ppa ,005 em .005 .004 005 ,005 Total P, ppn .006 .OO6 0005 .006 012 ,008 Sulfur Bacteria I-,-,--/ beds /-....---..IH--HIID..)U-.I WINrn! Jan. 27, 1953; clear mornings Oxy-n, pF@l 0.0 1,6 O 2.4 2.6 3 2 a2, pipm 5 (.. .6 1.9 1,6 1.1 Temperature u= I.. 24.6 a 24.4

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Productivity of Florida springs EORR %0(02) page 8 Tsble 3 PBaephortaa In Wee of Florida Waters (# of cases in pazentheses) Total P Phosplrate district Other weas Strews Estuaries ukes Measursmenks of temperature imve been Plade to verie the essentia constancy of the springs envlrorunmt, %a Silver Springs as one passes down the 5 mile mm Wmember 13, XgS2, with an air temperature of 12 dengee C. the temperatares in Sihwr Ramp are from tb boil down8 2300, 22,5, 22,8, 22,8, 22.1, 22.J., 22,0, Thus the variation is within a degree even when the ahr temperatme is low for average winter condit%onsl. Om June 30 the water bsgirmbng at boil tqeratnre of 23.0 increased to 24,O 5 milles dawn tb rjlrrer. Larger rangee are to be expeoted in the Xom reaches of sore auggf sh spring me. The water teqeraturres at a time when the air temperature is higher or lower than that of: the boil tsmperature can be wed to locate eonee of mixing and zones of stagnant water. To &e possible rapid mapping of horizontal temperature distribution, a themistox and bridge apparatys was conatrncteU. Urring the thermistor 6 Bnohes d-eep off the prow of the boat a map of Silver Springs ehowed the type of pattern in figure 2. Clearly there is contirpu9d. mixing throwghb'~'ct most of the spring nm, A spring such as Silver mag serve to determine rates of air-water excbnge, 3Figlwe 2 Portion of S5lves Springe Run Aug. 18, 1952 3a00 porno cloudy Temp. = 23,O + tenths;

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Productivity of fiorida. Springe 8580(02) Page 9 lPhe current etmature may be postulated to be relatively eonstant sina, the variation in the rate of dischas@ of the apringa is do Fergueon Lingham, Love, and Vernon (cited above) show an annual variatian in the diecharge *om Silver Springs of about 20%. 'Phe map in figrrrs 3 me We with a midget amrent meter in orbr fo get eons idea of the patterns of aarrent velodty in horieonta3 aepeot, tahieh mey be impartant in controlling the distribution of organisms. figare 3 CluTent Velocities in Green Core Springs Feet per Second Width Sosle exaggetrated 3 tba

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EJIany of Florida0 e springs originate in strata whiah etill cantab salt polssibly left in the pore spaces by the lsst Pleistomne flooding of ldwareas. Thsse springs are slightly saline, some in the brackith range, The arrangement and pattern of springs and runs are especially adapted to testing effects of salinities on natural amtie comnnnftieu in toto. One group of 4 wastal springe of large sise have parallel run8 7-10 mZlea to the mf. These spring complexes are, in order of increasing salinity8 WeeBdu, ChaesahowitsfEs, Bamasases and Cry0W R~OBF~ Xnitial atmlysee of the salinities in the nms of these springs are plotted on the allaa, fia figure 4. Wee boils have sainities logarithic8l2.Y spaced 'tnzt tdth the same calcium concentrationu. The runs, as thep approach the coast,increaee in tsalbnity Piret dm to smeller tribgtary sabty springs erad grmd waters with gradually Onmeas@ aa;linity,and finally clue to tidal watere in the last few miles. A etrang distinot tidal mve ntovee np these narrow rune many miles beyond any sat water of marim origin. The wave &feats the pulers of the spring sun but does not reverse the flow ex~ept at the mouth. The geochemical factors which are in aperation have prOguc@l gradual salinity gmdient~1 thich ase of much more constant %~p8 tlhan the uatlaa sllEq4 fluc~ting estua3.y* nds remaskable naturaJ. eainity laboratorg ham already been tZlb baaie of some investigation6 discussed below8 ths invasion of marine fish and crabs, tha d8stribut;aon of aquatic plants, the distrf bution of insaot faun%, and conrparfeons of fauna in stable asrd changing pastn of th Bane streme Ehrther comment on the ge~chamistry of theee epriagr is ineluded in apaper ready for publication8 The Geoohemistry of sod%um ohloride ae a facrtor controlling the invasion of mturine famra into Florida fresh watere. !Ws me presented at American Sodety of Limologists and Oce;aJno@a'phere 1952 session at Cornell in September. Tha eesenoe of the biological aspfollows below8

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Productivity of Florida Springs lOOlOR 586(02) Figwe 4 Chlorinity Analyser in parts tELa Cryata River ~OV. 29, ~952 UP Homoraaea Springe Sept. 28, 1952

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Productivity of Florida Springs 18OEJR g0(02) Pace 2.2 By far the most time has been spent on the initial napping of the hias of 40 sppinga using compass and tape. The dominant vegetatson bs been plotted in position, roe estbathg the extent of plant beds, A typical map is shown in figcase 5, Xf as discussed below ~laay of the springs zepresent stew-state environments, the conditions at any fixed plam within the commity represents relat ivelg constant condat ions of current, temperatme, nutriaart, and predator exposme. Thus horizontal spatial patterns are required in order to compare factors and. organisms. !the methods for estimating stah jag states discuss& below require a map so that q.psdrat counts am be ~Wtiplied by the area of siatilar habitat. One result that has come. from this work is an idea of the stabilif$ of the vegetationa3 pasts of spring communities in Fborida. Iiittle Blw Springs, Gilobrist Cmty was mapped a year ago. Visited 5 tines since then, the pattern has been essentially the same except for a large bed of floating which comes and goes primarily bemuse of the dislodging s\nnmer smers. Xn gross aspects thee comnwnitiea seem indsedl 8tabls systems. 'Phe springs for which initial surveys and maps have been made ares Iehatucknee Alexander, Bee dhsr Blue (~ilchrist Co,) Blue (~ackson GO,) Blue (Volusia GO.), Bltw (~ronson), Bttckhom, Crystal River, CrystEd Springs, Glen Yulia, Fanning, Wiper, Zithia, Palm Ceia (dry] Poe, Ponce DB Leon (~ol~sis GO.) Rainbow, 3iver Sink, Rock Spring, Salt, Sa.nlmdo, Silver Qlm, ~phur, tlamn Salt, Wahdla, tIeMva (ltevy GO,) \?IeIdva (Ormgy GO,) Wdkb, W, Silver, Manatee, Orange, Ho~loeaeea, weekiwechie, Chae~v~~~s;lfa, IQix, Morrison, Bonita, Green Cove, and SP 1JO Wa. Locations are given in bh$m e.4, a;l, cited above, As a basis for all biological studies, the maJor taxbnom2c daminants in the springs were collected at the time of the mtqping, These cursory sanples,repreaenting only several hours collecting eaah, bave been taxonami~ divided and the fractions are in process of being identified. The idsnt;Wloation of the most abunbnt spedes of higher plants, insects, aria fishes a;re essent Uly completed. TM) striw results are emergtng from this phase of the works 1, The spring communities seem to oonsiet of a few species abundantly represented, 2, Almost every spring differs aai to the dominant speeies emn in oases p~here the chemical analyses of the lnajor elemeata show essential similarity, Examples of the living components of apring communiW@s are given in the list in table 4.

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Produ divitp of Florida Springs NOXR 580(02) Pa@ 13 Table 4 Examples of the biota of some different typea of Florida epringa (only a t entat ive ~~aasif iaafion) Temp. 83.6; bacteria, Biurd light P,Urbidify variation ot pe;mliaF chemical nattpe, -, f rogta blue craba requirea RideaZ-S te-* modif iuaf ion of Wiser method. Ernles Warm Salt Springs, Saraaota Oounty. &-~~ob&, Temp. 75, Sgjiphur and blue green alga@, midgee, 3a%&h p&&g&&, water clear and initial4 oxyg~3#ro00, Exampltne Orange, Oreen Core, Bbeeher. Temp. ?5, ahwater f is anphipods, water greenish, Examplesa Eomoeaasa, Wt, ChaseslaotPLtdm, Silver Glen. Temp. 74, clear, mullet, centrasrchida, (bauusrida, crwfishe~. Emmple a Silver. c. %Ygen 5 mm. snaila in profusion, mixod vegetation, &@&I&&&* $braI) B@+a&, etc, ExamplesP Blue (~ilchris%) Rocb;. (covered at tim of Wbid rim) most cqlet elg Elcasrgplee Morrison Spring. West Florida, Temp. 69, OWgen

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Productivity of Florida Spring8 NOrW 580(02) pagrs 15 The collections discussed above have suggested the phenmenon obeervml in pollution where mmmities have less varied composition but nraar$ WOtdUaas of each species an& where the partidas species that is dominant seems to vary radicdllg. Dr. Buth %trick hss suggeeted in commanication that a etablle enviroment lske these springs rriay poseees fewer species than a normal fluetmting environment beause there ass fewer transitos~y niche, whlchin a norm3 fluctusting endroaanermt allow maay species to at leaat maintain a foothold, fn both staBility or in polltation one has a deviation *om the mrraedb fluctuating ewiroment and possibly for this reason fewer ~peoled As past of work toaards a masters &epee &er ths d5rection of Dr. Levis Beraer, W, William SUzm is studying tha dimtribaeia of ineects in relatianah%p to contrseting factors. The following eeation, written by him, indicate8 progress to date. Contrasting Batterne of Ineeot Distribution w William C. Sloas Berner (19%) observed that the aqmtic insset faof the upper regizmo of the Flortda sprfngs was scanty aad that the population increaeed a short a%stanas below tb bill. TMs obeervation was recently eabetantbted 'lrg identification of a eerie8 of collections obtained by Dr, He T. Qdum from some 35 spr%ngs, One objeutirre of the pr~senB is to explain the pauoity of hamma fa the Boils and their relatively sadden innrewe below the boils, ltt isr also hoped tht some larov~ledge of the effeut of small amounts of chloride on the distribution of aquatic insectxi will be obtainedo During the fall of 1952, the inseot faama of SUoer, Wsekiwaehes and Eomosascaa Spring8 (figure 4) vras studied. Collecting statime ware established in the boil and nrns of each of the three springe, and akJloriBes (ff g\rre 4) an8 axyeen anaJlrsee uere made at each etatian, Collecting appwatw included Xeeh 8 maper, d-ip net, graded wire s oreen buckets and atra$naere for larvae and a bueterfw net for adulte. Adults were taken vrhenever possible in order to aid in identificstaon of larvsie. Oxygen analyses indicate that, in general, dissolveb oxygen content (D,o.) increasee 1~1th astanm down the run. The 33.0. in the region of the bone ie fairly aonstant trhtle that of the runs fluctuates from day to night. Table 5 crhows the range between day and night in each of the boiXs. Figure 6 P-crates the total number of speciea collected at stations of varying DoO. in Eomosasea Springs, Tabla 6 campares the total nwnber of speuiea taken in each of the three springs with tht of Jlake Wauberg, a north Florida lakn locatea in Alacksua County. Thi~ lake was etadfed by Eire RiWd Trogdon, then at the University of Florida, in 1933-34 and the data on Lab Wauberg were obtained from his unpublished mastors thesis. The species %'Bet (table 6) indiates the erqua;tic insects so far collected from the three springs. ft is almost certain that further col1ecthng will increaee the list of all three springa, but it seems fairly we0 eatablisbed that Homosassla has the most almdant inaecrt fa-, Silver the least, and that Weekfwachee occupies aa intermediate position.

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Produutivity of Florirla Springs NOmR m(02) Page 16 Several bypothasen may be advaeed to -lain the scarcity of quatia inseets in the boiX8 and their increase as the run progressen. As indiuated in figure 6, there is a possible emmelation between D.O. and distribution of hseeta. The boil of Homoeaasa is the only one from whi& truly aquatics inae cts have been taken and this has the highest DoO. of the three (see tabre 5). The fact thst even here they are 8(35~~03 may indicate that there is insuffiaient food to maintain a larger population, Anothbs faetor rnq be excessive predation. The ?later of the boils is extremely clear aad the vegetation less dense than that below the boil8 aad it seems poesible that fish predation in areae of hsnfficient cover may prevent ths eetablisfnneat of large populations. In addition to D.O., food supply and predation, tkte numbr of eco%ogicnS nichee avaaable mast be considered. The rebativ~ amaW mber of species preeent in Silver and WeWwachso ae compared ldth Homosassr may be elrplainod by the greater mmbr of types of hsbitats found ILn Hcnnosassa. Silvor and. WeeMwach@e both have rmrow rtms, mwlft curronte, and lcw tmbiditg for the lewh of their nxns 'and praetlcdlly no areas of etill water. The nm of Homonseaa, on the othsr hand, broadexla inmediately bexowthe run, the current bocomea slower anCb tbe turbidity greater. Along the banks, in sheltered areas, the uurrenf bscomee eilmost unnoticeable. Zet d the aquatie lake forms, are gomad. That ths number of speuiee of inseats in Homoesasa compares favorably with tkt of a lab may lx seen in table 6. As fndfeated in figrrss 4 the chloride aontaat of Homoeaaaa ie higher *ban that of either Silver or VIeeEdwachee. Ewn though chlorides &re preseat slightly in exc~sa of 16bo/~o in lpsgg part6 of Bamosaaea run asb ie the fs the bra&%& water range, It seems to have little effeot on the in~e& populatfon. ]It is libJ~, however, that ftmther oolleating will show some formo to be aensatstre to even these sme31 amoante. Methods of sampling quantitatively asc, biag perfected. At tbe present tfms, emergenee eagee ase being plaocrd at various point8 in the rune for tM PUrpO88 of esfim%ting relative abundance in differen* habitats. Tabls 5 Oxygen range in spring boil ares@

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O2 in ppm. in boils o2 in ppm DgurndL samples. 'Eaoh point represents me eolleotion at one station. O((trmber of aies indfeatee the total -%ex taken in one coueoting period hrs./rtatian). Lsttexs indieate separate or haentical stations. Table 6 IWmBer of epeoies reoordsd Total 20 26 43 9 B ineUoatee adults obeerved bat no laFPas takeme @ the Teadipedidae have earlty beea tantatioely identified and mw croneis% of more speoiss than ate la(fiioatad hare.

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Pmductivbty of Florida Springs WNR, 58C( Gi2) Page 18 T&ble 7 Speaies Li& silver. Spring. Bphomempt era gg&lba&iq ,flori$ Tricbp%era H~dsonti'ha ap Hwptera Weekiwaahee Spring Odonata Ani eopten Erythemis ~~~cif~ollln &l&ni HotensrlXna ss spo 2ygopt era Woq maculatum &&a species A Ar&a 6peuiea B NesWennia epeaiea A Mohld~,~~ rpeoierr. B Lepldoptera 40phiLua ape O Oulor ep o Odonata

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Productivity of E~crida S>;.i.-i;z IIVR SO[ W) 19 Rom ctadaaer Springs Cont 85zallawlrea sp. species A ". and the DLw%~fb~tion of -2 p.b -.=Lt*C.-Oxygen da%a kave been auo*&ated on 2/3 of the mpringr~ li&& above in the aaotion on zapping. Thcso am1ysse have ostiabbirhotl the general range, for the different boil rp Irord QeO to 8@Q ppn~ Tha oxygen down the pun has been highly saa~iabSo wi%h Lig11'; condition^, and ao dlacusasd hm tb sostion on pmdutctfon meastarsa,. Zc tho 3ci& .~,~t'nod devieed for a&imt.ing grimmy pro= duc%ivitg of tho whole, wprflng oomraityo As ditacueaed above in f4r. Shom'ra eaation# tha eommity proper%les ctan bs related to tho range of o:Tgon fluctuation as a lneamre of vaai~bili~y~ &!!PO dhreotly,.the oxygontoleranaon of species under etaological ootidftflone of loompetif im and @tabla loan be inferred from ctompariaon~ betwoon boilea Further chocking on phyo2ologiczI ability to live QC pasticulap oxygen tmaians are baing invoe"ciga'tc4d by mbmsrging organfernor in cagee in known wat'sre~ One experiment of this type is dlsaas~~sd by We Cddwell below* TBrs mret~~bolism of the msswbfa springe ie aspeoially intorsting barnuso 0% the arssocSa%ion of iron and oulpliur baoteria mnd blue green algae Jan a permanent relatively unchanging asmaile\%iane There irr fhue a dsendg ef&e natural culture tha% ch=gea RB ane pee downstream and ao the oxygen creases and tho h$drogern atfide dsoreaaeao The preremce of some insec.tf larvas in 0.0 ppn pamranent oxygen valuoa in the oonLtsr of a boLling spring of anaarobio water (on rook outcrops and lagr) io espsc3.al2y s\aegs&ivee Helaids of mall eiza are found imbaddsd in hots of blue grem algae* It is posriblla that tho owgear mpply of the insects is dlerlvad from %hers@ algae, tat loatmt in tha d@lspao Tks thsra ia c. tiny aemooia%.lsnthat ir~ reduuod on tho outeids b& oxidized on the inaidet ha reverso front thep sitir~tiarm taithin the tiames in orghznilarrrea

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The presence of cultures of mio~oorganisms in steady stat@ in theee now fiystems euggsats that the iba of an ecologid formla for a epcclsrr is Wid, Possibly thie old theorem is here practical. Perbps one caa but the conBitSbons in which a species will grow permanently in steady atate in natural condftfoao of conpetitfon. The chemical conditions knotn far anaero'b9c Green G~ve Springe are given in I@oc'tae 2. Other data fro2 38%rm et a3 (cat& abme) ases silica, 15 ppm; Iron, -03; calcium, 28; magsrenim, 16; sodium, 2,4; pot8soireme 1-81 bicarbonate, 100; aulfate, 49; chloride, 5.7: flmrib, .2. aaad conditions he to tb2Pa hatit of gulping air, Beechcr Springe, tiolalra, an amero'bic spding, contains many of these fish which are c0ntimaU.y bre~king the swfao9. A mber of in&&vidaals, of each species, seined from the epring, tmre plamd in soreen t.fl~s cageo an& suspended in Boecher Springs. One oage ma suspended so that th fish cdd galp air the others plawd at different depths from one in& to three feet below the mfaw so tbt the fish co-ad not. reach the surfto gulp, Wee which could gg5p a5r lived witbut apparent diatreae for the duration of the exparineat, 2.3 hours, Thoae which could not reach the surface shomd a.lmoet immodbts signs of distress and tare all dea8,at all Qeptha, in about twenty mimtes. 3n order to shew tkt the fgsh did not have to gulp air ae a norma3 life proceee, a group of indloichdLs tsre caged below .the surfsco in oxygenated water further down tku, run (a,? p~nm 02). These lived normally witlaout gulp* air tanti1 the experiment was conclude&, in thirty mimtea. This experiment show that these three species of fish oaa in reality occur in vatera tri th low alrygen erpply which will not eupport other speciee &%&do not gulp a&, If ie clw tht existenza in Beechsr Spring8 depend6 on gulping air, Igo other ff sh qeciea were observed. Peat Formation A preliminary experbent on. dew of woo& and leave8 wss carried out izr anaerobic Beeohsr Springs. The floor of the springe ie covcarlriL with brom f ibm peat a3mt ttm feet thick over which flows the verg clear, masrobio,

PAGE 23

Product i~ity ~rsf Florida S~J.,. j.1:;~ iiQN.3 B0 (02) Page 21 eolfide smallhag water. The rate of peat formation under thia constant temperature (Temp. 23.0 dsg. c,) and uonatant chemical condition eoensd to be worth che-~, A kakw43 cloth oage containing freshly cut, miglmd, misgnolba stick^ and leavae was submerge8 on Jhe 5, 1952. then reoscanined on January 4, 11953, the xi~gnolia wood wan found to be eseentic8UJr mchamrged in gross appearance. The appemmcw indicated so little modif~bation that no malysee vmre m. Tb o9perheat contime. Control samples are stored in the, laborator,y. Only tb snherged loavse bad decomposed. Perfactly veined skeleton8 remained indicating, ae might hsve been expected, that carbowdrate decomposition maor mrobio conditions is slow conpared to other fractions of the Leaf. The phenomenon of the Snmsion of 15 or more species of masine fishes and tha blue a& into PZcrrida fresh waters and particularly apringa ]has been studied as a special project. Cfiloride mapa for Floridaa s fresh vatere have been prepared aadl tho dictrfhtion of mine inmeion correlated. The manuetkipt eummariebg this phase ~f ths springe work laas been prepared for palication (title cited above). The essence of this ~tw is a aeriee of naps of cl23boride contea"; in F2orfh~a eatwine and fresh waters, 8 dis~aion of chlorfde geochie.t;ry, a description of the axeart which reaeioe the greatest nunbra of marine fiehos, and a fnw tr~spl8n.f; experiment8 of blne crabs in the springe. Table 7 ~amnmises the data on transplantation experiments, Tbs correlation of bbae crabs with presenm of 25-1000 pp sodium ch3oride in springs of conetaat temptratwe an& the abflity to survive longeet whoa tramplanted in these springs svggasta that iaabality to seabsarb sodim chloride from low cancentretione in th ew%ronmgnt is responsible for chlorider slaxrsitivity as in eqeriments ly Xmgh on the Xtmopea wool handling mab. Table 7 Transplantat ion of Bl\pe Crabs in ll%oridla Springe Crab Source, (Date ate Xo. of Spring of Ca T C1 Day8 of 1952) a9521 PPM crabs deg. mM Survival I?. Beyport eatFeb. 4 3,300. 7 Bomosaesa 50 75 $70 Beyport estuary Feb. 4 3,300. 5 Chaseahovdtdca 49 74 53 7-18 Salt Springa Aw.7 2,000. 8 Silver 70 73 8 5 Bayport estuery Feb. 4 3,300. 4 Weeldwachea 74 5 Be;rport eotuas$ Feb. 5 3,300. 4 Weekiwachae 49 74 5 1 Chassahowitzka run Aug. 22 730. 7 Rainbow 21 74 4 2

PAGE 24

Productivity of Florida Springs NONR 580(02) pw 22 3@ QULLNTITATIVE COMPOSX'PION OF COMM'UNITLES (STANDING CHOP) The quantitative desoription of a natural aquatic conmmnity is difficult bemuse each type and size of organism requires a separate mean8 of sampling. Xt is only the essential stability of the springe that permits one to ao one thing one time and come back to finish the 3 ob after dei =loping new techniques, To date initial quantitative sampling. bss been amrid out in the 1arge.t epring (silver) and one of tla smaller springs (@reen 0me). ;&ereas the job and the techniques even in thsse two are incomplete, enoggh has been done to outline the boginning8 of pyramids of mass and mrmber aa in f igare 7. me steepnose of the pyramid i a evident. Ws ia suggeetim of Dr. Archie Casras theory of dangling food cha;lns as applied to mine high pbt vegetatf on, Comment on pyramids is diecussed below in the theory section. From these beginnings it seems definite that a valid picture of etading states can be o Maimd and these campred ammg springs. The clarity of the waters gemits one to ceneue the fishea by eye. Although rough, it is oraer of magnitude with which one ie hers at first considering. Start of work on fish tagging is mentioned below by Qordon Broadhead.

PAGE 25

Productivity of Florida Spr f ngs N03R 580 (02) m@ 23 Method8 of qwntitative sampling include8 plmlne tier measurement of the areas of each type of' association and counts and weights of samples from each association, Sampling procednres under way are as follows8 Alga+sterapings from knom plant weight; higher plants-by aq. ft. visual cropping under mter with Zaos maah microscopic organisme--scrapings from horn plat oreight and yomix throwh plankton net; invertebr?ata animal-samyXiw with sq. foot grabs vdth box eamp2er; attached microorganism-counts on submerged glass slides which becrome coated in 3 weeks. Dry weight equivalents me being obtained for field wet weights. Speciall attention has been paid to the aquatic Mar plants, their wiehts, and total tonages in the spring rune. In addition as a lese to the food chains and pyramids, thPs information constitutes interest in itself in relat ior 50 prnstORj, properties of the springe. Dr. John R. Davis hae studied she quantitative variation of tho plants in relatioil to the chaqp ing properties down the coastal runs pictured in figure 4. His report follom. TBe Weight of Aquatic Vegetation in rour Springe and their Rune of F1LarM.a br John H. Uavie, Jr. This ie a preliminasg report of part of the inwstigation of the biological productivity of plant conmnxnities in four Florida spring mns. These area CrgstaA, Eomosasss, Chassahowiteka, end Weekiwachee, pictured with chlorinites in figure 4. The data in the present report include ths weight per unit area of submerged and floating aqyatic plants. The waters of the four spring eystems flow into the Gulf of Mezioo, all of them entoring the aa3t vmter marsh and littoral zone within three to six miles down stream from their spring heads, Their waters therefore vapy from almost no salinity to salinity values that are over half the concentration in the open sea. They all contain hard waters with greater than I44 ppm hardness, and thrmghotlt their course the mean rater temperaturea during the season 80 fas investigated did not vary over 5 degrees centigrade (20.0-29.0) The chief objective of thie part of the inveetigatioa was to determine the density of grovhh of the different plant8 or groups of plants in terms of wei&t per unit area and thus arrive at some baais for comparing total plant growth in terms of salinity, tbidfty, hardness, and other factors, and some basie for computing produativities when growth rates are established. The main metbd employed ms directed at first tovmrd estimating the extent of each characrteristic type of ares of pbnt growth, and second obtaining representative samples from most of the distinctly different type8 of areas. The first ob3ective WEIS part4 accomplished by inspection of the runs for amwent differences in both densitg and species composition, Sampling was then made in weas t-t ware most nearly representative. Thin very selective type of sampliz PELS supplemented by aome random sampling in certain parta of these systems so that the sampling was about 70 permnt

PAGE 26

Productivity of Florida Springs NONE 580902) Pace 21, eeleotive and 30 percent ran8om. The latter method is reoommenbd for furthftr investigation. The eamplilrp, vlas accomplished by collecting the attached or floating plants within a one-aquare-foot iron frame. From thee% samples both wet (green) condition volumee and oven dry weights were obtained. Tbe pee-wet plants collected after draining 1 to 5 minutes mre immersed in a large c:.n that had a beaker-like spout Rlld which was filled with water to the spe#t. The werflow water resulting from the immersion of the sample wae measured in cubic centimeters and this volmne figure used as the rough wet weight since the specific gravity of tmter and tho plants are similar. Percent water was computed from the wet and dry weightn. !Phe oven dry weights were obtained by f bat air drying with caution tam to prevent molding and fermentation. Then the sau@ee were oven dried to nearly constant vmight at a t emperatme 100-40fi deg. C. The weight values in gram were then usod to estimate the pound8 per am8 in =me for whiah the eamplee -re representative, A final eetimate of the approximate total poundor per acre in the spring8 anil rivara wae cabdated on the basis of percentages of aover of the plant 'Bypas as aatimczted in the field visually through the clear spring vratera. The data me combined as a. smmnas~p in table 8. Sfmilas but incomplete data not included in the table indicate that the lower reaahsa of these same ms poesaas higher turbiditiee, definite marine salt, estuarine fltactuatione, an& a mch smaller density of plmte. Xn the clear offehore wine waters rooted aquatic veptation again becomes dense in the ahal3ow flats off the Gulf coa~t. Plant spectee constituting the aquatic vegetatf on were determined in nearly all casee exeept for Identifications of a few algae still pending. Some Wacteristia of percent water and growth density are summarized in table 9. Thie tabbe caslbe use13 as a basis for wet-dr;p comeraione in further tmrk, So far, data on cblorinity, oxygen, and phosphorus have been obtained for these runs. Definite correlatione between cbaorinity snd speciee have been observed a0 in the correlation of values between ,100 an8 1.0 parts per t of depleted chlorides (.000 ppt) among ;:AY2i2m waches springs is being checked. The tenaency for to dominate the lot-I. chlorinity waters and 20lr to cover the bottoms in the slightly Mgher chlorinity rangee been observed, Zones of simultaneous growth of the tnu species ocuurred Wfmy dotm these ma. These two specie8 are very similar in general growth form. An ideaX situatbon for the study of competition is indicmeed here.

PAGE 27

Produutivity of Floridla Springs ISONR SO(Q2) Pqe 25 Table 8 Stormrsry of atanding crope of plant8 in upper non=eetw.rine parts of 4 coastal spring ma # of sq. ft. Range of Average Total liange of sanrp-2er 5 coverage lbs/acre C1 weighed dry *.#eight PPT 16 l%-W ~s6gL-e Springe 3 rn 941 .007-4 025 ( stdf t current) Homosseea Springe 23 (elear, tdb, sl~@!~h) Species Density, percent water, and dry we-ta of some aquatio plants in 4 coastal apring mme Oms. dry wt. 48 Mean Range loca3fties Sq. ~wled Ft a 9k water

PAGE 28

!Fhe Use of Color Tage in the Study of Fish Populations in Homoeeresa Springs BY Qorbn 0. Braadhead Bomosasaa Springs proPidee an emellent sib for the study of marine fiehyqsiihtiam 'beaause e~ciee of marine fish enter the springe area there submereed observation! &n been erected for tourists, and beause the ularity of the mter and the narrow limits of the spring area &a observation of their movements easy. Casual observation ltndi~atee that thn large populations of fish in the springs change from day to day both in sped08 and in the mmibers of each sp~cies present. By mssHng with colored Peterson fish tags, the rnovenents of' the fiah can be recorded, the daily populations of' fish estimated and &he turnover of the firih in %he springs also eetimated. TWng ~513. also permit study of the behavior of the taeged fish and estimation of their growth rate if recaptured at a later &to. On DBcambsr 6, 1952, a prelbiaasy experiment was carried mt to test the feasibility of using the ablored tags, Sine mullet were caw% in the boi& of the springo by means 04 a caabmt. The fiah were tagged with large red tege andl released into the springs. Xn ;Phture eqerimenta a different color comb%aa.&fon will be usedl for each ti&. The following morning fioe 0% the nine mullet could be eea ewbming in the springs and at one time four of them were obsermd together in a small achoo;Bo fhsss fi~h Here observed by the epring attexdkmt far two more dzqm and after that they disappeared and were not sea a*b. Although it is impossible to draw definite oonalusione as yet, indiaationa are that tho mul3et do not remain in the eprings any great period of tbe and that the large dai3y popalation is maintained by fish moving 3x1 a& cnrt of tbe! epringa into the much wider run area, The faat that four of the tfish were obeemed in the same small ach001C wad indicate that the tagged fish were not rantBomly dlatrihted thwt the population. Since thsy were captured me a0, a timas, it is not likely tbst they were in the samb schaoA before tagging, llrs study of ths production rates in a oolmwnify involve8 the estimation of produetion rates of each elass of organism in the food cLia separately. T$y trophic levele, there are the pinmy produmxe, herbimres, casnivofes, eeclondaxy earnivoses, deaomposeru. Satisfactory neaeuremnt of tba, prodnction of aay of theae under natural cond!ttions is difficult an8 has rarely been seeornpli shed, To date, attempts bo measure pr&uctta have been direated at meaammt of the prgmasy pro8wtion in situ of the plant6 in the springs. MOB t of the effort has been directed a% SUvm Springs, After eome traa71 and error, sarne

PAGE 29

m~ss has been attained by tbee dire& and indireat methods, Silver Springs is almost completely covered 14th a thick bed of &gg@&g& whose growth form is that of eel graee, These heavy plant bedm sre coated with algm which in places foms heavy na~ts, Som other plants are found around the edges in relat ivew inmimi f i smt quantities. Heaawment of the growth rate of the ha been accomplished by the follottlng mothodes a, Growth of wet weighed, transplants in cages, b. Messmelmsnt of domstrean &if t of plant fragmeatia, c, Measurement of differencee between oxygen content of dlomstream etatlons in the Bay ad at night, Measurement of growth of transplants probably producee minifilnn valtt~(~ since cages shut out some light, exclude turtle herbivores, and in the ass of rooted aquatios involve roostablishmt of root systema. The direst masuremat of plant growth involves two different procedures for two dlffersnt purposea. Iln order to measure the production of a comrutanity where a study ie being mads, the species used muet be the dominant in the conununity, The ia Silver Springe 18 pulled up, weighed in a cage with a two minute drain, and rep e soft organ;be bottom muds PA thin the 4x6& cagerr in about 3-4 f est 09 watelr repreeenting typical bottom conditions. Eomms, a comparieon of potentid fertility of the epring water rrleo is needed i~ order directly to compwe chemiceil potentialitihts of different codtiea. So a s%q$et species should be ass 1 the springs, For this purpose a floating aqaatic such aa Wacinth or ehanld be used so that ths type of mud bottom will hatre no eff~o'&, Thus a minor natural plant in Silver Springelis being grown in cahJge. The aata f'rom direct measurement to date ase meager ad preliminary but may show that the method will work, Plants of wlth 1 foot blades had gom to 3 feet lemh and developed bloseome, Tb growth of the ee&md to be much less than tbat of the In the summer, possibly partu due to light differences. The vaJ.ues of productiVity obtained by this method in table 10 seem reaeonable. me seaond method for raearslring productivity involvea stretching a gill net across the nta 1 mile downetssgrln ftom the boil. Ths water by the time it reachge this apot has filtered across a great volme of waving Now suppose the spring ie in a true steady state, and all our evidence sug@:eats that it may be,certainly tdth respect to &gg&&g& since it remairts clogged 14th it all surfaoes being covered exoept the aides of some of the limestone out craps. Then the rate of production should be the rate of plant loas to the food chain and to &if% dotmstream. when it breaks looee, floats to the surface. !Bu the downstream ch is large, obpioas cad continuous is cax~ght in the gill net and later wet and dry tmigfaed, Thia is done early in the morning so that effects of boats during the tiqy will have least influence on the results. Thus thh estinmte dl1 be minimum since more would bre the day. hs aeen in the data on 8ta.ndin.g state, the amount of ants ie large in proportion to the animals that possibly draw mu& of tbtr xutrition from aim. $f fur one are consistent it wlU be concluded that only a small part of the production ie *ifti= domsfrearn. The initieS test of the drift meaewmenf gave the fi-e

PAGE 30

Productivity of. ~lorida Springs NOW 580(02) Fags 28 for Silver Springe in table 10. This drift catching procedure is further discussed in relatior: to ~Fdinary streame in the theory eeation, Xf thc Il?rizlge are a flow eystem in l*hich the canetant flow of nutritive clear water as mlxsd at tha boil with amshine to sCast a biological chain of reaotlon, then the dietanca down the rrta ie proportional to the rate of rea&ian In some chemiaal Wetic nppamtas, Ths tbis property is tihe baeia for a third measure of plant production in the, sprirqp. As wter comes out of t&e springe it possessee a nearly constant oxygen value dlurnalky arrd amavsllg na reen 58 figure 8. Wgen ie added se the large rlvmr of water pour19 downstseem due to two actlonee difih~ion from the air, and photosgntbeeis aseocicafacl wlth producrtion. At tM conetant temperabreo da$ and night the rate of diffusion will be constant. Tbaa the differenas between the oxyeen value down tb nar in the day and that at night ie the differenbatween photosynthseis aad reapiration, Thus one hns measured the metabolism of tb wholo community, the size of a ome;ll lake, diractu an6 lnstantaneotmly, Xndaed one can measare hstantaneonsly the production rate during the day vertaus seaaone, cloud cover, ete, bh4 data in tablea 2 and 10 for Silver and Green Cove, sllCl figure@ 8 and 9, abundantly~illuatrate that this methola indeeb is prsctiaal. Although incompZete, the data at hand ehow a large differenoe between aon@ and days and between winter and summer, This is exciting eepscially ae It permit8 rapid comparisotrm of spriw and probabay can be adapted to etreaaer and rivere and even estuariaa if a knowledge of current snd aimultansoue observations can be &. certainly, the crit%cfam that comaunities are too big to work with direcrtly aeems cironavented here. Soma inltia3, data on other sprin&a suggest 8imSla.r orders of magnituile. Tllese oprlngs sre giant resp%rometsrs. Green Cove Springs as one of the smUl apringu ehowed (in table 2) an aepeoigil* atrlkbg contrast bstweana Summer'afternaon where treem are such that sun reachee the spring run, mm~ner n%&t wbrs oxmen actually decrease# down the ruu, and winter night and by where the sun does not reach the plaate where beoause of a removal of plauts the groduotion and also the night reapiration T.B0 decrreaead indieatthe dfff eren oe be tween dif9ha%on mb respiration in prodacing the D.0, Xf tbee owgen data ase correot it should be poea%Ue to demlop c)me& tecihiqps with carbdoxide or pH shift of constant alkalinity water. The conetancy of thu downstream algalinfty has to be proved. With valid methods of measuring the large dominant -tic higher plash in most of the springs, attempts ae being made now to develop methods of measuri~ production of algae, anhala, eta. Cage meaeursments cas be made an the medium and larger animals, bottle respiration can be resorted to for algae, fish tagging hae begun,

PAGE 31

Productivity of Pfor ida Springs NoMi 580 (02) Pqe 29 Oxygen at station 1 mile dom Silver Rimr

PAGE 32

Procluctfvfty of FPorScla Sgrf ngs ITOM 580(02) pase 30 Zn the course of a study each ae this whioh involves groping for new som. ymestions arise that sew to bear on general aepecte of ths eciena, such as ths followings 1. Can an emlogicaJ. squatfa community eldst in a stable eteady state in whi* mtter and energy flow tksoogh ths ayatem 'but standing etates quantitatively and q-itatively rsresin constanEP TL?e obeemations so far -st tbat tM8 ia possible in a flow system in flatare @st aa in an &!.gal lprare cultme prodaction macehine. Xt is to be wondered bwver if a steady state aquatic ecolsgllcaB ~ystem canbe stablizsd Und~r matter closed conditions 'Phe reasan for feeling: that it can not be stabla is two folds first, relatively ~10~e8-tO-mtter systeme, like bottle cultures, ponds, and lakes oscillate and fluctuate. Seaand, in a cloeed system a limiting ~mtrient must alweya give rise t(p suocossfom& and relatidepletion to some other limiting nutrient. The etability principle says that all cloaed systems trend by a natural selection pro ass tot-mrd a selfregulated system. The question iee when does a mathematically satisfactory solution exist to ska%iliead circular transfer of material uomponents through orgaaisme vdth each component passing at a different yet constant ra%e. Evan more simply and operatiormallg, if placed in eaed bottles and placed in tha light haw many kinds and types of simple conrmunitiee will stabilize and how will oecillate. 2, Sn flowing streams of usual tgpe a strwng feature is the small etag cr~p of plants in oamparison to sdl animals and espeaially fishes. There seems to be an important interpretation other thn that there is an autochthmou~ source of primary foodmatter. ;gn aonstructingpgran%ds of production (xmt standing crop) for a stream one is interested in producti on per time such no a yeas, Bb this tbme the f if~h prodairtion 5s the growth of f i8h looated in onas plw sinthey have not left the stream. Bat for plants and for mall anlamlo the production is what has drifted downstream fo~ a whole year as well as that which has passed up the food cbab. Th8 the standing crop of dlatoons driftdown stream from sourme in -ie an infinitelly ems31 part of the esIwa5 crop which involme the whole years downstream drift. Zt ie probab3ha that mdi pyramids when constructed will show a more usttal wib bottom. Xn faat, prodwtian in rivera may be the eaef eat of all to measure by catdhing what drif $6 down as in springs experiment described abve, the springs, 03 couregl/ the vohame flow ie such that initial3y there is ao true plankton. 3Iln diacuesion of food chains, the concept of efficiency of food cbaia transfer has been a useful operatias4 measure that has helped undorutand natural ecosystems. Rotrever, there is one flrssy aspeet of this concept that needrr clasifimtion. Xt is often pollnted out that photoeynthbtio efficiency is of the order of magnitude of 15 or kese but that enerw transfers Arrthsr up the cma are of hi&r order of magnitides of 10-20% aad under some artificial feeexperiments dth fish of 50%. Wee interested in iweaeing natural food resources naturally ask wbt basic dsfferencgs there are and whether photosgnthseia canot be made to possess a higlher efficiencrg.

PAGE 33

Productivity of Florida 5p~iags E?ONR 580 (02) pace 31. Xt seems that one thing being confused &re is the differwoe between a true efficiency of energy transfer and a food transfer efficiency in wbiuh not a3a of tba energy transferred dtanges state. then a fish e~t~s proteu food it may digeet and separate amiPl~ acids of the proteins and imnaedfately stick tkm back togetbr to form nsw tissus. Bhmh of the energy in tho elre acide in such a casa never ehges form. En the wee of photosynthais &dl of the energy cbnges foma As di~cuased below It is guggested that there ia a deflnite thsmdlynsaoic reason why efficienciee mat be Ion and wP1$ increasing ef f icieacy would && protpuction. lhgn one rofeso to a !%$ fooB chain transfer effi~iaarey~one ia referring to the 0m of energetio effffcienq for the energy aotW3.y chang%ng form in the metaboliem and the energy transferred in ~nnadif ied chemical moledes. 4, The total energetic oa&p.t of E. Ilving or &i* ntkddne ts a o*lx.cf; of the rate of infaem of enargg and the ef f icieaoy of energy ulilbr;af;fan. 3% %a suggested here %bat mare we two extremes in living asld no-living madtlma that both proda wr0 energetic cnrtput per tfme. We extFem~ ie a mach512~s with a 100$ efficiencg as ia a reversible casnot cycle but an infinitely slow utilization so that the ontput ie sero. The other extreme is an infinitely rapid energy intake and trmofer whioh iu so faat that the thermodynaraio efficiency fe zero and so the total output of this high crpesd system fe a&n eeso for all the energy goes into heat. These two extremes seem to be a nemrrsaxy result of tb~) second hw of Thsrmodynamio~. Xf this reaeming ie correct (and an ac-1 wiLcU1ation bas been made on a physical syetem, the Atwoods machine) then there nast be bur optimum efficiency for the maLxfm power. If this is the aae~er, then one sees a reason for afffciencAee of photosynthesi~ being what tm ass. The machinee are set to go at thc~ opt* ape& to get the beet combbnation of both efflalency and epeela. kt tilsa~, Mer some ecological ~onUtions,an organism tbat goes faster aad leaa of.fioimtly may haw the edge over one taat is slow but efficient. Botmvor, if correat, these notions etaegeet no hope for M&er haam fooa production witbut repet& of the second Law. Eavia made beginnings in the 3 diduiona of the study, the immefiats obJectlues seem clearly outlinstb Except for cwmpleting identificationra, coamrmnity speclember saa3yais of coastal runs as part of Ea. Sloan~a masteroe program, and the 'ahernfoal survey of nitrogen metabaliem in the fr6orlb.l water apringa with the help of an undergraduate assistant, P.IZ.. Haqton, all attention is to be directed to completing the produ&%on meaauremente of all trophdbc levelm in Silver Springe. To complete this and fa insure adequate attention to .the all important algae, Dr. L. A. Whitford, ofxorth Casolba State, be been engaged to work tdth as thfs mmmr on iU.entifllcatiw asld prodaction. Tentatively, obJeotiv~s following tbse are the comparison of productivities between springe using methods which tmrk best b the inteneim Sneer Springs study. Measurement of the amaant of li&t diurna3ly a& aeaeonaZly that reache8 the orgmisms in these clear water aquatic commnmfties haa not yet oomm~l~~eB pending the procurenat of a suitable Instnrmen~. So far pwsical and cPlemicw3 measurements have been Me solely for their implication8 for produati~if$. A rmmber of splendfd groblema in @ye%cal aod chdaal limno1oi~p md 6rnctu~ogrd~awdt fature bwetigation,

PAGE 34

-. For co~~n&2soylr ppoduo%iv~~ias rcporLsd for li+oroturs in mzf paah= IWB%@~ && band. rmg9Q 1 20w~3~ gob


Productivity of Florida springs
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073979/00001
 Material Information
Title: Productivity of Florida springs NR 163-106 (NONR 580-02) Report to Biology Branch, Office of Naval Research; progress 1953-1957
Physical Description: 4 v. : illus. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Dept. of Biology
United States -- Office on Naval Research
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Freshwater biology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Springs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Frequency varies.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
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oclc - 21432514
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Letter of Transmittal
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Abstract
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Progress
        Page 5
        Characteristics and stability of non-living environment
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Qualitative composition of communities
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Quantitative composition of communities (Standing Crop)
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Productivity
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Productivity theory
            Page 30
    Plan for 2nd half year (second six months)
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text

J


r]-]-L:'(... OF FLORID& SPRINGS
L '*W 580(02)








Firat Se~.=amnnu"a Report to
ZSIrJloCS Division
C.ica of NIval Resoarah
Pr'eore ...-..i rp:.i 1, 1952 to %January 31, 1953








:;.-.~.r T, Odum

.'. sections :'* ,'"..-i HD 3Davis, William Sloan,
David CAldwll, and Gordon Broadhead








Dopartmeon of Bioloa
College of Arts and Sciences
University of Florida
aainesville, Florida








TUNVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Gainesville



College of Arts and Sciencos
Department of Biology

31 January 1953





Chief of Naval Reaoarch
Attna Biology Branch (Code 446)
Department of the Navy
Washington 25, D3. C.

Dear Sirs

Herewith please find the first semi-annual report
of progress on a project, NOSR 580(02), concerning "Produc-
tivity of Florida Springs."


You will note that work during the first
has included much c.p o~- ; 5n of posaibilitles,
that Dr. Odum h",,. made real C:,oa.r'o and is now
to center down on a more intensive study of the
among the numerous prom iing opportunities that
covered.


six months
X believe
in a position
best possibilities
he has un-


Respectfully submitted,



W. 0. Allee, Read
Department of Biology






" *.(Aiv oi' lo-ra ", :'. ; (02)






,i. '.:' ., .,. .












ro '" 1.' : .... 1 ...-.
1. Chara. "i- i an d. abilityy of .n giving .nv c' 'it




,, t :,




.. 5lI 3 ca

; ard. x in mnacirobic ..r


: .. .ltiln expoarirent, by David :'.' r6w-''
'- 'ne i .ih ad. .- a

3 coposit O .'. o coammi tios (z t:. .: l)
1% '. of nram ai. n 'ber
Th 1 .1. and denuity of aquatic vegetation in four
spr.!t.t. hei'r riverI, by ,Jobn H Davii
Initial -.... .... in c.2s'f '.' .., ,..: of fish, by


40 Productivity
1. prod-rctiong

b, :eam drift rtt]'.,.
oC <.*vr-( Imc.ri"nt r3.'f .bol.d

ft.m :..%.tdat ivlty .*;
S L .... *. .states
Production pyramids in streams
Th'rmodyna~mic and food chain efficiencies
Efficiency, '-i.:..ty. and power in food ,_1inn


FL.e:, for 2nd '..::. ,' .






Productivity of Florida Springs NOFN 580(02)
Page 2




ABSTRACT

Productivity in the Springs of Florida



Work has began n on stdyin the factors responsible for productivity
in the Florida springs, t'hbiLc: are nearly constant temperature, constant
chemical, steady state giant laboratories, Progress has been made on five
aspects qualitn-i;.va description, quantitative description, completion
of knoTrledge of chu.i-iic.ari factors, measurement of productivity, development
of productivity theory.

Measurement of the .-i 1:.'.:; productivities in Silver Springs and Green
Cove Springs by two nen methodEs the raising of organisms in cages, andW the
measurement of night day di, '.. ,.' .'-i in oxygen downstream aree .*.'o,'l..,
Production in those springs is greater than previous production figures reported
for marine, fro.th i.fter, and lanrd lcn.m Instantaneous measures of production
show large variations w ith seoaon, time of day, and cloud cover. Production
estimatop rn'r..-c Lr., 11,,000 lbs. por acre per year to 70,000 lbs. glucose per
acre per year dwin.c.. day.Vi:. "- hours

Essential stability of the spriv,c environment has been shown with
respect to I.-r.-:,r."'t'.-w.j phoipho.rus, and plant cover. A correlation of species
number with lack of e'.,!;..'..A.;r has been shown with insects. uantitative
studies have shot' very large plan: t base to pyramids of mass. Correlation
of marine invasion 'iith Oh...v;iity has been shown. The essential aspects of
pH regulated ;phir.-iI.: 1,. geochemistry in Florida have been outlined. Some
theoretical ideas on productivity bave been evolved. Mapping of sessile
organisms in p:-.ti;- and. taxonoloi i.e ,tt.i'ication of dominant are half
completed. Plans for second six months include measurement of herbivore
and carnivore prod.netion ratos an:d completion of food chain efficiency
determinations in Silver ysr:J.ia,-.. as a preparation for subsequent comparisons
between springs.





rOi;.Oia'.c" rity of M ri.a Sp.ring. ... 580(o
PaWe 3



INTRODUCTION



By a rciiln,,. le circtumtanc.t o of nature there are many large springs in
the vicinity of Q'A-in,_z;,lll,, Florida,. Those springs have a relatively
constant tr.p,' -,rt.:.io of ,71 to 74 0;oro0i F. throughout the yer and. are
all at this tC:ri.p.:.'-".:.'o -.-i:. : are -,-:.n;y varied types, a a n. all contr,
aquatic corm..lAnitieo in their basins and their outflow channel. Each
spring d.ff'o:.; from the others ;,; a few factors. Tus there are seodium
springs, calcium -.p,:iv,; .. .-.'t.-, with high and other with low oc':.-n-
reduction potentials, saline springs, soft water springs, and other types.
Analyses of many of the '.:- cho~.1 mical elements in these waters have already
been published. *(2 .-!.. :, G. .X .L. ;.at, 0. W., Love, S. K., and Vernon,
R. 0., t'ri:;i of Flo ..'1 e .n ,:.'': l Li.tin No0 31, State of Florida
Department of *3c.. '".v:Mio-n, T'allaaszs, 1947) Oxygeno, T-. 3so.'.o .-.d
nitrogen had until .. .:-.1;r *:'o'nt boon : .eysi,.

Because of their pyeocal properties thbn;: npri :: are collectively
a ,::.;.-, constant ":...' *:"' 1 7*n. 1.'..:,,'r The flow of water of constant
quality in the varlioaus p'~ings bath~ a the spring comansition with a constant
medium in spite of the actions of the cowamnaity that rct ifjr the after Fior
the firat time it ia poasiblo to o':'c.*--r' whole communities 'i~':ch are W, Il..' ,"1a
under constant '-".tiona that .'' '." by on.y a few factors

The ifp:'.., '"'i.'-.c provide e. I.- ;;i of conditions in dhih tohe ,C;i::.;',
of the comunitaries rmy :' -'.'. ao.cause the rate of flow' of each rni
is relatively constant a7. te'oo ...:.. the run cor:-.po';n to a tie interval
following the first moe: '.. of sunlight, and water., 'tr.:.:, the ;-.':.'.I.. run can
be used to study rates of" ',' -, ;.::'..:. Several of the runs involve a tra--
ai'..c; :on from fr, '.t' water to ?Mea ,.,Yter of the ocean. '.", ., :.:...rI : '... On.,L,. r.':;n
of fresh water fish:. ,... ; .'- :.. slt water fish in .i:'..:h water spr:..'.,::
provides an qn T.':.. :: .ty-. to ",tiu.y tho differences between ccom i niwtios ..cc.
to predation of at watnr :. .'n; similar sprin' inland having only
fresh water fish. as ;--.. .. W spr.'. a:'. have oay2:.;r fl;t ow. W, Som0
have fish $.p'lT.'U t .. d soam ane too. -. from such IpoulatiS';.,

Thus there exists a n;.:'vloaus rc, ,.tr.ity to oti-'.,Iy proed.n,-'.!./ in tho
rcc'tt:-LA-'0.e natural laoba ,; in which. whole comamnities can be :*:.;r1 nuaier
controlled conditions. Tbo series of natural experiments that have been set
up seem ideal for -;..,.: ..; the role of the factors that control -c.-.Ityo

K Mi....- -*.' I. ,

The purpose of this reacsrch is to :"I.,"y the basic fadcors controlling
individual, population, and community prodad.tivity by an ~, ,.'..r of the
unit: conditions wre..i.0 'by oagrtflo .;,; selected constant tapecratrue
springs.

The general plan is to csM-Ar.Inh the qualitative and *;.Tr!(. tative
structttr of contrasting !-.:.'1,,.;, mneasne tha production rates, and determine
factors responsible for differences by .':.'it;,-; and. erperimient






.Productivity of :Florida :. :.:i 580(02)
Page 4




Funds from 0MR, University of Florida, and a small grant ($500) for
phosphate work by Florida Goological Survey have provided support of the
principle investigator full time in summer, one graduate student and one
umdergrsduate *unili-ntIn Lt o'uO the year, and other students and faculty
with field trip c.i:',n-ve,.



This project is a cooperative endeavor. Department head Dr. W. O. Allee
has made a significant contribution in planning. Dr. Howard T. Odum has been
coordinator and as principal investigator emphasized chemical conrposition,
production rate measurements, and productivity theory. Mr. William Sloan has
emphasized the qualitativo composition of inverte'rate fauma especially
insects, using species-:nuraber comsxnity analysis. This has been part of his
work towards the masters ..,,y0. Dr. John He Davis has investigated the
quantitative standing crop of aquatic plants in relation to salinity in coastal
spring runs, The Florida C.uolor;ic:l Survey has supported Mr. Richard Highton
during the summer, 1.,~o for analysis of pho~phorus in these springs and other
waters. Dr. Ao M. T. -..;-I.. hs develQped3 a her~'rium collection of ,*.itic
higher plants i:T.', the .ii'..];,.;1 '.:,:..1nti.l taxonomic aid has been provided
by 8 Dr. M. J. :.'.:;t..3., Dr. L. .:.r c, Mr. Ji9 Crenslha, Mr. Robert OCummins,
Dr. C. J. Gotoi, all of the Uii- ..*:; y of iorid; Dr. R J. ahmm, Oeanographic
Institute, Florida S.: -.1. Un.t;A'.;;.'. ~' and Dr. Horton Hobbs, University of
Virgin&ia Pr';.'r.!..h.i :'.r.y r.' ..' .i :t, in springs haIe been conducted by Mr.
Gordon Broadhead, and Mr. O.'-,.ld A'> ,lz. !., UiAversity of Florida.

Sr:tcl.2I courtesies have been received from Mr, William Ray, :Ri..n;,;',
Silver Springs; Mr. Ross Allen and Mr, :ili.'( ,d Neil of Ross Allen Reptilo
Institute; Mr. P'I: :;..-:,' i. > ,Mnag of 'ir':n .:aSprings; Mr. Ray )tlni;.'d,
Manager of 'n :i'.--r',..- : r;; :.- ;,1-)i..':ed Dean, Chassahowitsla Springag
and Mr. T i',vv..7 'rC~a~a CoD '";l.r::rn



Investigations into the factors controlling productivity can be classified
under 5 h,: din prob:1-.y irn inverse order of importance
1, Characteristics ;', l stability of non-living environment
2, d.alitative composition of communities
3. quantitative composition of communities
4. Productivity
5o Productivity theory

During this first half year an effort has been made to obtain results
in each of the five divisions. Efforts to develop a methodology for measuring
standing state composition and productivity have been restricted to 7 conF-
trasting springs although systematic initial surveys have been made on 40
springs, Since the measurement of production rates is at the heart of the
objectives of the project, these studies have been began even though descriptive
qualitative and quantitative aspects of the varied springs are not yet completed.
Progress is summarized below .'.Iov 5 headings.






od cte I .Y of 'r T. '. -.: *n ."






1, CHAtRAJIf, L *TAM 'D ST. 0..1A7 OWF WI-IUTIVm; ; i':I'Ti



To date 1."rr0 1jrs *. .e1 rV'1i (-i*-An i and to.) booeen
made in 33 *:' z.i t to Cel ..2..' .. Bma .gni ,.n., <. o .iW..,1 and iT; of
plhoqt. l in those con,rt:'. ,, r I-;.r;..', l: flow systems. The a *- A:--:3 i
in LA '.*:'; .. haLu 1. .. .. .. with ..' p . o .. n.. 'n, V.'t i trn at ams,
01 C POO i ; ..,'.-estuavies :.'.1 with ." .i. ci..I support of the .' :.1''..


Result s so for hiwZfe C ."i : following '.or.:- of pho pbaruas
distribtOtiona

1. In tbhe '-, r '. flow the /pho':tern t content i
A- const Xt ,iuth distance .'.n :: rvn even W.t, ; -
.. '. .. T 3ta .'. Silver 1,:L- in table 1 inA.oalto
."," *propsrties,

2. The ..*, '::.:i ccr.onte : F thee clear waters in .:.s :-Ors 13 in.
^te :5 .1

3. The varlation of ,' .,.s conant with time is low, f-" c i ,
that. va? with ninsre ''e. *:.t! :.:r ..;r active olementus, sow n." *'.
sprL-; onviro'ents tat tIcat a;r; relatively constant,

4o The 6.!' *, 7.. ". i,.' ."' -".'. in p .WI. il. .- 'r, ': in conoces .trantionx
is available to o larnt in :;.ij. ?*-*'..r excess reserve amounts (Ite to
the contimwal "' *.* of vater. In some :.1,0 m.u; s ndh as ".1. O --'
(table 2) ,o.e ",.r.lu.'.tr evidence sh-ows definite A:.. ..o. in of
'Q h" A GcoantOM .o 1 7r var ialo W .'1-.- l?.-= ,.,... .. -,'v .: wore
o tb i.:13. O.ver the ride ..: .1.1 lower .:*...'i1 .,: of ., l;l,. '.,tkA
;Sp ',,-U' i t:o wr7..l' of water relative to y('A .... r.,v ia


5o The diss ol ,'. ,"'", ,1 ',.'.. in -* .', :. is rela.t.iv e) sm l ifn .i,.:>,; .. OI.-
to \ P! larga amounts .' 1 in the Mi. surface strea %m %'. .O
across :. ,. ., ric .. ..:. roo formations. A..'."'.. '.i '
prcr-orties of :7:'-i..? 5,' and ..T seem to be r1,i.ali-le. .v.T r..
nu.-.l:ne waters ...> .iL3.. ; into artesian Squifers l.YOcu.:. 't- ,-4 ad.
basic and lose the excessive phosphorus concentrations. A complete
discussion of this ,... .',"i with ..,.. to ;in:,'s:.: was subitted ;tx
,re)-po-'t. to the fl.orida G'rl*.':..- ': .*...... :, ?A .-I T,, i' .r with assio tance
of Richard A.., "'-n. ..j- :... : :."' ;t.,I. 'w;A i.n Flori'ada e waters, P.. .
to tho ..... ..- .- ., iT,'. ,.v :1 193 tontat ,v W:-
considered for. :.' o:;f.. of Fla, ~ Snrv:-y,, 70 pp ;,...':- .* :-.) o Th
3 include comparison pert ai t:.iE to phosphorus :,*..: n*.. :r*.,






od cte I .Y of 'r T. '. -.: *n ."






1, CHAtRAJIf, L *TAM 'D ST. 0..1A7 OWF WI-IUTIVm; ; i':I'Ti



To date 1."rr0 1jrs *. .e1 rV'1i (-i*-An i and to.) booeen
made in 33 *:' z.i t to Cel ..2..' .. Bma .gni ,.n., <. o .iW..,1 and iT; of
plhoqt. l in those con,rt:'. ,, r I-;.r;..', l: flow systems. The a *- A:--:3 i
in LA '.*:'; .. haLu 1. .. .. .. with ..' p . o .. n.. 'n, V.'t i trn at ams,
01 C POO i ; ..,'.-estuavies :.'.1 with ." .i. ci..I support of the .' :.1''..


Result s so for hiwZfe C ."i : following '.or.:- of pho pbaruas
distribtOtiona

1. In tbhe '-, r '. flow the /pho':tern t content i
A- const Xt ,iuth distance .'.n :: rvn even W.t, ; -
.. '. .. T 3ta .'. Silver 1,:L- in table 1 inA.oalto
."," *propsrties,

2. The ..*, '::.:i ccr.onte : F thee clear waters in .:.s :-Ors 13 in.
^te :5 .1

3. The varlation of ,' .,.s conant with time is low, f-" c i ,
that. va? with ninsre ''e. *:.t! :.:r ..;r active olementus, sow n." *'.
sprL-; onviro'ents tat tIcat a;r; relatively constant,

4o The 6.!' *, 7.. ". i,.' ."' -".'. in p .WI. il. .- 'r, ': in conoces .trantionx
is available to o larnt in :;.ij. ?*-*'..r excess reserve amounts (Ite to
the contimwal "' *.* of vater. In some :.1,0 m.u; s ndh as ".1. O --'
(table 2) ,o.e ",.r.lu.'.tr evidence sh-ows definite A:.. ..o. in of
'Q h" A GcoantOM .o 1 7r var ialo W .'1-.- l?.-= ,.,... .. -,'v .: wore
o tb i.:13. O.ver the ride ..: .1.1 lower .:*...'i1 .,: of ., l;l,. '.,tkA
;Sp ',,-U' i t:o wr7..l' of water relative to y('A .... r.,v ia


5o The diss ol ,'. ,"'", ,1 ',.'.. in -* .', :. is rela.t.iv e) sm l ifn .i,.:>,; .. OI.-
to \ P! larga amounts .' 1 in the Mi. surface strea %m %'. .O
across :. ,. ., ric .. ..:. roo formations. A..'."'.. '.i '
prcr-orties of :7:'-i..? 5,' and ..T seem to be r1,i.ali-le. .v.T r..
nu.-.l:ne waters ...> .iL3.. ; into artesian Squifers l.YOcu.:. 't- ,-4 ad.
basic and lose the excessive phosphorus concentrations. A complete
discussion of this ,... .',"i with ..,.. to ;in:,'s:.: was subitted ;tx
,re)-po-'t. to the fl.orida G'rl*.':..- ': .*...... :, ?A .-I T,, i' .r with assio tance
of Richard A.., "'-n. ..j- :... : :."' ;t.,I. 'w;A i.n Flori'ada e waters, P.. .
to tho ..... ..- .- ., iT,'. ,.v :1 193 tontat ,v W:-
considered for. :.' o:;f.. of Fla, ~ Snrv:-y,, 70 pp ;,...':- .* :-.) o Th
3 include comparison pert ai t:.iE to phosphorus :,*..: n*.. :r*.,







. .. :: i t *.
',-1. 6


T:. -' .. lpes in .' a.uer


Aug. 9, 1952; cloudy, 20 %w.,
.,.-, 'X.
1/8 Mile
&T I)
1 ", '*;

2 maile

r; milos
3 miles

5 nileo>

Mana
-. 1. '. "- '. ,atiO
'. with lo.a error' than


.'*., REVA


.041
o045
.040

.051
.043
S.(A

!: U'
*1,


(*rt*


( .'..'. .- '. 5 .'. of total .. ? -*. .. ..)


I
1 5

9 ".


Boil

t arlt 03 .loa rn T'
in ,ittoral I...1 .


0050


I ,


o047



.053
,046
'0.)

IF


Li
-P
'A.


Aug. 16,
-.9 3t,
June 30,
rr '' ;


,061

.027


,,

~1 ~~ ,;?a-







S-'1 ,


' '1


. .a 2 ;d F ,t';-r. 1


" v r,:;. rties oa : Green W:'..-, ...'


* ~i:N '2 c
--A,,,
<'1 V2


* ,t.'


A :
,~ 11 ool


0 D
We yo, v I "AC)


S....r 16; clear ... '. .'o:
a'ci-' :..... : 2
*.*_ *,: .. 0 ,
i,'I ci. P, .*,.'-:


Aug. 10 .' .. ,

:..r ;.. ;.. P : ,
To"',. P, ppia

Silfur BacteriLa
Ye'O-.? .- .:.<.:... 'Lotl


;aa
53
,,0
,,022


'. w .i:.., 'i I A .


f '
"2


26.1
1,6


.4


.0.


-------------------------


Jan. 27, 1953; clear :- .:, A

(X2, ppm 45
*'U0 "<'i i'.-. -


Jan. 27, 1953,
O :y ;.:'.,, ppm
002 ppM
Nitrate N, .,

.-<..'C' BaWcterit
?3ti.a

r'in:,*., 10. p.m.
0.0
.4
0.00

I


- --------- re p t-- --- --------/
/ bare spots -------------- f


2


:I
i
- i 2


E


I?
t.... c


*-- r-- i~- -- -"nc -U .r~-rmr -rr\ r,-r~


25.9
4.6
.041


4.0

4,-0 j
.(.' !


5;,.9
4,8
.018


3.4
0004
,6 ,'-


;4.
5.5
.008


3.4
,005
.012


26,,7
6,1




3.3
94,
(2 .2-


1o6
W


2.4
169
24.6


2.6
1,6


1.4
1.4
asK


9,
12,3
2AO4k


2,2
1.4
0.00


2,1
1o6
.02


2.2
2.8
.09


2.6
2.2
.17


v -C W; A W -' -, *


~1~,J.; '
r. r-.L I..






; B -C i SP .9g Pa !.: :02)




..... *, .. in ,.a .* o Florida Waters
S(' of csos in parentheses)


". ".: .. district Other areas

:" 8 r) '".:^ (44)
S. ) .044 (21)
,.. (8) .6S (3:01
o0 (27


' .',t '.J.... .' 22 ', ,

MoanBuremontoI; :9r.'" ''o hT. weMO;P ..i i,,;.A1 to verW;.' the Oessental
o .. f n : r71 cn ::.centt h.;: W. ':- as one paf;aa Oiuro$a
the 5 mile 'SnA l., ., with an '. 1, .. ... I. of 12 ~, -... ,
the v.'- A.. -'.'. f in Silax r ar o i 's r ;' : \ 23.0, 22.5, R:O. .
*1 .. *. n i, % V 0,- tho variation is within a L*':r. even when the
air :, c.. 1.' low for: ave' winter er : .:. ..n o''.0 One Vigtoe '" t'heO Iwa'te
A:) ".. o :at boil ; .ar '... increased to 24r.0 5 miles r..:.'i th
river, La.rge: .- are. to be *., :.'...' in P ho lower reaches of more
S-. n. spr* w,, rru

The Wator '. tia at" a tito when th- air ..?r-r-,atn, is ,;!" o
lower tha, tha-t th' th '. t praure ca be '.,.. to locate zone of mixing
and onri ....' '.,.. w'. a To '. -'. Ta.. ;.'i iC- 'j;' of hori ontal






,y ""e 2
t;rkpe ran., r,.o, .IV ~. .a st LI r'itr. and ', "il *-', 1. j..






Portiona .. Silver o., l .a..- RA:a
18. 1952 .).> )) ,in 1.'-, .

:). ,O .0 tenths







l .





Productivity of Floridae Springs NONR 580(02)
Page 9





The current structure may be postulated to be relatively constant
since the variation in the rate of discharge of the springs is small.
Ferguson, Lingham, Love, and Vernon (cited above) show an aual variation
in the discharge from Silver Springs of about 20%.
The map in figure 3 was made with a midget current meter in order to
get some idea of the patterns of current velocity in horizontal aspect,
which may be important in controlling the distribution of organisms.

Figure 3
OCurent Velocities in Green Cove Springs
Feet per Second
Width Scale exaggerated 3 times


pool


CI s
Seep


6 ahes
Js






Productivity of Florida :~nri":i NONlR 580(02)
Page 10







Many of Florida s springs originate in strata which still contain
salt possibly left in the pore spaces by the last Pleistocene flooding of
lowland areas. These springs are slightly saline, some in the brackish
range. The arrangement and pattern of springs and runs are especially
adapted to testing effects of salinities on natural aquatic communities
in toto.

One group of 4 coastal springs of large size have parallel runs
710 miles to the Gulf. These spring complexes are, in order of increasing
salinity Weekiwachoe, Ohassahowitzka, Homosassa and Crystal River.
Initial analyses of the calinities in the runs of these springs are plotted
on the map in figure 4. 'Thiv,.Fr boils have salinities logarithmically spaced
but with the same cA.1cu1.1 concentrations The run, as they approach the
coast, increase in salinity first due to smaller tributary salty springs and
ground waters with grpa.l.11 increasing salinity, and finally due to tidal
waters in the last few milos. A strong distinct tidal wave moves up
these narrow runs many miles beyond any salt water of marine origin. The
wave affects the pulse of the spring run but does not reverse the flow except
at the mouth. The goochemical factors which are in operation have produced
gradual salinity gradients nich are of nmch more constant type than the
usual sharply fluctunting estery.

This remarkable natural salinity laboratory has already been the
basis of some investigations discussed below the invasion of marine
fish and crabs, the distribution of aquatic plants, the distribution of
insect fauna, and comparisons of fauna in stable and changing parts of the
same stream,

Further comment on the geochemistry of these springs is included in
a paper ready for publications The Geochemistry of sodium chloride as a
factor controlling the invasion of marine fauna into Florida fresh waters.
This was presented at American Society of Limnologists and Oceanographers
1952 session at Cornell in September. The essence of the biological aspect
follows below






Productivity of Florida Springs IOTR 5i80(02)
Page 11 \ _


Figure 4
Chlorinity Analyses in parts par
thousand




Crystal River
N ov. 29, 1952


S /" Homosassa, Springs
Sept. 28, 1952


QQ(


SChasahbowitIfka Springs
Aug. 27, 1952


Weekiwachee Springs
Nov. 8, 1952


0 VAu,


--~-~--


scales






Productivity of Florida Springs TONR 580(02)
Page 12



2. 4PUALITATIVN0 COMPOSITION OF COMMUNITIES



By far the most time has been spent on the initial mapping of the
boils of 40 springs using compass and tape. The dominant vegetation has
been plotted in position, roughly estimating the extent of plant beds.
A typical map is shown in figure 5.

If as discussed below many of the springs represent steady-state
environments, the conditions at any fixed place within the community
represents relatively constant conditions of current, temperature, nutrient,
and predator exposure. This horizontal spatial patterns are required in
order to compare factors and organisms. The methods for est.-i:!en i stand-
ing states discussed below require a map so that quadrat counts can be
multiplied by the area of similar habitat.

One result that has come from this work is an idea of the stability
of the vegetational parts of spring communities in Florida. Little Blue
Springs, Gilchrist County was mapped a year ago. Visited 5 times since
then, the pattern has been essentially the same except for a large bed of
floating JAFA which comes and goes primarily because of the dislodging 1y
summer swimmers. In gross aspects these communities seem indeed stable
systems.

The springs for which initial surveys and maps have been made areas
Ichatuclnee, Alexander, T;..hr^-,.., Blue (Gilchrist Co,), Blue (Jackson Coo),
Blue (Volusia Co.), Blueo (hrn1C.r'.'), Buckhorn, Crystal River, Crystal Springs,
Glen Julia, Fanning, Axniper, Lithia, Palma Ceia (dry), Poe, Ponce De Leon
(Volusia Co.), Rainbot., River Sink, Rock Spring, Salt, Sanlando, Silver Glen,
Sulphar, Wanm Salt, Wakulla, W1ekiva (Levy Co.), Wekiva (Orange Co.) Welaka,
Mud, Silver, Manatee, Orange, Homosassa, weekiiachee, Chaseahowitszkn, Bugg,
Morrison, Bonita, Green Cove, andQ Sn No Wa. Locations are given in Linghat
et el. cited above,



As a basis for all biological studies, the major taxonomic dominant
in the springs were collected at the time of the mapping. These cursory
sanples, representing only several hours collecting each, have been taxonomically
divided and the fractions are in pro~ese of being identified. The identifil
cation of the most abundant species of higher plants, insects, and fishes are
essentially completed.

Two striking results are emerging from this phase of the work
1. The spring communities seem to consist of a few species
abundantly represented.

2, Almost every spring differs as to the dominant species even in
cases where the chemical analyses of the major elements show
essential similarity.

Examples of the living components of spring communities are given in
the list in table 4.






Prod.u activity of F'Rarida '~1:~ Nr = R 580(02)
Page 13




Table 4

ENamples of the biota of some different types of Florida springs
(only a tentative classification)


...OT.~JLo y. ,.3..!J.n., Temp. 8?.0, bacteria, diurnal light turbidity
variation of peculiar chemical nature, gf s, -SJ G,
SS.%A,i frogs, blue crabs, requires Rideal-SteJswt modification
of Winkler method.
Examples Warm Salt Springs, Sarasota County,
Awn.robieM Teamip. 75, Sulphur and iron bacteria, blue green algae, midges,
'EMi '." .' ,., '11'Ag w, water clear and initially
C.l. t,'.Lhr..,u ...
Examrplea Orange, Groen Cove, Beecher.

SUM -.2.,1s-^ .-' ^ -,, ..102.1 ..- ... .'.nC' Temp. 75, :-^ .' Estan ajtan
a~e.JEf: ,.~'.n und froshwater fishes and blue uraus, heavy
green ;o n:'. t; .,1, .",''P.%t,,., amphipods, water greenish.
Example J.,lrt:.....' &alt, COhasahowiLtska, Silver Glon.

r Miat mih._ai anr- .cvacntigi, -. .. 74, clear, JAEte a, mullet,
":"'* "iv," r'-' S. ilver.

I ''- J'>.. _'L .' ,, ,' ';::xy ge 5 1 ..... "- '' na il i n. ; p r.' .: ,, i.,>n i
mixid. v tatcii; o n, t:i) .' H. :.- -. etc,,
c .. S .;; (rlbrint)xd, Ga, crayfish


h ,.e; ....J, coveredd~ at tieers by back water of tebid river)
vegetation almost completely ~CQgthI *
aEraple~ Morrison Spring.

F.te igc~ aggan West Florida, Temp. 69, EqaB oxygen
7. 0 ppm,





jPro iviv'. of r
Page 14


* .


-I-



- -~t


i ,'*


'

'


mlUm~N~a. I


,J/


o
a
IrB~s

\j%


o^.,
0.
Id L
CL.






Productivity of Florida .;, in3-. NOYA :"A 0(02)
Pace 15



SThe collections discussed above hae suggested the phenomenon observed
in pollution where communities have less varied composition but many
individuals of each species and where the particular species that is dominant
seems to vary radically. Dr. Ruth Patrick has suggested in communication
that a stable environment like these springs may possess fewer species than
a normal fluctuating enviroent because there are fewer transitory niches,
which in a normal fluctuating environment allow many species to at least
maintain a foothold. In both stability or in pollution one has a deviation
from the norMral fluctuating environment and possibly for this reason fewer
species.

As part of work toward a masters degree under the direction of Dr.
Lewis Berner, Mro il.'lli : Sloan is studying the distribution of insects in
relationship to contrasting facd;ors. The following section, written by himn
indicates pr~t o c;:> to d.ato.

Contsastin~ o' t':.er-' of Dnseot Distribution
by
Willia 0. :., .on
I":-.:n;r (."''' S :*..r.';,:. '.. that the .-....1t .Ic insect fauna of the upper regions
of tlhe Florida, prXing was scanty nand that the population increased a short
dist.anoa below thz boil, Thi' c;"l.*lrv'1...in tvas recently substantiated by
.e3itiUcll1:?:.;. of a series of collections obtratiin by Dr. H. T. Oditu from some
35 spri';',.:.' i,- .L;.ici.'.ve of the '-s:-uit study is to explain the oi:..city of
larvae in the boils and their relatively sudden increase below the boils. Xt
is also hIpr-i that some knowledge of the effect of small amounts of chloride
on the distribution of aquatic insect will be obtained.

J. -ri ;,'-'; the l'.' of 1952, the insect fauna of Silver, Weekiwachee and
Homosassa Spring (figure 4) was studied. Collecting stations were established
in the boil and rn of each of the three springs, and chlorides (figure 4)
and oxygen ,..*,loo:.ie were made at each station, Collecting apparatus included
Needhka s npe', dip net, ,;O1-t? wire screen buckets and strainern for larvae
and a butterfly net for adults, Adults vere taken whenever possible in order
to aid in identification of larvae,

Oxygen analyses indicate that, in general, dissolved oaxgen content
(DBo.) increases with distance down the run. The D.O. in the region of the
boils is fairly constant while that of the runs fluctuates from day to night,
Table 5 shows the range between day and night in each of the boils. Figure
6 indicates the total number of species collected at stations of varying D.O.
in Homosassa Springs. Table 6 compares the total number of species taken in
each of the three springs with that of Lake Wauxberg, a north Florida laki
located in Alachna County. This lake jwas studied by Mr. Richard Trogdon, then
at the University of Florida, in 1933-34 and the data on Lake Wauberg were
obtained from his unpublished masters thesis. The species list (table 6)
indicates the aquatic insects so far collected from the three springs. It is
almost certain that further collecting twill increase the list of all three
S springs, but it seems fairly well established that Homosassa has the most
abundant insect fauna, Silver the least, and that Weekiwachee occupies an
intermediate position,






Productivity of Flo.:.. ...-'-' MJR ,00(02)
Page 16




Several bypotheses may be advanced to explain the scarcity of aquati.
insects in the boils and their increase as the run progresses. As indicated
in figure 6, there is a possible correlation between D.O. and distribution
of insects, The boil of :-iorrs.as is the only one from which truly aquatic
insects have been taken and this has the highest DoO, of the three (see
table 5). The fact that even here they are scares may indicate that there is
insufficient food to maintain a larger population. Another factor may be
excessive predation. The wi-ater of the boil s is extremely clear and the
vegetation less dense than that hlco~r the boils and it seems possible that
fish predation in areas of L';.-,ufricient cowr may prevent the establishment
of large populations, In addition to DOo,, food supply and predation, the
nvwater of ocologi1al nicho available Lust be considered. The relatively
small number of species ;'- :.' t in Silver and Weekiwachee as compared with
Roiloos~i,,s may be o-:.-....ir .' the greater number of types of habitats found
in Homosassa. Silv-r aiod :.. :,..\..ih.r both have narrow runs, awift currentse
and 1w turbidity for the 1?.- ...h of their runs and practically no areas of
still water. The run of 'cr 7orc.-., on the other hand, broadens immediately
below tth run, the currexnt b~conmes lover and the tiurbidity greater, Along
the -'i.ti., in 'b --?'..:-r.- ares, the current becomes almost noticeablee. It
is in this type of habitat that the mayfly QaMRM &tfA3 an and the aquatic
Hemiptera EpI.m ;. and.. Q.?. c .; r : all predominately pond and lake forms
are found. That the nwmnbser of speciess of insects in Bomosassa compare
favorably with that of a lake mEV be seeo in table 6o

As indicated in fiIgre 4 the chloride content of Hoamoassa is 16".r
than that of either Silver or WIekiwadceeo E. n though chlorides are
present slightly in excess of 1,0/oo in many parts of omoasasa run and is
thas in the braclkish water .;-., it seems to h:vo little effect on the
insect population. Xt is likely, however, that further collecting will show
some forms to be ,;i'itiove to even these small amounts.

Methods of sampling quantitatively are being perfected. At the present
time, emergence er".:' are t.1i psal.-,.o c. at various points in the runs for the
purpose of ntJ..' ;.t..ir relative P i.-nd.in..e in different habitats.


Table 5
Oxygon range in spring boil areas


Silver Weekiwachee Homosassa

02 2. 6 p
Night 2.,9 20 4.3






Productivity f 1.c-clt Spri :.;' NNR I0(-02)
Page 17



Distribution of :9".Ti)cr of species in relation to disvolved ry:vn
in the spring boils

02 in ppm. in boils


1 2 3 4 5 6


7 8 9 10


02 in ipm r'''!. ;tUples. Each point represents one collection
at one station. .C!'0t:3.7 of species indicates the total number taken
in one c.lc.., period (1 -,2 hbr.~/tation)o Lettera indicate
separate or identical stations.


Ephemeroptera
Odonata
Anisoptera
7gopt era
Hemiptera
Ooleoptera

Lepidoptera
Neuroptera
Diptera
Tendipedidae
Heleidas
Stratioqyidae
TipUlidae
Tabanidae
Oalicidae
Total


Table 6
S.-.',,; of ;r0etoi0 recorded

S.i.' P Weekiwtache Homrosassa
1 4 6


A
0
0
0
fta
-ffrlU-M


Lake Wauberg
2

16
7
8
6
I
1
1
1


i
6
1
1
6
1
n


A indicates adult observed but no larvae taken
* the Tendipedidae have only been tentatively identified and
5ay consist of mrore species than are iadioated here.


rCU I -


emnBeahnwrM...c,...^.m





Productivity of .
Page 18


Ephomeooptera
Oa Uibaotie floridanu!A
Trichoptera
Kvdrootila op.
Hemiptera
Metrobate guomalu


MeGovelia a!"gantt
,Iagovolia chorouton.
Diptara
Tendipedidae o epeoiee A
IseAtarg'e op.


.;i Fi580(02)


Thble 7
Spooio List
Silver Springo


Oolooptora
Gogolagtua Qalagtgfilriv.
Q. chvrolsi


Gyrinua aMohsa 2as
G.o gokin anlas
Odonata
Zygoptora
Enallarma ape

-ialn rina hap a
Nohalannia sp* ,


Weekiwaohee Spring


Ephomeroptora
fTrico hodegge abiluco^
Stoi _____*-

Baotia op.
Triohoptera
gayoptoilj ap.

Leptoocridae apecles A
Homiptera
Motrobates heoerius
Trepobateo vgictua
Rhaovelia choreoutoa
Rydroumtra up.
D | Cy I ap
Dipteora
Tendipodidae apeocio A
Tendipe! pluMaosuo
Tanytarluo ap.


Odonata
Ani optora
Ashil MiSarcel


Hotaerina titia

Zygoptera
Arion gmaculatum
Argga species A
Argpi species B
NahMgg nis opeocies A
Nehalonnia speoles B
Lepidoptera
Elophilus ap* ?


Howmosaswa Springs


Ephemeroptera.
Oallibaetias flogidanu
oaesn1s diwminata
Caenia opq
Baseti pinosuas
Baotisa Bop
Tricory htodea olilinea&us
Trichoptera
heuis at pch ap
sgpoptggg .o p o
gonopgahq op-
Sdroutila up.
Hamiptora
Plgogr uap.o
Bolostomw luterium
Mesovelia mulsanti


Diptera
Tandipodidae s apoiesa A
O B
O
*1 D
*" E
Bazzia spo
Qdontogria ap.
poophelo ape
gulax apo
Odonata
Ani optera
Perith3mia seminol
Libellula pulchella.
Le auripenni.
Gomphus ape







Productivity ; .. :*i'j
b~r'>ic Yk'


Hariptprn (zo'tS)


o ... ,

rf ---, ... 1 1 v ,


I. :." '., (co:A.o



[ .- -.


Lii


SB

I.'..

~ >50010


doaM != h. acvn i ad on 'h i t1, d cHO' o V '
in tWhe catiocn o w .i : ly/au lne an Nuo c: '. .-'- 1 tho j.anoral x
for the z Won t : 0 j W : .' z down taa rua hnoe bin*
W 'l.o..,: !, LA cl : on d n3 diacuunod in t1w oC.Ation mi_

ducS' iv of t:: :' : : 'y

A* dica...ad i S Q-oti thn om n .: c0iw GU n
4d t. W. .edn o to: f n-:;-,i cyn a a masmro of voiat illity,
W in dir "O.W, Q 0 ny.n" n A 1 Q *p.aclow Ondor eao" 7 COUVNTio.s
* o C poM.i'^^n pr lw v n W:l 0 ; i ::: ro compOr !t;.;ons b:otr:;;:.;n b10il ''
u'rthor ch' aa an 2.H!X" O .M to va W1: ulai I toS. oA.
are Wto .. : .nvoc;A' W- :;i oemnivs in In,- kno vl or e m
4 1incnt 0 0 1 ::l by h ll :1V .M A MI ..Vwo


TO ot bli: OT Ala 2
O U00001aoc 101i Arcs uld
% CAleivly a VnQ
uniral:n c?'urmv WO ch"wa ;
crs'amon and l.;o l .:I -.i"o f


W... 14 .A .. 1. .
. botri end blu : i
U.S.Ha.ci':^ ni "Ta- ho 'hr0s o t hus a V:,v
ono qmoa downcatroy nad no theW iSn i
3 dcri.'? ono


pKo3 .c oo .' l va a p r n t f Zgri vnl=lt .i
in th*o ,on : .o aI4' 7 n ol:c vatsr. (on 0rook W: crop.; A c
' .' ) Qo i?:t' ialla y r' :. :1:' 1. n l o < t3 4o.: all7 is-e 000 W fo d yadi "A inQ.
knott -./ blu I s i 7ble that' thoe .. of tO Ai -
coito s ds i d f n3 Wg 1.a.:t in tha vm .2t' t=!.r U is ta
" cr'oolationC th ;, .. v A:: on the otia do but0 obu xit.AiK on toh, I 'r
tho rverre:o ." t K; ciNOW iltibn ta tMasoPU in 0.. r7W.'.;uQ,


I.!i /. r; '4! 'r


O r S .ca & .' -. C oM.'


L


u
..:-.~ ;
.s-- o-.- -~ 1711





Productivity C2 : .. (02)
Page 20


A4 iv"- Q e& t ,'rii for- r' .

S The presence of c-',i-uvnl of microorganisms in steady stat. in thooa
flow systems suggest ta z the idea of an ecological formula for a c,!:
is v'.'.-i. P."' i.;r this ol, tFtheorem is here practical, Perhaps onez cmn
list the oPr "itiona in : 'hi '. ya ijtl1 will grow pIu'i.,ln~ntlr;,t i.n ': ''* otate
in natuzra ,ondition : c"....::.". '-.t ., The clnic'l conditions Iknot:a for
anaeroble Gm:;..'. i Ocvo ::.r-: ar given. irn "-:,'L.e 2. ^:,',..-' d:a.: : et 1g.',;: o4"
t (citod .,r'. '.*.*- : ao ilol, 15 pmn; Iron, .03'; calci'u., *',.; .: i. 16
c..."., 2,..; "." .:iur ,, 1, *; ab..,-oa.. te, 100; sulfate, 49; chlorilon, 5.7;

? $1_..;'kc_.I, .A, ,'2 .

.- T -, ', it', l '. ; .-. ... *' I ., '.
f' G'"1 OF f tP 2 G AIR


. ., K6 C. i : .

1 4,.. :7{.'T '.. .:, c.:"X tclp'iL.no.V. ca. live rund.r anaorobic -ate:'
conditions &ueo t.'i, ., :b Tt of .. ul air. :Bcocher Sprins., .'..la.,, A.
anaerobie spir';, ;xotin m.'.ry of thpso fish 'hich are contiiTVlll; vo, :

A nimter .' eac.h p ci.s, s .. m. L.: h sp '. re
: in screen w o a c and 2 f' in '- ... : .. V "0
S .i-:--;''". so that t;. fi- ca.ld. ..?.2 air arei. the othorea Ci ./. at dif.: **..A
depths from ono 17.ch to t .oot boloew 'th ----. c so that tho firh coulA
not roach the e.'rf.'.c to ..:"~..

Those which .., .. .ir livdc without r'-r't di stras fo th
i;" t.ioz of th er' -. ;' "-'. hoUr. Tea, whieh coald not Croc ri.le. .
u'l -1. almost o.. o sin of diistross and. wore all deladat :. -;Otha, in
abou-t tw enty li.to .'

In ord'erI to ):u :; '- 1 di. not have'x-, o to ;.) air, as a .':.'. i'
life 7.;.'O r :. a. ,a,".n of :nrd.i-vida:ls were on...i below.the surfaceo in o r*;.: :.,-'.c.I
water r .': dlown the rvn, (1 1 ;.; 02). TheB ose lived .:. I1.7. without gulping
air until the oozeriment wa.s e.-.' ..::,Ui ", in thirty minutes.

''..i'.,. "- -~ :.. ., thA't the e t'..' -::.7,'.;ric, of fish can in r --i.litr
occur in waters with .l- o1.a o *;, t' :ly whicEh will not support other ,..:.' :1:
which do not gulp air. t i; clear that existence in Beechor Sprimn o..1:,:le
on gulping air. No other ;:-.r'. species wero observd.o

Peat y'0,. i-. -c:I

A preliminary experiment on d.eoay of wood and leaves was carried out in
anaerobic Beecher Springs. The floor of the springs is covZerd with brown
Fibrous peat about tt-o *r.t thick over which flows the very clear, anaerobic,





.,o c,.ct"i. .vit.y & Y_ .:,,'(02)
rP.-.. 21



sulfide i smellin water.' :' ~. rate of peat formation under this constant
temperature (Tl'.r'. 23.0 do., 0,), and constant chemical condition oomsd to
be '..a h c Ih.::.,;,, A h.ar.cl.a cloth n-;:: containing fresh elyat, ;. t-,.
w! ,'rs.... a ficks and. lsavoe a .*::*.X 2r:A on Juno 5, 1952. when rRozEcMned
on i-.... Iry 4, 19r -, :" w..r ood was ,fon',L to be essenti-llly ',, .....I
in yoss appearaavcs. The 'eo r.nl.ico.,l.d. so little modlficatioa that
no analysekC wero rk. JTho o:spo;'i2;nt continues. Control samples arVe torod
in the 1i ,i',.:..,;-, r.:..'. thoe ?'" leaves adbo decomposed. I, .:"7:
tr-i.'i.l fskoletoaB rCI': as ix;-.t have boon expected th.":t
*.:. rlo.''l,;'PJr-to :,,; ,*.l:.ion ixnor anaeirobio conlitiona is slow comp- ',* to
other fractions of the 3.,,..



The pheno.onon of t': ,:' invasion of 15 or more species of nmirio fishes
and the blue cr' ito ,l:.-..T .rulh waters and particularly springg lr oas been
studied as a nm-:. -":. r piroct; :ldoriceo maps for 1Florldaos freah .water have
been p;.: and t'e d.-iA ,t,.a of marine invasion correlated. ,. maaanu-
soript sumrxvrTIl. .'I; ts- :o a-' theo springs work bas been prepared for
publication (title cit:Oi :.-: .), The essence of this study is a series of
maps of cblori'i" cor~~Or: n i :A :-i..'.c.." esltuarine and .f:i~c waters, a i.i;.c.-.aion.i
of chloride geochao.i'..;: c :..ose'.pt...:. of the areas which reooiwv the toc<,.test
n.M?.-, of mari fii, ." ..: traplant .:,:,lc'l;',E,., of bluxe crabs in the
springs. 'T:i'l 7 sui-::wi o t he t i. on transplantation o..o T .... ., 'il
correlation of ':..).-: crat ith esenea of 25--1000 ppm roii..a cborido in
springs of constant i-.. *.:r ..1r the ability to survive vlo2i;. wbhn tros.a
planted in tho3 ep:;:il.".- U, :; t that inability to reab!::.,ib sodrliv clo.i-.'l.
from low con eontrations in the .:'i.':-..;..' is responsible for chloride ;noaitivity
as y 'Kr;, ": oa the ..u.rp.,.:b wool handling crab.

o 7
Transplantation. of :Blue Crabs AiA, in M i Florida. Springs

Crab Source, (Date (Date MC No. of Spring of Ca T l1 Days of
1952)) 1952 ?IP crabs Expt PPM ;.;,. PPM Survival
F,
Bayport estuary Feb. 4 3,300. 7 Homosassa 50 75 570 >14
Bayport estuary Feb. 4 3,300. 5 Chassahovjitzka 49 74 53 7-18
Salt Springs Aug. 7 2,800. 8 Silver 70 73 8 5
Bayport estuary Feb. 4 3,300. 4 weekiwachee 49 74 5 1-
Barport estuary Feb. 5 3,300. 4 WeekiLachee 49 74 1
Chassahowittka run Aug. 22 730. 7 Rainbow 21 74 4 2

----- mmm-lra .tw~,,*rna'"n crr mm i~if ln;I r an~*1~






Productivity of Iluida ::. .:-,.?: NOifm 580(02)
Page 22




30 QUKANTITATIVE COMPOSITION OF COMtMUITIES (STANDING CROP)




The quantitative doscri. ,lon of a natural aquatic community is
difficult because each typo and size of organism requires a separate
means of sampling. It is only the essential stability of the spring
that permits one to do one thing one time and come back to finish the
job after dov-lP:,l't: neo tw.-.O.:X.n'to.e

To date in .i"i- :1 nativeive :~:r li;L : has 'caF carried out in the
largest spring (:.!l-.':) oWe of tbh sialler springs (Green Cove)
Whereas the job i. the. tc .. even in these two are incomplot.x',, onov',;h
has been done to otli:no t*:: ..'. l of p'.:z.ui. of mass and :;.-'
as in figure 7, Th nt3Fo of the pyramid is evident. Thi Is suggestive
of Dr. Archie Carr"s thoori;, .;t.i-. food chains as applied to marine
high plant Veir:".ti.io:. Co7n,:<::t on *.;. ,'I., is discussed belov in the
theory section.

From these ?'.., :. i..:. it sem~8ii O.,i.o..0L that a valid picture of
standing states can be oln1ained these ec..cJc. .rou,' spri, The
clarity of the waters p:rits one to census the fishes by eye. AI'I -., 2
rough, it is ..:'.1. of Tvgnit. --- with which one is here at first considering.
Start of ;:. '~ on ;.. is ,. x..-....' ",-1.co by Gordon J.rco,' h.- .,



Figure ?

P''i;' '..i of Mass in .it ).'.-' Springs










`1 a o at ycEst Y
S. ..- . ...


.......... ;....... ....... o ,
~i~~ . ./ .... .-- .--::, .. .






Productivity of IF'lorida. S2p' ;i. 5380(02)
page 23



Methods of quntitative sampling include planimeter measurement of
the areas of eaeb type of association and counts and weights of samples from
each association. Sampling procedures under way are as follows Algao-
scrapings from known plant weight; higher plants--by sq. ft. visual cropping
under water with face mask; microscopic organisms--scrapings from known i.l-'a
weight and pouring through plankton net; invertebrato animal---sampl ing with
sq. foot grabs with box samplor; attached microorganisim-counts on 2Afmor.vl
glass slides which become coated in 3 weeks.

Dry weight o''qiv:l-.~ ,' aree being obtained for field wet weights.

Special attention hacs boon paid to the aquatic higher plants, their
weights, and total tonages in the spring runs. In addition as a b .so to the
food chains eand. pyram.is, thiI information constitutes interest in itself in
relation :o -.: ..e. i .pr:portCie of the springs. Dr. John ., DIavis hkars
studied -~ i;i qiant.i'ak tivre vi:.-tion of the plants in relatioY o0 the chalsn
ing proportios Cdown the csal; rims i2nr.ied. in figure 4. *,... report follows.


i'.;N' U." A,";' of Aquatic Vegetatio n in our Springs
',.nd thoir 1Runa of Florida
by
Joh1n H. D) '.. 1, Jr.


This is a 1.-:.':.: .r-:'r reOport of p~'t of the investigation of the
biolo.ic.-.l produ dAiv2,:;: of plant communities in four Florida spring :.: ,s.
These areas G.;, 1, HoAoasa, i ''t'-ts, and pictured
with chlorinites in fi., [4. The data in the present report include the
weight per unit aroa of subma:-. ;.d and floating aquatic plants. The waters
of the four :prl ; systems flow into the Gulf of Mexico, all of thom entering
the salt water marsh and littoral zone within three to six miles down stream
from their spring heads, Their waters therefore vary from almost no salinity
to salinity values thl.t are over half the concentration in the open sea.
They all contain hard waters with greater than 144 ppm i..nLL.'h.,o and thr'b,.out
their cotuse the mean water temperatures during the season so far inve;~.t:. tod.
did not vary over 5 ... : .n ..ti.do (20.0--25,0).

The chief objective of this part of the investigation was to determine
the density of growth of the different plants or groups of plants in terms
of weight per unit area and tlas arrive at some basis for comparing total
plant growth in terms of salinity, turbidity, hardness, and other factors,
and some basis for computing productivities when growth rates are established.

The main rtTlsd emilored was directed 'at first toward estimating the
extent of each characteristic type of area of plant growth, and second
obtaining representative samples from most of the distinctly different types
of areas. The first objective wnas partly accomplished by inspection of the
runs for apparent differences in both density and species composition.
Sampling was then made in areas that were most nearly representative. This
very selective type of sampling was supplemented by some random sampling in
certain parts of these systems so that the sampling was about 70 percent





Productivity of ',,.i -. '. ;, D" (.




selective and 30 percent random. The latter method is recommended for further
investigation. The sampling was accomplished by collecting the attached or
floating plants within a onoe-aquare-foot iron frame. From these samples
both wet (green) condition volumes and oven dry weights were obtained. Th~
greenEwet plants collected after draining 1 to 5 minutes were immersed in a
large can that had ,a ;n.rlike spout and which was filled with water to the
spout. The overflow water resulting from the immersion of the sample was
measured in cubic centimeters and this volume figure used as the rou4gh wet
weight since the specific gravity of water and the plants are similar. Percent
water was computed from the wot and dry weights.

The oven dry ,:.l '." were obtained by first air drying with caution taken
to prevent molding and for;aentation. Then the samples were oven dried to nearly
constant weight at a t; 'u.- '.stue 100-105 dog. C. The weight val-ies in grazm
wore then used to estrimate tlh pound-s per acre in aroan for which the a*ir....
were representativ-. A fin- enatimate of the approximate total poindsa r.g
acre in the :-pr'],:.-: .'**' rivs;zo was calculated on t'he basis of ynrc':.. ,, 3 of
cover of the yl:vi :,,i aa eoutiatoe in the field visually tb .'M~nt the clear
spring waters. The data nre .. s...- a. summary in table 8, Similar:, but
incomplete data not J. :.'" -11 in the table .11.e,....to that the lower rea.has of
these same runs poaesa 1.-'.. t.elr'J.:ties, diofite marine salt, o3tu.arine
fluctuatioans, : a. aicsh caller C--: ty of +l->:-'G-e. In the clear offshore
marine taters rooted .. :.:-. n..- stationn again b' co,~na dense in the shallovw
flats off the '~..."' cast.

Plant species constit...' ... the -.t' c vegetation were tr. .,. *:, in
nearly all cases .''i;.i ,; for 1 :'.i-LiX '.: .l-,:v.-. of a few algae still *P..',,
Some characteristics of percent water and growth density are summarized in
table 9. This table cen be used as a basis for wet;dry conversions in
further work.

So far, data on chlorinity, oxygen, and phosphorus have been obtained
for these runs. Definite correlations between chlorinity and. specioe have
been observed as in the correlation of ?tya:.~;L!, tSAAt.e with chloride
values between .100 and 1,0 parts per thousand. Observation of/oculiar Soroe
of depleted chloride (o000 ppt) ::.'. heavy 7',rc beds in Weeklwaches springs
is being checked.

The tendency for SA tp&.L to dominate the low. chlorinity waters andfor
D-11UgI 1 to cover the bottoms in the slightly higher chlorinity ranges
h3b been observed. Zones of eimu2ltaneous growth of the two species occurred
nalivay down these runs. Thc;x- tvwo species are very similar in general growth
form. An ideal situation for the study of competition is indicated here.











*1'.-bTl, 8

.u..:.-.'v of a"-.-'"*.; crops of plante in upper
part of 4 coastal spring runs


o I of sq. ft.

vweifheod


Range of
% coverage


Average Total
lbs/acre
dry jo :/'lhi


Weekiwachee Spriv.je
(strift current)

Crystal River
(wide, sluggish, 0--:p:.,
turbid)

GhaBsahowitska. '-.i::.' ,-;
(sla1llow, clear, ms.&dium
current)


(clear, wide, -;':.-.!.


15f-60%


30%-70%



25%-70%



15%-70o


3,9413


2,561


4,000


.007--.o025






.3:) 4.39
.0o0,' .840


Donsity, porcC.t ater, .:.-:.'.: i':.' f.ch-ts of come aquatio
pA.T:.. : in 4 coastal spring unms


Species


localities
sampled


Sq.
Ft.o


Oms. dry wt.

Me.=an ;-ic


%te
iater


85.3

84.8

86.0

77.4

90.5
91.5


113

73

1141

105

59

65


86-135

43--102

74--177

104--~06

56--62

55--115


Range of
01
Ai'


rmr ~,rsrararwrt~~------- -------l~~tn*lruranr~mlrqrL~zr~mm~ri


C-aLlllrdII~"""*"*2~li~~Y11\-I1UI-m


I~-iL_~ICli~~m~(~~~-PI7~N~l~ll~pl~~


rrrm*l^-r~lc^-~l~----nUI-r*lrrror r~nrcbanrr.l~cul-r~;r~~


I" g
~
;;r: 29


ia$ ::~


nonasesatrfino


Spring


I12404 (Macatf?,A)

EnhamthSiliaim ABQiL



SUCIssad, UasQ

7Sj]SO&9x. 2,A1'

USalma& ffi










The ...- of Color '*r-,' in the Stuwl; of 'ish
i''l -tions in ITomaouneoa Springs
by
Gorcdon C. Broadhead


Fmr..q.nri S..-.:'1:;:. provides an excellent site for the study oi' marine
fish prcl.at.: o1u. (): c ''. ;~3elo of marine fish enter t',: spring" area
where tkr, '. o.,-vv':.,t ,''"i' been erected for tourists, and boacuse
the clarity of the water an'. the narrow limits of lI.o .,pli..ig area mike
obserwtiot of t.-il- moveniat s ;r.,*!., Casual ob:,t'vti. : It:. ..:e Uit the
large popaClationa of fish in ':"t. springs chr n-i' from day to day both in species
and in the numbers of each spreies present. By marking with cotloj..-(d P1-j't:j
fish t,~ t-1.j moveoeonts of the fish can bo recorded, the drni~ly.; !*,.:,'.t : .'1
of fish estimated and& ;.'.:* turnover of the fish in the sprinLs: also est ;,.. ,.
ITIp,'L:. will also permit "'. '* of the behavior of the ta;:,.z.d fish .1i.l estAimation
of their growth rate if r .-..;,V~:.'i at aa later data.

;, i' o:,,ter 6, .".'". a :.. i-.a,- .n.,.y experiment was carried out to test the
feasibility i uising tlh co,..,fdi t 3., Nine ir:.llot ::..a, c:.r';hi in the boil of
the .;'pi:.-",; by n, c: of a eia,-nt. The fish were .::;(e. with lar&'I) .nro tags
and r.l :.ci ... ',. into tho .,.. a In a.'::,:...c c rporilmnt a rlf:ff'rfL;.', color combi
nation ,..l 'o cl b for each flaisb The f',lo~.'.n;: morning five of the iino
mullet 2 ,'. be eeen I: ,.-'1,..i: in the .;;.in:,:, and at one time feor of them were
observed t.o;:'-:'.., in a mal.l school., *"':o::o fish tmere bore.-'d by the .ip:.c.'n
.tterndrd for two moresa .1' .a i:d .after that they disappeared and were not seen
again.

AlilA.,jL it iis -cil:, to draw any definite o ncilL.:.Eri,,;. as yet,
indications are that the irullet do not romain in the springs .q ny great pe.ricrl
of time and that the 1;-..:' o. 11y population is maintained by fish movinE to
and aout of the l:'.'"ri into the much wider run area. The faot that four of
the tagged i...,h were o :':.:,l. in the same mall school could i~.9.1.S:-t that the
t;gg,:,g fish vere not &, .'... ;,;r distributed throughout the ovpuct.m... Since
they were .tuoxi: t. one at a timee, i s t nt likely hat they were in the same
school ibufor' o.)..in;..


IV PRODUCTIVITY



The study of the production rates in a community involves the estimation
of production rates of each class of organisms in the food chain separately.
By trophic levels, there are the primary producers, herbivores, carnivores,
secondary carnivores, decomposers. Satisfactory measurement of the production
of any of these tEder natural conditions is difficult and has rarely been
accomplished.

To date, att.sliptf to measwue production have been directed at measurement
of the primary production in situ of the plants in the springs. Most of the
effort has been directed at Silver Springs, After some trIal and error. some





Productivity of Voi: a pi.g ... ......*2)
Page 27




success has been attained by three direct and indirect methods. Silver
Springs is almost completely covered rith a thick bed of A~E LwhoZ4ao
growth form is that of eel grass. These heavy plant beds are coated with
algae which in places forms heavy mate. Some other plants are found around the
edges in relatively insignif ica~nt quantities. Measurement of the growth rate
of the n,. ..r-'.!, l~ s boon accomplished by the following methods
a<. Growth of wet t,,;.beilt, transplants in cages,
b. Measurement of dom.fstream drift of plant fragments,
C, ZIR:aao'on t of difforonces between oxygen content of
downstream stations in the day and at night.



Measurement of growth of transplants probably produces mininamu values
since cages shut out some 1l.. 't, exclude turtle herbivores, and in the case
of rooted aquationl inrvolvo roo a.ili..l.i-t of root systems. The diroot Loeaszu'e,
meant of plant :<,th involved! two different procedures for two different
purposes. in o.- ': to ia~ra-ure the production of a community where a study is
being made, the species aused rai~t be the dominant in the community, Thus in
Silver Springs I':. *-I.: ,is :3 l1.A1! up, weighed in a cage with a two minute
drain, and replanted. in the soft ri.'nl3 bottom muds. within the 4x6x4 cages
in about 3-4 feet of tateo ..*'-.';".!,i:,' typical bottom conditions, Howeasr,
a comparison of .e,':d.1'! fertility of the spring water also is needed in order
directly to comp c :' cheomical. potentialities of different communities So a
* single species should to be ed in all the ,priL'~.o For this purpose a floating
aquatic such as hyacinth or z"'.l'., should be used so that the type of mra 'ci'c,,i
will have no offoot. -.,u. I'.T.v-~ .., a minor natural plant in Silver Zivl',,y:n ia
being grow~ in 'r-a,.

The data from (:direct meast'irment to date are meaer aand preliminary but
mey show that the method will work. Plants of ,A&g^MUI with 1 foot blades
had grown to 3 feet length aand developed blossoms. The growth of the r-ij-?. .
9er.id to be much less than t~at of the gis in the summer, possibly partly
due to light differences. The values of productivity obtained by this method
in table 10 seem reasonable,



The second method for nes:,Curing productivity involves stretching a gill
net across the run 1 mile downstream from the boil. The water by the time it
reaches this spot has filtered across a great volume of waving :QCf.?,;8.i..
Now suppose the ,prinsTi is in a, true steady state, and all our evidence suggests
that it may be ,certainly with respect to 3 i:J._~ ,i,;. since it remains clogged
with it all surfaces being covered except the sides of some of the limestone
out rops. Then the rate of production should be balanced by the rate of plant
loss to the food chain and to drift downstream,. wg I, wheno it breakE
loose, floats to the surface. Thua the dou';:trcam drift which is large, obvious
;snd continuous is caught in the .Ill net and later wet and dry weighed., This
Is done early in the ,,:,'.:'i so that effects of boats during the day will have
least influence on eeu th uts h this estimate will be minimum since more
would break off during the day. As seen in the data on standing state, the
amount of SACUr plants is large in proportion to the animals that possibly
draw much of their nutrition from ;il-y,, If further observations are conaittent,
it will be concluded that only a small part of the Wa- ~st production is
drifting downstream, The initial test of the drift measurement gave the figure






Proda'tl-i;vity Of Floid. 0: ;.'U(02)
Page 28




for Silver Spring in table 10. This drift catching procedure is further
discussed in relation 1o ordinary streams in the theory aeotion,

c. aemsga gr1iAi;Z-Cit.whod.

Xf the a :.rf-; are a flow system in i-hich the constant flow of ;v.tritLve
clear water a rixed at the t1oil with sunshine to start a biological chain of
reaction, then the distance "C.u the run is proportional to the rate of reaction
in some chemical kiLnotic apparent s. Thas this property is the basis for a third
measure of plant production in the springs. As water comes out of the springm
it possesses a nearly constant oxygen value diurnally and annually as seen in
figure 8. 0:<;:..'r is :l'e i.l as the lEarge riSvr of water poiur dowastr-eam dvu. to
two nctionr. diffauion fr:om the air, and photosynthesis .slSocD.:t:., tlth
production. At the constant ICp:ri'.:..tuv day and night the rate of dii:ff'; o:
will be constant. Tihds t:he diffrence between the oxygen valwu ioi thi r'n
in the day and that at 5;.. is the different~ between photosynthesis ead
respiration, Thus one h1as :-:: '.:.'el. the metabolism of the whole comemnity,
the size of a small lak, l d.ic-':.E 7 aln instantaneon.,-ly. Xndeed one can measure
inrtantaneously the '-',. ":;..lo.a rate etc.

he data in tables 2 and 10 for Silver and r.on Cove, and figures 8 aand
9, abundantly illustrate that this l:jilr indeed is practical AiI- a;.
incomplete, the .. at h'.dz so-iW a large difference between 0C1.CP\f i-.'l. suB r
days and wbtp'y.o' winter and smrmer. This io exciting especially as it , rapid compare oi:.-:. n of :.v ..n. r and prol.:ii.ty can be adapted to stream andc rivers
and even estuaries if a !.li..- of current and. siotltaneous observations can
be made. Certainly, the critliismi that communities are too big to work with
directly seems ci'X':'r.v-i':c hore. Some initial data on other springs c'e,ur
similar orders of magiitud. These springs are giant respirometers.

Green Cor Springs as one of the small springs showed (in table 2) an
especially striking contrast beti'eeng ,we-fjor afternoon where trees are sush
that sun reaches -'..ho spring run, ourmer night where oxygen actually decreases
down the run, and winter n.-i't and day where the sun does not reach the plants
:ind where because of a removal of plants the production and also the night
respiration w.'as do'reased it.'U.!.i.U.in': the difference between diiTfr ion and
respiratioinin yT~oc1cl,, the D.O.

If these oxygen data are correct it should be possible to develop check
techniques with carlbon-dioxide or pH shift of constant alkalinity water. The
constancy of the dowstream alkalinity has to be proved.

With valid methods of ;..::,iu'ini' the large dominant aqaetic hiT;i.-r plants
in most of the spring, attempts are being made now to develop -,1t2'U,.- of
measuring production of algae, animals, etc. Cage measurements can be mado on
the medium and larger animals, bottle respiration can be resorted to for algae,
fish tagging has begun,






Productivity oa .'loA pi::
'`;, '- 29


Firsro 8


'* .J S -
C. '' to' ,
~^-. -.


.. .. '


'4 *1 f* '


(2; :o,


Fi&gre 9
;-,i:*-. at station 1 mile down Silver River


/ ./)


Coy


01,


d y W/sdlr-

tnd0 er V






/a Arei Utinder caub.th


4.


S 1 0 V .


SDay


.'i .,,,,02)


E'


c ill.. ......


-", i". "
i '


3' a


*ILS-~ IIU~-~-. I~_~


~
''"
iI~.i-1_^~-- --
.~. 3:t~


lit I # e





-rod.uc tivity oif .'.b n, ...: *. 1."(."
P:P'"a 30


V ....'. i,' .VIT THEOR?


In the course of a studyr such as this which involves gropirng4 for new
procedures, some questions arises that seem to bear on general :r;. -:t;I of the
science, such as the :Aol.io, li



1, Can an ecologicJal an.i:..:': community xis~t in a stable steady state in
which matter and energ-y flo? t:'.2ow.., the system but standing staat;e lantitaftively
and qualitatively remain .-v. :.r ... The observations so far s -:. ; .t that this
is possible in a flow <.i::.-. in nature J'st as in an algal puro culture -:o.'or.;!
madhino. It is to be :.'."- -c. however if a steady state aqjatifc C..,'..ical
system can. be etablived u nadcr xmtter closed conditions The reason for feeling
that it can not bo st-'.: i to :o folds first, most relatively cle..r.a-tri't~ e
systems, like bottle cultures, pondi and lakes oscillate and flu.ctvuate. Second,
in a closed system a liW:'. ,, lc:riont miut always give rise IBV suaccosionra
and relative ~.pi'l.tion to '~ae other lir'iting nutrient. The stability pri.'Jri'lr.!
says that all r -: -' -, .'..1 by a nItural selection pro css toward a self.
reigulated systea. n: **. i. 0 .: does a ij .th;Ar.iccall,' :.:c.,
solution exist to :.':-.:..- ci.rcular transfer of material corqponents through
oramisms with each component "..'; at a different yet constant rate. Even
more simply and op' .: k ....,--'.". if placed in sealed bottles and placed in the
light how ~7:.1V J kind .-. of simple communities will stabilize and how many
will o.3c.cill,-t ,



2. In .foi.lnt; streams of uv.su-al type a striIind4 feature is the small standing
Crop of plants in cCoparison to imall animals and especially fishes. T'iL.
seems to be an important interpretation other than that there is an autochthonius8
source of primary food matter. In constructing pyramids of production (not
standing crop) for a strean ona is intoer-n.i.-,. in production per time such as a
year. in this time the fish production is the growth of fish located In one
place since they have not left the stream. But for plants and for iaall animals
the production is wtht has drifted downstream for a whole year as well as that
which has passed up the food chain. Thus the standing crop of diatoms drifting
down stream from ourcro in bayous is an infinitely small part of the annual
crop which involves the whole years downstream drift. It is probable that such
pyramids when constructed will show a more usual wide bottom. In fa~t, production
in rivers may be the easiest of all to measure by catching what drifts down as
in springs experiment described alove. In the springs, of course the volume
flow is such that initially there is no true plankton.

3. In discussion of food chains, the concept of efficiency of food chain
transfer has been a useful operational measure that has helped understand
natural ecosystems. However, there is one fuzzy aspect of this concept that needs
clarification. It is often pointed out that photosynthetic efficiency is of the
order of magnitude of 1% or less but that energy transfers further up the chain
are of higher order of magnitudes of 10-20% and under some artificial feeding
experiments with fish of 50%. Those interested in increasing natural food
resources naturally ask what basic differences there are and whether photo-
synthesis can't be made to possess a higher efficiency.





Productivity of ;'. p i:;-: : ...(' :
Page 31



Xt seems that one thing being confused here is the diffr_--.'.." bsetuon
a true efficiency of energy transfer and a food transfer fo'ci. -.-e. in which
not all of the nn-,ry transferred hdanees state, When a fish eata protein
food it may diiGoao and separate amino acids of the proteins and i;;;.-v.tc.lJ
stick them back to.:c;:ot.r :. to form new tissue. Etch of the energy in ',h: imino
acids ti such a case never cr;-'..o form. In the case of photo3yn.'t..-.io all
of the energy ch.e. ._. form,, As discussed below it is eurgested that there
is a definite thermodyzname reason why efficiencies must be low and vAIy
increasing efficiency ,would I _- .pi, total production. When one refers to
a 50% food chain transfer efficionacone is referring to the sum of energotio
efficiency. for the energy actually changing form in the metabolism and the
energy transferred in unmodified chemical molecules.

4, The total ... ::..!... oof c living or nor.living mahin is a .s .
of the rate of inflow of .., ond the -.l.L -o;i';f; or u tiiiaJio. ,i.
is iu.rrtc.d. here th5t o-'.,-: a ro two extremes in living and r a:-.1'.ing ac i.ne
that both produce a zser enoary~tic output per time. One extreme ia a ras.chin
with a 100 efficiency ns ia a ..'v: rvli'le cannot cycle but an infinitely slow
utilization so that the o'..'L: iso sero The other extreme is an infinitely
rapid energy intake and tr': *.-, r vhich. is so fast that the thermodyrnaiio
efficiency is zero and so the totca output of this high speod system is again
zero for all the -:r.',.,. -r-. into heat. Tlhse two extremes seem to be a
necessary result of t2~ ~conda. L of Tharmodyna.micse If this r...-: ,.*I~i ia
correct (r,'d a actual calculaoviion lhs been made on a physical ,.,-, the
Atwoods i: :-hi -'. -iK) 2: tharo Ea3t be an optimum efficiency for the maxim.BMa
power. 1f thia is I' obc;eo tihena one sees a reason for Icf*. ceccr.s of
photosynt~ei, ..e7L, 1., hat ~ they ar, Tho machines are set to go at ctie to i'
speed to et the best ;:. ...i.lc.,L of both efficiency and 'pc.. At t".-:.,
under some z3:,loli.,'. c.'y.:.iton.;~u organism that laei. faster and. less efficiently
may have the odge over one thvt is slow but efficient, Hoavews, if correct,
these notions sugest no hope for h~is.hcr h,~o: food production w lihiO% repeal
of the second Law.

Second Six Monthsg

Having made bo.',nvi::;a in the 5 divisions of the study, the imi~mdiate
objectives seem ,.r-. ly 1 n't-l. Except for completing dcnildn ,iciroi,:,
community u3ocLi..:-:.r-.i.' ;';,. s of coastal runs as part of '-'o '-ion'
master s program, and the chemical survey of nitrogen motazioirm in the fre~h-
water springs with the help of an undergraduate assistant, Mr. Hampton, all
attention is to be directed. to completing the production measurements of all
trophic levels in Silver Springs. To complete this and to insure adequate
attention to t~e all important algae Dr. L. A. Whitford, of North Carolina
State, has been engaged to work with us this summer on identification and
production. Tentatively, objec~ti ws following these are the comparison of
productitivtles between spring using methods aich worrk best in the intensive
Silver Springs study.

Measurement of the amount of light diurnally and seasonally that reaches
the organisms in these clear water aquatic communities has not yet ~omrmenced
pending the procuremBnt of a suitable instrument.. So far physical and chemical
measurements have been made solely for their implications for productivity. A
number of splendid problems in physical and chemical limnology and oceanogr-aphy
await future investigation,





Productivity of i -., : ,( 2)
Page 52


Table 10
Pri a~'y Production Rates in Springs .
vy~5 rasCa


Method, Place, Date, Plant


Operationally determined
figure


Usisim
P6S3p


jet, /I -

Pounds per ore .
dry weight (or
000. O ,e.


On e ag Enol osuro e. falrg rs

Silver Springrs
Sagittaria
Aug. 16-cot. 9
Oct, 99--aNov. 15
Pistia
Aug. 181-Oct. 9
.. ., '


% wet weight' increase
per days


046%
..Q$-
9C,


1.9%.


2. Downstream(rirft of Plant
FrMents (- production lost
from the system)

Silver Sprin:g
8:o00 a.m. Jan. 14, 19"5


lbs et weight
caught per half
hours


8.6
(289 gma dry)


5. Oxygon Gradient M'suroe t
'(day minus n.{ht)

Silver Springs
Area undor curve of fipre
9 (winter day, clouify)

Clear day in cumer,
June 50

Green Cove Sprir,:s -sun
Suammer day, July 16,. olear1

Winter day, -Jan. 27, ceolea
shaded by treqs in a nt"er


PPM difference
between day and
night' Oxygens


0--1 o5


0-2.8


2.2


*2


15,000.
11,600.


7546


27,700.


77g000.


62,6o00


4,900.


For comparisons productivities reported for literature in marine, fresh-
water and land ranges 1,200 ---53,900.


-,.~.~L~t'';~d~a -~~--~ ---~~ --~I-~-I-- L ---._- ------- ~I Ir --


Oa 4P~- ~ F~V-r ~rl2I~IYC 4i EWC~~R7bl~ .t ;bnL~DLLI I~pIl. r M. Imam--Dvna -~sm ~ rn -Y~I~ IICLLI rI~d


J-~.nJ;
/~3~


I-'




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