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 Introduction
 Method






Group Title: Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit Technical Report no. 47
Title: 1991 land cover classification for Eglin Air Force Base
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073827/00001
 Material Information
Title: 1991 land cover classification for Eglin Air Force Base
Series Title: Technical report
Alternate Title: Land cover classification for Eglin Air Force Base
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pearlstine, Leonard G
Brandt, Laura A
Kitchens, Wiley M
Publisher: Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: [1993]
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetation classification -- Florida -- Eglin Air Force Base   ( lcsh )
Eglin Air Force Base (Fla.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Leonard G. Pearlstine, Laura A. Brandt, and Wiley M. Kitchens.
General Note: "September 30, 1993."
General Note: "Completed for the Natural Resources Branch of the Jackson Guard, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida."
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Coastal Engineering Department series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073827
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001894738
oclc - 30935000
notis - AJX0003

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Method
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
Full Text


















1991 Land Cover Classification
for Eglin Air Force Base

September 30, 1993

Technical Report #47










Completed for the Natural Resources Branch of the Jackson Guard,
Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.










1991 Land Cover Classification for Eglin Air Force Base
Technical Report #47



Introduction

Eglin Air Force Base is the largest forested
military reservation in the free world consisting of
approximately 190,000 acres in northwest Florida. It is within
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and Walton Counties. The Natural Resources
Branch of the Jackson Guard stationed at Eglin is focusing over
the next five years on completion of a Natural Resource
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) dedicated to an intensive
monitoring program designed to evaluate the ecological impacts of
management activities. One of the first steps is to quantify the
types and spatial distributions of land covers on the
reservation. This report documents the methodologies and results
of a land cover classification for Eglin Air Force Base.


Method


March 11, 1991 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery
was supplied by the Natural Resources Branch. All procedures on
the imagery were completed in ERDAS geographic information
system/ image processing software. The first five bands of the
imagery were rectified to UTM coordinates (Zone 16) for use with
global positioning systems in the field. A normalized vegetation
index was computed and added as a sixth band. The image was then
split into two files: a cutout of the mainland and a cutout of
the barrier islands so that these areas could be classified
separately.

A supervised classification was used on the
imagery. Signatures for the classification came from several
sources. Richard Eiler, a botanist with the Florida Natural
Areas Inventory, and Steve Seiber, Forest Management Supervisor
at Eglin, identified 81 signatures by circling polygons on-screen
from the imagery. Signatures also were developed from 3 trips to
the field with a GPS to locate representative land covers.
Finally, scanned images of the Forest Management Tree Stand
boundaries were vectorized and attributed with tree species
dominance information from the Natural Resources Branch database.
This product wad rectified to the image and stands with a high
dominance of selected species (particularly the pines) were
extracted as signatures. This procedure was accomplished in
ARC/INFO and DBASE software and imported to ERDAS for signature
extraction. Signatures were selected from these sets by
examining signature variance, overlap between signatures, and
several trial classifications. The final set selected contains










1991 Land Cover Classification for Eglin Air Force Base
Technical Report #47



Introduction

Eglin Air Force Base is the largest forested
military reservation in the free world consisting of
approximately 190,000 acres in northwest Florida. It is within
Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and Walton Counties. The Natural Resources
Branch of the Jackson Guard stationed at Eglin is focusing over
the next five years on completion of a Natural Resource
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) dedicated to an intensive
monitoring program designed to evaluate the ecological impacts of
management activities. One of the first steps is to quantify the
types and spatial distributions of land covers on the
reservation. This report documents the methodologies and results
of a land cover classification for Eglin Air Force Base.


Method


March 11, 1991 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery
was supplied by the Natural Resources Branch. All procedures on
the imagery were completed in ERDAS geographic information
system/ image processing software. The first five bands of the
imagery were rectified to UTM coordinates (Zone 16) for use with
global positioning systems in the field. A normalized vegetation
index was computed and added as a sixth band. The image was then
split into two files: a cutout of the mainland and a cutout of
the barrier islands so that these areas could be classified
separately.

A supervised classification was used on the
imagery. Signatures for the classification came from several
sources. Richard Eiler, a botanist with the Florida Natural
Areas Inventory, and Steve Seiber, Forest Management Supervisor
at Eglin, identified 81 signatures by circling polygons on-screen
from the imagery. Signatures also were developed from 3 trips to
the field with a GPS to locate representative land covers.
Finally, scanned images of the Forest Management Tree Stand
boundaries were vectorized and attributed with tree species
dominance information from the Natural Resources Branch database.
This product wad rectified to the image and stands with a high
dominance of selected species (particularly the pines) were
extracted as signatures. This procedure was accomplished in
ARC/INFO and DBASE software and imported to ERDAS for signature
extraction. Signatures were selected from these sets by
examining signature variance, overlap between signatures, and
several trial classifications. The final set selected contains










43 signatures. Because some classes were represented by more
than one signature (e.g., open water, cleared areas, Forested
Swamp), there are a total of 24 land cover classes. There were
actually two signature sets, one with 37 signatures for the
mainlands, and one with 15 signatures for the barrier islands (9
signatures were common to both sets). A baysian maximum
likelihood classifier was used to classify the image with the
above signature sets. The mainland and barrier island
classifications were then merged for a preliminary map.

In the signature sets for this image, marsh
areas could not be spectrally separated from forest burn areas,
so where burns were known they were manually edited to a new
class. Similarly, brackish and fresh marsh did not adequately
separate in this image, so manual editing was used to recode
marsh classes that were immediately adjacent to the bay as
brackish and all other marsh grass locations as fresh. After
classification, the mainland and barrier island maps were merged.


Computer image classification often produces a
lot of "salt and pepper"; that is, many locations of a specific
class that are only one pixel in area. The assigned
classification of these locations is generally in doubt because
the spectral response of these pixels is being heavily influenced
by edge effects. To reduce salt and pepper, a 3x3 majority
filter was passed over the land cover map. The center of the
filter passes over every pixel and assigns the pixel in the
center the class of the majority of pixels surrounding it. Thus,
in a homogenous area, the class of the center pixel will remain
unchanged, but individual pixel classes will be reassigned to the
majority class surrounding them.

The final map product was re-rectified to the
polyconic projection for compatibility with other Natural
Resources Branch G.I.S. thematic layers. The parameters used for
the polyconic projection are:
Longitude of Central Meridian -86.50
Latitude of Origin of Projection 30.50
False Easting 0
False Northing 0













Land Cover Classification for Eglin Air Force Base, 1991.


TERRESTRIAL
1 Xeric Upland/ Sandhill/ Longleaf Pine
2 Xeric Upland/ Sandhill/ Sand Pine
3 Xeric Upland/ Sandhill/ Slash Pine
4 Xeric Upland/ Scrub/ Longleaf Pine Scrub
5 Xeric Upland/ Scrub/ Sand Pine Scrub
6 Xeric Upland/ Xeric Hammock/ Sandhill Hammock
7 Xeric Upland/ Xeric Hammock/ Mature Scrub Hammock
8 Xeric Upland/ Scrub/ Oak Scrub, cutover
9 Xeric Upland/ Xeric Hammock/
Advanced Xeric Forest (Sand Live Oak)
10 Forest Burn Area (Typically Longleaf Pine)
11 Coastal Uplands/ Maritime Grass/
Temperate maritime herbaceous (dune grass)

PALUSTRINE
12 Wet Grasses (Isolated Marsh, Floodplain Marsh)
13 Floodplain Wetlands/ Floodplain Forests (pine/hardwd)
14 Floodplain Wetlands/ Floodplain Swamp/
Cypress-Tupelo
15 Floodplain Wetlands/ Streambank Thicket/ Baygall
16 Floodplain Wetlands/ Streambank Thicket/ Titi
17 Floodplain Wetlands/ Sreambank Thicket/ Shrub Thicket
18 Wet Flatwoods/ Wet Prairie/ Wiregrass Prairie
19 Wet Flatwoods/ Wet Prairie/ Wiregrass Prairie, invaded

MARINE & ESTUARINE
20 Floral Based/ Estuarine Marsh/ High Marsh (Hypericum)
21 Floral Based/ Estuarine Marsh/ Black Needlerush Marsh
22 Mineral Based/ Unconsolidated Substrate/ Sand (beach)

OTHER
23 Cleared (natural barren, roads, cleared fields, urban)
24 Open Water


Totals:


HECTARES


40192.4
3196.1
12198.4
20474.1
9392.8
10363.8
25635.9
9484.8

546.5
387.7

970.5
990.8
10115.4

3257.1
1063.4
1563.4
9474.1
248.1
49.7




24.6
110.6
735.1


26749.4
2101.5


190349.2


PERCENT of
BASE
21.23 %
1.69 %
6.44 %
10.81 %
4.96 %
5.47 %
13.54 %
5.01 %

0.29 %
0.20 %

0.51 %
0.52 %
5.34 %

1.72 %
0.56 %
0.83 %
5.00%
0.13 %
0.03 %




0.01 %
0.06 %
0.39 %


14.13 %
1.11 %


Note: The final map product illustrates Class 23 and 24
outside of Eglin Air Force Base Boundaries for display
purposes, however, the hectares presented above are for the
area inside the base boundaries only. Class 25 is
"Unclassified" lands outside the base.













Color Scheme Suggestion for EGLINCOV.TIF


Class RED GREEN BLUE
0 0 0 0
1 255 255 0
2 85 184 91
3 242 114 117
4 227 219 124
5 166 172 10
6 8 100 0
7 183 104 10
8 121 190 120
9 221 13 213
10 153 153 153
11 65 132 99
12 62 253 182
13 150 0 150
14 83 8 165
15 4 163 152
16 118 88 54
17 121 69 67
18 120 218 214
19 100 100 0
20 43 43 232
21 72 135 212
22 204 204 204
23 255 255 255
24 0 0 0
25 252 203 152




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