In this Issue:
Ne\\ NIRI Techniques for D)iagnosing EPNI
Ne\\ Facult\ and Staff Sdcation
I7~ t r,- L
from the Chief of Si
Just when you memorized the old phone number, we changed it to new phone numbers. Why? So you could reach us more
easily. These numbers simplify the phone tree (something I now know more about than I ever desired and even currently desire)
and provide a real person when callers cannot reach the individual they want. Call us.
We cannot thank the Florida Thoroughbred Breeders and Owners Association and its Executive Vice President, Dick Hancock,
enough for their continued support of equine research through their assistance in maintaining a herd of research horses at the
University of Florida. Neonatal and reproduction research especially depend upon the ability to maintain a herd throughout
the year from breeding, through pregnancy, parturition, and the early life of the foal. The challenge of identifying a consistent
source of funds to keep the herd is formidable, yet essential, largely because granting agencies typically pay for keeping research
animals only during the actual period of study. We take our role seriously is utilizing these funds wisely to advance the health
and well-being of Thoroughbreds and other breeds in Florida and beyond. Thank you again, FTBOA!
The University of Florida Imaging Center is up and running. It was an enormous undertaking to set up the physical facility, train
staff, establish protocols, and launch the final operation. It is a reality and is being refined daily. Leave it to Dr. Rob MacKay with
his resident, Dr. Laura Javsicas, to use MRI as a diagnostic aid for EPM. Stay tuned for other exciting uses of this technology.
People make programs. Kate Vinzant earned Employee of the Quarter in the College. Kate started with us as referral liaison
and was so good she was soon promoted to Office Manager, Client Services. She grew up in the Thoroughbred industry in
Maryland with a father who was and is a trainer, so she "speaks the language." We congratulate her for being excellent every
day. Dr. Ali Morton of Large Animal Surgery and Ms. Delores Foreman of Food Animal Reproduction and Medicine Service
earned University of Florida Superior Accomplishment Awards. Then, Dr. Morton went on the win the campus wide award.
The Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences now holds a record, because this is the second year in a row that one of
our faculty won the campus wide award, with Dr. Michael Porter winning last year. The odds of that happening are minuscule,
considering our department of 38 faculty as compared with the thousands across campus. It seems natural to me with the quality
of LACS faculty.
Due to popular demand, we have initiated a Companion Farm Animal Service which is still in its fledgling state. Dr. Ellen
Wiedner, a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, comes to UF one week a month. Our hopes
are that this service grows enough for her to be here full time or close to it. Dr. Wiedner is on the veterinary team of Ringling
Brothers, so her experience and talents are excellent.
Count down to July 16, 2007 when Dr. Amanda Martabano House joins our faculty as Equine Extension Veterinarian. She will
replace the irreplaceable Dr. Dana Zimmel, who is now a clinician in Large Animal Medicine. We look forward to your meeting
Pag.- 4- Medicn Servic UpS te6
Page10-- New Coma i ar-mP a SI
We have new direct
phone numbers to
serve you better.
Environmental and Human Toxicology
Infectious Diseases and Pathology
Large Animal Clinical Sciences
Large Animal Hospital
Small Animal Clinical Sciences
Small Animal Hospit
The Foundation for The Gator Nation
with/Dr. Dara/WvZW ime, DACVIM, ABVP (Equi4,e PracttcLe), Seriw celChk ef
The Large Animal Medicine service would like to thank the Florida Thoroughbred Breeders and Owners Association
for their continued support of neonatal research. The generous contributions from the FTBOA maintain a herd of
twenty mares that combined with other granting agencies have produced the following exciting results in the last
* Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in foals, and drug concentrations in body fluids and bronchoalveolar cells.
* Comparison of caffeine and doxapram on respiratory and cardiovascular function in foals with induced
Use of gastric tonometry to assess blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract in foals.
The presence of the FTBOA research
herd made it possible for two very
important scientific discoveries to be
made that directly impact the Florida
Thoroughbred industry. Due to the
location of the herd on the University
of Florida property, researchers were
able to confirm Mare Reproductive Loss
Syndrome (MRLS) does occur in Florida
and is likely to be a reoccurring cause of
abortion in mares. Farm owners learned
the need to screen their farms for the
presence of cherry trees to eliminate the
7.: p Eastern Tent Caterpillar.
The second advancement was the discovery of Nocardioform
placentitis in a Florida-bred mare which until now has only
been isolated to mares in central Kentucky. Both of these
discoveries were possible because the FTBOA research herd
provided the opportunity to perform diagnostic analysis of ,
these problems by a team of specialists. ._
For more information on the research programs being
conducted at the University of Florida College of Veterinary
Medicine and the Veterinary Medical Center please call the
new phone number for the Large Animal Hospital: (352)
A new application of MRI:
Imaging of the lesions of equine
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of horses in North
America. Despite considerable advances in treating the disease and in understanding the biology of the causative
agent, Sarcocystis neurona, there still is no definitive antemortem diagnostic test for the disease. In the context
of neurologic signs not readily explained by a competing diagnosis, antibody tests of blood or cerebrospinal fluid
(western blot, indirect fluorescent antibody tests etc.) only provide support for the diagnosis.
Imaging studies usually do not contribute directly to the process of EPM diagnosis. Nevertheless, in the more than
95% of cases with signs relating exclusively to spinal cord disease, cervical radiography helps to exclude the possibility
of spinal vertebral involvement. The relatively rare presentations of EPM that are characterized by brain involvement
provide additional diagnostic challenges. Often there is asymmetric involvement of brainstem cranial nuclei with signs
of obtundation (mental depression), facial paralysis, head tilt, tongue paralysis, or dysphagia. Horses with this type of
"brainstem EP\ [' are easily confused with viral or verminous
encephalitis, temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (THO), skull
trauma, or compressive mass (abscess or neoplasia). When the
lesions of EPM are located in the forebrain, another spectrum
of signs can be seen including seizures, dementia, or blindness.
These forebrain presentations of EPM also can be difficult
to distinguish from viral encephalitis, hepatoencephalopathy,
compressive mass, hydrocephalus, or leukoencephalomalacia.
We have recently found that at least the brainstem lesions of
(presumed) EPM can readily be seen using MRI. Following is
a report of one of these cases.
This 8-year-old mixed breed pony mare was referred to the
Veterinary Medical Center at the University of Florida for
acute onset of head tilt and circling. At presentation, the head
was tilted to left, while the head and neck were turned to the
right, and body leaned to the right. The mare preferred to lean
against the wall on right side (Fig. 1). There was severe paresis
of all components of facial muscle tone on the left side (ear,
Figure I- The patient at admission, displaying a eyelid, lip, muzzle) and cranial nerve V-VII reflexes could not
head tilt to the left, head and neck turn to the right, be elicited on that side (commisure of lip, palpebral, ear).
and facial paralysis. Continued on Page 6....
The right eye was rotated dorsally and the left ventrally. Although spontaneous nystagmus was not seen, physiologic
nystagmus was present only when the head was moved horizontally toward the right; it was absent to the left. The
mandible was consistently deviated to the right. The horse walked in tight circles to the right and head tilt, turn and
circling all were exacerbated by blindfolding both eyes. The pony had a notably stiff abducted stride in both pelvic
limbs, most notably in the left limb. There was 2/4 weakness and ataxia in the left pelvic limb and 1/4 in the right
(outward rotation of hock and fetlock during walking, weakness to tail-pull). Neurologic abnormalities were not seen
in the thoracic limbs. The cutaneous trunci reflex (panniculus), over its entire catchment area, was reduced on the
left side compared with the right.
Cytology of the CSF revealed mild pleocytosis (7 white blood cells/vLL; reference range, 0-5/vLL) with a normal
differential, red blood cell count of 383/vtL, and normal total protein (44 mg/dL; reference range, 5-65 mg/dL). The
CSF was positive for antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona by western blot, with a relative quantity of 35.
* Nucleus or nerve of cranial nerve VII (facial) on left (facial paresis)
* Nuclei, nerve, or end-organ of cranial nerve VIII on left (paradoxical central vestibular) or right
* Nucleus or nerve of cranial nerve V (motor) on left (deviation of mandible)
* Long tracts (proprioceptive and motor) in brainstem or spinal cord to S2 (pelvic limb weakness and ataxia),
worse on left, probably including lesion behind T2 (no thoracic signs noted), possibly immediately caudal to
T2 on the left cutaneouss trunci on that side without affecting thoracic limb)
In summary, there appeared to be at least 2 lesions:
(i) brainstem on left (pons/medulla oblongata) and
(ii) spinal cord on left behind T2 (pelvic limb signs,
Radiographs of the skull and upper airway and guttural
pouch endoscopy revealed no abnormalities. MRI
(T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and T1-weighted
with gadopentetate dimeglumine) revealed a 20-mm
by 17-mm moderately high signal intense focus on
T2-weighted (Fig 2) and FLAIR images (Fig 3) in the
center and left caudal brainstem, caudal to the fourth
ventricle. The focus was isointense on T1 weighted
images and did not display contrast enhancement.
Figure 2- Transverse T2-weighted image of the brain. The
The clinical findings of multifocal CNS disease, with
patient's right is on the left side of the image and dorsal
confirmation of one of the sites by MR imaging was
is at the top of the image. An area of increased signal
intensity is noted slightly to the left of midline in the consistentwithadiagnosisof acuteonsetEPM. Western
caudal brainstem. blot results provided support for this diagnosis.
The pony was treated with of pyrimethamine/
sulfadiazine (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h/ 20mg/kg, PO, q 24
h) and ponazuril (5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), for one month
The pony was examined after one month of treatment.
The cranial nerve VII deficits had improved but there was
still a mild left ear droop and muzzle deviation to the right.
No head tilt, neck tilt, or circling were noted and normal
physiologic nystagmus could be elicited. When the pony
was blindfolded, a mild left head tilt became apparent.
It was recommended that the pony be turned out in a
small paddock by herself for exercise. Continuation
of the ponazuril and pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and
monthly evaluations were also recommended. Complete
blood counts were checked periodically because of
the risk of bone marrow suppression with the use of
Figure 3- Sagittal FLAIR image of the brain. Rostral
is to the left and dorsal is at the top of this image. An
ovoid focus of increased signal intensity is noted in the
In selected cases, MRI provides objective assessment of EPM lesions in the brainstem (and probably also in the
forebrain) and helps rule-out other causes of intracranial disease. We predict that MRI will be a useful tool in
diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prognosis of forebrain and brainstem disorders.
Large Animal Hospital Employees make their
presence felt in the Superior Accomplishment
and Employee of the Quarter awards.
Superior Accomplishment Awards (University-wide)
Dr. Alison Morton, DVM, MSpVM, DACVS, Assistant Professor, Large Animal Surgery
Delores Foreman, Sr. Clerk, FARMS Dept.
Employee of the Quarter (College-wide)
Kate Vinzant, Office Manager, Client Services
Heather Wells, Veterinary Technician, Medicine
Christie Hodge, Secretary, Client Services
Bites of Venomous
SSnakes in Horses
SDana Zinmmel. D\'I. Diplomate AC\'lN, AB\'P
Venomous snakes are widespread in Florida. Pit vipers are the most common snakes to bite a horse and include the
copperhead, cottonmouth (water moccasin) and rattlesnake. The coral snake is another venomous snake found in
Florida. It is in the same family (Elapidae) as the deadly cobra. The coral snake is unlikely to kill an adult horse because
it has a poor method of delivering adequate venom with its small mouth parts and short fangs. In most cases the
owner is not present when the horse is bitten and cannot identify the snake. The size and age of the horse combined
with the amount of venom injected will determine the clinical signs and outcome. Hemotoxins and neurotoxins
present in the venom can result in cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological and hematological signs. The onset of
neurotoxic side effects can be delayed up to 12 hours in humans.
What are the clinical signs?
* Local swelling/ intense pain
* Hypotensive shock
* Tachycardia/ arrhythmias
* Dyspnea/ pulmonary edema
The majority of bites in horses occur on the muzzle. Profound
facial swelling can occlude the nasal passages and result in
asphyxia. Less than 1000 of horses are bitten on the leg.
Horses can develop cardiac arrhythmias, persistent bleeding,
diarrhea, colic or laminits. Swollen Face
Laboratory abnormalities include
anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, clotting disorders and elevated muscle enzymes.
Rattlesnake envenomations can result in elevated cardiac isoenzymes indicating myocardial
Diagnostic evaluation includes a complete blood count and platelet count, coagulation
profile, electrolytes, lactate, liver enzymes, serum creatinine, muscle enzymes, cardiac
troponin-I and a urinalysis. Arterial blood gas, echocardiography and electrocardiogram
are indicated in most cases.
In humans the most important therapy is antivenin administered within 4-6 hours of
the bite. Unfortunately, the quantity needed to effectively treat a horse is unknown.
Extrapolating from the human dose for antivenin would be very expensive ($2,000-
2,500) to treat 1000 pound horse. The small bodyweight of foals and ponies potentially
increases their risk of developing severe clinical signs justifying the expense of antivenin
in select cases. Without the use of antivenin the mortality rate for horses bitten by
rattlesnakes is 18-25%. Maintaining the airway is critical for horses bitten on the face.
Severe facial edema occurs rapidly and a small tube placed in each nostril before they
swell shut will eliminate the need to perform a tracheotomy. Aggressive nursing care
and addressing any of the various complications including diarrhea, laminitis and acute
renal failure improve survival. Some horses will develop compartment syndrome
caused by myonecrosis in the area of the envenomation. Fasciotomy may be required
to provide relief. Additional therapies may include anti-inflammatories, intravenous
fluids and colloids. Prophylactic use of antimicrobials is not recommended in the
treatment of snake bites in humans. The use of antimicrobials should be considered
in horses if there is obvious evidence of wound infection. The horse should be given a
tetanus toxoid booster if it has been greater than 6 months from vaccination. Cardiac
dysfunction may not be recognized until several months after envenomation.
Nasaltracheal tubes need
to be placed to establish an
Guide to Venomous Snakes: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/fl-guide/venomsnk.htm
The case is an example of a before (left) and after (right) a poisonous snake bite seen at the
University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center Large Animal Hospital
The University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center is proud to introduce our new Companion Farm Animal Service
and Dr. Ellen Wiedner.
The new service will be geared to clientele with sheep,
goats, llamas, alpacas, camels and miniature pigs, as
well as exotic-farmed hoofstock including deer, bison,
elk, and zebra, this new department will provide health
care, both in-house and on-farm.
Dr. Wiedner is a 1999 graduate of the University of
Pennsylvania. She did an internship in ambulatory
and production medicine at Cornell University, and
completed a residency at Purdue University in Large
Animal Medicine. She is board certified in Large
Animal Internal Medicine. For the past three years she
has worked intensively with companion farm animals
and exotic hoofstock and is eager to join UF's staff.
For information or an appointment please call (352) 392-2229 ext.
4000 and ask for the Companion Farm Animal Service.
The University of Florida Veterinary Medical Center is proud to introduce our new IFAS Equine Extnesion Agent,
Amanda Martabano House, DVM, DACVIM.
Dr. House is originally from Katonah, New York. She completed
her BS in Animal Science from Cornell University. After graduating
from Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, Dr. House
completed an internship and large animal internal medicine residency
at the University of Georgia's Veterinary Teaching Hospital. She has
worked for two years at UGA as a Clinical Instructor in Large Animal
Medicine. Dr. House is looking forward to joining the faculty at the
University of Florida as Assistant Professor, Equine Extension. Her
professional interests include neonatology, infectious disease, and
camelid medicine. She owns a Thoroughbred mare and has been a
longtime competitor in the hunter/jumpers.
What is Extension?
Extension is a partnership between state, federal, and county
governments to provide scientific knowledge and expertise to the
public. At the University of Florida, Extension is located in the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), along with the
College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (CALS) and the Florida
Agricultural Research and Education Center, and is called UF/IFAS
Who We Are
UF/IFAS Extension encompasses thousands of Extension faculty members, scientists, educators, administrative
staff, and volunteers, all working to provide solutions for your life. Larry Arrington, PhD, is the director of UF/IFAS
The University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) is a federal, state, and county
partnership dedicated to developing knowledge in agriculture, human and natural resources, and the life sciences and
to making that knowledge accessible to sustain and enhance the quality of human life.
RDVM Appreciation Day Topics
July 7, 2007
Management of Endotoxemia
Colic-A Team Approach
Managing Weight Loss in the Geriatric Horse
Pulmonary Function Testing in Horses with Inflammatory Airway Disease
Guidelines for Infectious Disease Control in Practice
Vaccine Recommendations for Weanlings
Diagnostic Evaluation of the Sick Foal
Protocol for EVA Vaccination on Breeding Farms
Breeding Strategies for Mares with Sick Foals
Innovative Therapeutics for Lameness
Diagnosis and Treatment of Suspensory Desmitis
Options for Local Indirect Antimicrobial Treatment of Distal Limb Infections
Treatment Options for Pythiosis
Dr. Rob MacKay
Dr. David Freeman
Dr. Michael Porter
Dr. Steve Giguere
Dr. Maureen Long
Dr. Dana Zimmel
Dr. Chris Sanchez
Dr. Mats Troedsson
Dr. Troy Trumble
Dr. Ali Morton
Dr. Jason Errico
Dr. Sarah Matyjaszek
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