• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 Methods
 Results
 Discussion
 Conclusions
 Literature cited
 Appendix A: Synoptic data
 Appendix B: Estimates of salt water...
 Appendix C: Schedule of tide-gate...






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Technical Report no. 35
Title: Lower Savannah River hydrological characterization
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073828/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lower Savannah River hydrological characterization
Series Title: Technical report
Physical Description: 139 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pearlstine, Leonard G
Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
Publisher: Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: [1989]
 Subjects
Subject: Hydrology -- Savannah River (Ga. and S.C.)   ( lcsh )
Saltwater encroachment -- Savannah River (Ga. and S.C.)   ( lcsh )
Salinity -- Savannah River (Ga. and S.C.)   ( lcsh )
Savannah River (Ga. and S.C.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 61).
Statement of Responsibility: by Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Leonard G. Pearlstine ... et al.
General Note: "June 17, 1989."
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073828
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001894737
oclc - 30935008
notis - AJX0002

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title page
    Table of Contents
        i
        ii
    List of Tables
        iii
    List of Figures
        iv
        v
        vi
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Methods
        Page 2
        Synoptic sampling (Florida Co-op, A.T.M., U.S.G.S.)
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Marsh interstitial salinity (Florida co-op)
            Page 7
        Stage recordings in marsh and river (C.O.E., U.S.G.S.)
            Page 8
        Flow patterns (Georgia Co-op)
            Page 8
        Ongoing field measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)
            Page 8
        Past studies (C.O.E.)
            Page 8
    Results
        Page 8
    Discussion
        Page 9
        Salinity changes since 1950-1972
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Effect of tide-gate on salinity
            Page 21
        Salinity in relation to stage and discharge
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
        Salinity in the marsh
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
        Marsh stage
            Page 35
        Marsh storage
            Page 35
        Salinities in the impoundments
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Flow patterns
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Volume of flow
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Stage height and tidal amplitude change
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Sea level variation
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
    Conclusions
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Literature cited
        Page 61
    Appendix A: Synoptic data
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
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        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
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        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Appendix B: Estimates of salt water influence on the impoundment diversion canal and the Little Back River due to leaking of the impoundment canal water control structures
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Appendix C: Schedule of tide-gate operation for 1977-1989
        Page 138
        Page 139
Full Text




Lower Savannah River Hydrological Characterization


by




Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife
Research Unit


Leonard G. Pearlstine

Richard D. Bartleson

Wiley M. Kitchens

Pamela J. Latham


June 17, 1989










Table of Contents




Introduction . . . . .

Methods . . . . . .

Synoptic Sampling (Florida Co-op, A.T.M., U.S.G.S.)

Marsh Interstitial Salinity (Florida Co-op) . .

Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op) . . .

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.) .


Past Studies (C.O.E.) . . .

Results . . . . .

Discussion . . . . .

Salinity Change Since 1950-1972 . .

Effect of Tide-Gate on Salinity . .

Salinity in Relation to Stage and Discharge

Salinity in the Marsh . . .

Marsh Stage . . . .

Marsh Storage . . . .

Salinities in the Impoundments . .

Flow Patterns . . . .

Volume of Flow . . . .

Stage Height and Tidal Amplitude Change .

Sea Level Variation . . .

Conclusions . . . . .

Literature Cited . . . .

APPENDIX A. Synoptic Data . . .


8

8

9

9

21

22

31

35

35

35

40

43

45

51

56
. . 8



. . 6
. . 31

. . 35

. . 35

. . 35

. . 40

. . 43

. . 45

. . 51

. . 56

. . 61

. . 62











APPENDIX B.









APPENDIX C.


Estimates of salt water influence on the

impoundment diversion canal and the Little Back

River due to leaking of the impoundment canal

water control structures. . . ... 136



Schedule of tide-gate operation for 1977-1989. 138








List of Tables

Table 1. Average high tide surface salinities during
synoptic sampling. . . . . ... 10

Table 2. Maximum high tide surface salinities during
synoptic sampling. . . . . 13

Table 3. R2 values for regression equations for predicting
the leading edge of . . . ... .19

Table 4. Average flows at median tide level for May and June
1988 synoptic sampling trips. . . ... 44








List of Figures


Figure 1. Study area showing river miles. . .. 3

Figure 2. Station locations in 1986. . . . 4

Figure 3a. Station locations in 1988. . . 5

Figure 3b. Station locations in 1988. . .... ... 6

Figure 4. Average high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)
for December 2-3, 1986 with the tide gate operating. Clyo
discharge 6040 cfs. . . . ... 11

Figure 5. Average high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)
for synoptic sampling in 1988. . . ... 12

Figure 6. Maximum high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)
for December 2-3, 1986 with the tide gate operating. Clyo
discharge 6040 cfs. .. . . 14

Figure 7. Maximum high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)
for synoptic sampling in 1988. . . ... 15

Figure 8. Average interstitial salinities for 1986-1988. 16

Figure 9. Interstitial salinities for March 12-13, 1989. 17

Figure 10. Marsh surface water salinities for March 12-13,
1989. ... . . . . 18

Figure 11. Front River mile vs. maximum salinity for 1950-
1972 . . . . .. 20

Figure 12. Maximum salinity vs. Little Back River mile with
tide-gate open. . . . . ... 23

Figure 13. Maximum salinity vs. Little Back River mile with
tide-gate. . . . . ... . 24

Figure 14. Maximum salinity vs. Middle River mile with tide-
gate open. . . . . ... 25

Figure 15. Maximum salinity vs. Middle River mile with tide-
gate. . . . . . .. 26

Figure 16. Maximum salinity vs. Front River mile with tide-
gate open. ................ . 27

Figure 17. Maximum salinity vs. Front River mile with tide-
gate. . . . . . .28








Figure 18. Regressions of location of leading edge of salt
wedge (.5 ppt) vs tidal amplitude in the Front River for
1980-1988 . . . . .. .... .29

Figure 19. Regressions of location of leading edge of salt
wedge (.5 ppt) vs tidal amplitude in the Little Back
River for 1980-1988. . . . ... .30

Figure 20a. Discharge vs location of .5 ppt in the Front River
with the tide-gate in operation . . ... 32

Figure 20b. Discharge vs location of .5 ppt in the Back River
with the tide-gate in operation. . .. 33

Figure 21a. Marsh stage in relation to channel stage. 36

Figure 21b. Marsh stage in relation to channel stage. 37

Figure 22. Average salinity values in impoundment canals 38

Figure 23. Direction of flow during ebb tide. . .. 41

Figure 24. Direction of flow during flood tide. . ... 42

Figure 25. Discharge frequency histogram for the Savannah
River at Clyo, Georgia. . . . 46

Figure 26. Average monthly discharge of the Savannah River at
Clyo, Georgia. . . . . .. 47

Figure 27. Average stage during approximately 3 weeks in May
(tide gate open) and June (tide gate operating). 48

Figure 28a. Stage vs. time during June synoptic sampling. 49

Figure 28b. Stage vs. time during June synoptic sampling. 50

Figure 29. Tidal amplitude during synoptic sampling periods
in 1988. . . . . ... .. 52

Figure 30. Tidal range on May 13, 1988 . ... 53

Figure 31. Yearly mean sea level at Fort Pulaski, Georgia 54

Figure 32a. Monthly mean sea level variation . .. 55

Figure 32b. Sea level variation from 1955-1975. From Blaha
(1984). . . . 55

Figure 33. Discharge at Clyo, Georgia and conductivity at
Little Back River Mile 24.5. . . ... 57








Figure 34a. Discharge vs. time, Clyo, Georgia 1930-1964. 58

Figure 34b. Discharge vs. time, Clyo, Georgia 1965-1988. 59












Introduction

In the tidal, deltaic region of the Savannah River below

river mile 26, the river branches into a series of interconnected

distributaries (Figure 1). Salinity, flow velocities, and flow

patterns through these distributaries are influenced by channel

configuration, freshwater inflow from upstream, and tidal volume,

but the behavior of these variables in response to these

influences is anything but intuitive. Adding to the complexity of

the lower Savannah River system are modifications to enhance its

port functions. These modifications include channel deepening and

widening, but the most significant is the construction of a tide-

gate and channels to increase flushing in the Front River. Field

studies conducted by the Corps of Engineers (C.O.E.) from 1980 to

1981 documented conditions with and without the tide-gate in

operation at that time. Field investigations conducted prior to

construction of the gate and New Cut can be compared with those

conducted after the modifications were completed. Changes in

channel configuration associated with sedimentation and erosion

over the years can result in altered flow patterns and

salinities.

The purpose of this study is to characterize present

conditions of salinity and flow in the lower, tidal reach of the

Savannah River system under these various influences and to

compare existing conditions with those documented in previous

studies.








Methods

The study area includes the lower reach of the Savannah

River, from the mouth to the Interstate 95 bridge. Location of

sampling points in the river system is noted by the distance in

miles to the mouth of the South Channel. Figure 1 shows the study

area and the river mile notation used throughout this report.

Figures 2 and 3 show the locations of synoptic sampling stations

in 1986 and 1988.

Data were collected and synthesized from existing sampling

projects and past studies by a number of agencies. These data

sources include; Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research

Unit (Florida Co-op), Georgia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife

Research Unit (Georgia Co-op), Dept. of the Army Corps of

Engineers; Savannah District (C.O.E), Dept of the Army Corps of

Engineers; Waterways Experiment Station (W.E.S.), U.S. Geological

Survey (U.S.G.S.), U.S.F.W.S. Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

(N.W.R.), and Applied Technology and Management, Inc. (A.T.M.).

Stage data collected from the various agencies were

referenced to a variety of datums. For the purpose of

comparisons, in this report, all stage data have been converted

to the sea level datum of 1929.

Synoptic Sampling (Florida Co-op, A.T.M., U.S.G.S.)

Synoptic sampling was conducted during periods of maximum

tidal amplitude for the month and at low freshwater inflows. Data

with the tide-gate in operation was collected in December 1986

and June 1988 while data without the tide-gate in operation was

collected in May 1988. Freshwater inflow, measured at Clyo, was








Methods

The study area includes the lower reach of the Savannah

River, from the mouth to the Interstate 95 bridge. Location of

sampling points in the river system is noted by the distance in

miles to the mouth of the South Channel. Figure 1 shows the study

area and the river mile notation used throughout this report.

Figures 2 and 3 show the locations of synoptic sampling stations

in 1986 and 1988.

Data were collected and synthesized from existing sampling

projects and past studies by a number of agencies. These data

sources include; Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research

Unit (Florida Co-op), Georgia Cooperative Fish and Wildlife

Research Unit (Georgia Co-op), Dept. of the Army Corps of

Engineers; Savannah District (C.O.E), Dept of the Army Corps of

Engineers; Waterways Experiment Station (W.E.S.), U.S. Geological

Survey (U.S.G.S.), U.S.F.W.S. Savannah National Wildlife Refuge

(N.W.R.), and Applied Technology and Management, Inc. (A.T.M.).

Stage data collected from the various agencies were

referenced to a variety of datums. For the purpose of

comparisons, in this report, all stage data have been converted

to the sea level datum of 1929.

Synoptic Sampling (Florida Co-op, A.T.M., U.S.G.S.)

Synoptic sampling was conducted during periods of maximum

tidal amplitude for the month and at low freshwater inflows. Data

with the tide-gate in operation was collected in December 1986

and June 1988 while data without the tide-gate in operation was

collected in May 1988. Freshwater inflow, measured at Clyo, was




















I 9:


18


-N-

TIDE GATE


CITY OF SAVANNAH %

0 1 2

MI LES

Figure 1. Study area showing river miles.















Station Locations 1986


* Intake Canal


MI LES

Figure 2. Station locations in 1986.









Stat ion Loca ions 1988


+ Intake Canal


0 i 2

MI LES


Figure 3a. Station locations in 1988.











fIstation Locations 1988


ATLANTIC OCEAN ILTON HEAD
IS.
0 L 2
MILES


Figure 3b. Station locations in 1988.








6040, 4840 and 5760 cfs respectively. Salinity, conductivity,

stage height, flow, dissolved oxygen (at some sites), and

temperature were recorded hourly over 4 to 5 tidal cycles with

and without the tide-gate in operation at 14 to 33 locations

within the river system. Salinity, conductivity and temperature

were measured with a Yellow Springs Instrument Co. (YSI) Model 33

S-C-T meter. Dissolved oxygen was measured at selected stations

with a YSI Model 57 D.O. meter. Each function on each meter was

calibrated with two standards prior to each sampling trip.

Measurements were taken just beneath the surface, at mid-depth

and just above the bottom during each measurement period. Current

velocity was measured using a variety of flow meters (Endeco,

Price, General Oceanics, and Teledyne-Gurney).

During the 1988 synoptics, continuous recorders provided

salinity and stage information at stations in the Front River at

1-95 and US 17, and in the Little Back River at Lucknow Creek and

stage information alone in the Middle River, and at the tide-gate

in the Back River.

Marsh Interstitial Salinity (Florida Co-op)

Interstitial water salinity was determined from shallow

wells located in four areas along the salinity gradient, as well

as from soil samples obtained with a soil coring device over a

period of three years (1986-1988). In addition, marsh surface

water salinities were measured in conjunction with interstitial

salinities on March 12-13 1989 at over 50 unimpounded sites on

Argyle Island and near Clydesdale Creek.








Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Stage recorders operated by the C.O.E. provided data to

compare with the synoptic sampling data. Two recorders were

placed in shallow wells in upstream and downstream locations in

the marsh to determine ground and surface-water fluctuations.

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op)

The Georgia Cooperative Research Unit conducted drogue

studies to determine patterns of water mass movement under varied

conditions of river discharge and stage.

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)

The C.O.E. and U.S.F.W.S. have been measuring conductivity,

salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen since 1980 and 1982

respectively, at high tide at sites in the Front, Middle and Back

Rivers.

Past Studies (C.O.E.)

The Corps of Engineers has conducted several studies of the

Savannah River including one from 1950 to 1972 before the

construction of the tide-gate and diversion canals, one from

1980-1981 (C.O.E. 1982) and another in 1983 (C.O.E. 1983) after

the modifications were completed. The Waterways Experiment

Station (W.E.S.) also conducted field studies in 1979 (Huval et

al. 1979) and 1985 (Johnson et al. 1987).



Results

Data from the synoptic sampling periods, including salinity,

conductivity, temperature, and current velocity and direction,

are shown in Appendix A. Average high tide surface salinity and








Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Stage recorders operated by the C.O.E. provided data to

compare with the synoptic sampling data. Two recorders were

placed in shallow wells in upstream and downstream locations in

the marsh to determine ground and surface-water fluctuations.

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op)

The Georgia Cooperative Research Unit conducted drogue

studies to determine patterns of water mass movement under varied

conditions of river discharge and stage.

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)

The C.O.E. and U.S.F.W.S. have been measuring conductivity,

salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen since 1980 and 1982

respectively, at high tide at sites in the Front, Middle and Back

Rivers.

Past Studies (C.O.E.)

The Corps of Engineers has conducted several studies of the

Savannah River including one from 1950 to 1972 before the

construction of the tide-gate and diversion canals, one from

1980-1981 (C.O.E. 1982) and another in 1983 (C.O.E. 1983) after

the modifications were completed. The Waterways Experiment

Station (W.E.S.) also conducted field studies in 1979 (Huval et

al. 1979) and 1985 (Johnson et al. 1987).



Results

Data from the synoptic sampling periods, including salinity,

conductivity, temperature, and current velocity and direction,

are shown in Appendix A. Average high tide surface salinity and








Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Stage recorders operated by the C.O.E. provided data to

compare with the synoptic sampling data. Two recorders were

placed in shallow wells in upstream and downstream locations in

the marsh to determine ground and surface-water fluctuations.

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op)

The Georgia Cooperative Research Unit conducted drogue

studies to determine patterns of water mass movement under varied

conditions of river discharge and stage.

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)

The C.O.E. and U.S.F.W.S. have been measuring conductivity,

salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen since 1980 and 1982

respectively, at high tide at sites in the Front, Middle and Back

Rivers.

Past Studies (C.O.E.)

The Corps of Engineers has conducted several studies of the

Savannah River including one from 1950 to 1972 before the

construction of the tide-gate and diversion canals, one from

1980-1981 (C.O.E. 1982) and another in 1983 (C.O.E. 1983) after

the modifications were completed. The Waterways Experiment

Station (W.E.S.) also conducted field studies in 1979 (Huval et

al. 1979) and 1985 (Johnson et al. 1987).



Results

Data from the synoptic sampling periods, including salinity,

conductivity, temperature, and current velocity and direction,

are shown in Appendix A. Average high tide surface salinity and








Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Stage recorders operated by the C.O.E. provided data to

compare with the synoptic sampling data. Two recorders were

placed in shallow wells in upstream and downstream locations in

the marsh to determine ground and surface-water fluctuations.

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op)

The Georgia Cooperative Research Unit conducted drogue

studies to determine patterns of water mass movement under varied

conditions of river discharge and stage.

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)

The C.O.E. and U.S.F.W.S. have been measuring conductivity,

salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen since 1980 and 1982

respectively, at high tide at sites in the Front, Middle and Back

Rivers.

Past Studies (C.O.E.)

The Corps of Engineers has conducted several studies of the

Savannah River including one from 1950 to 1972 before the

construction of the tide-gate and diversion canals, one from

1980-1981 (C.O.E. 1982) and another in 1983 (C.O.E. 1983) after

the modifications were completed. The Waterways Experiment

Station (W.E.S.) also conducted field studies in 1979 (Huval et

al. 1979) and 1985 (Johnson et al. 1987).



Results

Data from the synoptic sampling periods, including salinity,

conductivity, temperature, and current velocity and direction,

are shown in Appendix A. Average high tide surface salinity and








Stage Recordings in Marsh and River (C.O.E., U.S.G.S)

Stage recorders operated by the C.O.E. provided data to

compare with the synoptic sampling data. Two recorders were

placed in shallow wells in upstream and downstream locations in

the marsh to determine ground and surface-water fluctuations.

Flow Patterns (Georgia Co-op)

The Georgia Cooperative Research Unit conducted drogue

studies to determine patterns of water mass movement under varied

conditions of river discharge and stage.

Ongoing Field Measurements (C.O.E., Savannah N.W.R.)

The C.O.E. and U.S.F.W.S. have been measuring conductivity,

salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen since 1980 and 1982

respectively, at high tide at sites in the Front, Middle and Back

Rivers.

Past Studies (C.O.E.)

The Corps of Engineers has conducted several studies of the

Savannah River including one from 1950 to 1972 before the

construction of the tide-gate and diversion canals, one from

1980-1981 (C.O.E. 1982) and another in 1983 (C.O.E. 1983) after

the modifications were completed. The Waterways Experiment

Station (W.E.S.) also conducted field studies in 1979 (Huval et

al. 1979) and 1985 (Johnson et al. 1987).



Results

Data from the synoptic sampling periods, including salinity,

conductivity, temperature, and current velocity and direction,

are shown in Appendix A. Average high tide surface salinity and








conductivity for each station during each sampling interval are

shown in Table 1 and Figures 4 and 5. Maximum surface salinity

and conductivity for each station during each sampling interval

are shown in Table 2 and Figures 6 and 7.

Average marsh interstitial salinities determined from well

samples range from 0.52 on northeast Argyle Island to 9.27 south

of Clydesdale Creek (Figure 8). Interstitial salinities collected

with a soil corer on March 12-13 1989, are shown in Figure 9.

Surface water salinities collected at the same time are shown in

Figure 10. Salinities generally decrease upstream, but are higher

along the Middle River than Little Back River on Argyle Island.

Data from the C.O.E. from 1980-1989 was used to construct

multiple regression equations that use tidal amplitude and

discharge to predict the leading edge of the salt wedge (0.5 ppt

salinity) in the Front and Back Rivers, with and without the

tide-gate in operation (Table 3).



Discussion

Salinity Change Since 1950-1972

Extrapolating from the regression line of maximum salinity

by Front River mile for the 1950-1972 data (Figure 11), the

salinity wedge (0.5 ppt) at high tide was located at river mile

22.7 prior to construction of tide-gate and cuts. Recent data,

with the tide-gate open, does not indicate much change in the

location of the salt wedge in the Front River (Figure 11).

Based on the data from the synoptic sampling, the salt wedge

has moved up to 2.3 miles up the Front River with the tide-gate

9








conductivity for each station during each sampling interval are

shown in Table 1 and Figures 4 and 5. Maximum surface salinity

and conductivity for each station during each sampling interval

are shown in Table 2 and Figures 6 and 7.

Average marsh interstitial salinities determined from well

samples range from 0.52 on northeast Argyle Island to 9.27 south

of Clydesdale Creek (Figure 8). Interstitial salinities collected

with a soil corer on March 12-13 1989, are shown in Figure 9.

Surface water salinities collected at the same time are shown in

Figure 10. Salinities generally decrease upstream, but are higher

along the Middle River than Little Back River on Argyle Island.

Data from the C.O.E. from 1980-1989 was used to construct

multiple regression equations that use tidal amplitude and

discharge to predict the leading edge of the salt wedge (0.5 ppt

salinity) in the Front and Back Rivers, with and without the

tide-gate in operation (Table 3).



Discussion

Salinity Change Since 1950-1972

Extrapolating from the regression line of maximum salinity

by Front River mile for the 1950-1972 data (Figure 11), the

salinity wedge (0.5 ppt) at high tide was located at river mile

22.7 prior to construction of tide-gate and cuts. Recent data,

with the tide-gate open, does not indicate much change in the

location of the salt wedge in the Front River (Figure 11).

Based on the data from the synoptic sampling, the salt wedge

has moved up to 2.3 miles up the Front River with the tide-gate

9










Table 1. Average high tide surface salinities during synoptic sampling.
River miles are distances from the mouth of the Savannah River.
(Conductivity in umhos/cm and salinity in ppt)


Station Location MAY 1988 JUNE 1988 DEC 1986
1986 1988 COND. SAL. COND. SAL. COND. SAL.


F27.5
McCoy's Cut (MC)
Union Creek (UC)
M25.2
M25
LB27
B24.2
Intake Canal (IC)
LB24.8
LB22.1
M24
M22.8
Houstown Cut (HC)


125
155
238
292
153


250
457
813
1287
1817
1360


0.1
0.8
1
0.4
0.1


0
0
0.3
0.6
1
0.7


4
4.1
5
6

7
8
9
11

10
12
13
14


15
16


9
6
2
3
7
9
8
3


130
787
1400
235
2243
330


1887
10475
8625
10175
10875
10000
13100
13375
13516
14875
15350
15243
14840
20000


0
0.3
1
0
2.7
0.6


1
6.5
4.7
5.6
5.9
5.5
7.1
9.1
10.8
9.9
9.8
7.3
7.9
10.7


110
525
1075

5202
800
5710


9300
8500
10100


10250
10650
12600
15000


0
0.2
0.6

3.5
0.4
4.5


6.4
5.9
7.1


6.6
7
8.3
10.9


10600 6.9


F Front River Mile
M Middle River Mile
B Back River Mile
LB Little Back River Mile


Rifle Cut (RC) 1707 0.!
M21.1 2670 1.'
F19.4 3440
M20 3718 2.
New Cut (NC) 2666 1.
LB20.1 3766 0.'
LB18.7 3417 1.:
B16.7 7167 3..
B13.7
F24.1
F22
F19.3
F16.5
F14.9
F11.9
F10.2
F6.1
F3.5
F0.3
Elba Island Cut North EIC-N
Elba Island Cut South EIC-S


7
8
9
10
11.1
11.2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32






Average high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)

Dec. 2-3, 1986 -Tide gate operating Clyo discharge 6040 cfs

E <250
<1,000
<6,000
< 10,000
i > 10,000


INTAKE CANAL


US 17


Figure 4. Average high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)
for December 2-3, 1986 with the tide gate operating. Clyo
discharge 6040 cfs (0.5 ppt salinity is used to demark
the downstream boundary of freshwater).


.5 ppt







Average high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm)

: : June 29, 1988 Tide gate operating


El
BirI


<200


Clyo discharge 4840 cfs


<1,000


ii <4,000
<10,000
S> 10,000


KE CANAL


US 1


.5 ppt.


US 17


May 13-14, 1988 Tide gate open ",,,
Clyo discharge 5760 cfs
Ii <200
1l: <400
<1ooo00
< 1,500
S>1,500
Figure 5. Average high tide surface conductivity
synoptic sampling in 1988.


i* INTAKE CANAL

6, :. .
















(umhos/cm) for










Table 2. Maximum high tide surface salinities during synoptic
sampling. (Conductivity in umhos/cm and salinity in ppt)



Station MAY JUNE DEC.
1986 1988 COND SAL COND SAL COND SAL


4
4.1
5
6

7
8
9
11

10
12
13
14


15
16


7
8
9
10
11.1
11.2
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32


180
180
330
490
185


382
775
1110
1760
2290
2050
2300
3500
6500
8000
7800
2950
5000
8000
25240
750
1770
6440
12580
16040
23660
28910
39930
43710
48190
30640
33960


0.5
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.4


0
0
0.6
0.9
1.4
0.9
1.2
2.1
4
2.8
4.1
1.5
3
7
15.4
0.4
0.9
3.6
7.2
9.4
14.3
17.9
25.5
28.2
31.4
19
21.3


185
5000
4200
310
10000
7000


3900
15500
12000
12500
13000
10000
14500
14200
19200
11510
22000
19000
20000
29000
33600
7580
14480
17740
22270
27200
33910
32410
38460
43640
45580
32190
35970


2
9
7
7
7.2
6
8
12.2
14.75
15.5
13.2
9.8
10.5
12.9
21.1
4.2
8.4
10.5
13.4
16.7
21.3
20.3
24.5
28.1
29.5
20.1
22.7


220
5500
6200

9000
5900
10500


12200
10900
11000


11000
12000
12800
17200


0
3.5
4.1

6.3
4
7.2


8.5
7.5
7.8


8
8.3
9.9
12.8


16000 11.5





Maximum conductivity (umhos/cm)
Dec. 2-3, 1986 -Tide gate operating Clyo discharge 6040 cfs

E] <250
l <7,500
<10,000
<12,500
<15,000
.. .. > 15,000


INTAKE CANAL


US 17













Figure 6. Maximum high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm) for
December 2-3, 1986 with the tide gate operating. Clyo discharge
6040 cfs.


.5 ppt






Maximum conductivity (umhos/cm)
June 29, 1988- Tide gate operating, Clyo discharge 4840 cfs


E] <200
E] <7000
<12,500
<15,000
I....... >, 15, 000


* INTAKE CANAL


US 17


CANAL


US 17


May 13-14, 1988 Tide gate open "1
Clyo discharge 5760 cfs
E <200-
Ei <1000
2o <2000
^ <3000
S>3000
Figure 7. Maximum high tide surface conductivity (umhos/cm) for
synoptic sampling in 1988.


.5 ppt




















AUERAGE INTERSTITIAL SALINITY
(ppt) 1986-1988


0 1 2
MI LES


Figure 8. Average interstitial salinities for 1986-1988.


I 9!


















INTERSTITIAL SALINITIES
MARCH 12, 1989
(PPT)







.... >1


S" Intake Canal



: > >2


US 17










12

10

12 12

12 12 12 0 1000 2000

12 12 12 YARDS


Figure 9. Interstitial salinities for March 12-13, 1989.


















MARSH SURFACE SALINITIES
MARCH 12, 1989
(PPT)


+* Intake Canal


US 17


0 1000 2000
YARDS


Figure 10. Marsh surface water salinities for March 12-13, 1989.









Table 3. R2 values for regressions equations for predicting the
leading edge of the salt wedge in Front and Little Back Rivers,
with and without the tide gate in operation for data from 1980-
1988.

R" of Regression
Front Back
With Gate No Gate With Gate No Gate


Amplitude alone .37 .37 .33 .43
Amplitude and discharge .77 .38 .62 .46















FRONT RIVER MILE VS MAXIMUM SALINITY


35 0

1950-72
30 F
o o
30 0 0 REGRESSION
25 +0 0
o 0 5/13/88
20- 4- ++
1 0 o + 6/29/88
15-- 0
+







0 10 20
5 15 25
RIVER MLE



Figure 11. Front River mile vs. maximum salinity for 1950-
1972.





















20








in operation. This is essentially the same change that occurred

due to operation of the tide-gate in 1980-81 (C.O.E. 1982).

Maximum salinity at high tide at the confluence of the Front

and Middle Rivers (FRM 19.6) on June 29, 1988 with the tide-gate

in operation was 14.75 ppt (compared to a maximum of 7.72 ppt in

1954, prior to construction of the tide-gate and New Cut). With

the tide-gate open, on May 14, 1988, maximum salinity at FRM 19.6

was 4 ppt and the average maximum from 1986-88 was 3 ppt, while

the average maximum salinity in 1950-54 (n=4, Clyo discharge

5400-6600) was also 3 ppt. Thus, salinity in the Front River with

the tide-gate open may not be substantially different than it was

before construction of the tide-gate. Average high tide salinity

at FRM 19.6 on June 28-29, 1988 was 9 ppt, and the average

maximum value from 1986-88 was 4 ppt.

Due to the relatively low volume of the Middle River, the

small change in salinity due to operation of the tide-gate can

result in a large change in the upstream reach of the salt wedge

(Figure 15).

The paucity of pre-tide-gate salinity data on the Back River

prevents comparisons with post-tide-gate data.

Effect of Tide-gate on Salinity

The effect of the tide-gate on salinity in the river system

has been documented previously (Huval et al. 1979, C.O.E. 1982).

Data recently collected by the N.W.R. and results of the synoptic

sampling are compared to the 1980-81 data in figures 12-17.

Higher salinities during the synoptics, when compared with other








studies, are partly a result of measuring bottom salinities as

well as sampling during periods of high tidal amplitudes.

Figures 4-7 and 12-17 show the substantial effect that the

tide-gate can have on salinities in the river system. Both

synoptics were at periods of low fresh-water flow and high tidal

amplitude and thus would indicate maximum salinities. The

salinity wedge moves 3 miles in the Front River and 6 miles in

the Little Back River when the tide-gate is operating.

The average maximum salinities from 1986-88 are slightly

higher than the 1980-81 averages. This may be due to lower fresh-

water discharge during this period. Salinity of the Middle River

with the tide-gate open does appear to be substantially higher

than the 1980-81 data indicates (Figure 14). This may be the

result of lower volume in the channel due to sedimentation since

1981, and subsequently, the reduced tidal volume necessary to

displace the fresh-water.

Salinity in Relation to Stage and Discharge

During the period from 1980 to 1989 (C.O.E. data), stage (at

Highway 17) and discharge (at Clyo, Georgia) can be used to

predict the location of the leading edge of the salt wedge R2 =

.77) in the Front River (Figure 18) and (R2 = .62) in the Back

River (Figure 19) with the tide-gate operating. Without the tide-

gate the R2 values for the Front and Back Rivers are .38 and .46

respectively. Discharge increases the predictive ability of the

regression equation substantially with the tide-gate operating,

but only slightly with the tide-gate open. This is because with

the tide-gate operating, the salt wedge is well upstream where















MAXIMUM SALINITIES



LITTLE BACK RIVER TIDE-GATE OPEN


16 20 24


Flora Co-op
5-1 4-88
-----Q----
C.O.E.
1980-1981
----t---
C.O.E.
1986-1988


LITTLE BACK RIVER MILE


Figure 12. Maximum salinity vs.
tide-gate open.


Little Back River mile with














MAXIMUM SALINITES


LITTLE BACK


RIVER


WITH TIDE


Flrda Co-op
6-29-88
---QE---
C.O.E.
1980-1981
----A---
C.O.E.
1986-1988


LITTLE BACK RIVER MILE



Figure 13. Maximum salinity vs. Little Back River mile with
tide-gate.


GATE


12

10-


4h


~




~t--r,


-IC
















MAXIMUM SALINITIES


MIDDLE RIVER


- TIDE-GATE OPEN


A


;ti+


----t---
Floida Co-op
5-14-88
--B---
C.O.E.
1980-1981
--A--
C.O.E.
1986-1988


21 23 25


MIDDLE RIVER MILE





Figure 14. Maximum salinity vs. Middle River mile with tide-
gate open.


3.0 A


2.5


2.0-


1.5-


1.0-


0.5


0.0
19














MAXIMUM SALINITIES


MIDDLE


RIVER WITH TIDE


t-
Flord Coop
6-29-88

C.O.E.
1980-1981
---a-~--


---^--t-
C.O.E.
1986-1988


19 21 2 25
19 21 23 25


MIDDLE RIVER MILE


Figure 15. Maximum salinity vs. Middle River mile with tide-
gate.


GATE
















MAXIMUM SALINITIES



FRONT RIVER TIDE-GATE OPEN



Forida Co-op
7 5-14-88
\--Q--s-
ED
C.O.E.
1980-1981
H-
.\---- 5 -
5 C .O.E
1986-1988
- 4 +4
>-
0 3





--_-----------
2-




16 20 24 28
18 22 26

FRONT RIVER MILE





Figure 16. Maximum salinity vs. Front River mile with tide-
gate open.














MAXIMUM SALINITIES


FRONT RIVER WITH TIDE GATE


---I---
Florda Co-op
6-29-88
---a--0--
C.O.E.
1980-1981
--------
C.O.E.
1986-1988


FRONT RIVER MILE




Figure 17. Maximum salinity vs. Front River mile with tide-
gate.


12

10-

8-


3~ah_


2








FRONT RIVER


STAGE VS RIVER MILE AT .5 PPT


25


23-


21-


19


STAGE (ft)


Figure 18. Regressions of location of leading edge of salt wedge
(.5 ppt) vs tidal amplitude in the Front River for 1980-1988.


WITH GATE ''
WITHOUT GAT










STAGE


LITTLE BACK RIVER


VS. RIVER MILE AT .5


16-
5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0
5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5
STAGE (ft)

Figure 19. Regressions of location of leading edge of salt wedge
(.5 ppt) vs tidal amplitude in the Little Back River for 1980-1988.


PPT


10.0








the channels are narrow and a small volume of fresh-water can

displace the salt-water over a longer distance.

With the tide-gate operating, a change in discharge of 1,000

cfs results in a change in the location of the salt-wedge of .43

miles in the Front River (Figure 20a) and .33 miles in the Back

River (Figure 20b) based on 1980-89 data. This change is not as

much as was found by a previous study (Rhodes 1949) that was used

for physical modeling by the Waterways Experiment Station.

The regressions of the 1980-89 data indicate that a change

in tidal amplitude of 2 feet can result in a 1.8 mile change in

the location of the salinity wedge in the Front and Little Back

Rivers with the tide-gate open and greater than a 2 mile change

with the tide-gate operating. Salinity data obtained during the

synoptic sampling periods indicates a significant difference in

the upstream location of the salt wedge at low flow and high

tidal amplitude (when salinities should be maximum) in both the

Front (3 miles) and Little Back Rivers (6 miles).

A regression of salinity vs. river mile, tidal amplitude,

and discharge for data from 1950-1972 shows that river mile is a

good predictor of salinity (R2=.72), and R2 increases

significantly when incorporating tidal amplitude (R2=.78), but

only slightly when incorporating discharge.

Salinity in the Marsh

High salinities may be associated with elevation due to the

correlation of river salinity with stage. Water reaches the marsh

surface at high tide, stays on the surface of the marsh and

infiltrates the sediment and peat, mixing with the stored water.














FRONT RIVER WITH GATE

DISCHARGE VS. LOCATION OF .5 SALINITY

28
27





260 I--- I I I
26( lm ncP
n- 25 ,,

















Figure 20a. Discharge vs location of .5 ppt in the Front River
with the tide-gate in operation
201 1-------
4000 6000 8000 10000
5000 7000 9000
DISCHARGE AT CLYO GA (cfs)





Figure 20a. Discharge vs location of .5 ppt in the Front River
with the tide-gate in operation














LITTLE BACK RIVER WITH GATE


DISCHARGE VS. LOCATION OF .5 SALINITY

28

27

26 a C
fi- ^ o o [] __
25

S24 i o C E -
23
22 0 E
21

20 -
4000 6000 8000 10000
5000 7000 9000
DISCHARGE AT CLYO GA (cfs)




Figure 20b. Discharge vs location of .5 ppt in the Back River
with the tide-gate in operation.








The salinity of the sediment is thus possibly a cumulative

average of marsh surface water salinity slanted insignificantly

toward the most recent high tides.

Interstitial salinities at the three brackish sites in

Figure 8, were slightly decreased on April 21 and 27, 1989 after

the tide-gate had been open for more than one month (since March

16), and were still decreasing on June 12, three months after the

tide-gate was opened.

Interstitial salinity (1986-88 avg.), at 4 locations that

range from .5 to 9.3 ppt (Figure 8), was approximately equal to

average high tide surface river salinities.

Marsh surface water salinities, collected March 12-13, 1989

(Figure 10), were slightly lower than interstitial salinities

collected at the same time (Figure 9), but showed the same

spatial pattern. A zone of high salinity surface water that

projects up Argyle Island is associated with a slightly elevated

Blackgum swamp. This may be due to the increased salinity

associated with high stages.

Marsh surface water salinity changed abruptly along the

Little Back River, but was quite uniform along the Middle River.

The salinities were higher along the Middle River than the Little

Back River. This is likely due to the larger capacity of the

Little Back River to receive freshwater from upstream. The Middle

River is shallower and has a substantial sand bar that extends

across the channel at about the depth of mean low water at MRM

22.3.








Low interstitial and marsh surface salinities projecting

down the middle of Argyle Island below Rifle Cut may be due to a

channel extending southward from Rifle Cut into the marsh.

Marsh Stage

Marsh stage recorders did not appear to be working

consistently, possibly due to suction inhibiting water exchange

in the wells. They did, however, indicate maximum and minimum

water levels. Due to the high storage capacity of the marsh

sediments, marsh water levels averaged much higher than river

water levels (approximately 3.7 ft), and fluctuated approximately

one foot as opposed to 7. During the period of June 20-26, 1988

marsh stage at the down-river site (BRM 20) averaged 7.96 ft mlw

while Middle River stage averaged 4.26 ft mlw. Marsh stage does

not appear to relate appreciably to river stage (Figures 21 a and

b) and this may be partially due to the time required for water

to cross the marsh surface (both vegetation and marsh surface

inhibiting flow) and the amount of water absorbed and stored by

the sediments.

Marsh Storage

Stage recorders in the marsh indicate that the marsh remains

near saturation even when the water level is low in the channels.

High storage capacity is further indicated by the high well

salinities found after the tide-gate was open for six weeks.

Salinity in the Impoundments

Average salinity in the impoundment canals is shown in

Figure 22. Salinities are much lower in the canal at Structure

Two than they are outside the structure. Both water control

35








Low interstitial and marsh surface salinities projecting

down the middle of Argyle Island below Rifle Cut may be due to a

channel extending southward from Rifle Cut into the marsh.

Marsh Stage

Marsh stage recorders did not appear to be working

consistently, possibly due to suction inhibiting water exchange

in the wells. They did, however, indicate maximum and minimum

water levels. Due to the high storage capacity of the marsh

sediments, marsh water levels averaged much higher than river

water levels (approximately 3.7 ft), and fluctuated approximately

one foot as opposed to 7. During the period of June 20-26, 1988

marsh stage at the down-river site (BRM 20) averaged 7.96 ft mlw

while Middle River stage averaged 4.26 ft mlw. Marsh stage does

not appear to relate appreciably to river stage (Figures 21 a and

b) and this may be partially due to the time required for water

to cross the marsh surface (both vegetation and marsh surface

inhibiting flow) and the amount of water absorbed and stored by

the sediments.

Marsh Storage

Stage recorders in the marsh indicate that the marsh remains

near saturation even when the water level is low in the channels.

High storage capacity is further indicated by the high well

salinities found after the tide-gate was open for six weeks.

Salinity in the Impoundments

Average salinity in the impoundment canals is shown in

Figure 22. Salinities are much lower in the canal at Structure

Two than they are outside the structure. Both water control

35








Low interstitial and marsh surface salinities projecting

down the middle of Argyle Island below Rifle Cut may be due to a

channel extending southward from Rifle Cut into the marsh.

Marsh Stage

Marsh stage recorders did not appear to be working

consistently, possibly due to suction inhibiting water exchange

in the wells. They did, however, indicate maximum and minimum

water levels. Due to the high storage capacity of the marsh

sediments, marsh water levels averaged much higher than river

water levels (approximately 3.7 ft), and fluctuated approximately

one foot as opposed to 7. During the period of June 20-26, 1988

marsh stage at the down-river site (BRM 20) averaged 7.96 ft mlw

while Middle River stage averaged 4.26 ft mlw. Marsh stage does

not appear to relate appreciably to river stage (Figures 21 a and

b) and this may be partially due to the time required for water

to cross the marsh surface (both vegetation and marsh surface

inhibiting flow) and the amount of water absorbed and stored by

the sediments.

Marsh Storage

Stage recorders in the marsh indicate that the marsh remains

near saturation even when the water level is low in the channels.

High storage capacity is further indicated by the high well

salinities found after the tide-gate was open for six weeks.

Salinity in the Impoundments

Average salinity in the impoundment canals is shown in

Figure 22. Salinities are much lower in the canal at Structure

Two than they are outside the structure. Both water control

35











STAGE IN THE RIVER AND THE MARSH AT BRM 25.2

JUNE 20-26, 1988

0,-----------------


0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170
T (hrs)

STAGE IN THE RIVER AND THE MARSH AT BRM 20

JULY 1-8, 1988


MARSH SURFACE 8


6


S4


2-



0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

TIE (hrs) -

Figure 21a. Marsh stage in relation to channel stage.














STAGE IN THE RIVER AND THE MARSH AT BRM 20

JUNE 28-30, 1988


10

MARSH SURFACE- /A






6I-
V)l


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

TM (ts)

STAGE IN THE RIVER AND THE MARSH AT BRM 20

JUNE 24-28, 1988


MARSH SURFACE








I
en


Figure 21b. Marsh


40 60 80 100 120

TME (hrs)
stage in relation to channel stage.













AVERAGE SALINITIES

1987-1988

(ppt)



CONTROL STRUCTURE *
.47)A


Little Back






US 17


1.73


F -E CANAL
CONTROL S R TURE 2 E NAL

2.75

CLYDESDALE CREEH


Figure 22. Average salinity values in impoundment canals








structures are stainless steel gates that, by design, will allow

some leakage between the impoundment canal and the river. In

Figure 22 this leakage is seen as higher salinities in the canal

in the immediate vicinity of Structure Two and lower salinities

in the vicinity of Structure One. Salinity throughout most of the

canal ranges no more than one part per thousand.

The volume of water that can leak through the canal gates is

slight compared to the volume of water in the canal surrounding

the impoundments and thus has little influence on the

salinity in the impoundment canals and no influence on the

salinity in the Little Back River. To test the influence of canal

water control structure leakage on salinities in the

impoundment's diversion canal and the Little Back River we used a

Savannah District C.O.E. estimate that Structure Two is leaking

150 gallons per minute at high tide. At this rate, it would take

38.4 days to raise the salinities in the diversion canal 0.5 ppt.

If we assume that Structure One is leaking at the same rate as

Structure Two and salinities in the diversion canal behind

Structure One are 1.5 ppt, then these saline waters leaking from

Structure One will raise salinities in the Little Back River by

0.0003 ppt. Calculations are given in Appendix B. These estimates

are very liberal as detailed in the appendix.

Salinity recorded in the the Little Back River at the intake

of Control Structure One has, at times, increased on the outgoing

tide. This apparent anomaly is probably be due to the flow

patterns of the Middle and Little Back Rivers. As discussed under

the section entitled 'Flow Patterns', saline water from the

39








Middle River often loops over to the upstream reach of the Little

Back River during flood tide. As the rivers ebb, some of this

saline water may be pulled downstream to the vicinty of the

control structure. The average bottom conductivity in the river

at control structure 1 during August 1988 (a period of low

discharge) was 2674 umhos cmi (about 1.5 ppt).

Flow Patterns

The incoming tide, as indicated by salinity maximum, flows

up the Middle River to its upstream confluence with the Little

Back River and then down the Little Back River. The Middle River,

having lower volume and less fresh-water flow than the Front

River, is filled with salt water at high tide during the tide-

gate operating synoptics. During the June 1988 synoptic, water

from the Front River flowed down McCoy's Cut to the Middle and

Little Back Rivers almost continuously over the tide cycle

(Figure 23). During the December 1986 synoptic, however, little

flow was recorded up or down McCoy's Cut near the junction of

Little Back and Middle Rivers, indicating little or no flow from

Front to upper Middle and Little Back Rivers. During the May 1988

synoptic, the flow was generally upstream on flood tide (Figure

24) and downstream on ebb tide.

Although surface water flows downstream in Middle and Little

Back Rivers during flood tide, salt-water flows upstream beneath

the fresher surface water as indicated by bottom salinity and

current direction and may contribute to high salinities in the

Little Back River. High salinities in the upper Little Back

River, however, are due to flow from the Middle River.
















EBB TIDE


+ MAY 13-14,1988
SJUNE 28-29, 1988
9 DEC. 2-3, 1986

SFlow up and
down during ebb


*+ Intake Canal


0 i 2
MI LES


Figure 23. Direction of flow during ebb tide.


t^



















FLOOD TIDE


+ MYA 13-14,1988
JUNE 28-29, 1988
9 DEC. 2-3, 1986

Flow up and
down during f ood


* Intake Canal


0 1 2
MILES


Figure 24. Direction of flow during flood tide.


I 9!








Volume of Flow

Flow volumes shown in Table 4 are mid-tide averages of top,

middle, and bottom flows multiplied by the cross-sectional area.

Since flow was only measured at one point (approximately

midstream) and not recorded continuously, the flow volumes are

limited approximations. Flow volume on the incoming tide is lower

at M.R.M. 24 than at M.R.M. 25 because water flowing up the

Middle River is met by water flowing down-river from McCoy's Cut.

Flow out of the river system-with the tide-gate operating is

less than with the tide-gate open resulting in higher average

stage in the river system. Since the main direction of flow of

freshwater is down the Front River, and the Front River is the

most thoroughly flushed, the higher stage in the river system

would seem to be due to salt water that is not flushed out of the

Middle and Back Rivers.

With the tide-gate open, the incoming tide flowed east

through New Cut after a very low tide, but flowed mainly west

after a higher low. When the tide-gate was operating, the

incoming tide was usually east to the Back River.

Volume of inflow through New Cut is high compared to flow in

other parts of the river system (Table 4).

Since 1951, when the Thurmond (formerly Clark Hill) Resevoir

and Dam were completed, the flow of the Savannah River has been

dependent on releases from the resevoir. Hartwell and Russell

Dams were completed in 1961 and 1984 respectively. Low rainfall

(and possibly increased water consumption) during this decade has

resulted in discharge at Clyo being high less often in the 1980's









Table 4. Average flows (cfs) recorded at midstream at median tide
level for May and June 1988 synoptic sampling trips.

STATION MAY JUNE
IN OUT IN OUT

2 4513 1953 4288 355
5 302 772 360 617
6 782 655 655
8 1084 2454
9 962 2176 1485 2050
10 1806 2247 2804 2503
11 3837 6174 3558 3035
12 6488 6417
13 2388 6469 697 647
16 10080 3360 2520 10500
17 6970 -10078 8272 6718
18 12306 10676 7363 9940
19 7334 18690








than in the previous 40 years (Figure 25). Figures 25 and 26 show

discharge frequency and average monthly discharge broken out by

dates prior to 1951, 1951-1979, and 1980-1988. Average monthly

discharge reflects a typical riverine spring peak. During the

1980's, average monthly discharge during March and April was

about 15,000 cfs, slightly less than during the previous 40

years.

Stage Height and Tidal Amplitude Change

In tidally influenced rivers, tidal amplitude decreases

upstream due to increased elevation and thus, higher low water

level, increasing distance from the origin of the tidal wave, and

friction caused by the channel and outflowing water. On the other

hand the amplitude may have a tendency to increase due to

constriction of the tidal wave. Tidal amplitude may be larger in

the Front River since it is straight and deep. The tidal wave is

slowed by the shallow water in the Back River, and by its

meanders, therefore the incoming tide pushes in through New Cut

and down the Back River toward the tide-gate, ahead of flow up

the Back River.

Average stage (from stage recorders) was higher in the Back

River (BRM 16.5) than the Middle River (MRM 21; 5.26 vs. 4.98 ft

mlw) and the average stage was higher with than without the tide-

gate in operation in both rivers during May and June 1988 (Figure

27). The period of high tide is extended with the tide-gate in

operation as shown by comparison of plots of stage vs. time

(Figures 28 a and b). These results concur with the findings of

the C.O.E. in 1983. Although there is not sufficient data to
45





















0
A

cc


>_

CC


Ff










ia C l C5o r iCN
LL ----fffJl
____ "^""'(N18 O









U I 0






Figure 25. Discharge frequency histogram for the Savannah

River at Clyo, Georgia.


in 0o
C- C C,

CO J)
Cn CD C0














































o0 to 0- CN 0


0
z


CO cO 7-


(0001 SJO) 309VH3SIG

Figure 26. Average monthly discharge of the Savannah River at
Clyo, Georgia.


Sn co

00 -
N) m oo
o') CD
I O --c


LLJ
O
C)



C/)







0



CD
>-
I

I-7






L



<


0

0
>-
(-


cN C
c( cN


I I I I I I I I








AVERAGE STAGE


MAY-JUNE 1988


W/OUT GATE

WITH GATE


4.60 XXNII
RACK MIDDLE
Figure 27. Average stage during approximately 3 weeks in May
(tide gate open) and June (tide gate operating).


5.60


5.40 1


5.20


5.00


4.80













STAGE AT MIDDLE RIVER

MAY 12 AND JUNE 28, 1988


) 5 10 15 20 25

TME N HRS (JUNE, +2.51



STAGE AT TIDE GATE UP

MAY 12 AND JUNE 28, 1988


Figure 28a. Stage vs.


MAY 12

JUNE 28








10 15 20 25

TME N HRS (JUNE. +2.5)

time during June synoptic sampling.

















BACK AND MIDDLE RIVER STAGE

MAY 12, 1988

10 1 I 1


-2
0 5 10 15

TME N HRS


JUNE 28, 1988


---B--14
MRM 21

BRM 14


0 5 10 15 20 25


TME N HRS

Figure 28b. Stage vs. time during June synoptic sampling.








completely analyze the river system, the stage recorders provide

a good estimate of the amplitude differences (Figure 29) and

differences in maximum and minimum stage (Figure 30) at the

positions of the recorders. Figure 30 shows a difference in low

water of about one foot between FRM 27.5 and FRM 21.7.

The tide-gate appears to be responsible for raising the

average stage of the river system by reducing outflow. Average

stage is generally lower in the Middle River due to its proximity

to the Front River. During the synoptic sampling the tide range

recorded during spring tide with the tide-gate operating was .1

to .2 ft higher (after correction for NOAA tide tables

difference) than without the tide-gate.

Sea Level Variation

Estimates of global sea level rise from 1984 to 2025 range

from 5.1 to 15 inches (Hoffman 1984). These estimates are based

on a large variety of factors. Based only on an extrapolation of

the trend from 1935 to 1980 (Figure 31), mean sea level in 2025,

at Fort Pulaski, Georgia (Hicks et al. 1983), may be 4.5 inches

higher than at present. An increase in sea level of this amount

may result in an upstream migration of the salt wedge of .75

miles in the Front River and .8 miles in the Back River with the

tide gate in operation, based on regressions of stage vs.

location of the salt wedge for data from 1980-1989. Larger

increases in sea level could result in salt-water intruding more

than two miles upstream in each river.

Sea level at the mouth of the river also has an annual cycle

with a 20 cm variation from July to October (Figure 32).

51








TIDAL AMPLITUDE


1988


10.5


10.0


9.5
LJ
9.0-


8.5


8.0
FRONT MIDDLE BACK L. BACK GATE- 195
Figure 29. Tidal amplitude during synoptic sampling periods
in 1988.












TIDAL RANGE

MAY 13, 1988


BACK 14 FRONT 21.7 MD 21.1 BACK 24.8 FRONT 27.5

Figure 30. Tidal range on May 13, 1988








YEARLY MEAN SEA LEVEL


FORT PULASKI,


GA


7.5

7.4

7.3

7.2

7.1

7

6.9

6.8

6.7

6.6 i i9i i1i'i
1935 1947 1959 1971


1941


1953


1965


Figure 31. Yearly mean sea level at Fort Pulaski, Georgia


1977













MONTHLY MEAN SEA LEVEL


1955-1975


15

10



5
0






15 I I I t I1I I
J M M J S N J

Figure 32a. Monthly means of sea level, 1955-1975, adjusted for
the effects of atmospheric pressure and the local surface heating
cycle.



20 cm





0- y-



1955 1965 1975

Figure 32b. Variation in sea level adjusted for the effects of
atmospheric pressure. The smoothed series (solid line) is the
result of applying a Lanczos filter with a half power attenuation
at 1/6 cycles per month (both figures redrawn from Blaha, 1984).








Conclusions

Operation of the tide-gate causes an increase in marsh

salinities by increasing channel salinities and possibly by

increasing the duration of high tide. Although operation of the

tide-gate does not affect the height of high tide (C.O.E. 1983),

it does increase the period of high tide, thus allowing more time

for tide-water to flood the marsh. This factor could be

contributing to increased marsh salinities, since river

salinities are highest at high tide. The effect on high tide

duration is greatest at the tide-gate and decreases past the

refuge dock in the Little Back River as shown by the C.O.E. 1983

study.

Discharge and tidal amplitude appear to be equally important

in determining the location of the salt wedge with the tide-gate

operating, but discharge has less effect when the tide-gate is

open. Conductivity at BRM 24.5 (control structure 1) increased

substantially (x3) during a period of low discharge (< 6000 cfs)

in 1988, and was at its lowest when the tide gate was open

(Figure 33).

High discharge occurs too infrequently in recent years

(Figure 34) to significantly affect soil salinities over a period

of time necessary to elicit marsh vegetation responses.

Saline water from Middle River contributes to the salinity

in upper Little Back River. Further observation is needed to

determine flow patterns in McCoy's Cut and in the upper Little

Back River.








1988 CLYO GA DISCHARGE
AND CONDUCTIVITY AT LBRM 24.5


-1 3000


-2 ageo


2000 1-


JAN MAR MAY JULY SEPT NOV
FEB APR I JUNE AUG OCT DEC
GATE OPEN


Figure 33. Discharge at Clyo, Georgia and conductivity at
Little Back River Mile 24.5.


8000



6000



4000


DISCHARGED


C:ONDUCTIVI


-- 1800














0)





0~0)





miin

0)


)



I-
c.Ci i inc







0) ii iniii




C04imN N -
lin 01

















(000sU) 3NsH O



Figure 34a. Discharge vs. time, Clyo, Georgia 1930-1964.






























P P P


00)001000 0


m


L,


0)














LO
r-
In
N

























r,
o0
i8

N
If


0 00 00 0 0


(cM L*SJ3) T3iHSIa



Figure 34b. Discharge vs. time, Clyo, Georgia 1965-1988.


IME
M
SrAMr~






















i I "q--q---- :' "


0)



in


t-





tn

,-




(0
in





n0)















IL


0
i,

or


T-








The cumulative effect of sea level rise and tide-gate

operation or channel extension designs may cause saltwater

intrusion further upstream than would be predicted without

consideration of sea level rise.










Literature Cited


Blaha, J.P. 1984. Fluctuations of monthly sea level as
related to the intensity of the Gulf Stream from Key
West to Norfolk.

Corps of Engineers 1982. Savannah Harbor investigation results
from the tide-gate operation study. Dept. of the Army, Corps
of Engineers, Savannah District, Savannah.

Corps of Engineers 1983. Savannah Harbor tide-gate study. Dept.
of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Savannah District,
Savannah.

Hicks, S.D., H.A. DeBaugh, Jr., L.E. Hickman, Jr. 1983. Sea level
variations for the United States 1855-1980. National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration.

Hoffman, J.S. 1984 Estimates of future sea level rise. In
Greenhouse effect and sea level rise: a challenge for this
generation. M.C. Barth and J.G. Titus eds. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company Inc. New York.

Huval, C.J. R.H. Multer, P.K. Senter, M.B. Boyd 1979. Savannah
Harbor investigation and model study. Volume IV. Reanalysis
of freshwater control plan. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways
Experiment Station, Vicksburg.

Johnson, B.H., M.J. Trawle and P.G. Kee 1987. A numerical model
study of the effect of channel deepening on shoaling and
salinity intrusion in the Savannah estuary. Dept of the
Army, Waterways Experiment Station, Mississippi.
















APPENDIX A
Synoptic data













Table Al. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 2.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR TEMP
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM


5/13 1833 3.97
1925 4.77
2022 5.07
2234 4.27
2335 3.37
5/14 37 1.07
130 -0.33
228 -1.93
331 -3.43
431
530 -0.33
640 2.67
735 4.07
840 4.67
945 4.47
1050 3.17
1136 1.87
1222 0.57
1330 -1.33
1425 -3.13
1526 -4.13
1629 -3.23
1722 -0.93
1854 3.07
1918 3.97
2021 4.97
2124 5.27
2225 5.57
2324 4.57
5/15 45 2.77
155 0.67
245 -0.83
345 -2.13
445 -3.13
545 -1.23


100
100
110
130
110
0 134
0 125
0 120
120
140
130
0.3 135
0.2 140
0.2 150
0.2 140
0 145
0 180
170
140
135
0.1 135
120
120
110
110
110
120
125
130
130
0 140
0 135
0 130
0.2 135
0.2 130


0.5
0.6
2
1.8
1.2
135 1.6
125 1
120 0.2
0
2.4
1.4
135 0.6
140 0
150 1
140 0
145 0.8
180 0.8
0.2
0
0.1
135 0
3
2.4
0.6
0
1.4
1.4
0.5
1.2
1.2
140 1.2
135 0.6
130 0
135 0.2
130 2


0.4 U 23
1.2 U 23
1.8 U 23
1.8 D 23
1.4 D 23
1 D 23
0.8 D 22
0.2 D 22
0 D 21.5
2.2 U 21.5
1 U 21.5
0.6 U 22
0.2 U 22
1 U 22
0 S 23
1.1 D 23
0.6 0 23.5
0 D 23.5
0 D 23
0 D 23
0 D 24
2.4 U 23
2 U 22
0.6 U 23
0 U 23
1 U 23
1 U 22.5
0.6 U 23
1 D 22.5
1.2 D 22
1 0 22
0.6 D 22
0 D 21
0.2 U 21
1U 21










Table A2. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 3.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1828
1920
2015
2225
2322
5/14 31
124
221
323
422
522
635
730
830
940
1045
1131
1218
1323
1418
1519
1620
1715
1717
1849
2016
2118
2219
2319
5/15 37
145
240
337
438
535


150
100
103
115
115
130
120
0 115
115
130
135
0 140
0.2 150
0.2 150
0.2 140
165
175
150
120
120
0.1 120
0.1 120
170
0.1 120
140
110
115
120
130
135
140
130
0 130
0.2 130
0.2 130


1.4
0.8
1.2
1.8
3.2
3.8
1.4
115 1.3
0.2
0.2
1
150 1.2
180 0.6
150 0.6
140 0
1.2
2
1.6
0.6
0.6
125 0
130 0.4
2.2
120 0.6
1.2
1.4
0.4
0.6
0.8
3.6
2.8
1.8
130 0.6
130 0
130 1.2


1.3 U 23
1.4 U 23
1.2 U 23
1.7 D 23
3.5 D 23
D 23
0.8 D 22
1.3 D 22
0.2 D 21.5
O U 21.5
1 U 21.5
1.2 U 22
0.8 U 21
1.2 U 22
OS 23
1.6 D 23.5
2 0 23.5
1.2 D 23
0.5 0 23
0.1 0 23
0 D 23
0.8 U 23
1.6 U 23.5
0.8 U 23
1 U 23.5
1.4 U 23
0.6 U 23
0.6 U 23
0.8 D 23
2.8 D 22
2.2 D 22
1.4 D 22
0.6 D 21
0 D 21
1.4 U 21










Table A3. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 4.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1820
1915
2011
2218
2315
5/14 22
116
215
317
416
516
630
725
830
935
1040
1126
1212
1319
1413
1513
1616
1712
1842
1911
2011
2114
2215
2315
5/15 30
140
233
330
430
530


2.5
0.25
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2 0
0
0
0.3
0.3
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0.2


0.25
0.2


1.1
0.6
0
0
0.8
135 0
122 0.4
120 0
0
1.3
0
180 0.4
210 0.4
290 0
145 0
150 0
180 0
0.2
0.2
0.1
125 0
120 1.4
120 0.4
1.2
1
0
0
0
0
135 1
145 0
130 0.2
130 0
130 0
140 1.2


1 U 23.5
0.7 U 23
0 U 23
OD 23
0.5 D 23
0 D 23
0.6 D 22
0 D 22
0.2 D 21.5
0.8 D 21.5
0 U 21.5
0.6 U 22
0.8 U 21
0 U 22
0 D 23
0 D 23.5
0.5 D 23.5
0.5 D 24
0.2 D 23.5
0.1 D 23
0 D 23
1 D 23
0.4 U 23
0.9 U 23.5
1.2 U 23.5
0.4 U 23.5
0 D 23
0 D 23
0 D 23
0.8 0 22
0 D 22
0.6 D 22
0 D 21
O S 21
1 U 21










Table A4. SaLinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 5.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1810 4.36
1908 6.06
2007 6.16
2212 5.76
2310 4.96
5/14 13 -1.04
110 1.36
210 -0.24
311 -1.54
409 -2.54
510 -5.54
625 2.96
720 4.06
821 5.66
930 5.56
1035 4.56
1121 3.46
1206 2.06
1306 0.46
1409 -0.94
1508 -2.54
1610 -2.84
1709 0.66
1836 3.56
1905 4.56
2005 5.76
2108 6.26
2209 6.36
2310 5.86
5/15 20 4.36
130 4.06
230 0.86
325 -0.74
420 -1.74
525 -1.04


0
0.3
0.25
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.3
0.4
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.1
0.1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2


160
312
385
345
160
130
125
0 120
120
120
145
0 195
0.3 210
0.4 330
0.3 330
150
180
160
130
120
0 125
0.1 120
0.1 125
175
195
350
330
485
340
160
150
135
0 130
0 130
0.2 140


300
380
337



130
120
120
120
150
200
215
350
325
155
180
165
130
120
125
130
130
180
200
350
330
490
340
180

135
130
130
140


2
1.8
1.2
1.4
2
2.5
2
120 1
0
0
0.6
200 1.8
215 1.2
355 0.4
360 0
2
1.6
2
1.2
0.1
125 0
130 0
130 0.4
2.1
2.2
1.6
0.8
0
1.2
150 2.2
3
1.2
130 0.6
130 0
140 0


2 U 23
1.5 U 23
1.3 U 22.5
1.8D 23
D 23
2 0 17.5
2 D
1 D 22
0 D 22
0 D 21.5
0.2 U 21.5
1.2 U 22
1 U 21
0.4 U 21
0.2 D 23
2 D 23.5
2.2 D 24
1.5 D 24
1.1 D 24
0.1 D 23
0 D 24
0 S 24
0.4 U 23
2.1 U 24.5
1.6 U 23
1.2 U 23.5
0.8 D 23
OU 23
1.1 D 22.5
2 D 22
1.6 D 22
1 D 22
0.4 D 21
0 D 21
0 U 21










Table A5. SaLinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 6.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1800 2.06
1900 3.46
2000 4.06
2026 4.36
2200 3.76
2300 -2.94
5/14 0 1.36
100 -0.34
200 -2.44
300
400
500 1.46
610 0.66
715 2.66
815 3.56
915 3.66
1030 2.76
1115 1.66
1200 0.26
1300 -1.44
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800 0.16
1900 2.46
2000 3.66
2100 -2.94
2200 4.66
2300 3.96
5/15 13 2.56
120 0.56
218 -1.14
315
415
515


100
101
105
135
110
115
130
0 155
0 180
125
120
140
0 140
0.2 140
0.2 150
0.1 140
0.4 155
0 160
150
160
125
0 125
0.1 115
0.1 120
125
120
115
130
165
125
0 150
0 150
0 180
0 170
0 140
0.2 135


0
0.2
0
0
0.2
0
0.8
160 0.5
180 0.4
0.6
1.2
0.4
150 0
145 0
150 0
150 0
155 0
160 0
0
0.6
0.5
125 0.4
115 .0.6
120 0.4
0
0
0
0
0
0
150 0
150 0.4
185 0
180 0.2
140 0
135 0


0
0
0
0
0.2
0
1
0.4
0.6
0.8
0.8
0.3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.2
0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0.4
0
0
0
0


0 U 23
0 U 22.5
0 U 23
0 U 23
0.3 D 22.5
0 D 23
1 0 18
0.4 0 22
0.6 D 22
0 D 22
0.2 D 21.5
0.1 U 21.5
0 U 22
0 U 22
O S 21
0 s 23
0 D 24
0 D 23.5
0 D 24
0.2 D 24.5
0.3 D 24
0.4 D 23
0.6 D 24
0.2 U 23
0 U 23
0 U 23
0 U 23
*0 U 23
0 U 22.5
0.2 D 22.5
00 22
0.2 D 22
0 D 22
0 D 22
0 0 21
0 U 21










Table A6. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 7.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1850
1945
2018
2116
2215
2315
5/14 18
114
234
335
456
620
713
823
915
1006
1118
1221
1351
1424
1532
1651
1745
1838
1942
2101
2139
2257
2341
5/15 100
156
244
522
552


U 23
U 23
U 23
U 23
D 23
D 23
D 22.5
D 22
D 22
D 22
U 22
U 21.5
U 21.9
U 22
U 22
D 22
D 22
D 22
D 22
0 24
D 22
U 23
U 23
U 32
U 29
U 26
U 27
D 28
D 28
D 29
D 25
D 24
U 25
U 25










Table A7. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 8.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP

5/13 1829 0 0 0 405 405 400 U 23
1919 0 0 0 450 450 450 U 23
2005 0 0 0 375 370 370 U 23
2055 0 0 0 380 380 380 U 23
2142 0 0 0 390 384 381 D 23
2247 0 0 0 360 360 360 D 23
2253 0 0 0 420 420 410 D 23
5/14 53 0 0 0 210 211 212 0 22.5
211 0 0 0 188 188 188 D 22.5
304 0 0 0 175 175 175 D 22
409 0.49 0 0 0 172 172 172 U 22
530 0 0 0 205 205 205 U 22
556 0 0 0 218 211 211 U 22
645 0 0 0 279 265 260 U 22
735 7.69 0 0 0 440 440 440 U 22.1
840 7.89 0 0 0 500 500 500 U 22.5
932 7.84 0 0 0 500 500 500 0 22.5
1043 5.89 0 0 0 339 339 339 D 22
1142 4.49 0 0 0 229 230 210 D 22
1251 2.12 0 0 0 199 200 200 D 22
1405 0.29 0 0 0 180 180 180 D 22
1514 0.59 0 0 0 180 180 179 D 22
1635 0 0 0 269 269 269 U 26
1734 3.39 0 0 0 220 289 289 U 23
1822 5.99 0 0 0 230 289 320 U 28
1900 7.34 0 0 0 340 450 440 U 29
1959 8.39 0 0 0 420 650 650 U 25
2124 8.89 0 0 0 400 620 610 U 24
2239 8.89 0 0 0 430 700 775 0 36
2322 7.64 0 0 0 380 500 600 0 32
5/15 43 5.39 0 0 0 370 500 490 D 32
134 0 0 0 260 360 370 0 29
219 0 0 0 225 300 300 D 26
311 0 0 0 209 280 280 D 25
342 0 0 0 200 260 260 0 24
538 0 0 0 210 275 280 U 25










Table A8. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 9.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1855
1936 5.21
2022 5.51
2125 5.51
2235
2340 2.61
5/14 32 1.11
125 -0.29
227 -1.89
338 -3.19
531 0.21
635 2.81
730 4.31
835 4.91
949 4.51
1027 3.71
1124 2.11
1220 0.51
1320 -0.99
1425 -2.59
1525
1625 -2.79
1715 -0.59
1828 2.81
1915 4.31
2015 5.11
2123 5.61
2225 5.41
2323 4.61
5/15 20 2.71
124 1.21
224 -0.49
434 -3.09
527 -1.59


300
690
830
1090
790
390
160
150
150
140
200
300
530
400
480
480
200
170
130
120
125
130
160
265
450
700
820
1100
800
390
200
190
190
150


300
690
810
1110
790
395
170
150
150
140
190
300
510
400
480
480
200
170
130
120


1.6 U 23
1.4 U 23
1.1 U 23
0 0 23
2.2 D 23
2.7 D 23
2.4 D 23
0.2 D 22
1 D 22
0.3 D 22
0.8 U 22
1.3 U 22
1.2 U 22
0.6 U 21
1.2 S 23
2 U 23
1.9 D 23
1.8 D 24
1.5 D 23
1 D 25
0.1 D 25
0.6 U 23
0.6 U 23
1.5 U 24
1.3 U 23
1.2 U 22
1 U 23
0.3 U 23
1.4 U 22
2.4 U 23
2.4 D 22
2 D 22
0.5 D 22
1.4 D 21










Table A9. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 10

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1847 4.89
1929 5.29
2014 5.59
2117 5.59
2223 4.29
2325 2.49
5/14 25 0.69
117 -0.81
218 -2.51
328
519 0.09
628 2.79
721 4.29
824 4.99
941 4.49
1020 3.69
1117 1.99
1211 0.19
1313 -1.61
1415 -2.01
1515
1618 -2.71
1708 -0.51
1822 3.09
1908 4.49
2010 5.29
2116 5.79
2217 5.49
2315 4.49
5/15 17 2.59
116 0.89
218 -0.91
424 -3.51
519 -1.51


.2 810 800
.2 810 810
.5 1310 1420
.8 1710 1760
.5 1120 1120
0 610 610
0 350 350
0 180 180
0 170 170
0 170 170
0 200 200
0 450 500
0 310 320
.2 750 890
.2 700 710
0 395 400
0 450 430
0 200 190
0 150 150
0 130 135
0 130 130
0 130 140
0 180 180
.1 440 440
0 390 390
.4 800 800
.8 1310 1310
.8 1400 1400
.5 1140 1110
.2 720 710
0 390 390
0 200 200
190
0 160


850 1.6
750 1.6
1310 1.3
1430 0
1120 2.7
610 2.6
360 2.4
180 2.2
170 2
170 1.6
200 2
500 2
320 1.5
810 0.8
770 0.1
400 2.1
430 2.2
200 2.2
145 2.2
135 1.8
130 0.5
140 0.8
180 0.7
450 2.2
390 1.9
800 1.5
1310 1.4
1400 0.3
1110 2.2
710 2.6
390 2.6
200 2.2
1.1
160 1.5


U 23
0.8 U 23
1 U 23
0 S 23
2.2 D 23
2 0 23
1.6 D 23
1.8 D 23
1.8 D 22
1.4 0 22
1.2 U 22
1.4 U 22
0.8 U 22
0.6 U 21
0.2 U 23
1.4 D 23
1.2 D 23
1.3 D 24
1.5 D 23
1.8 0 25
0.5 D 25
0.7 U 24
0.9 U 23
1.8 U 24
1.2 U 23
1.2 U 22
0.9 U 23
0.3 D 23
1.2 D 23
1.9 D 23
1.7 D 22
1.5 D 22
D 22
1.6 U 22










Table A9. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 10.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1847 4.89
1929 5.29
2014 5.59
2117 5.59
2223 4.29
2325 2.49
5/14 25 0.69
117 -0.81
218 -2.51
328
519 0.09
628 2.79
721 4.29
824 4.99
941 4.49
1020 3.69
1117 1.99
1211 0.19
1313 -1.61
1415 -2.01
1515
1618 -2.71
1708 -0.51
1822 3.09
1908 4.49
2010 5.29
2116 5.79
2217 5.49
2315 4.49
5/15 17 2.59
116 0.89
218 -0.91
424 -3.51
519 -1.51


2 810
2 810
5" 1310
8 1710
,5 1120
0 610
0 350
0 180
0 170
0 170
0 200
0 450
0 310
.2 750
.2 700
0 395
0 450
0 200
0 150
0 130
0 130
0 130
0 180
.1 440
0 390
.4 800
.8 1310
.8 1400
.5 1140
.2 720
0 390
0 200
190
0 160


800
810
1420
1760
1120
610
350
180
170
170
200
500
320
890
710
400
430
190
150
135
130
140
180
440
390
800
1310
1400
1110
710
390
200


850 1.6
750 1.6
1310 1.3
1430 0
1120 2.7
610 2.6
360 2.4
180 2.2
170 2
170 1.6
200 2
500 2
320 1.5
810 0.8
770 0.1
400 2.1
430 2.2
200 2.2
145 2.2
135 1.8
130 0.5
140 0.8
180 0.7
450 2.2
390 1.9
800 1.5
1310 1.4
1400 0.3
1110 2.2
710 2.6
390 2.6
200 2.2
1.1
160 1.5


U 23
0.8 U 23
1 U 23
0 S 23
2.2 D 23
20 23
1.6 D 23
1.8 D 23
1.8 D 22
1.4 D 22
1.2 U 22
1.4 U 22
0.8 U 22
0.6 U 21
0.2 U 23
1.4 D 23
1.2 D 23
1.3 D 24
1.5 D 23
1.8 D 25
0.5 D 25
0.7 U 24
0.9 U 23
1.8 U 24
1.2 U 23
1.2 U 22
0.9 U 23
0.3 D 23
1.2 0 23
1.9 D 23
1.7 D 22
1.5 D 22
D 22
1.6 U 22










Table A10. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 11.1.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1831 4.38
1907
1955 5.18
2100 5.18
2205 4.18
2258 2.38
5/14 0 0.28
55 -1.32
155
300
458 -0.82
558 1.78
655 3.58
755 4.48
855 4.48
957 3.58
1055 1.78
1200 -0.22
1300 -2.22
1355
1507
1610 -2.82
1658 -1.02
1801 1.88
1900 3.98
2000 4.98
2109
2155 5.18
2255
2357
5/15 56
157
355
455


850
1420
1890
2200
1860
1250
670
390
200
190
320
590
780
1020
1330
1010
500
480
180
240
150
170
250
230
900
1130
1920
2000
1600
1020
700
380


850
1430
1890
2200
1880
1250
670
350
190
190
320
590
800
910
1350
1000
500
480
180
240
150
180
250
240
900
1125
1920
2290
1600
1030
710
390
200
200


1.2 U 23
0.9 U 23
0.8 U 23
0.4 U 23
1.8 D 23
1.8 D 23
2 D 23
2.2 D 22
1.9 D 22
1.4 D 22
1.6 U 22
0.8 U 2
0.8 U 23
0.8 U 23
0.6 U 23
1.2 D 23
1.1 D 23
1.2 D 23
1.4 D 25
0.6 D 25
0.8 D 24
0.4 U 24
0.6 U 23
1.2 U 24
1.2 U 23
0.9 U 22
0.5 U 23
0 U 23
1.6 U 22
1.5 U 23
1.5 U 22
1.2 U 22
1.5 U 22
1.3 U 22










Table All. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 11.2.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1825 0.2
1914 0.6
2000 0.6
2103 0.8
2207 0.5
2303 0.2
5/14 1 0
10 0.1
200 0
305 0
508 0
606 0
703 0.4
804 10.8 0.5
903 0.5
1004 0.5
1101 0.2
1205 0
1307 0.1
1402 2.5 0
1502 0
1604 0
1701 0
1805 0
1903 0.3
2005 0.9
2104 11.7 0.8
2201 1
2300 10.3 0.6
5/15 2 8.4 0.5
100 6.5 0
202 4.7 0.3
403 2.3 0
459 4.4 0


0.2 890 890
0.7 1300 1350
0.9 1210 1710
1 1500 1600
0.9 1150 1300
0.5 800 1030
0 600 540
0.2 860 890
0 420 410
0 200 200
0 320 320
0 520 550
0.5 1060 1100
0.4 1090 1100
0.8 1100 1300
0.4 1020 1050
0.2 840 810
0 450 490
0 590 590
0 150 150
0 150 160
0 180 180
0 370 370
0 280 280
0.3 900 900
0.8 1135 1130
0.9 1480 1510
1 1400 1600
0.8 1020 1120
0.5 1000 1000
0.4 490 580
0.3 710 700
0 200 200
0 220 205


1 U 23
1 U 23
0.4 U 23
0 U 23
0.9 D 23
1.8 D 23
1.6 D 23
1.4 D 23
00D 23
0 22
0.8 0 20
1.8 D 23
1 0 23
0.7 U 23
0.8 U 21
0.9 U 23
0.7 U 23
0.9 D 24
1 D 25
1.7 0 24
0.1 D 24
0.1 U 24
0.9 U 24
2.2 U 24
1.7 U 23
0.9 U 23
0.6 U 23
0.1 U 23
0.8 U 23
1.3 D 23
1.2 D 22
0.8 D 22
0.3 D 22
0.4 D 22










Table A12. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 12.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1840
1918
2007
2107
2214
2310
5/14 15
105
207
312
451
616
711
814
932
1010
1107
1155
1253
1406
1455
1558
1655
1655
1756
1955
2057
2208
2307
5/15 9
108
208
414
508


.2 0.2 890
.8 0.8 1510
1 1 1950
.2 1.2 2190
.4 0.5 1010
.1 0.1 510
0 0 410
0 0 390
0 0 290
0 0 280
0 0 280
0 0 480
.2 0.2 880
.5 0.5 1080
.4 0.4 1010
.1 0 500
0 0 500
0 0 410
0 0 290
0 0 260
0 0 230
.1 0.1 200
0 0 230
.1 0.2 800
0 0 380
.8 0.8 1120
1 1 1710
1 1.1 1850
.4 0.4 1000
0 0 510
0 0 440
0 0 400
290
0 0 221


220.5


220


890 890
1500 1520
1980 1980
2300 2300
1030 1520
520 520
410 420
390 390
290 290
280 280
280 280
480 450
890 820
1090 1100
1010 1120
505 510
500 500
410 410
290 290
260 260
230 240
210 210
240 240
800 800
360 350
1120 1120
1790 1800
2000 2090
1000 1000
510 510
440 450
400 400


1.4
1.3
1
0
2.2
2.3
1.6
1.8
2
1.2
1.8
1.4
1.3
1
0.3
1.8
1.6
1.7
1.6
0.9
1.2
0.5
0.8
1.9
1.4
1.7
1.2
1.4
2.2
2.4
1.8
1.7
0
1.9


1.6 1.8 U 23
1.8 2 U 23
1.6 1.6 U 23
S 0 U 23
2.1 2.2 U 23
2.1 1.6 U 23
1.5 1.1 U 23
1.6 0.7 U 22
1.8 0.8 U 22
1.2 0.9 D 23
1.8 1.4 D 22
1.4 1 D 23
1.3 0.9 D 22
1.2 1 D 21
0.4 0.4 D 23
1.5 1.1 D 23
1.3 1.2 D 23
1.2 0.5 D 25
1.4 I D 26
0.8 0.3 D 25
1 1 D 25
0.5 0.6 D 24
0.7 0.8 U 24
1.9 1.6 U 23
2.4 2 U 25
2 2 U 22
1.5 1.1 U 23
1.2 0.8 U 23
2.2 1.8 U 23
2.2 2 U 23
1.7 1.2 U 22
1.9 1.5 U 22
U 22
1.5 1.3 U 22










Table A13. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 13.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1940 7.36
2100 7.26
2208
2315 4.16
5/14 111
400
638 5.16
726 6.26
825 6.66
937 6.06
1022 5.06
1124 2.76
1235
1319
1415
1515
1607
1702
1747 3.66
1850 5.76
1932 6.86
2042 7.46
2145 7.36
2239 6.76
2330 5.46
5/15 42 2.76
139 1.06
236 -1.24
335 -1.24
436 -1.24
531 1.46


1.1 2350 2400
2 3350 3450
1 2400 2400
0.2 1250 1250
0 390 430
0 420 400
0 850 850
1 1480 1470
1.1 1850 1880
1.1 1510 1600
0.1 1200 700
0.7 790 790
0.5 430 445
0.4 290 300
0.4 230 200
0.5 230 255
0.5 340 340
0.5 270 295
0.8 800 800
0.9 1050 1020
1.1 1440 940
1.9 2320 2490
1.9 2810 3000
2 2600 2350
1 1180 1200
0.8 890 890
0.5 650
0.5 650 650
0.3 490 530
0.5 450 550
0.5 550 590


2400 0.1 0.26 0.49 D 23
3500 0.03 0.13 0.13 D 23
1900 1.15 0.82 0.72 D 23
1280 1.18 0.98 1.12 0 23
470 0.82 0.92 1.9 D 23
450 0.52 0.62 0.62 D 23
880 1.31 1.31 1.15 U 23
1450 1.18 1.05 0.79 U 23
1880 0.52 0.36 0.49 U 23
1600 0.49 0.49 0.33 U 23
600 0.72 0.59 0.52 D 23
900 1.41 1.31 1.18 D 23
440 1.31 1.44 1.18 0 23
310 0.85 0.39 0.66 D 23
190 0.79 0.79 0.46 D 23
205 0 0 0 S 23
0.49 0.49 0.33 D 23
275 1.61 1.38 1.18 U 23
500 1.05 1.05 0.33 U 23
650 1.25 1.05 0.59 U 23
990 2.63 0.43 0.66 U 23
2400 0.98 0.33 1.64 U 23
2650 0 0.33 1.31 S 23
2200 0.66 0.16 0.05 D 23
1250 1.38 1.38 1.15 D 23
890 1.44 1.44 0.98 D 23
520 1.38 1.18 D 23
690 1.28 1.31 0.59 D 23
550 0.79 0.92 13 D 23
750 1.31 0.98 0 D 23
600 0.39 0.72 0.33 D 23










Table A14. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 14.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP

5/13 1800 11.4 0.9 1.6 1.6 1700 2600 2600 1.25 0.66 0.098 U 23
2035 12.1 1.6 3 3.2 3000 5000 6000 0 1.96 1.31 U 23
2130 11.7 2 3.8 4 4800 6000 6500 1.25 0.66 2.62 D 23
2235 9.8 1.6 1.9 2.2 3200 3450 4300 2.1 2.1 0.66 D 23
2345 7.5 0 0 0 970 990 980 2.56 2.36 2.17 D 24
5/14 138 0 0 0 400 400 370 3.94 3.77 0.42 D 23
438 5.8 0 0 0 190 1050 1500 0.39 2.36 0 U 24
700 10.6 1 1.3 1.2 1890 2250 2250 1.28 1.28 1.44 U 22
800 11.4 1.7 2.1 2.1 2510 3600 3600 0.066 0.066 0.38 U 22
900 11.1 1.9 2.6 2.8 2620 3850 4350 0.39 0.032 0 U 23
1000 10.2 1.4 2.1 2.7 2120 2980 3600 2.03 1.44 0.59 D 24
1100 8.2 1 1.1 1.1 1505 1580 1580 2.52 2.49 1.97 D 23
1206 5.9 0.8 0.8 0.6 850 900 460 0.44 2.36 1.31 D 23
1255 4.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 365 370 375 2 2.13 1.8 D 23
1353 2.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 190 182 150 1.97 2.13 1.8 D 23
1443 1.9 0.4 0.5 0.5 140 132 125 1.64 1.38 0.066 D 23
1543 3.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 160 150 140 0.066 0 0 S 23
1630 5.2 0.5 1 1 285 1300 1200 0.98 1.41 0.066 U 23
1724 7.6 0.7 0.9 0.9 460 800 800 1.84 1.51 1.38 U 23
1809 9.6 1 1.1 1.1 1150 1350 1320 1.84 1.97 1.57 U 23
1910 11.3 1.5 1.8 1.9 2000 2220 2390 1.38 0.066 0.05 U 23
2010 11.8 3.5 3.9 4 5500 6200 6500 0.032 0.032 0.032 U 23
2025 12 2 3 2.9 2750 4510 4000 0.098 0.62 0.066 U 23
2115 12.3 2 3.5 3.8 2900 5900 6000 0.33 0.92 0.032 U 23
2305 10.9 2 3 3.3 2920 5000 5560 1.84 1.18 0.56 U 23
5/15 10 8.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 2180 2180 2150 1.38 0.72 0.39 U 23
108 6.5 0.8 0.9 0.9 1000 1050 1050 2.56 2.36 2.46 D 23
203 4.7 0.4 0.5 0.44 600 650 550 2.59 2.69 2.1 D 23
306 3.2 0.1 0 0.2 300 300 300 1.9 1.97 0.16 D 23
403 2.9 0.3 0.3 1.9 210 230 250 1.12 0.98 0.098 D 23
506 5.4 0.2 0.3 0.3 210 300 300 0.56 0 0 0 23










Table A15. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 15.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1910
2045
2147
2300
5/14 58
152
449
550
711
815
925
1010
1115
1225
1308
1404
1500
1554
1650
1736
1840
1925
2034
2127
2220
2314
5/15 20
123
216
319
419
518


0 2
0 2
0 2
0 1
0 0
0
0
0 0.3
1.3
1.8
2
1.6
1.2
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.5
2.9 0.9
0.9
1.2
1.9
2.5
3
2.8
2.3
1.3
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.2
0.3


2.4 3500 3800 4000 D 23
2.8 4000 4850 4900 0.2 0.066 0.032 D 23
2.3 3100 3900 4000 6.56 6.89 7.55 D 23
0.9 2490 2600 2700 1.51 1.51 0.032 D 23
0 880 1180 100 3.24 3.14 1.9 D 23
0 700 900 1610 2.3 0.59 0.59 D 23
700 890 3.94 2.42 0.66 D 23
1400 1300 3.94 3.12 2.3 U 23
1.2 2250 2220 2200 1.28 1.25 1.12 U 22
2 2805 3125 3290 1.15 0.39 0 U 23
3 2780 3500 4200 0.066 0.066 0 U 23
2 2400 2500 3000 0.88 0.16 5 U 23
1.1 1810 1810 1700 13.78 15.09 4.59 U 23
1 1100 1325 1400 1.38 1.38 0.33 U 23
1.1 750 800 1350 1.64 1.51 1.25 D 23
0.6 460 460 490 1.28 1.31 1.18 D 23
0.5 400 400 404 0.26 0.2 0.033 D 23
0.5 140 140 215 1.71 0.79 0.79 0 23
1 825 1000 1100 2.29 2.46 1.97 D 23
0.9 800 920 920 1.57 1.51 0.82 D 23
1.2 1600 1700 1680 1.41 1.8 0.098 D 23
1.9 2380 2450 2400 0.75 1.24 1.87 D 23
2.2 3390 3600 3100 1.71 1.31 0.098 D 23
3.2 4350 4700 4900 0.13 0.098 0.066 S 23
3.9 3670 4510 8000 0.082 0 0.016 D 23
2 3450 3710 3910 0.39 0.26 0.066 D 23
1.5 2180 2100 2290 1.9 1.64 1.25 D 23
1.1 1290 1750 1500 1.67 1.41 1.05 D 23
0.8 780 1400 900 1.35 1.54 0.72 D 23
0.4 550 580 580 1.08 0.79 0.82 D 23
0.2 550 620 620 0.2 0.2 0.066 D 23
0.3 380 400 350 1.51 1.64 0.79 D 23










Table A16. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 16.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP

5/13 2010 1.6 1.9 2 3000 3450 3500 0.066 0.52 0.66 U 23
2120 1.5 2 2 3000 3900 4000 0.066 0.33 0.26 U 23
2225 1.4 3.1 4.1 2900 4250 7100 4.59 10.17 13.45 U 23
2330 0.05 1.1 2.1 1880 2530 3790 0.39 0.066 0.39 U 23
5/14 0 0 0 0 510 680 680 1.38 0.82 0.032 U 23
422 0 0 0.02 410 490 1390 1.8 1.57 0 D 23
648 0.5 0.8 0.9 900 1400 1400 0.098 0.098 0.59 U 23
740 0.09 0.09 1.1 1310 1425 1900 0.066 0.39 0.39 U 23
834 1 1.3 1.7 1710 2300 2500 0.098 0.59 0.098 S 23
950 1.7 1.9 2.1 2200 2900 3100 0.066 0.39 0.066 D 23
1044 1.3 1.9 1.9 2000 2500 2490 0.066 0.066 0.066 U 23
1138 0.9 1.2 2.1 1110 1700 3000 0.82 0.33 0.066 U 23
1244 0.7 0.7 1 700 700 1200 0.98 0.92 5.2 U 23
1347 0.5 0.5 0.8 550 520 850 0.98 0.92 0.032 U 23
1424 0.6 0.6 0.5 420 420 420 1.05 1.02 0.59 23
1530 0.7 0.7 0.6 345 370 400 0 0 0 S 23
1613 0.5 0.7 1.1 340 300 284 1.05 0.46 0.46 D 23
1714 0.5 0.8 0.9 400 600 850 1.05 1.15 1.05 D 23
1756 1 0.9 1 900 900 1100 0.13 0.59 0.52 D 23
1905 0.9 1.5 1 1050 1120 1180 0.098 0.72 0.98 UD 23
1955 1 1.5 1.8 1250 2100 2200 0.066 0.66 1.02 D 23
2055 2 2 2.2 2620 3000 3200 0.098 0.26 0.066 S 23
2155 1.5 2.2 2.1 1800 3450 3150 0 0.082 0.033 S 23
2250 2 2.8 3.9 2800 3700 6020 0.066 0.066 0.032 U 23
2340 1.9 2.2 3.8 2490 3320 7800 0.098 0.08 0.032 U 23
5/15 54 1 1.6 2.5 1490 2120 3700 1.08 0.56 0.03 U 23
151 0.5 0.8 1.5 800 950 2150 0.98 0.69 0.52 U 23
251 0.4 0.4 1.8 550 580 2440 0.98 1.02 0.23 U 23
351 0.3 0.3 0.3 480 490 0.52 2.29 0.66 U 23
453 0.4 0.5 0.5 530 550 590 1.08 0.98 0.46 D 23
544 0.2 0.2 0.3 300 300 350 0.75 0.66 0.52 D 23










Table A17. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 17.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 1920 12.1
2034 11.4
2150 11.6
2323 9
5/14 30 7
149 4.35
318
434 5.5
534 8
704 10.9
800 11.7
858 11.7
952 10.9
1145 7.7
1235 5.7
1415 2.85
1523 2.6
1631 5.1
1715 7.4
1810 9.8
1908 11.5
2015 11.1
2120 11.3
2300 11.1
2330 8.65
5/15 255 5.7
345 3.2
449 5.5


1
1.3
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.275
1.5
0.7
0
0
0
0


1
1.4
0.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.275
1.5
0.7
0
0
0
0


1 1350
1.4 2400
1.5 1700
0 700
0 370
0 330
0 220
0 280
0 485
0 400
0 900
0.1 1000
0 850
0 900
0 400
0 220
0 205
0 250
0 400
0 280
0 800
0.275 1650
1.5 2900
0.7 790
0 700
0 350
0 245
0 270


1400
2500
1700
650
370
330
220
290
490
400
900
1000
900
450
400
220
205
260
400
300
850
1650
2900
2000
700
350
245
270


--


1350 1.52 1.52 1.86 U 23
2500 0.59 0.68 0.68 U 23
1600 2.2 2.2 1.86 U 23
700 2.96 2.86 2.7 D 23
370 2.87 2.37 2.03 0 23
330 2.2 2.11 2.03 D 23
215 1.35 1.18 1.27 D 23
290 1.69 1.61 1.52 U 23
490 2.03 2.03 2.03 U 23
450 1.52 1.01 1.1 U 23
900 1.18 1.44 1.52 U 23
1100 0.42 0 0 S 23
900 1.69 1.35 1.35 D 23
450 1.61 1.18 1.35 D 23
400 2.37 2.2 1.52 0 24
215 2.2 1.86 1.69 0 24
205 0.68 0.34 0.34 0 25
262 1.86 1.52 1.52 U 25
400 2.37 1.94 1.52 U 24
300 2.54 2.19 2.03 U 24
850 2.37 2.2 1.52 U 24
1650 1.69 1.69 1.52 U 23
2950 1.44 1.35 U 23
2050 2.2 2.2 1.52 0 23
700 2.54 2.54 2.03 D 23
350 2.2 1.86 1.69 D 23
245 1.52 1.35 1.01 D 24
270 1.35 1.35 1.18 U 24










Table A18. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 18.

DATE/TIME MEAN SEA SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
LEVEL (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 2005 2.82
2105 3.62
2220 3.02
2345 0.17
5/14 100 -1.98
230 -4.38
346 -3.73
502 -0.78
610 1.82
720 3.62
815 4.02
915 4.02
1026 2.02
1200 -0.98
1300 -2.83
1433 -5.18
1534 -4.18
1640 -1.58
1734 -2.48
1830 2.92
1923 4.27
2030 3.72
2150 3.92
2320 2.92
2345
5/15 212 -1.68
405 -2.58


2.3 2.5 3800
3 2.5 5000
1 1.1 2400
0 0 750
0 0 420
0 0 360
0 0 500
0 0 440
0 0 400
0.1 0.1 1100
0.75 0.75 1600
0 0 150
0.5 0.25 1150
0 0 800
0 0 400
0 0 220
0 0 400
0 0 400
0 0 300
0 0 600
1 1 1500
2 2.25 3600
2 2.5 3650
1 1 2600
0.1 0.1 900
0 0 400
0 0 325


4300 1.35 1.18 1.18 U 23
4800 0.34 0.42 0.42 S 23
2500 2.54 2.37 2.11 D 23
710 1.52 2.54 2.2 D 23
420 2.54 2.2 2.54 D 23
365 2.87 2.54 2.37 D 23
500 0.68 1.18 1.01 U 23
450 2.37 2.28 2.37 U 23
600 2.11 1.35 1.2 U 23
1200 1.35 1.18 0.93 U 23
1850 1.01 0.85 0.85 U 23
250 0.51 0.85 0.85 D 23
1150 2.37 1.86 1.27 D 23
900 2.27 2.27 1.69 D 23
400 2.87 2.87 2.03 D 23
275 2.62 .2.2 2.54 D 24
400 1.1 1.01 1.18 U 25
400 2.54 2.54 2.03 U 25
320 2.87 2.7 2.2 U 24
750 2.28 2.03 2.54 U 24
1800 1.94 1.86 1.77 U 24
3900 1.69 1.69 1.52 U 23
4400 S 23
2500 2.87 2.54 1.86 D 23
900 3.04 2.62 2.11 D 24
400 2.54 2.7 2.7 D 24
322 1.18 0.85 0.68 D 24










Table A19. Salinity, conductivity, current, direction, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988, at station 19.

DATE/TIME STAFF SALINITY CONDUCTIVITY CURRENT DIR
GAUGE (ppt) (umhos) (fps)
TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TOP MID BOTTOM TEMP


5/13 2019
2130
2300
5/14 1
127
250
412
518
630
740
828
930
1045
1215
1345
1455
1555
1700
1745
1842
1935
2045
2220
2336
105
237
530


5
2
1.2
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
3.5
5
3.5
2
1
0.5
0
0
0.25
0.8
2
4.5
-4.5
4
3
2.5
2
4.7 0.5
1


5 6000 8000 6000 0.85 0.34 0.42 U 23
5 6000 8000 5500 2.54 2.54 2.03 D 23
1.5 2800 2800 2950 1.44 2.87 0.93 D 23
0.85 D 23
1110 1110 2.54 D 23
700 650 0.51 D 23
0 1200 1200 1200 0.34 0.68 0.68 U 23
1.5 2300 2800 2800 1.69 1.61 1.52 23
7 5000 7500 800 1.61 1.69 1.27 23
5.1 8000 8000 8200 0.85 0.85 1.35 U 23
5 6000 7500 8000 1.35 0 U 23
5 3500 8000 8000 2.37 1.35 1.18 D 23
1 2000 2000 2000 1.52 1.52 1.35 D 23
0.5 1300 1250 1250 1.35 1.35 1.18 D 23
0 750 800 0.68 0.68 D 24
600 800 0 D 24
0.5 1000 1100 1100 1.35 1.27 1.18 U 25
0.8 1500 1600 1600 1.44 1.18 1.18 U 25
4 3900 4500 4500 2.03 1.52 1.52 U 24
4.5 7500 8000 8000 1.86 1.52 1.35 U 24
4.5 7500 7500 7500 1.88 1.88 1.18 U 23
4 7000 7000 7000 1.35 0.85 0.68 U 23
3.5 6000 6000 6000 2.79 2.2 1.52 D. 23
2.5 4800 4800 4800 2.54 2.03 2.2 D 23
1.5 2500 2500 2600 1.69 1.44 1.1 D 24
0.5 1200 1150 1150 0.85 0.85 0.85 D 24
1 1900 1900 1900 1.35 1.35 1.35 U 24











Table A20. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at tide-gate.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM



1755 13 4.7 9.2 12.5 8420 15790 20860 23.5
1933 5 11.6 13.4 8860 19520 22190 22.5
849 14 6.1 11.3 13.4 10670 19050 22260 22.9 23.0 23.0
1022 7.1 10.2 14.8 12390 17330 24330 23.7 23.1 23.1
1207 5.5 6.8 15.4 9750 11820 25240 23.4 23.3 23.3
1434 2.6 3.5 14.6 4820 6310 24100 24.2 23.7 23.6
1617 3.1 4.9 12.4 5620 8720 20650 24.5 23.7 23.3
1804 6.1 8.8 12 10670 15150 20080 23.9 23.7 23.3




Table A21. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 31.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM



1656 13 14.1 14.4 14.5 23250 23790 23880 22.3 22.3 22.3
1857 16.6 16.9 27080 27520 22.5
813 14 18.3 19 29490 30640 22.9 22.9
950 15.9 15.9 25930 25930 22.9 23
1131 13.3 13.3 22030 22030 23.2 23.2
1403 11.8 19850 23.6
1546 12.3 20540 23.9
1732 16.1 16.3 26280 26620 23.7 23.7




Table A22. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 32.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM


1651
1853
809
944


13 16
16.8
14 20.8
18.3


16 26190
16.8 27340
20.8 33270
21.3 29600


26190
27340
33270
33960


22.5
22.5
23.0
22.9


22.5

23
23.2










Table A23. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 30.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM



1545 13 16.4 21.2 21.8 26720 33740 34630 22.5
1824 23 25.8 26.5 36410 40400 41290 22.0
743 14 28.3 30.7 31.4 43830 47160 48190 22.8 22.4 22.2
915 28.7 30 31.4 44400 46240 48190 22.7 22.5 22.3
1057 22.4 25.2 25.9 35570 39470 40500 23.1 23.0 23.0
1333 16.6 17.6 20.5 27080 28460 32820 23.3 23.3 23.2
1518 15.5 19.1 22.4 25470 30750 35570 23.7 23.3 23.3
1702 27.1 27.1 27.1 42220 42220 42220 23.1 23.2 23.2




Table A24. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 29.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM


1834
756
928
1113
1347
1532
1717


22.1 23.6 24
14 25.5 28 28
22.7 27.8 28.2
19.3 21.8 25.3


35070
39930
35910
30980


12.7 15.9 17.3 21110
13 15.1 16.7 21690
19.2 20.9 21.1 30870


37290
43370
43140
34650
25930
24780
33390


37740
43370
43710
39580
28110
27190
33620


22.0
22.9
22.9
23.1
23.5
23.6
23.5


22.7
22.8
23.0
23.2
23.4
23.2


22.7
22.7
23.0
23.2
23.4
23.2










Table A25. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 28.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM



1630 13 14.2 14.9 15 23520 24500 24680 22.0
1845 18.1 20.6 21 29300 32850 33560 21.5
804 14 20.5 22.5 24 32820 35680 37860 22.9 22.9 22.9
938 19.9 22.8 25.5 31900 36030 39930 23.0 23.0 22.9
1123 12.2 15.7 20.1 20420 25700 32130 23.2 23.1 23.0
1357 10.1 12.7 14.6 17210 21230 23980 23.5 23.3 23.2
1539 10.1 12.4 20.5 17100 20650 32820 23.7 23.5 23.6
1725 15 17 17.1 24670 27650 27770 23.6 23.3 23.3
1630 13 14.2 14.9 15 23520 24500 24680 22.0
1845 18.1 20.6 21 29300 32850 33560 21.5
804 14 20.5 22.5 24 32820 35680 37860 22.9 22.9 22.9
938 19.9 22.8 25.5 31900 36030 39930 23.0 23.0 22.9
1123 12.2 15.7 20.1 20420 25700 32130 23.2 23.1 23.0
1357 10.1 12.7 14.6 17210 21230 23980 23.5 23.3 23.2
1539 10.1 12.4 20.5 17100 20650 32820 23.7 23.5 23.6
1725 15 17 17.1 24670 27650 27770 23.6 23.3 23.3




Table A26. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at station 26.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM



1557 3.8 5.8 5.8 6840 7930 10200 0.96 1.39 1.32 23.0 23.0 23.0
1927 11.8 12.3 12.5 19800 20590 20790 22.0 23.0 23.0




Table A27. Salinity, conductivity, current, and temperature for May 13 and 14, 1988 at FRM 14.



Time Date Salinity Conductivity CURRENT Temperature
(ppt) (umhos) (fps) (oC)
TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM TOP MIDDLE BOTTOM


15840




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