TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 2
METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE VALUE OF
FLORIDA WETLANDS TO FISH AND WILDLIFE:
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Monica A. Leadon, Project Leader
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit
117 Newins-Ziegler Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
U.S. Department of the Interior
Fish and Wildlife Service
Contract No. 14-16-0009-80-038
METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS THE VALUE OF FLORIDA
WETLANDS TO FISH AND WILDLIFE:
AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Monica A. Leadon
The following bibliography was compiled for use by the Cooperative
Fish and Wildlife Unit and their cooperators as an aid in determining
research priorities in Florida wetlands. Emphasis was placed on studies
done on the economic value of wetlands, values to fish and wildlife, methods
of sampling in a wetland area, and restoration practices. Material was
generally gathered from studies done in the southeast, however, some
relevant national papers were also included.
Alexander, T. 1971. Sawgrass biology related to the future of the Ever-
glades ecosystem. Soil and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. 31:72-74.
Allen, P. F. 1950. Ecological basis for land use planning in Gulf Coast
marshlands. Soil and Water Conserv. 5(2):56-62, 85.
Presents a program for management of coastal marshlands that is pri-
marily concerned with knowledge of the developmental trend of existing
land conditions. Summarizes information about the processes of suc-
cession in salt and fresh marshes.
Anderson, H. G. 1940. Studies preliminary to a waterfowl habitat restora-
tion along the Illinois River. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 5:369-373.
Describes the effect of water fluctuation on marsh plants and on bird
feeding behavior in different sampling spots.
Anderson, R. R., V. Carter and J. McGinness. 1973. Investigations of
Wetlands Ecology. The American University, Wash., D.C.
Armstrong, J., H. Bissell, R. Davenport, J. Goodman, M. Hershman, J. Sorenson,
L. Sloan, and D. Wormhoudt. 1974. Coastal zone management. Coastal
Zone Manage. Inst.
Arnett, R. 1972. Fish and wildlife resource development through water
project management. Int. Assoc. Game Fish Conserv. Commissioners
Ausness, R. 1973. A Survey of State Regulation of Dredge and Fill Opera-
tion in Non-Navigable Water 8 Land and Water L. Rev. 65.
Austin, D. F., K. Coleman-Marois, D. R. Richardson. 1977. Vegetation
of southeast Florida, II-V. Florida Sci. 40(4):331-361.
Baldwin, Wm. P. and E. P. Ball. 1951. The value of herbicides in southern
aquatic habitat management. Fifth Annu.Conf. SE. Asso. Game and Fish
This paper outlines the problems of applying herbicidal controls to
aquatic vegetation, discusses the role and cost of airplane applica-
tion as well as costs of other methods. Describes effect of 2, 4-D
on aquatic weeds.
Banner, Arnold. 1977. Revegetation and Maturation of Restored Shoreline
in Indian River, Florida. U.S. Fish and Wildlife. From: Proceedings
4th Annual Conf. on Restoration of Coastal Veget. in Florida 1977,
May. Hillsborough Comm. Coll., Tampa, FL.
Barko, J. W., R. M. Smart, C. R. Lee, M. C. Landin, T. C. Sturgis, R. N.
Gordon. 1977. Establishment and growth of selected freshwater and
coastal marsh plants in relation to characteristics of dredged sedi-
ments. Final report. Technical Report D-77-2 (NTIS No. AD-A039 495).
U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Stat., Vicksburg, MS.
Barnett, B. S. and R. W. Schneider. 1974. "Fish populations in dense
submerged aquatic plant communities. Hyacinth control Jnl. 12:12-14.
Barstow, C. J. 1970. "Impact of channelization of wetland habitat in
the Obion-Forked Deer Basin, Tennessee." Transactions of the Thirty-
sixth North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. 36:
Bass, D. G., Jr., and V. G. Hitt. 1971. Sport Fishery of the Suwannee
River. FL. Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm. Lake City, FL.
Fish populations identified and measured by:l) creel census 2) fish
population analysis 3) water quality analysis 4) quantitative evalua-
tion of benthos 4) short-term survival of hatchery-raised fish.
Bass, D. G. and V. G. Hitt. 1973. Sport Fishery Ecology of the Suwannee
and Santa Fe Rivers. FL Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Lake
Describes distribution and life history of the Suwannee Bass, Micropterus
notius. Covers food habits, spawning periods, length-weight relationships,
etc. of the bass.
Bay, R. R. and R. A. Klawitter. 1964. What's New In Wetland Hydrology.
Proceedings of the division of Watershed Management: 175-177.
Beck, W. M., Jr. 1958. A study of the interrelationship of selected
chemical and physical factors of the Suwannee River. Quart. J.
Fla. Acad. Sci. 21(1):12-24.
Discusses interrelations between discharge, hardness, alkalinity,
color, dissolved oxygen. Found a negative correlation between dis-
charge and hardness, alkalinity and 02 saturation, and a positive
correlation between hardness and alkalinity, discharge and color.
Bedish, J. W. 1967. Cattail Moisture Requirements and Their Significance
to Marsh Management. American Midl. Naturalist 78:288-300.
Belanger, V. 1979. Benthic oxygen demand in selected Florida aquatic
systems. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Fla.
Bellrose, F. C., and J. B. Low. 1978. Advances in waterfowl management
research. Wildlife Society Bull. 6(2):63-72.
Bennet, C. L. 1965. Some methods of waterfowl and marsh inventories.
M.S. Thesis, Michigan St. Univ. East Lansing, Michigan.
Benson, Dirck and Robert F. Perry. 1965. "An acre of marsh is worth ---"
The New York State Conservationist 19(6):30-33.
Bentley, E. M. 1969. The effect of marshes on water quality. Ph.D.
Thesis. Water Chem. Dept. Univ. of Wisc., Madison, Wisc.
Bernatowicz, S., S. Leszcznski, and S. Tycznska. 1976. The influence
of transpiration by emergent plants on the water balance in lakes.
Aquat. Bot. 2:275-288.
Bevis, H. A. 1952. A statistical comparison of methods for the estima-
tion of the magnitudes of low water flows of stated probabilities of
occurrence in Florida streams. M.S. Thesis Rep., U. of F., Gainesville.
Binder, D. 1972. Taking versus reasonable regulation: A Reappraisal in
Light of Regional Planning and Wetlands. 25. Univ. of Fla. Law Review:
Gives technical laws and regulations pertaining to responsibilities
of different parties in wetland disputes. Cites many good references
upon which the report was based.
Bonnema, K. W., and M. S. Zschomler. 1974. Drainage, mitigation, and
land treatment in a PL83-566 watershed. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 2(4):185-
Bourn, W. S. and C. Cottam. 1939. The effect of lowering water levels
on marsh wildlife. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf. 4:343-350.
Gives changes in densities of birds found feeding in different test
areas with water fluctuations.
Boyt, F. L., S. E. Bayley, and J. Zoltec, Jr. 1977. Removal of nutrients
from treated municipal wastewater by wetland vegetation. J. Water
Poll. Control Fed. 49(5):789-799.
Brande, J. 1980. Worthless, valuable, or what? An appraisal of wetlands.
J. Soil Water Conserv. (Jan.-Feb.):12-16.
Brezonik, P. L., W. H. Morgan, E. E. Shannon and H. D. Putnam. 1969.
Eutrophication Factors in North Central Florida Lakes. In: Engineering
Prog. at the U.F., Fla. Eng. and Indust. Exper. Sta. Vol. XXIII,
No. 8. Gainesville, FL.
Anderson, Cue and McCloud lakes were the test lakes frequently monitored -
33 lakes around the Gainesville area were sampled and analyzed.
Briggs, J. C. 1958. A list of Florida fishes and their distribution.
Bull. Fla. State Museum, Biol. Sci. 2(8):223-318.
Brooks, P. J., Brezonik, P. L., Putnam, M. D., and Kiern, M. A. 1971.
Nitrog. fixation in an estuarine environment: The Wacasassa on the
Florida Gulf Coast. Limnol. Oceanog. 16:701-710.
Brown, S. 1978. A comparison of cypress ecosystems in the landscape of
Florida. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 1967. Your stake in wetlands.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Circular 140, Washington, D.C. 11 p.
Burke, Roy C. 1974. Behavioral approach to water resource management.
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
Bureau of Land Management. 1973. Dpt. of Administration, Division of
State Planning. Boundary and Land Development Regulations, Recommenda-
tions for the Big Cypress Area of Critical State Concern.
Cain, S. A. 1969. Ecology: It's Place in Water Management. U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers. Water Spectrum 1(1):10-14.
Cairns, J., K. C. Dickson. (eds.) 1972. Biological Methods for the Assess-
ment of Water Quality. Sympos. 75 Ann. Meeting, Amer. Soc. for Testing
and Materials. Los Angelos, CA.
Covers biological monitoring, indicator sps.
Cairns, J., K. C. Dickson, R. J. Livingston. (eds.) 1977. Biological
data in water pollution assessment: quantitative and statistical
analyses. Amer. Soc. for Testing and Mtls., Mpls., Minn.
Carlson, J. E. and M. J. Duever. 1979. Seasonal fish population fluctua-
tions in a south Florida swamp. Proc. Thirty-first Annu.Conf. SE.
Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 31:603-611.
Carr, A. F., Jr. and C. J. Goin. 1955. Guide to reptiles, amphibians,
and freshwater fish of Florida. Univ. Fla. Press, Gainesville, FL.
Carter, Luther J. 1973. The Florida Experience: Land and Water Policy
in a growth state. John Hopkins Univ. Press.
South Florida problems concerning land disposal and drainage, dis-
cusses new regulations, legal problems. Cites water management dis-
trict projects and Resource Management task force activities.
Carter, M. R., et al. 1973. Ecosystems Analysis of the Big Cypress Swamp,
and Estuaries: U.S. EPA PB-231 070. Env. Prot. Agency, Atlanta, GA.
A two-year study conducted to obtain necessary biologic and hydrologic
information for wise land and water usage. Compared biotic interactions
with hydrologic conditions between disturbed and uneffected regions
of Big Cypress Swamp. Primary production decreased 10 fold by drainage
of upland wetlands. Drainage produced thinning of forest canopy
and reduction in decomposition causing a greater possibility of wild-
fires. Estuaries were also affected adversely.
Carter, V. 1975. Wetland soils: recent advances in classification.
Paper presented to Don McCormack, Soils and Landscape, U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture. 23 p.
Cernohous, L. 1980. The role of wetlands in providing flood control
benefits. North Dakota Outdoors 42(9):14-16.
Chamberlain, E. B., Jr. 1960. Florida Waterfowl Populations, Habitats
and Management. Tech. Bull. #7, Fla. Game and Freshwater Fish Comm.,
Important habitat areas and types were investigated to determine
vegetation, water quality, depth, fluctuation, and turbidity. They
were then classified into five types and eleven sub-types. Dominant
aquatic plants were grouped according to frequency in water types.
Problems were found to be mainly water fluctuation, overabundance
of plants producing no food, and low water fertility.
Chitty, N. and C. W. Davis (eds.). 1972. The Effects of Sewage Effluent
on Wetland Ecosystems. Microfilms Inc. 48106 Order #74-25. Univ.
of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich.
Choate, J. S. 1972. Effects of Stream Channeling on Wetlands in a Minor
Watershed. Jnl. Wildl. Mgmt. 36:940-944.
Clark, J. and J. Clark. 1979. National Wetlands Technical Council.
Scientists Report. National Symposium on Wetlands. Lake Buena Vista,
Questions were addressed by members of different panels set up at
the symposium. The panels included: Food chains, habitat, hydrology,
harvest water quality and heritage. Wetland values to fisheries,
in sewage treatment, flood control, etc. are discussed.
Clark, W. E. 1965. Relation of Ground-Water Inflow and of Bank and Channel
Storage to Streamflow Pickup in the Santa Fe River, Florida. Geolog.
Survey, Professional Paper 525-D. U.S. Geol. Surv., Tallahassee, FL.
Discussed streamflow pickup at different times of year and discusses
reasons for positive and negative pickups. Graphs compare flow at
two different stations, one at High Springs and one at Ft. White.
Coastal Coordinating Council. 1971. Coastal Zone Management in Florida.
1972. Florida Coastal Zone Management Atlas. Tallahassee, FL.
Coastal Zone Resources Corp. 1976. Contract Report D-76-2 (NTIS No. AD-
A033 525). Identification of relevant criteria and survey of potential
application sites for artificial habitat creation. Volume 1: Relevant
criteria for marsh-island site selection and their application.
Cole, R. A. 1978. Habitat development field investigations, Buttermilk
Sound Marsh Development Site, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, GA.
Summary report. Technical Report D-78-26 (NTIS No. AD-A057 937).
Conroy, P.D. M.S. Thesis. 1979. Economic value of the salt marsh to the
Florida blue crab industry. Dpt. of Food and Res. Economics. Univ.
Discusses: 1) Value of marsh and estuaries to fisheries, 2) development
methodology for determination of economics, 3) monetary value of source
to commercial fisheries, 4) policies proven imper. from research results.
Salt marsh worth ranged from $56-69/acre.
Corps. of Engineers, Dept. of the Army. 1960-1970. Water Resources for
Central and South Florida. Florida Rm., U. of F. Library, Gainesville.
Gives description of area including hydrology, water problems, eco-
nomic development, and plans for improvement and cost/benefit analysis.
Cottam, C. 1968. "Research needs in estuarine areas of the Gulf Coast".
Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary Mgmt. Symp., La. St. Univ., Baton
Research needs stated pertaining to restoring and effectively managing
remaining wetland resources including economic and recreational values.
Nineteen specific research needs are named.
Courtenay, W. R., Jr. and C. R. Robins. 1973. Exotic aquatic organisms
in Florida with emphasis on fishes: a review and recommendations.
Trans. Amer. Fish Society 102(1):1-12.
Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. L. LaRoe. 1977. Classifica-
tion of wetlands and aquatic habitats of the United States. (An
operational draft). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report. 100pp.
Cox, D. T. 1968-1970. Stream Investigations. Fla. Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission. 2 reports,DJ Prog. #F-25-3 and F-25-2. Annual
Investigations on Suwannee, Apalachicola, St. Johns and Withlacoochee
Rivers. Sampled on a quarterly basis for fish, inverts, and water
chemistry. Describes pros and cons of different sampling methods.
Craighead, F. C. 1968. The role of the alligator in shaping plant communi-
ties and managing wildlife in the Southern Everglades. Fla. Natur.
41, Nos. 1 and 2.
Crowder, J. P. 1974. The effects of drainage and associated development
in the Big Cypress Swamp. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.
U.S. Dpt. of the Int., Wash., D.C.
Major effects from nutrient-overenrichment, pesticide increases and
alterations to surface flow area. Results of development are discussed.
Crowder, J. P. 1974. The Biological Impact of Residential Real Estate
Development in the So. Florida Coastal Wetlands. U.S. Bureau of
Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Dep. of Int., Wash., D.C.
Discusses the effects of dredging, channelization, and canal-building
in coastal shallow waters and wetlands of So. Florida. Recommendations
Crowder, J. P. 1974. Some perspectives on the status of aquatic wading
birds in So. Florida. U.S. Bureau Sports Fisheries and Wildlife
Relationship between wading birds, water levels, etc. discussed.
Emphasis on population size, feeding, efficiency, predator-prey rela-
Crowder, J. P. 1974. The biological impact of residential real estate
development on the south Florida coastal wetlands: U.S. Bureau of
Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. PB-231-672.
Effects of dredging, filling, canalization in So. FL. including des-
truction of habitat, water quality. Central joint-use facilities
cited as alternatives.
Custer, T. W. and R. C. Osborn. 1977. Wading birds as biological indi-
cators: 1975 colony survey. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Sci. Rep. Wildl.
206:1-28. Patuxet Wildl. Res. Cen., Laurel, Maryland.
Cypert, E. 1961. The effects of fires in the Okeefenokee Swamp in 1954
and 1955. Amer. Midl. Natur. 66(2):485-503.
Daniel, C. and R. LaMaire. 1974. Evaluating Effects of Water Resource
Developments on Wildlife Habitat. Wildlife Society Bulletin 2:114.
A system is presented for numerically evaluating effects of water
resource development on wildlife habitat. Unique habitats and endangered
flora and fauna considered.
Darnell, R. M. 1976. Bibliography: Effects of Construction Activities
on Wetlands. Impacts of Construction Activities in Wetlands of the
United States. U.S. Res. Lab, Corvallis, Oregon. EPA-600/3-045.
NTIS, Env. Prot. Agency.
Darnell, R. M. et al. 1976. Impacts of Construction Activities in Wet-
lands of the U.S. U.S. EPA, Corvallis, OR. Ap. 1976. (EPI 23:600/
Biology in which chemical, physical properties of wetlands are identified
and the ways construction have altered these is discussed. Suggestions
are made for preserving and restoring wetlands.
Davis, J. H. 1943. The natural features of southern Florida, especially
the vegetation and the Everglades. Florida Geol. Surv. Bull. 25.
Dewitt, C. B. and E. Soloway (eds.). 1977. Wetlands ecology, values, and
impacts. Proceedings of the Waubesa Conference on Wetlands, Madison,
Wisconsin. Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-
Madison. 388 p.
Dickson, K. G., A. C. Federico, J. R. Lutz. 1978. Water Quality in the
Everglades Agricultural Area and its Impact on Lake Okeechobee. So.
FL. Water Mgmt. Dist., Tech. Publ. #78-3.
Measured water quality in canal flowing into Lake Okeechobee adjacent
to vegetable farms. Sites were chosen in the lake center at the
openings of canals. Hydrological data, and lake management are dis-
Drew, M. A. (ed.). 1978. Environmental quality through wetlands utiliza-
tion. Proc. Symp. Freshwater Wetlands. Coord. Counc. Restoration
Kissimmee Riv. Val. and Taylor Cr.-Nubbin Slough Basin. 243p.
Duever, M. J., J. E. Carlson, and L. A. Riopelle. 1974. Water budgets
and comparative study of virgin Corkscrew Swamp. Pages 595-634 in
H. T. Odum, K. C. Ewel, J. W. Ordway, M. K. Johnston, and W. J. Mitsch
(eds.). Cypress wetlands for water management, recycling, and con-
servation. Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Duever, M. J., J. E. Carlson, and L. A. Riopelle. 1975. Ecosystem analyses
at Corkscrew Swamp. Pages 627-725 in H. T. Odum, K. C. Ewel, J. W.
Ordway, and M. K. Johnston (eds.). Cypress wetlands for water manage-
ment, recycling, and conservation. Center for Wetlands, University
of Florida, Gainesville.
Duever, M. J., J. E. Carlson, L. H. Gunderson, L. A. Eiopelle, and L. C.
Duever. 1976. Ecosystem analyses at Corkscrew Swamp. Pages 707-
785 in H. T. Odum, K. C. Ewel, J. W. Ordway, and M. K. Johnston (eds.).
Cypress wetlands for water management, recycling, and conservation.
Center for Wetlands, University of Florida, Gainesville.
Duever, M. J., L. A. Riopelle, and L. C. Duever. 1977. Ecosystem analysis
of the Okefenokee Swamp: tree-ring and hydroperiod studies. Annual
report to the University of Georgia and the National Science Foundation.
National Audubon Society Ecosystem Research Unit, Naples, Florida.
Duever, M. J. and J. E. Carlson. 1978. Implications of grazing to manage-
ment of natural South Florida grasslands. Thirty-first Ann. Meeting,
Soc. Range Management, San Antonio, TX. (Abstract)
Duever, M. J., J. E. Carlson, J. F. Meeder, L. C. Duever, L. H. Gunderson,
L. A. Riopelle, T. R. Alexander, R. F. Myers, and D. P. Spangler.
1979. Resource inventory and analysis of the Big Cypress National
Preserve. Final report to the National Park Service. National Audubon
Society Ecosystem Research Unit and Center for Wetlands, University
of Florida, Gainesville. 1225 pp.
Dutoit, C. H. 1979. The Carrying Capacity of the Ichetucknee Springs
and River. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Florida.
Description of river and spring plants, invertebrates and fish and
methods of measuring impact on them by human interference. Used simple
cages to prevent trampling and measured differences in abundances of
plant and animal species. Made recommendations for recreational
usage to prevent ecosystem deterioration.
Edwards, D. 1969. Some effects of siltation upon aquatic macrophyte
vegetation in rivers. Hydrobiologia 34:29-36.
Elgmork, K. 1962. A bottom sampler for soft mud. Hydrobiologia 20:167.
Resembles a Van Dorn water sampler with a similar device to snap
Elkington, J. B. 1977. The impact of development projects on estuarine
and other wetland ecosystems. Environ. Conserv. 4(2):135-144.
Elliott, J. M. 1971. The distances travelled by drifting invertebrates
in a Lake District stream. Oceologia 6:350-379.
Gives an equation for catch versus distance from release point to
net by invertebrates. The behavior of drifting invertebrates and
their ability to return to the bottom are discussed. Concluded that
the mathematical model is a good one for invertebrate drift.
Flannagan, J. F. 1970. Efficiencies of various grabs and corers in sampling
freshwater benthos. J. Fish. Res. Board, Canada. 27:1691-1700.
Compares Ponar, Shipek, Ekman, Franklin-Anderson samplers in different
substrates. Statistical testing compares efficiencies. Graphs shows
frequencies of marcobenthos species caught.
Flohrschutz, E. W. 1978. Dwarf cypress in the Big Cypress Swamp of south-
western Florida. M.S. Thesis Rep., University of Florida, Gainesville.
Florida Dpt. Nat. Resources Rpt. 1974. Florida Water and Related Land
Resources Kissimmee Everglades area.
Gives area description including hydrology, water use and surface
water resources. Lists state agencies and each agency's function.
Lists of figures for water budgets, streamflows, acreage, projected
Florida Environmental Land Management Study Committee, Tallahassee. 1972.
Environmental Land Management: A final report and recommendation.
Definition of wetlands in Fla., gives recommendations on coastal zones
and wetlands. States different legislative acts and effectiveness
of the laws. States potential monetary loss in fisheries and concludes
by setting worth of marshes at $135,000,000/year.
Fonseca, M. S., W. J. Kenworthy, J. Homiak and G. W. Thayer. 1979. HCC
Conf. on Wetlands (6th). Hillsborough Comm. Coll., Tampa, Florida.
Describes methods for the replanting of seagrass, which grows well
with successional patterns, and costs approximately $6000/ha.
Ford, C. R. 1975. Effects of new legislation on management of river
systems. Resour. Conf. 40:365-371.
Ford, C. R. 1975. Effect of New Legislation on Management of Rivers.
Trans. N. Am. Wildlife. Nat'l. Research Conf. 40:273-280.
Summarizes new legislation such as the Water Resources Development
Act of 1974, the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, the Federal
Water Pollution Control Amendment, etc.
Forest Management and Water Resources. 1979. "Florida's Water Resources -
Implication for Forest Management. 11th Spring Symp. for Fla. Section,
Society of American Foresters. May 1979, Univ. of FL.
Discusses water supply, management and regulations case studies (burning
and water quality), coastal forests and hydrologic responses, harvesting
flatwoods and water quality, role of water management districts.
Forsberg, C. 1959. Quantitative Sampling of Subaquatic Vegetation. Oikos 10:11.
Prevents injury to plant upon removal, allows samples to be taken
from the bottom instead of the top. Metal frame lowered by ropes
is suitable for soft bottoms.
Forthman, C. A. 1973. The effects of prescribed burning on saw-
grass "Cladium jamaicensis" in So. Florida. U. of Miami, Coral Gables,
Compares burning as opposed to non-burning management. A maximum
in growth was found after burning.
Fried, E. 1974. Priority rating of wetlands for acquisition. Trans.
Northeastern Fish Wildl. Conf. 31:15-30.
Gammon, P. T., D. Malone, P. D. Brooks, and V. Carter. 1977. Three approaches
to the classification and mapping of inland wetlands, in: 11th Proc.
Int. Symp. Remote Sens. Environ. Pp. 1545-1555., Environ. Res. Inst.
Mich., Ann Arbor.
Gannon, J. W., Jr. 1971. Constitutional implications of wetlands legisla-
tion. Environ. Affairs 1(3):654-669.
Garbisch, E. W., Jr., St. Michaels, M. D., Environmental Concern, Inc.,
April 1977, Contract Report D-77-3 (NTIS No. AD-A041 464). Recent
and planned marsh establishment work throughout the contiguous United
States a survey and basic guidelines.
Gatewood, Stephen E. 1978. Marshland Reflooding in the Kissimmee River
Valley, FL. South Florida Water Mgmt. Dist., West Palm Bch., FL.
Impact of wetlands restoration on watershed hydrology and chemical
loading, response of biota to an extended hydroperiod, etc.
Gaufin, A. R., E. K. Harris, H. J. Walter. 1956. A Statistical Evalua-
tion of Stream Bottom Sampling Data Obtained from Three Standard
Samplers. Ecology 37:4.
A statistical method used to sample macroinvertebrate fauna on different
substrate types. Careful selection of bottom types is necessary so
that a comprehensive faunal picture can be gotten. No assumptions
concerning randomness of sampling or distribution and relative abun-
dances are required. Found to be a convenient tool for comparisons
under a variety of environmental conditions.
Gerking, S. D. 1957. A method of sampling the littoral macrofauna and
its application. Ecology 38:2.
System superior to Ekman dredge for total fauna, and more effective
than a grappling hook for phytomacrofauna. Consists of a box w/sliding
door at base to close without disturbing the mud bottom.
Gilbert, T., T. King, B. Barnett, J. Allen, and R. Hearon. 1979. Wetlands
reclamation technology development and demonstration for Florida phos-
phate mining. Wetlands restoration and creation: proceedings of the
sixth annual conference; May 19, 1979; Hillsborough Community College,
Tampa. pp. 87-101.
Gilbert, T., T. King, L. Hord, and J. Allen. 1980. An assessment of
wetlands establishment techniques at a Florida phosphate mine site.
Wetlands restoration and creation: proceedings of the seventh annual
conference; May 16-17, 1980; Hillsborough Community College, Tampa.
Gillespie, D. M. and C. J. Brown. 1966. A quantitative sampler for macro-
invertebrates associated with aquatic macrophytes. Limnol. and Oceanogr.
Describes a sweep net used for organisms in vegetation. A scuba diver
is needed to cut the vegetation at the base, however, for the success
of this method.
Gleason, P. J. 1974. Environments of South Florida: past and present.
Miami Geolog. Soc. Mem. 2. 452 p.
Gleason, Clark J. and Clark, J. E. (eds.). 1979. Amer. Water Resour.
Assn. Mpls. Wetland Functions and Values. The State of Our Under-
standing. Proceedings of Lake Buena Vista Symposium 1978.
Different scientists discuss topics such as how wetlands influence
downwind climatic conditions, how large and numerically rare organisms,
though consuming a minor portion of the total ecosystem energy flux,
affect wetlands, how the clearing of wetlands effected a coastal
estuary, the flood storage capacity of different wetland types, and
the economics of preserving wetlands versus usage by private interests.
Glover, F. A. 1966. "Wetlands for all." Proceedings of the Society
of American Foresters, pp. 217-220.
The need to preserve wetlands is argued. The author notes that private
wetland owners are becoming aware that wetlands have a monetary value
for recreation, grazing, fur, fish, and water conservation and that
people will pay for the opportunity of wetland recreation.
Goldstein, J. H. 1971. Competition for wetlands in the midwest: An eco-
nomic analysis. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, Inc.
Goodrick, R. L. and J. F. Milleson. 1974. Studies of floodplain vegeta-
tion and water level fluctuation in the Kissimmee River Valley. Miami
Geolog. Soc. Tech. Publ. 74-2. 60p.
Goode, R. E., D. F. Whigham, R. L. Simpson, eds. 1978. Freshwater Wet-
lands: Ecological Processes and Management Potential. Acad. Press,
Different authors cover topics such as: management of freshwater wet-
lands for nutrient assimilation, nutrient in lakeshore marsh, decomposi-
tion of intertidal freshwater marsh plants, role of emergent macrophytes
and nutrient dynamics in freshwater riverine marshes, and hydrology
in freshwater wetlands.
Goodrich, R. L. 1974. The Wet Prairie of the North Everglades. In:
Gleason, P. J. (ed). Environments of So. Fla., Miami, Geol. Soc.,
Memoir #2. Miami, Fla. Florida Scientist #42.
Goodwin, R. H. and W. A. Niering. 1974. Inland Wetlands: Their Ecological
Role and Environmental Status Bulletin Ecological Society of American
Goodwin, R. H. and W. A. Niering. 1975. Inland wetlands of the United
States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 550 p.
Goodwin, T. M. 1979. Waterfowl Management Practices Employed in Florida
and Their Effectiveness on Native and Migratory Waterfowl Populations.
Fla. Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Gainesville, FL.
Suggests supplemental food plantings, controlled burning, water-level
fluctuations and protections for declining Florida wetlands.
Gooselink, J. G., E. P. Odum, and R. M. Pope. 1974. The value of the
tidal marsh. Center for Wetlands. Rep. LSU-56-74-03. LA State Univ.,
Baton Rouge, LA.
Values of tidal marshes include: 1) by-product production (fisheries);
2) potential for aquaculture; 3) waste assimilation considerations;
4) total life-support of natural functions.
Greene, A.F.C. 1975. The need for cooperative approaches to fish and
wildlife management planning. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour.
Gleeson, Clark and Clark (eds.). 1979. Wetland Functions and Values:
State of Our Understanding. American Water Res. Assoc., Mpls. Minn.
Describes freshwater wetlands as nitrogen and phosphorous and sediment
traps for runoff from surrounding land. Covers in depth nutrient
dynamics in freshwater wetlands.
Griffith, R. E. 1957. A portable apparatus for collecting horizontal
plankton samples. Ecology 38:538-540.
Gunderson, L. H. 1977. Regeneration of cypress, Taxodium distichum and
Taxodium ascendens, within logged and burned cypress strands at Cork-
screw Swamp Sanctuary, Florida. Master's Thesis, Dept. of Botany,
Univ. of Fla., Gainesville. 88 pp.
Gunter, G., and W. E. Shell, Jr. 1958. A study of an estuarine area with
water-level control in the Louisiana marsh. Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 21:
Gupta, T. R. 1973. Economic criteria for decisions on preservation and
alternation of natural resources with special reference to freshwater
wetlands in Massachusetts. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts, Ph.D.
dissertation, 260 pages.
Gupta, T. R. 1973. "Economic criteria for decisions on preservation
and use of inland wetlands in Massachusetts." American Journal of
Agricultural Economics 57:40-45.
Developed methods of valuing inland wetlands which varied from $300-
70,000. A multidisciplinary team developed models for scoring proper-
ties of different types of wetlands and provided point scores for a
Gupta, T. R. and J. H. Foster. 1973. "Valuation of visual-cultural benefits
from freshwater wetlands in Massachusetts." Journal Northeastern
Agricultural Economics Council 2(2):262-273.
Hall, F. R., R. J. Rutherford, and G. L. Beyers. 1972. The influence
of a New England wetland on water quantity and quality. Water Resource
Research Center Research Report #4, University of New Hampshire,
Durham. 51 p.
Hall, L. C. 1979. Bibliography of Freshwater Wetlands Ecology and Manage-
ment. Dep. Nat. Resources, Madison, Wis.
Sections on plants, animals, soils and ground surface water, and
values, conservation and destruction and management of wetlands.
35 journals were reviewed.
Haller, W. M., et al. 1979. Mechanical Removal of Fish Harvested Hydrilla,
Southwest Weed Sciences Society.
Hammack, J. and G. M. Brown. 1974. Waterfowl and wetlands: toward bio-
economic analysis. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MD.
The authors identify the biological production relationships of agri-
culture and waterfowl and give a cost/acre model for waterfowl manage-
Harmon, Keith W. 1976. The economics of wetland values. Watertown,
South Dakota: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Wetland Symposium, June
8-9, 11 pgs.
Harris, B. A. and S. R. Humphrey. 1979. Application of a Quantitative
Method to Determine Status and Research Priorities on Endangered and
Threatened Vertebrates of Florida. Off. of Ecological Services,
Florida St. Museum, Sp. Sc. Rpt. 1.
To be used on an annual basis, this report takes into account popula-
tion size, population trend, distributions, population/dist. history,
dist./habitat trend, habitat vulnerability, species vulnerability,
and geographic status. Used district maps for migratory birds, and
population estimates were used from most frequently occupied area.
Harris, S. W. and W. H. Marshall. 1963. Ecology of water-level manipula-
tions on a northern marsh. Ecology 44:331-343.
Harrison, J. 1970. Creating a wetland habitat. Bird study 17(2):111-122.
Harrod, J. J. and R. E. Hall. 1962. A method for determining the surface
areas of various aquatic plants. Hydrobiologia 2:173-178.
A precise, mathematical formula for leaf area determination.
Harte, J., and R. H. Socolow. 1971. The Everglades and wilderness versus
rampant land development in South Florida. Environ. Aff.:140-163.
Harter, R. D. 1966. The effect of water levels on soil chemistry and
plant growth of the Magee Marsh Wildlife Area. Ohio Game Monographs,
Found that as the amount of water increases, the soil environment
changes from oxidizing to reducing conditions. Tested effect of
water-logging on rice and smartweed (Polygonium spp.).
Haslam, S. M. 1978. River Plants: The macrophytic vegetation of water-
courses. Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge N.Y.
Covers all plant species and the effects of changes in depth, turbidity,
water chemistry and velocity on them.
Heaney, J. P. and E. Waring. 1980. Methods for Quantifying Water Quality
Benefits. Dep. Env. Eng., U. of Fl., Gainesville, FL.
A literature review concentrated on studies describing methods for
evaluating the economics of improved water quality in lakes, streams,
rivers, and urban areas. Case studies in cost benefits, public health,
property values, social benefits, water quality/treatment are cited.
Hedlin, Ralph. 1969. "Economic values of small wetlands," in Saskatoon
Wetlands Seminar, Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service, Department of
Indian Affairs and Northern Development, pp. 25-28.
The author argues that while it is nearly impossible to place a dollar
value on a duck, the more logical approach is to examine ways and
means of evaluating habitat areas since they can be bought and sold
in the marketplace.
Helfgott,T., M. W. Lefor, and W. C. Kennard (eds.). 1973. Proceedings:
First Wetlands Conference. Institute of Water Resources Report No.
21, The University of Connecticut, Storrs. 199 p.
Hellier, Thos. R, Jr. 1967. "The Fishes of the Santa Fe River System"
Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biolog. Sciences, Vol. II,
No. 1, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville. 442-8 F6366.
Describes the different species, growths, spawning periods, distribu-
tion and relative abundances in the Santa Fe River, Fla.
Herbison, H. W. 1967. A progress report on aspects of North Dakota wet-
lands use and management. Fargo: North Dakota State University Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics Report No. 58, 35 pages.
An overview of wetlands, drainage, and waterfowl in the Devils Lake
Basin in North Dakota is presented. The author concluded that for
each $1 invested in flood control, farmers would benefit by about
$3 to $4, and that they may subsidize duck hunters by providing feed
and habitat for ducks rather than draining wetlands.
Hermann, Albert J. 1980. Nitrogen cycling in a freshwater marsh receiving
secondary sewage effluent. M.S.:Thesis Rep. Center for Wetlands,
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
Computer modelling of nutrient relationships in a cypress swamp and
effects of secondarily treated sewage on the system.
Hickman, G. L. 1976. Incorporating the Environmental Quality Dimension
in Planning River Management. Trans. North American Wildlife National
Research Conference 40:264.
Describes principles and standards for land and water use taking into
account these values: 1) monetary alone; 2) monetary and nonmonetary
(employment, population, regional environment); 3) monetary and non-
monetary (cultural educational, recreational).
Hichman, G. L. 1975. Incorporating the environmental quality dimension
in planning river management. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour.
Higer, Al and McKolinpinsh. 1967. Pull-Up trap:A quantitative device
for sampling shallow-water animals. Ecology 48:1008.
Basically consists of a nylon net on a frame which is raised by pulleys
after lying undisturbed in the weeds for free-swimming animals in
Hillsborough Community College (HCC) and Tampa Port Authority. 1979 and
1980. Proceedings of the Sixth (and Seventh) Annual Conference on
Restoration and Creation of Wetlands.
Hirsch, Nina D., et al. 1978. Effects of dredging and disposal on aquatic
organisms. Synthesis report. Naval Biosciences Lab., Tech. Rep. DS-
Taken from the Corps of Engineers Dredged Mtl. Res. Prgm., which
dealt with direct and indirect effects of dredging and disposal of
sediment on aquatic orgs. Found that turbidity is not a major environ-
ment concern and most orgs. were insensitive to sediment suspension.
Holsenhoff, Wil. 1977. Use of Arthropods to Evaluate Water Quality of
Streams. Dep. Nat. Res. Wisconsin Tech. Bull. #100. Box 7921, Madison.
29 streams were sampled (which were presumed to be undisturbed) four
times per year. Rated streams by biotic index values.
Hobbs, A. 0. 1970. Ecological effects of dredging the Lake Tarpon Canal.
U.S. Army Corps of Eng. Spec. Rep.
Hocutt, et al. 1974. Biological assessment of water quality in a large
river system: an evaluation of a method for fishes. Arch. Hydrobiolog.
Hoffpauir, C. M. 1961. Methods of measuring and determining the effects
of marsh fires. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. of Game and
Fish Comm. 15:142-161.
Objectives of this study were to devise methods of measuring marsh
fires and evaluating them; to measure factors influencing marsh burns,
and to measure some of the effects of marsh burns. The author con-
cluded that the water level in a marsh must be below the soil level
to insure root damage to undesirable plant species. If a marsh is
burned while the soil is wet, nutrients added to the soil would promote
growth of the undesirable species.
Hofstetter, R. H. 1974. The effect of fire on the pineland and sawgrass
communities of southern Florida. In: Environments of So. Florida
(Gleason, P. J. ed.). Miami Geol. Soc. Memoir #2, Miami Geol.
Hofstetter, R. H. and F. Parson. 1975. Effects of fire in the ecosystem:
an ecological study of the effects of fire on the wet prairie sawgrass
glades and pineland communities of South Florida. Part II. Final
Report, EVER-N-48. U.S. Dpt. Agric., National Park Service.
Horwitz, E. L. 1978. Our nation's wetlands. An Interagency Task Force
Report, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 70 p.
Hutchinson, C., et al. 1979. Final Report on the Management plans of
the Special Project to Prevent the Eutrophication of Lake Okeechobee.
Div. of State Planning, Dep. of Admin., Tallahassee, FL.
Discusses history and management of Okeechobee and costs/benefits
of storage and supply of irrigation water, etc. Discusses each segment
separately and its problems wildlife and recreation, and water needs.
Jaworski, E., C. N. Raphael, D. L. Tilton, and R. H. Kadlec. 1977. Wet-
lands value study: annotated bibliography. Michigan Department of
Natural Resources, Lansing, Michigan.
Jaworski, E. and C. N. Raphael. 1978. Fish, wildlife, and
recreational values of Michigan's coastal wetlands. Wetlands Value
Study, Phase 1. Ypsilanti, Michigan: Eastern Michigan University
Department of Geography-Geology, 209 pages.
Johnsgard, P. A. 1956. Effects of water fluctuation and vegetation changes
on bird populations, particularly waterfowl. Ecology 37:689-701.
Monitors species abundances at various water levels at different site
locations. Feeding behavior is noted.
Johnson, E. L. 1967. "A Study in the Economics of Water Quality Manage-
ment". Water Resources Research. Vol. 3. p. 291.
Johnson, P. L. 1969.
Wetlands Preservation. Open Space Institute, New
Johnson, R. R. and J. F. McCormick (Tech. coord.). 1979.
for protection and management of floodplain wetlands
ecosystems (Symposium proceedings, Callaway Gardens,
11-13). U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
Johnson, W. E., W. V. McGuinness, Jr.,
for the Environment and Man, Inc.
in marsh creation, Final Report.
and other riparian
D.C. 410 p.
C. T. Hartford. 1975. The Center
Guidelines for material placement
Contract Report D-75-2 (NTIS No.
Jordening, D. L. 1974. Estimating Water Quality Benefits. EPA Socio-
economic Environ. Studies Series, EPA 600/5-74/014, Wash., D.C.
State-of-the-art summary concerning estimates of water quality benefits
(recreation, property values, ecology). Specific references given.
Suggests research priorities.
Kadlec, J. A. 1962. The Effect of a Draw-down on the Ecology of a Water-
flow Impoundment. Ecology 43(2):267-281.
Addresses the change in density and total no's. of bird species during
a water drawdown.
Kadlec, J. A. and W. A. Wentz. 1974.
tion of Marsh Plant Establishment
U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Sta.
State-of-the Art Survey and Evalua-
Techniques: Induced and Natural
Corps of Eng., Vicksburg, MS. 39180
Techniques for plant establishment on dredged mtl. Selected aquatic
plants were classified according to their main regions of occurrence,
and methods of seeding on different substrates, in different regions,
with varying water fluctuations, and different management techniques
was covered. A very thorough report.
Kadlec, J. A.
1979. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in inland freshwater
Proc. Symp. Wildl. Soc., Madison, WI. pp. 17-41.
King, T., L. Hord, T. Gilbert, F. Montalbano, and J. Allen. 1980. An
evaluation of wetland habitat establishment and wildlife utilization
in phosphate clay settling ponds. Wetlands restoration and creation:
proceedings of the seventh annual conference; May 16-17, 1980; Hills-
borough Community College, Tampa. pp. 35-49.
King, William, Michael Hay, and John Charbonneau. 1979. "Valuation of
riparian habitats", pp. 161-165 in: R. R. Johnson and J. F. McCormick
(Technical Coordinators). Strategies for protection of floodplain
wetlands and other riparian ecosystems. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture Forest Service, GTR-WO-12.
Klein, H., et al. 1970. Some Hydrologic and Biologic Aspects of the
Big Cypress Swamp Drainage Area, Southern Florida. USGS Open File
Rpt. #70003. Tallahassee, FL. U.S. Geol. Soc.
Covers physical characteristics, water movement, water quality and
salt-water intrusion into the Big Cypress. Importance as a water source
for the Everglades discussed. Measures for water control and effects
on biota are outlined.
Kneese, A. V. 1968. Water Resources Values. Johns Hopkins Press for
Resources for the Future. Johns Hopkins Univ., MD.
Costs and gains of quality improvement must be considered in deter-
mining the maximum net value of rivers.
Kohler, A. et al. 1973. Chemical data and aquatic vascular plants as
indicators for pollution in Moosach River. Archives Hydrobiologia
Kruczynski, W. L. and C. B. Subrahmanyam. 1978. Studies on the plant
community of a North Florida Salt marsh: I. Primary production.
Bull. Marsh Sci. 28(2):316-334.
Kruczynski, W. L., R. T. Huffman, M. K. Vincent. 1978. Habitat develop-
ment field investigations, Apalachicola Bay Marsh Development Site,
Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Summary report. Technical Report D-78-32
(NTIS No. AD-A059 722). U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Sta., Vicksburg, MS.
Krull, J. N. 1970. Aquatic plant macroinvertebrate associations and
waterfowl. J. Wildl. Mgmt. 34(4):707-718.
Kushlan, J. and D. White. 1977. Nesting Wading Bird Populations in Southern
Florida. Fla. Scientist 40:1.
Determined that wading bird populations have decreased because of
habitat destruction. 89% decrease determined since 1930's, 13% since
Ladd, E., M. Post, and P. Swatek. 1975. Wetlands and the water cycle.
Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Massachusetts. 22 p.
Larimore, R. W. 1974. Stream Drift as an Indication of Water Quality.
Trans. Amer. Fish Soc., Vol. 3.
Found that numbers and weights of both drift and benthos followed
similar quantitative relations with water quality, generally increasing
with water degradation. The abundance of benthos exceeded that of
drift in the most polluted station sampled. Gives advantages of mea-
suring drift instead of benthos.
Larson, J. S. 1975. Evaluation Models for Public Management of Fresh-
water Wetlands. Na. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf.
Larson, J. S. 1975. "Identification and delineation of freshwater wet-
land values", pp. 1-10 in M. W. Lefor, H. H. Ridgeway and T. B. Helfgott
(eds.). Proceedings: Second Wetlands Conference. Storrs: University
of Connecticut Institute of Water Resources Report No. 24.
Larson, J. S. (ed.). 1976. Models for evaluation of freshwater wetlands.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Water Resources Research Center,
Publication 32, 95 pages.
Four submodels for relative and economic evaluation of freshwater
wetlands are presented within a single, three-phase eliminative model.
The submodels treat wildlife, visual-cultural, groundwater, and eco-
Larson, J. S. 1975. "Evaluation models for public management of fresh-
water wetlands." Transactions of the Fortieth North American Wildlife
and Natural Resources Conference 49:220-227.
Wetlands are classified according to their value for wildlife, visual-
cultural attributes, flood control, and groundwater recharge. Economic
value is based on the market price of wetlands purchased by government
agencies and using numerical criteria established for the above values.
Larson, J. S. and 0. L. Loucks. 1978. Workshop report or research priorities
for wetland ecosystem analysis. National Wetlands Technical Council,
Washington, D.C. 68 p.
Leach, S. D., H. Klein, and E. R. Hampton. 1971, 1972. Hydrologic Effects
of Water Control and Management of S.E. Florida. U.S. Geol. Soc. Open File
Report. 1972 Report of Invest. #60.
Lee, F. G., E. Bentley, and R. Amundson. 1975. Effects of marshes on
water quality. In: "Coupling of Land and Water Systems". (A.D. Hasler,
ed.). Springer-Verlag, N.Y.
Lefor, M. W., H. H. Ridgeway, T. B. Helfgott. 1975. Proceedings of Wet-
lands Conference on Delineation of Wetlands. Univ. of Connect. Inst.
of Water Resources. Oct. 1975.
Seven papers are presented covering: 1) identification of freshwater
wetland values, 2) methods of mapping and other technical topics and
Lefor, M. W. and W. C. Kennard. 1977. Inland wetland definitions. Insti-
tute of Water Resources Report No. 28, the University of Connecticut,
Storrs, Connecticut. 63 p.
Leitch, J. A. and D. F. Scott. 1977. A selected annotated bibliography
of economic values of fish and wildlife and their habitats. Dpt.
Ag. Economics, N. Dakota St. Univ., Fargo N. Dakota.
Topics include wetland economics, evaluation techniques, recreation
economics, natural resource economics, water resource economics.
Leitch, J. A. 1976. Economic Aspects of wetland restoration in the prairie
An input-output model used to estimate the economic impacts of crop-
land to wetland reversion on rural agricultural based economics.
Leitch, J. A. 1980. "Economic aspects of wetland restoration in the
prairie pothole region". Paper presented at the Seventh Annual Conf-
erence on the Restoration and Creation of Wetlands. Tampa, Florida,
An economic input-output model is used to trace the impact of restoring
wetlands previously drained for cropland in the Devils Lake Basin
of North Dakota. The author concluded that the local business economy
was better off with cropland than wetland, unless some offsetting
payments could be made.
Leitch, J. A. and D. F. Scott. 1980. "Valuing wetlands A methodological
perspective." Paper presented at NCR-111 Spring meeting, Minneapolis,
Minnesota, May 29. Fargo, North Dakota St. Univ., Dep. of Agricultural
Economics AE8003, 26 pages.
The shortcomings of previous wetland valuation studies are discussed.
The authors suggest that more attention be paid to the purpose of the
evaluation. Three conceptual problems identified were: (1) whether
wetland values estimated are average or marginal values, (2) how
to aggregate the values of wetland products when some are market
goods and others nonmarket goods, and (3) determining the relation-
ship of the wetland in production of fugative resources, e.g. water-
Leopold, L. B. 1969. Environmental impacts of the Big Cypress jetport.
U.S. Geol. Surv., Washington, D.C., Spec. Rep. 155p.
Lewis, Roy R. and J. Weber. 1980. Restoration Conference Proceedings:
Summary of Proper Citations and Listing of Contents. Mangrove Systems,
Inc., 504 S. Brevard Ave., Tampa, FL 33606.
Conferences on restoration of coastal revegetation in Florida. 1974-
Lewis, R. R., III, and C. S. Lewis. 1978. Colonial bird use and plant
succession on dredged material islands in Florida. Volume II: Patterns
of plant succession. Technical Report D-78-14 (NTIS No. AD-A056 803).
U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Sta., Vicksburg, MS.
Lewis, R. R., III and C. Lewis. 1977. Tidal Marsh Creation on Dredged
Mtl. in Tampa Bay, FL. Mangrove Systems, Inc., Tampa, FL. From:
4th Annual Proceedings of Restoration of Coastal Vegetation in Florida,
May, 1977, HCC, Tampa, FL.
Covers experimental plantings of Spartina alterniflora and steps
for replanting to produce a rapid cover on spoil areas.
Limoges, L. D. 1975. The ecological and economic impact of dredge and
fill on Tampa Bay, Florida. Ph.D. Thesis Report, Univ. of Fla., 1975.
Among other things gives history of development on the bayfront,
describes increase in sedimentation and biological effects from
Lindall, W. N., Jr. 1973. Alteration of Estuaries of So. Florida. A
Threat to its Fish Resources: Marine Fisheries Rev. 35:10:26-28.
Lind, Owen T. 1974. Handbook of common methods in limnology. St. Louis,
Describes mapping of small lakes, volume calculations, professional
and homemade samplers for plankton and benthos, in running and sta-
Linde, A. F. 1969. Techniques for Wetland Management. Dpt. Nat. Res.
Rpt. #45, Madison, Wisc.
Covers types of impoundments, water level manipulation and effects
on plants and animals, wetland farming, nesting island construction,
methods of controlled burning, mechanical and chemical vegetation
control, land clearing, pond construction, and level ditching construc-
tion and usage.
Livingston, R. J. and E. A. Joyce (eds.). 1977. Proceedings of the Conf-
erence of the Apalachicola Drainage System. Florida Marine Research
Publ. No. 26, St. Petersburg, Florida. 177 p.
Lockwood, A.P.M. (ed.). 1976. Effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms.
Camb. U. Press, Cambridge, N.Y.
Long, R. W. and 0. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical south Florida.
Univ. Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida. 1962 p.
Loveless, C. M. 1959. A study of the vegetation in the Florida Everglades.
Loveless, C. M. 1960. Clipping study techniques in marsh ecology investiga-
tions. Rep. #468. Fla. Game and Fresh Water Fish Comm.
Methods of plotting, clipping, statist. tests. Qualitative data on
plant comm., sps. density, and frequency. Correlated w/mean water
levels, soil types, wildlife pop., water quality, etc.
Lowry, D. 1976. An annotated wetland bibliography. Massachusetts Audubon
Society, Lincoln, Massachusetts. 61 p.
Lunz, J. D., T. W. Ziegler, R. T. Huffman, R. J. Diaz, E. J. Clairain, Jr.,
L. J. Hunt. 1978. Habitat development field investigations, Windmill
Point Marsh Development Site, James River, Virginia. Summary report.
Technical Report D-77-23 (NTIS No. AD-A066 224).
Lutz, J. R. 1977. Water quality and nutrient loadings of the major inflows
from the Everglades Agricultural Area to the Conservation Areas, S.E.
Florida. So. Fla. Water Mgmt. Dist. Tech. Pub. #77-6, Nov. 1977.
Monitored flows from pump stations for nutrient analysis.
Mackie, G. L. and Qadri, S. V. 1971. A Quantitative Sampler for Aquatic
Phytomacrofauna. J. Fish Res. Bd. Canada 28:1322.
This sampler excludes benthic macrofauna. Because other types of
samplers sit on bottom, it is difficult to distinguish between benthos
and phytomacrofauna. This type can sample deeper than 1 m. Cutter
blade snaps shut shearing vegetation.
Mangrove Systems, Inc. 1980. Final report on Vegetative Stabilization
of Eroding Shoreline Along the Tampa Bypass Canal; Jan, 1980. Hills-
borough River Basin Board, Southwest Fla. Water Mgmt. Dist.
Mangrove Systems, Inc. 1977. Survey and Recommendations Concerning Vegeta-
tive Stabilization of Eroding Shoreline Along the Tampa Bypass Canal;
Sept. 1977, Hillsborough, River Basin Board, S.W. FL. Water Mgmt.
Mann, G. E. 1964. Improved Techniques for Aerial Wetland Surveys. J.
Wildl. Mgmt. 28(3):575-580.
Martz, Roger A. 1979. Tampa Bypass Canal Revegetation Study. Environ-
mental Section. Technical Report 1979-3, March 1979, Southwest Fla.
Water Mgmt. Dist., Hillsborough River Basin Board.
Mathiah, M. A. and A. F. Linde. 1956. Studies on Level Ditching for
Marsh Management. Wisconsin Conserv. Dept., Tech. Bull. #12, Madison,
McCloskey, M. 1973. Alternatives in water project planning: ecological
and environmental considerations. Pg. 425-437 in: C. R. Goldman,
J. McEvoy II, and P. J. Richerson, (eds.). Environmental quality
and water development. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, CA.
McPherson, B. F. 1973. Vegetation in Relation to Water Depth in Conserva-
tion Area 3, Florida. U.S. Geol. Survey Open File Rep. #73025,
Maps out areas and compares species in different areas at different
water depths and measures growth rate of species.
Meeks, R. L. 1969. The effect of drawdown date on wetland plant succession.
J. Wildl. Mgmt. 33(4):817-821.
A seven-year study on an 80-acre marsh in Port Clemton, Ohio was
begun in 1956. The marsh was divided into four units, one of which
was drained yearly in mid-marsh, April, May, and June. The May draw-
down showed the best plant associations for wildlife and fewer years
were required for annual weeds to replace semi-aquatic species.
Miller, M., B. Hartman, and D. Dunford. 1977. Fish and Wildlife values
of the Apalachicola River and floodplain. Pages 122-129 in: R. J.
Livingston and E. A. Joyce (eds.). Proceedings of the Conference
of the Apalachicola Drainage System, Florida Marine Research Publ.
No. 26, St. Petersburg, FL.
Milleson, J. F. 1975. Prog. Rpt. Upper Kissimmee Chain of Lakes. Water
Quality and Benthic Invertebrate Sampling. Tech. Publ. #75-2, July
1975. Central and So. FL. Flood Control Dist., West Palm Beach,
Sampled water quality in four lakes and Shingle Creek. A Ekman dredge
was used for benthos.
Milleson, James F. 1976. Environmental Response to marshland reflooding
in the Kissimmee River Basin. Central and So. FL. Flood, Control
Dist. Tech. Publ. 76-3.
Found that: 1) population of small fish, freshwater shrimp, and cray-
fish increased rapidly; 2) marshland biomass of veg. increased rapidly
w/in 5 months; 3) weight of marsh veg. doubled; 4) plant diversity
Milleson, J. F. 1978. Limnological Investigations of Seven Lakes in the
Istokpoga Drainage Basin. So. FL. Water Mgmt. Dist. Tech. Publ.
Gives water quality characteristics for eight lakes as well as benthic
invertebrate counts, rainfall and plant species in the lakes.
Morris, L. 1974. M.S. Thesis Rep., Univ. of Fla. Water Hyacinths on
A "hyacinth dredge" is described which consists of a wooden frame
1 m2 with a 1.3 cm wire mesh which is shoved under floating veget.
and lifted. Specifications are given.
Nall, L. E. and Schardt, J. D. 1978. Large-scale operations management
test use of the white amur for control of problem aquatic plants.
Baseline studies. Florida Dpt. Nat. Res., Div. Resource Mgmt., Bureau
of Ag. Plant Research and Control. Tallahassee, FL 32304.
Describes the biomass sampling barge used by the Corps of Engineers
for sampling aquatic vegetation as well as water quality data and
modelling information used in the study.
Newsome, J. D. (ed). 1967. Proceedings of the Marsh and Estuary. Manage-
ment Symposium, L.S. Univ., Baton Rouge, LA.
Describes: 1) marsh ownership; 2) values to fish, wildlife and com-
mercial interests; 3) practices affecting Gulf Coast and South Atlantic
marshes such as dredging and channelization; 4) management and research
Newton, R. B. 1978. Wetlands: Uses and Misuses A Selected Bibliography.
Off. of Biolog. Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Wash., D.C.
Includes bibliographies of articles relating to classification systems,
values and rating systems, floodplain regulation, wetland inventories,
planning policies, pollution by nutrients, sediments, herbicides,
pesticides, sewage effluent, and thermal pollution. It also includes
dredging articles, field guides, water quality articles, management
and impact statements as well as available films and slide show listings.
Nichols, S. A. 1974. Mechanical and Habitat Manipulation for Aquatic
Plant Management. Wisconsin Dpt. Nat. Res. Madison, WI.
Deals with mechanical control and habitat manipulation, i.e. light
limitation, water level manipulation, sand and gravel blanketing and
nutrient limitation. Found that for large areas, overwinter draw-
downs are effective and cheap, and that dredging to below the photic
zone is effective but expensive. Mechanical harvesting varies from
$15 to $75 per acre. Pros and cons of each method given.
Niering, W. A. 1968. Wetlands and the Cities. Massachusetts Audubon
Society, Lincoln, Mass.
Niering, W. A. 1970. "The dilemma of the coastal wetlands; Conflict
of local, national and world priorities." pp. 143-156 In: H. W.
Helfrich, Jr., (ed.). The environmental crisis. Yale University
Press. New Haven, Conn.
The importance of coastal wetlands is discussed. Dollar values are
given for some uses while other uses are treated subjectively. Threats
to coastal marshes are discussed along with recommendations to solve
conflicts in use.
Niering, W. A. 1972. The Wetlands. Ecology Today. May-June. 32-35 p.
Nordlie, F. G. and J. F. Anderson. 1972. Sampling Methods. Quarterly
J. Fla. Acad. Science 35:155. #2-3.
Describes a method for water sampling using two inverted polyethylene
bottles and polyethylene tubing for ease in collecting.
North, R. M. et al. 1974. Survey of Economic-Ecologic Impacts of Small
Watershed Development. Off. of Water Resources Res. Tallahassee, FL.
Odum, E. P. 1979. "Rebuttal of 'Economic value of natural coastal wet-
lands': A critique." Coastal Zone Management Journal 5(3):231-237.
Odum, H. T. 1957. Trophic Structure and productivity of Silver Springs,
Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 27:55-112.
Odum, H. T. 1975. Cypress Wetlands for Water Management, Recycling and
Conservation. Center for Wetlands. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville,
Feasibility of cypress domes for sewage in Gainesville (Alachua Co.),
Ft. Myers, Cons. Area #2, Corkscrew Swamp, Miami (Lee and Collier
Counties), Hillsborough Co. Monitored water budget, vegetative response,
tree growth rates, nutrient absorption, microbial action, etc. A
model on general ecosystem functions is given.
Odum, H. T. 1978. "Value of wetlands as domestic ecosystems." pp. 9-18
in: Proceedings of the National Wetland Protection Symposium, 1978.
Washington, D.C.: Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the
Odum, H. T. 1979. "Principle of environmental energy matching for esti-
mating potential economic value, a rebuttal." Coastal Zone Management
Odum, W. and S. Skjei. 1974. "The issue of wetlands preservation and
management: A second view." Coastal Zone Management Journal 1(2).
Oglesby, R. T., C. A. Carlson, J. A. McCann (eds.). 1971. River Ecology
and Man: International Symposium on River Ecology and the Impact
of Man. Univ. Mass., New York, Acad. Press.
Includes case studies of pollution caused by industry, primarily in
Patrick, W. H., Delaune, R. D., Antec, D. A. and Engler. 1971. Nitrate
removal from water at the water-soil interface in swamps, marshes,
flooded soils. Ann. Proc. Rept. PFWOA EPA (Proj. 1605 FJR), Louisiana
St. Univ., Baton Rouge, LA.
Peddicord, R. K., V. A. McFarland. 1978. Effects of suspended dredged
material on aquatic animals. U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Station, Vicks-
burg., Miss.,Tech. Rep. D-78-29. July 1978.
Lab studies conducted to evaluate sediment impact on juvenile and
adult, marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.
Found that mortalities occurred only at sediment concentrations higher
than normally present after dredging.
Peltier, W. H. and E. B. Welch. 1969. Factors affecting growth of rooted
aquatics in a river. Weed Science 17:412-416.
Factors include nutrient availability, turbidity, and water depth.
Laboratory studies done on one species.
Penfound, W. T. 1952. Southern Swamps and Marshes. Bot. Rev. 18(6):
Peskin, H. M. and E. P. Seskin. 1975. Cost-benefit analysis and water
pollution policy. Urban Institute, Wash., D.C.
The editors and seventeen authors survey literature on costs and
benefit problems. Questions such as who should pay and how much
for pollution abatement are discussed, as well as feasible control
Phillips, R. C. et al. 1978. Habitat development field investigations,
Port St. Joe, Florida. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,
Tech. Rep. D-78-33. Vicksburg, MS.
Investigated the feasibility of propagating seagrass on dredged mtl.
using plugs of skoal grass. Recommendations made for further field
studies, since the project was not successful.
Poppleton, J. E., A. G. Shuey, and H. C. Sweet. 1977. Vegetation of
central Florida's east coast. A checklist of the vascular plants.
Florida Sci. 40:4:362-389.
Pomnelle, G. H. 1947. Mammals of a swamp region near Gainesville. M.S.
Thesis, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville.
Prairie Agri-Management Consultants, Ltd. 1970. Sensitivity analysis
of the estimated opportunity cost of maintaining wetlands. Edmonton,
Alberta: Canadian Wildlife Service Report I: 43 pp; Report II: 36 pp.
Pritchard, Peter (ed.). 1978. Rare and endangered biota of Florida. FL.
Committee on rare and endangered plants and animals. Univ. Fla.
Press, Gainesville, FL.
Rackleff, Robert B. 1972. Close to Crisis: Florida's Environmental Problems.
Tallahassee, FL. New Issues Press.
A chapter on wetlands gives economic value of submerged lands. Since
one acre ruined also destroys two adjoining acres, loss of production
from filling was $22,210.80.
Reid, G. K. and R. D. Wood. 1976. Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries,
2nd Ed. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, N.Y.
Reimold, R. J., R. A. Linthurst. 1977. Primary productivity of minor
marsh plants in Delaware, Georgia, and Maine. Tech. Rpt. D-77-36
(NTIS No. AD-A051 164). U.S. Army Waterways Exp. Sta., Vicksburg, MS.
Reppert, R. T. et al. 1979. Wetland values, concepts and methods for
wetlands evaluation. Fort Belvoir, Virginia: U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Institute for Water Resources, Research Report 79-R1, 109
Rice, B. C. and D. F. Cassel. 1975. Classification of Wetlands Vegetation
Using Small Scale Color Infrared Imagery. Chesapeake Bay Center
for Env. Studies. Smithsonian Inst. NASA Cont. Rep. #62091. Wash., D.C.
Robel, R. J. 1962. Changes in Submerged Vegetation Following a Change
in Water Level. J:. of Wildl. Mgmt. 26:221-224.
Rockwood, C. E. and S. Leitman. 1977. "Economic planning for the Apalachi-
cola drainage system." pp. 151-157 in: R. J. Livingston and W. A.
Joyce, Jr. (eds.), Proceedings of the Conference of the Apalachicola
Drainage System, St. Petersburg: Florida Marine Res.
Rosenau, J. C., G. L. Faulkner, C. W. Hendry, Jr.
Springs of Florida. U.S. Geolog. Surv. Bull
and R. W. Hull. 1977.
S#31. Tallahassee, FL.
Descriptions, histories, chemical analysis, discharge, etc. of Florida's
Rulison, Michael V. and Constance B. Martin. 1973. Evaluation of planning
for wetlands drainage projects in the southeastern coastal plains.
Research Triangel Park, North Carolina: Research Triangle Regional
Planning Commission, 128 pages.
Sanderson, G. C., and F. C. Bellrose. 1969. Wildlife habitat management
of wetlands. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 41:152-204.
Sather, J. H. (ed.). 1976.
Service. Wash., D.C.
Schomer, N. S. and J. G. Hand. 1980.
Prototype Methodology Development.
National wetland classification and inventory
Univ. of Maryland. U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)
Dep. Env. Reg., Tallahassee, FL.
Program set up to: 1) evaluate effectiveness of existing water quality
management activities as they impact Florida's aquatic environ., 2)
provide an organized information base from which effective mgmt. deci-
sions can be made that will preserve and improve quality of Fla.'s
aquatic environment. A TMDL is the pollutant loading for a segment
of water equal to the limit in concentration set in EPA's standards.
Schomer, N. S. and J. G. Hand.
Access and Assess Data for
1980. TMDL Tech. Appendix I. How to
TMDL's. Dep. Environ. Reg., Tallahassee,
Explains computer programs for different techniques and shows how
to access information for each river system.
Schreiber, R. W., E. A. Schreiber. 1978. Colonial bird use and plant
succession on dredged material islands in Florida. Volume 1: Sea
and wading bird colonies. Tech. Rep. D-78-14 (NTIS No. AD-A056 086).
Seaman, W. and R. Mclean. 1977. Seminar Proceedings: Freshwater and the
Florida Coast: S.W. Florida. S.W. Fla. Water Mgmt. Dist. Rpt. #1971-1.
Topics include: 1) modelling of estuaries; 2) salt-water intrusion;
3) development of hydrology and geohydrology of Coastal Drainage
Basins; 4) economics of water problems; 5) estuaries and fish production.
Seddon, B. 1971. Aquatic Macrophytes as Limnological Indicators. Fresh-
water Biology 2:107-130.
Shabman, L. A. and S. S. Batie. 1977. Estimating the economic value of
natural coastal wetlands: A cautionary note. Blacksburg, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University, Dep. of Agriculture Eco-
nomics Research Report A.E. 30, 21 pages.
Shabman, L. A. and S. S. Batie. 1979. "Estimating the economic value
of coastal wetlands: Conceptual issues and research needs." Paper
presented at the International Estuarine Research Conference, Jeckyll
Island, Georgia, October 7-12, 1979, 21 pages.
Shaw, S. P. and C. G. Fredine. 1956. Wetlands of the United States.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Circular 39, Washington, D.C. 67 p.
Shireman, J. and R. Martin. 1976. A Quantitative Method for Hydrilla-
Inhabiting Macroinvertebrates. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management
A plexiglass box is described for ease in collection of aquatic plant
material which does not require SCUBA cutting.
Shedden, R. D. 1974. The Significance of Biological Denitrification of
Nitrate Polluted Groundwaters in the Anaerobic Sediments of Wetlands.
M.S. Thesis Rep., Tufts University, Newton, Massachusetts.
Shoesmith, J. A., V. A. Adomaitis, and G. A. Swanson. 1968. Aspects of
the determination of the pH of marsh waters. Proc. N. D. Acad. Sci.
Shuey, A. G. and L. J. Swanson, Jr. 1979. Creation of freshwater marshes
in W. Central Fla. HCC 6th Annual Wetlands Conf., Hillsborough Comm.
College, Tampa, FL.
These approaches for establishing freshwater vegetation were given:
1) natural recolonization, 2) selective planting, 3) mulching with
material from marshes. Sampling continued over 10 months in the two
marshes studied, 4) found that mulching worked best for short periods
Sincock, J. L. and J. A. Powell. 1957. An Ecological Study of Waterfowl
areas in central Florida. Trans. Wildl. Conf. 22:220-236.
Soots, R. F. and M. C. Landin. 1978. Development and management of avian
habitat on dredged material islands. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways
Station, Vicksburg, MS. Sept. 1978, Tech. Rep. DS-78-18.
Discusses these five factors for colonization by waterfowl: 1) isola-
tion from predators, 2) habitat diversity, 3) nesting substrate ability,
4) species behavioral characters, 5) species feeding and foraging.
Gives an example of a management plan and bibliography of research
on colonial waterbirds.
Sorenson, L. A. 1975. Alternative uses of wetlands. Fargo: North Dakota
University, M.S. Thesis, 115 pages.
Southworth, J.,,G. Backenstoss, and T. Forsgren. 1979. HCC 6th Annual
Wetlands Conf., Hillsborough Comm. College, Tampa, FL.
Wetlands were classified by hydrology, water quality, fish and wild-
life habitat and listed as one of three types: 1) areas of critical
preserved importance, 2) area of critical importance which could
be restored, 3) functioning wetland areas which aren't critical and
Spangler, D. P. 1979. Hydrogeologic Variability of Four Wetland Sites
in N. Central Florida. Dep. Geology HCC. 6th Annual Wetland Conf.,
Hillsborough Comm. Coll., Tampa, FL.
The geology of different wetland sites and their responses to rain
as well as the feasibility of usage for secondarily treated wastes
Spohrer, M. L. 1975. Marsh Management for wildlife: a Bibliography with
Abstracts. Louisiana Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit. Publ. #1, Baton Rouge,
Sprint, A. 1968. Values of South Atlantic and Gulf Coast Marshes and
estuaries to birds other than waterfowl. In Proceedings: Marsh and
Estuary Management Symposium, Baton Rouge, LA. (Newsome, J. D. (ed.).
Stephens, J. C. 1956. Subsidence of Organic Soils in the Florida Ever-
glades. J. of the Soil Science Soc. of America 20:77-80.
Stern, E. M., W. B. Stickle. 1978. Effects of turbidity and suspended
material in aquatic environments. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp.
Sta., Vicksburg, MS. Tech. Rep. D-78-21.
Covers a selected bibliography of 296 reports on dredging from 1973-
Steward, K. K. and W. H. Ornes. 1975. The autecology of sawgrass in
the Florida Everglades. Ecology 56:162-171.
Sullivan, P. 1976. "Versatile wetlands--An endangered resource."
Conservation News 41(20:2-5, October 15).
Swanson, G. A. and W. H. Thornsberry. 1975. A circular chamber for counting
benthic invertebrates. Trans. Am. Fish Soc. 104:406.
Teas, H. J. 1976. A wetlands vegetation guide for peninsular Florida.
Environ. Eff. Lab., U.S. Army Eng. Waterways Exp, Sta., Vicksburg,
Thomas, M., B. Lin, and A. Randall. 1979. Economic Aspects of Wildlife
and Wetlands. Midwest Research Institute. Kansas City, Missouri.
Thompson, B. F. (ed.). 1970. Preserving our freshwater wetlands. Connecti-
cut Arboretum Bull. No. 17, Connecticut College, New London, Conn.
Tilgham, N. J. 1963. The St. Johns River Hyacinth Story. Hyacinth Control
General information about the area and its history written by a local
Tyler, G. 1971. Distribution and turnover of organic matter and minerals
in a shore meadow ecosystem. Oikos 22:265-291.
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg. 1978. Wetland
habitat development with dredged material: engineering and plant
propagation synthesis report. Dec. 1978. Tech. Rep. DS-78-16.
Discussed six major marsh development field sites. Emphasis placed
on engineering and plant propagation. Phases of plant propagation
are detailed and best species are noted. Contains a synopsis of
28 plant species and their characteristics, value, and potential
for use on dredged material.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1977. Proceedings of the National Wet-
land Protection Symposium, Reston, Virginia. U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 225 p.
U.S. Geol. Survey. U.S.G.S. Reports on the Water Resources of Florida.
1886-1979. Tallahassee, FL.
Indexes by geographic region, subject, author, covers all areas of
Ursin, M. J. 1975. Life in and around freshwater wetlands. Y. Crowell
Co., New York, N.Y.
Van Arman, J. and Goodrich, R. 1970. Effects of water level increases
on Kissimmee River Vegetation. So. Florida Water Mgmt. Dist., West
Palm Beach, FL.
Water hyacinths, :pickerelweed,maidencane all increased in density.
Drawdowns and reflooding were found to stimulate growth.
Van Arman, J. and Goodrich, R. 1979. Effects of Fire on a Kissimmee
River Marsh. Fla. Scientist 42:4.
Van Arman, J. and J. Goodrich. 1979. Effects of Fire on a Kissimmee
River Marsh. S. Fla. Flood Control Dist. West Palm Bch., Fla.
Describes burning on a maidencane and pickerelweed marsh and shows
that the total number of animal species and number of animals was
significantly greater afterwards and that within six months all vegeta-
tion had recovered.
Vander Leeden, F. 1974. Groundwater: A Selected Bibliography. Water
Information Center, Port Washington, N.Y.
Viosca, P., Jr. 1928. Louisiana wetlands and the value of their wildlife
and fishery resources. Ecology 9(2):216-229.
Voge, R. J. 1973. Effects of fire on the plants and animals of a Florida
wetland. American Midl. Nat. 84:269-272.
Vollenweider, H. A manual on methods for measuring primary production in
Describes common sampling techniques for plankton, macrophytes, peri-
phyton and techniques for measuring productivity.
Walker, R. A. 1974. "Wetlands preservation and management: A rejoinder -
economics, science and beyond." Coastal Zone Management Journal 1(2):
Waters, T. F. 1962. Diurnal Periodicity in the Drift of Stream Inverte-
brates. Ecology 43:2.
Found an increase in drift rate one hour after sunset, a decrease
through the night, and a sharp return to daytime low values at sun-
rise. The author identified different species' drift times and abun-
dance and found much higher drift rates in the summer for all species.
Waters, F. 1972. The Drift of Stream Insects. Dpt. Entomology, Univ.
of Minn., St. Paul, Minn.
Hypothesized thatlevel of drift is of some function of the rate of
production and mean drift rate may be used as an index to the produc-
tion capacity of a stream's benthos. Discusses reasons for drift,
life histories, drift and fish feeding, and drift as a measure of
Waters, T. F. 1961. Standing Crop and Drift of Stream Bottom Organisms.
Gives theories on stream drift, compares drift rate and standing
crop as indices of production rate, found distributions of rates
of drift. Compares favorably with a ranking of expected reproducti-
vities made on the basis of surrounding geology, water alkalinity,
and available trout population data.
Weber, C. I. (ed.). 1973. Biological Field and Laboratory Methods for
Measuring the Quality of Surface Waters and Effluent. EPA 670/4-73-
001. U.S. EPA Off. of Research and Develop., Cincinatti, OH 45268.
Gives general description of aquatic biology, sampling analyses and
interpretation of data.
Wentz, W. A., R. L. Smith, J. A. Kadlec. 1974. State-of-the-art survey
and evaluation of marsh plant establishment techniques: Induced and
natural. Volume II: A selected annotated bibliography on aquatic
and marsh plants and their management. Contract Report D-74-9 (NTIS
No. AD-A012 837).
Westman, W. E. 1977. "How much are Nature's Services Worth? Science.
Wharton, C. H. 1970. Southern River Swamp A multiple use environment.
Bureau Business and Economic Research, Georgia State Univ.
Considered education, recreation benefits, water quantity needs, and
water quality in estimating value at $300/acre. Costs of alternative
forms of usage were compared. Recommended preserving the swamp.
Wharton, C. H., H. T. Odum, K. Ewel, M. Duever, A. Lugo, R. Boty, J. Bartho-
lomew, E. DeBellevue, S. Brown, M. Brown, and L. Duever. 1977.
Forested wetlands of Florida their management and use. Center
for Wetlands. Univ. of Florida, Florida State Planning DSP-BCP-19-77.
White, Paul R. 1964. Growth conditions of some macrophytic aquatic com-
munities in some Southern Florida canals. M.S. Thesis, Botany Dep.,
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.
White, W. M., Chairman. 1971. Conservation and enhancement of fish and
wildlife in the national water resources program. Bureau of Sport
Fisheries and Wildlife. U.S. Dep. of Int. Wash., D.C. 50pp.
Whitten, B. A. (ed.). 1974. River Ecology. Univ. California Press,
Covers plant ecology, species changes as indicators of pollution,
fish and invertebrates, water chemistry, dominant species in various
water types, discusses effects of siltation upon different species.
Wildlife Society. 1970. Water and its Ecological Implication. Report
of the Florida Chapter of the Wildlife Society: 1-42.
Winberg, G. G. 1971. Methods for the Estimation of Production of Aquatic
Animals, New York, Academic Press.
Covers biomass calculations, growth, development and fecundity and
methods of estimation of production from food consumption.
Winchester, B. H. and L. D. Harris. 1979. An Approach to Valuation of
Florida Freshwater Wetlands. 6th Annual Conf. on Wetland Proceedings,
HCC., Hillsborough Comm. Coll., Tampa, FL.
Discussed techniques for valuation of wetlands and estimating loss
due to development and mining. Designed a time and cost effective
index and an index which would not need major modification. Water
quality enhancement, water detention, groundwater recharge/discharge,
prod. and diversity, wildlife values, wetland size, contiguity, vege-
tative structural diversity, types, and amount of edge were all consi-
Windom, H. L. 1972. Environmental Aspects of Dredging in Estuaries.
Skidaway Inst. of Ocean., Savannah, GA. Inst. of the Waterways, Harbors
and Coast. Eng. Div. Vol. 98#WWX.
Considered both: 1) chemical responses of salt marsh to deposition of
dredged mtl., 2) water quality response to dredging and deposition
of sediment in the salt marsh estuarine environment. Concluded that
dredging does not impair water quality.
Windom, H. L. 1972. Environmental aspects of dredging in estuaries.
Journal of the Waterways, Harbors, and Coastal Eng. Div. Proc., Americ.
Soc. Civil Eng. 98(WW4):475-487. Proc. P #9342.
Reviews types of dredges and disposal techniques and gives impacts
on biota, i.e. fish migration may be hampered, plantonic communities
affected, destruction and loss of benthic communities may occur.
Whitford, L. A. The Communities of Algae in the Springs and Spring Streams
of Florida. Ecol. 37:43356 443.
Identified algal communities in Silver, Homosassa and Salt Springs,
Wood, R. 1955. "Water, wetlands and wildlife" or "Planning for Wetland
Preservation and Development in the S.E.". U.S. S.E. Asso. of Game
and Fish Comm. Proceedings, N. Orl., LA 122-129p.
Wood, R. D. and P. E. Hargraves. 1979. Comparative Benthic Plant Ecology
by SCUBA Monitored Quadrats. Hydrobiologia 33:561-68.
Describes SCUBA techniques for sampling aquatic macrophyte and methods
for setting up of the quadrats.
Zieman, J. C., W. E. Odum. 1977. Modelling of ecological succession and
production in estuarine marshes. Technical Report D-77-35 (NTIS
No. AD-A051 929). U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg,
MS. 160 p.