Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00314
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Winter 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00314
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text


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North & Central Florida DPIC agency: Southeast Florida DPIC agency: Taking Control of Your Risks and Your Profits
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Winter 1isi
Vol. 43. No. 4

Cover: Plazoleta, Lima, Peru
(1994), Juan Carlos Rosas,
University of Miami School



Pursuing an Orderly Investigation 12
The teaching of architecture at the University of Florida
reflects the fundamental belief that the profession must provide
communities with places that are beneficial, memorable, and
by Robert McCarter, ALA
Advancing Public and Professional Concerns 14
The School of Architecture at Florida A&M University is
delivering research architects can use.
1by Tom Pugh
Ten Years and Counting 16
A commitment to environmental ethics is the cornerstone of
the University of South Florida School ofArchitecture's
graduate program.
by Alexander Ratensky, AIA
Integrating Diverse Community and
Professional Challenges 18
The new School of Design at Florida International University
is exploring original partnerships and potentials.
by John A. Stuart
Making a Strong Entry 19
Students at the new School ofArchitecture at Florida Atlantic
University make their studios in a regional lab.
By Dr. Peter Magyar
The Shadow as Dwelling for a New School of
Architecture in the Caribbean 20
Students at the new School ofArchitecture at Polytechnic
University of Puerto Rico investigate the contrasting realities
of global experience and regional context.
by Jorge Rigau, AIA
Redefining a Classical Education 22
Drawing and depiction provide a basis for research and
imagination at the University of Miami School ofArchitecture.
By Beth Dunlop

Editorial 7
News 8
Books 9
President's Message 10
New Products 11
Viewpoint 26
by H. Dean Rowe, FAIA
Viewpoint 28
by Everett Ray Johnson, AIA




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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Editorial Board
John Totty, AIA, Chairman
John Howey, FAIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
William Blizzard, AIA
Vice President/President-elect
John Cochran, AIA
Keith Bullock, AIA
Past President
Dick Reep, AIA
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
Santurce, PR
Regional Director
Henry Alexander, AIA
Coral Gables
Vice President for
Professional Excellence
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Vice President for
Political Effectiveness
Debra Lupton, AIA
Vice President for
John Awsumb, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Assistant Publisher
Joanna Booth
Director of Advertising
Karen Jones
Margaret Barlow
Art Director
Peter Denes
Computer Graphics
Insty-Prints of Tallahassee
Boyd Brothers, Inc.

Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by
the Association, a Florida Corporation not
for profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive Office
of the Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301. Telephone (904)
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the
express permission of Florida Architect.
Single copies, $6.00; Annual subscription,
$20.33. Third class postage.


t was surprising to discover the virtual absence of considera-
tion of Florida's schools of architecture in the "Boyer Report."
Perhaps they are not the oldest or most prestigious in the
nation, but individually several have distinguished themselves.
And taken as a group, these schools in one of the nation's fastest
growing states are responding to those important challenges
posed in the report. Grounded in "public purpose" as well as in
design excellence, Florida's schools are, in fact, diverse "commu-
nities of learning," interested in and influencing environments
both near and distant. Based on explorations of past and present
built excellence, students and faculties are applying their scholar-
ship and extending their service into their home communities.
Florida's universities are well known for rivalries in football. However, the
academic deans and directors at these same schools have created quite a dif-
ferent atmosphere for their architecture programs. The climate is cooperative,
not adversarial, says Dr. Peter Magyar, who is heading up the new program at
Florida Atlantic University. What does exist is a healthy competition aimed at
promoting greater excellence. And judging from the quality of the talented
leadership that Florida's growing family of schools is attracting, the future
seems bright.
University of Florida department chair Robert McCarter writes that the
teaching of architecture must embrace both its theoretical and practical
aspects. Still, many practitioners in architecture, as in most of the professions,
note a dichotomy between practice and the academy. While schools teach the
history, the theory, the philosophy, the principles, many architect/employers
decry the absence of practical learning-dealing with clients, making business
decisions, working on real projects. According to seasoned practitioner Dean
Rowe, this is beginning to change. Intern programs are bringing students into
practice situations, and it is his hope that continuing education requirements
will begin to bring practitioners back to the academy. Architect Ray Johnson
shows how the practical lessons have a history, too: the more things change,
the more they stay the same.
Still, all would agree that maintaining a sense of the poetics of space
through scholarly exercises that expand the mind is as essential as keeping
architectural design grounded in time and place. Thus we are as gratified to
hear a University of Miami professor deny that making beautiful drawings is
a frivolous pastime as to read that USF and FAU programs are probing
problems of urban design and rapid urbanization in the state. To a large
extent, the schools have assumed responsibility for researching the new tech-
nologies that are revolutionizing the built environment. Such expertise gained
by students and faculty alike at Florida A & M University (and the other
schools) is disseminated to architects and other building professionals
through their focused World Wide Web sites.
Inclusion of the new School of Architecture at Polytechnic University,
San Juan, represents the expanding interests of Florida Architect. As an
outgrowth of several regional bridging activities, beginning in 1997 this
magazine will be renamed Florida/Caribbean Architect and will cover
more work by these neighbors. MB

Florida Architect serves the profession by providing current information on design, practice management, technology,
environment, energy, preservation and development of communities, construction, finance, economics, as well as other
political, social, and cultural issues that impact the field.


Senator Clary!
Charles W Clary, AIA, a prin-
cipal in dag architects, Destin,
won election to a seat in the
Florida Senate. Clary, a Repub-
lican, recently took the oath of
office in Tallahassee.

Good News About
Continuing Education
Marsha Messarsmith, Regu-
lation Supervisor of the Board
of Architecture and Profession-
al Regulation, has announced
that: "The Board will now
accept the AIA CES Program as
fulfillment of Florida's continu-
ing education requirement. This
means that if you are a member
of the AIA and comply with the
AIA/CES requirements, verifica-
tion of program completion
will also satisfy Florida's con-
tinuing education requirements
applicable to the timely renewal
of your license."
The hours need to be com-
pleted by February 28, 1997.
The Florida Board of Architec-
ture and Interior Design has
established penalties, including
suspension of license, for those
who are not in compliance
with the continuing education

DCA Update
The State of Florida Depart-
ment of Community Affairs has
issued a statement regarding
the Florida Energy Efficiency
Code for Building Construction.
"Consistent with the Governor's
rule review last year, Rules 9B-
13.001, 9B-13.002, 9B-13.004,
9B-13.005, and 9B-13.006
were repealed in an effort to

eliminate obsolete or unneces-
sary rules. Subsequent recon-
sideration has determined that
the rules were necessary and
are being reinstated into Rule
Chapter 9B-13. Rule 9B-13
adopts Florida's Energy Code
For Building Construction by
reference, provides enforce-
ment authority to building
departments, and sets an effec-
tive date for Code Adoption,
all of which are required by
s.553.990, Florida Statutes,
but which are put into place
by rule. Rule 9B-13.003 [on]
Department Activities was left
in place but could use some
This notice does not change
the Energy Code from the 1993
Edition. The DCA is still in the
process of revising the code,
"ensuring its equivalence with
the national codes and stan-
dards, and rewriting our com-
puter programs for Windows."
The DCA does not anticipate
enough interest in this proceed-
ing to hold a hearing. Direct

questions to 904/487-1824,
or write the Department of
Community Affairs at 2555 Shu-
mard Oak Blvd., Tallahassee, FL

1996 Florida Design Arts
Secretary of State Sandra B.
Mortham presented the 1996
Florida Design Arts Award
to the VOTRAN Bus Transfer
Facility in Daytona Beach,
designed by Architects Design
Group, Winter Park.
Certificates of Merit were
awarded to the Florida State
University Dodd Hall Reno-
vation/Auditorium project, by
Elliott Marshall Innes, PA., Tal-
lahassee, and to the Astronauts
Memorial Foundation Center for
Space Education at Kennedy
Space Center, submitted by
Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum,
The awards were presented
at a ceremony on November 6,
at the Lincoln Theater in Miami

VOTRAN design transformed a standard requirement for pro-
tection from the elements into a sculptural, provocative fea-
ture of thefacility.

Of Note
Fernando Calcines, AIA, has
been named a partner in the

Calcines, ALI

Russell Partnership, Inc., Mia-
mi. Calcines, a graduate of the
University of Miami School of
Architecture, joined the firm as
an intern in 1985.
Charles W Cole, Jr., AIA, has
been appointed as Director of

Charles W
Cole, Jr, AIA

Healthcare Design at Hunton
Brady Pryor Maso Architects,
EA.. Cole has over 20 years of
experience in the design of
health care, commercial, and
justice facilities. HBPM, Orlan-
do, was named 1995 AIA Flori-
da Firm of the Year.
Alan Helman, FAIA, Helman,
Hurley, Charvat & Peacock,
Maitland, has been appointed to
the Florida Fire Code Advisory
Council. Bill Nelson, Treasurer
of the State of Florida,
announced the appointment in
Vivian Salaga, AIA, Tampa,
has been appointed to serve on
the Historic Tampa-Hillsbor-
ough County Preservation
Board of Trustees for a two year
term. Governor Lawton Chiles
appointed Salaga based on her
professional qualifications and
interest in good government.
Salaga was the recipient of the
AIA Tampa Bay Chapter's 1996
Medal of Honor for outstanding



contributions to the profession.
Rotch Traveling Scholarship
information is available for
1997. The program offers a
stipend of $30,000 to the first
prize winner of a two-stage
design competition for nine
months of travel throughout the
world. For more information
and requirements, make a writ-
ten request by Friday, January
3, 1997, to: Rotch Traveling
Scholarship, Boston Society of
Architects, 52 Broad Street,
Boston, Massachusetts 02109.

Caribbean Initiative
AIA Puerto Rico recently cel-
ebrated the first Caribbean
Basin Architectural Initiative in
conjunction with its Annual
Assembly. Members of AIA
Florida, AIA Virgin Islands, and
several Caribbean architect
organizations were invited to
attended the event, held at the
San Juan Marriott, November
The Assembly focused on a
number of business-building
and educational activities,
including a discussion about
Cuba as the region's "wild
card." Other featured events
included seminars on hurricane
preparedness, architectural his-
tory of the region, and regional
bridging and electronic forums,
and talks by AIA presidents
Maria Chalgub (AIA Virgin
Islands), Bill Blizzard (AIA
Florida), and Benjamin Vargas
(AIA Puerto Rico).
Vargas, whose chapter spon-
sored the events, noted that the
attendance of colleagues from
Guatemala, Panama, and the
Dominican Republic as well as
from the chapters signalled "a
true regional bridging effort."
Said Vargas, "Communication
between our three AIA chapters
has improved greatly and will
only get better with the results
of this gathering."


Preventing Indoor Air
Quality Problems in Hot,
Humid Climates: Problem
Avoidance Guidelines
J. David Odom and George
CH2M Hill and Disney Develop-
ment Co., Rev. ed. 1996
100 pp. $45

Reviewed by Walter Grondzik

I recently came across a great
statement about the Miami
area (I am not making this up):
"'If temperature were the sole
determinant of human comfort,
this region would be nearly
perfect." Well, great! If it weren't
so hot and dry, the Sahara would
be a nearly perfect spot for the
Winter Olympics. If height were
the only determinant, Jamie Lee
Curtis would make a great sumo
wrestler. Temperature is not the
sole issue in Miami, or the other
58,600 square miles of Florida
for that matter: There is the ever-
present and continually-nagging
issue of humidity. If the founders
of the state were given to truth in
advertising, the Great Seal of
Florida would show a maiden in
flippers holding fans in both
hands and the state plant would
be the family fungi.
The problem with many build-
ings in Florida is that the reality
of the moisture problems in the
state seems not to sink in during
the design process. Unfortunate-
ly, moisture sinks in to the real
buildings all too quickly follow-
ing construction. Leakage- and
indoor air quality-related litiga-
tion appears to be one of today's
best growth-industry bets in the
state. The question is why? The
issues involved are reasonably
clear, the solutions generally log-
ical, and the consequences of
bad design and construction cer-
tifiably dire. Physics are phys-
ics! Mold is mold! Litigated dam-
ages are not good for business!
In an attempt to improve

Florida's building stock, and the
resulting lot of its building own-
ers and users, CH2M Hill and the
Disney Development Company
have produced a ground-break-
ing design guidance document.
First published in 1990 and reg-
ularly updated since, Prevent-
ing Indoor Air Quality Prob-
lems in Hot, Humid Climates:
Problem Avoidance Guide-
lines, throws light at the end
of Florida's moisture-damaged
buildings tunnel. The purpose of
the manual was explained by the
authors quite clearly. "One of our
primary goals in producing this
manual was to introduce archi-
tects to the mechanical issues
most critical to successful build-
ings while introducing engineers
to the architectural issues most
critical to successful buildings,
in the belief that the quality of
decision-making in both techni-
cal disciplines will improve."
This belief in the necessity and
success-potential of interdiscipli-
nary design coordination is
shared by the Florida Design Ini-
Odom and DuBose are design
practitioners and have arranged
Preventing Indoor Air Quality
Problems to reflect the flow and
concerns of the typical design
process. The manual is orga-
nized in sections that track the
developmental flow of a project
and capture the critical mois-
ture-related elements of each
stage of development: Key Issues,
Schematic Design, Design Devel-
opment, Final Design, Construc-
tion, and Post-Construction Start-
up and System Commissioning.
According to Odom and
DuBose, "although mildew-relat-
ed IAQ problems are often first
observed after building occupan-
cy, their sources and the keys to
their prevention usually lie much
earlier in the process. Critical
actions for success, therefore,
must be taken earlier in the
design and construction pro-

cess." The project-based flow of
the manual greatly assists in the
timely identification of issues
and solutions. Early interception
typically means that no-cost or
low-cost design, construction
and operation options are still
available. Late interception of
problems will always cost more.
"The most startling finding in
using these guidelines", accord-
ing to Odom, was "that they not
only significantly reduced IAQ
problems but did so at no added
cost to the project."
Being trite because it is
appropriate, the adage that an
"ounce of prevention is worth a
pound of cure" applies admirably
well to building moisture prob-
lems. This manual provides a
heads-up on that heavy-weight
ounce. Preventing Indoor Air
Quality Problems is very well
written and lavishly illustrated. It
is a bargain at $45.00 (especial-
ly considering that proceeds go
to Give Kids the World, a chari-
table Florida organization). The
book was favorably reviewed in
the June 1996 AIArchitect and
won an Excellence Award from
the Society of Technical Commu-
nications for writing clarity
and graphic appeal. e design
Online recommends this manu-
al to any and all who design
buildings for Florida or the
southeast Atlantic and Gulf
Coast regions. The lawyers who
will be negatively impacted can
always find another growth

Reviewer Walter Grondzik,
PE., is an Associate Professor
at the School of Architecture,
Florida A & M University.
This and other reviews can
be found posted on e design
Online at http://fcn.state.fl.

By Bill Blizzard, AIA

In 1997 trade between Florida
and Latin America will
approach $40 billion. Also,
according to the Kiplinger Edi-
tors, nearly half of the U.S.
trade with Central America and
the Caribbean Islands and one
third of trade with South Ameri-
ca will flow through Florida.
I now find myself on a
crowded airplane, punching
keys on my laptop and wonder-
ing how these facts will affect
Florida architects next year. I'm
on route from Puerto Rico,
where architects from the
Dominican Republic, Guate-
mala, Puerto Rico, the Virgin
Islands, and Florida began a
dialogue to understand each
other's culture, architecture
and practice. In between the
conference sessions and a few
pina coladas in the Caribbean
sun, I was able to work on a
project in my hotel room by
connecting to my office's LAN.
It sure seems that the world has
changed a lot just during 1996
let alone when I graduated from
college and those last two digits
were reversed!
What started out as a
"regional bridging" project
among AIA Florida, AIA Puerto
Rico and AIA Virgin Islands
quickly grew into an oppor-
tunity for you to participate
in a global economy. AIA
Florida's Caribbean Basin Ini-
tiative (CBI) has now become
an independent organization
known as Business Horizons
of the Americas and can be
reached via the internet at
And speaking of the internet,
AIA Florida also established its
own home page this year.
Logging on www.aiafla.org will
give you information on AIA
Florida Firms, Selecting an
Architect, Careers in Architec-
ture, Jobs, Continuing Educa-
tion, among others.
CBI is but one of the many
initiatives undertaken in 1996
by a group of some of the

most dedicated volunteers with
whom I have ever had the plea-
sure of working. As I conclude
my year as President and reflect
on what has been accom-
plished, I thought you may like
to know some of the things that
your colleagues have done on
your behalf.
AIA Grassroots found a Flori-
da delegation that was intent
on not doing AIA business as
usual. Florida led the proposal
to form a coalition with Texas,
Michigan, New York, and Cali-
fornia to be heard directly on
state issues. This initiative
caused AIA to begin a new pro-
gram for 1997-Government
Affairs Assistance Grants for
State Components-from which
AIA Florida is currently apply-
ing for a grant. This initiative
also set the stage for many such
opportunities in the future.
The Florida Foundation for
Architecture produced and
presented "Florida Treasures."
This book and exhibit not only
created a continuing opportuni-
ty for architectural awareness
throughout the state in the form
of press releases, slide show,
video production and exhibit
transportation, but also drew
the best attended legislative
reception in our history.
The unlicensed practice
of architecture by engineers
continued into 1996 from
its 50-plus-year debate. "Enough

is enough" was the cry that
caused the line to be drawn
clearly in the sand. Thanks to
your Board's decisive action
and your support, AIA Florida
was able to raise member
awareness and a substantial
amount of capital to meet
future challenges if required.
In the interim a significant
White Paper was developed
to clearly define why engineers
cannot design buildings for
human habitation due to differ-
ences in education, experience
and examination. This docu-
ment, prepared in various
media, is available for your
local use and acts as a basis for
our concluding discussions.
Our summer conference,
Leading the Profession into
the 21st Century," focused our
attention on the need for and
aspects of leadership.
Continuing in the direction
of leadership, we identified 36
leadership skill sets required in
the areas of organizational
development, quality manage-
ment, communication, inter-
personal skills, process skills,
business management, and
skills needed for political office.
We are now positioned to draw
upon our members and outside
sources to develop leadership
training, programs for continu-
ing education and other pro-
grams for AIA Florida and local
And quantifying other 1996
deliverables, AIA Florida:
* was directly involved on 18
issues and proposed legislative
changes that would directly
affect your pocketbooks.
* helped elevate 6 members to
* provided 69 seminars in 9
chapter areas awarding 2,594
certificates totalling 42,967
certified continuing education
* awarded 10 built projects and
8 unbuilt projects for their
design quality, client satisfac-

tion and relevance to society.
* provided hundreds of publica-
tions and practice documents
via the book store.
* met the professional needs of
over 300 architects at the most
widely attended summer con-
ference ever held.
* raised $40,000 through Flori-
da Architects' Political Action
Committee to support 40 candi-
dates for the Florida House
and Senate... AND 38 WERE
ELECTED. And next year's
efforts to raise money will be
easier and more cost effective
by the Powerpoint presentation
we developed this year for your
local use.
* helped elect AIA member
Charlie Clary to the Florida
Senate...congrats, Charlie!
* saved over $40,000 of the
1997 operational budget by
outsourcing Florida Architect.
* improved communications by
producing 6 editions of Con-
tact, responding to over 1,000
inquires on Fax on Demand,
producing 45 Friday Faxes and
publishing 4 editions of the
Florida Architect magazine (to
be known as the Florida/
Caribbean Architect in 1997).
* and the list goes on...
Again, my thanks to the many
volunteers and staff members
that made it happen for you.
Believing that our core
values are firmly rooted in qual-
ity of life issues, I have attempt-
ed to focus our attention this
year on what I believe to be our
future...LEADERSHIP We can
no longer be a spectator. Pro-
ject leadership and community
leadership are desperately
needed today if we are to build
tomorrow. I believe that archi-
tects are truly in the position to
"lead the shaping of Florida's
future," as our vision would
have it, if we simply decide to
make it happen.
Thank you for the opportuni-
ty to have been of service to the
profession in 1996.



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Clear glass can change to
frosted privacy glass with the
flip of a switch. Viracon'" Priva-
cy Glass allows total privacy or
unobstructed viewing through
windows, doors, glass walls,
and skylights. Developed
through a joint venture between
the 3M company and Viracon,
privacy glass windows, made
with 3M" Privacy Film, are

wired to a wall switch that uses
the same voltage (120V) as
standard household appliances.
Its ability to diffuse glare and
reduce heat makes this product
useful for dozens of office
and residential purposes. And
because privacy glass is lami-
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security to businesses when
used in storefronts and entry-
ways, display cases and coun-
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reach Viracon at 800 Park Dr.,
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Electronic Catalog of
Window Products
Graham Architectural Prod-
ucts Corporation has developed
a full catalog on CD-ROM of its
aluminum window products,


including historic and acousti-
cal designs. The CD is easy to
use and allows architects to
locate every Graham window
type available and to view the
corresponding photos, draw-
ings, text, and specifications.
Separate CAD files can be easily
incorporated into plans and
reformatted to the architect's
preference. The digital catalog
runs in Mac and PC formats.
For information on obtaining
a registered copy, contact
Graham Architectural Products,
1551 Mt. Rose Ave., York, PA
17403; 800-755-6274.

ADA Slopemeter
Network Consulting's simple
slope measuring device re-
quires no math and no measur-
ing. The inside lines are slope
lines (1:50, 1:20, 1:12, etc.)
and the external frame is cali-
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ADA Slopemeter along the
slope to be measured and read
along the string when the pen-
dulum stops swinging. These
inexpensive devices are used by

V////////////////Hilfliilliimn \\\\\\\\\\\\\
architects, building officials,
investigators, contractors, and
people with disabilities nation-
wide. ADA Slopemeters, made
of polyethylene plastic, cost
$12.95 ($9.95 for AIA mem-
bers) plus $3 S&H. To order
or to learn about Network
Consulting's other ADA compli-
ance products, tools, and com-
puter programs, call Tom
Schmokel at 904-942-5505, fax

Classical Designs,
New Materials
Aluminum Service Inc.
has a new line of mold-
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details that includes re-
productions of historic
moldings and wood de-
signs. A selling feature of
these Focal Point archi-
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inside and outside use, is
that they are made from
a high-density polymer. This material has the workability and
density of white pine, but does not rot, splinter, or warp and is
resistant to wood boring insects. The Focal Point line, which is
available in designs ranging from Contemporary to Greek
Revival, Federal, and Victorian, also includes strong, durable
maintenance-free ClassiCast columns, made from fiberglass
and marble. To learn more about these products, contact Debra
Martin at Aluminum Service Inc. in Tampa, FL, 954-968-0115.

Hurricane Resistant
Windows, Doors
A series of laminated
glass window and door prod-
ucts made with Saflex plastic
interlayer from Monsanto
Company has met the strict
South Florida impact stan-
dard. Monsanto worked with
a number of window and
door manufacturers, includ-
ing Traco, Bend Door Co.,
Superior Window Corp., and
Arch Aluminum and Glass
Co., in testing and manufac-
turing a variety of products
for South Florida and other
hurricane-prone markets.
The hurricane-resistant products, with the tough, plastic
interlayer sandwiched between two glass panes, are designed
to help resist the impact of flying debris without breaking
into pieces and
falling out of the
frame. To find out
more about these
Saflex products,
call Monsanto at

Thon Baur

Pursuing an Orderly Investigation

Architecture at the University of Florida
By Robert McCarter, AA

Schools often talk of what
they are doing, but rarely if
ever speak about why they are
doing it. To evaluate what the
faculty and students at a school
are doing, we must know some-
thing about the principles upon
which their collective work is
based. The architecture pro-
grams at the University of
Florida are intended to provide
students with disciplinary
knowledge and design training
that will enable them, as profes-
sionals, to practice architecture
in an inventive and responsible
manner. The teaching of archis
tecture is approached with an
understanding of both its theo-
retical and practical aspects, the
integrated thinking necessary
to the solving of problems, and
the creation of beauty within
the real world of everyday life.
In general, the teaching of
the faculty seeks to analyze ex-
isting and proposed examples
of built form, to define funda-
mental principles and knowl-
edge of the discipline, to devel-
op to their highest possible
degree the students' skills in
the formation and projection of
spatial experience, and to relate
individual creativity to cultural
and physical environment. The
work of the school reflects the
fundamental belief that the
profession of architecture must
provide the community with
places that are beneficial,
memorable, and meaningful to
all. We believe that it is only
within the context of such an
understanding that the individ-
ual student and architect's
creative energies can be fully
developed and engaged.
The faculty at Florida believe
that modern architecture is the
only valid and appropriate form
of practice in today's world,
and that it can and indeed must
be critically developed and
projected. At the same time,
architectural education is also
understood as an orderly in-
vestigation of the discipline,
involving the following:

* Examination of the cultural,
social, technical, economic,
and environmental contexts
that shape buildings. This
involves an understanding of
architecture as a culturally
determined activity, tied to the
time and place in which it is
found, and acting also to deter-
mine that context by being its
largest and most substantial
physical manifestation.
*Analytical investigation of
the history of architecture as
it is present in built forms
and spaces. Recognizing that
architecture is rarely if ever
wholly original, being depen-
dent in one way or another on
precedents, this aspect of the
curriculum analyzes as com-
prehensively as possible key
buildings and projects from the
history of architecture, seeking

(Above) Undergraduate
Design 5 Studio, School on
Hogtown Creek, site model.
Michael Nelms (Bernard
Voichysank, studio critic).

(Left) Undergraduate Design
5 Studio, Youth Hostel, Cross-
Florida Barge Canal, section
model. Dori Raskin (Kim
Tanzer, studio critic).

to understand these works not
only as individual places, made
with specific materials and
acting as settings for unique
experiences, but also as part
of the historical context for
contemporary design.
*Investigation of the experi-
ence of architecturalforms
and spaces and their result-
ing meanings for their occu-
pants. This entails understand-
ing that architecture is never
wholly formal or visual in defi-
nition, but is deeply embedded
in the tactile, acoustic, sensual,
and experiential realms, serving
as a framework or setting for
the rituals of daily life, rather
than merely acting as an image
or representation for that activi-
ty. Architecture is here under-
stood as depending for its
meaning on its materials and

manner of construction as much
as on its form, and various
methods for analyzing spatial
experience are developed and
examined for their ability to
effect the design process.
Knowledge and utilization
of the materials and methods
of construction available to
the architect. Recognizing that
the architectural experience is
largely dependent on the vari-
ous material and technical
processes involved in the con-
struction of buildings, these
are investigated and utilized in
design projects undertaken in
the studio. For the student,
understanding the determina-
tion of historical spaces and
forms by then-extant technical
and material means leads to an
investigation of current con-
struction processes and the pro-
posal of innovative techniques.

Architecture in Context
The design studio is the primary
focus of our curriculum precise-
ly because it requires the stu-
dent to synthesize, integrate,
and engage all of the aspects
of the discipline of architecture.
Two primary concerns mark
the faculty's selection of studio
programs to achieve an experi-
ential and conceptual breadth
and depth for our students in
their definition of architecture.
First, to achieve an under-
standing of the complexities of
contemporary practice and its
social and technical context,
the curriculum involves a wide
range of program types and
pedagogic intentions, including
precise experiments in spatial
definition, the engagement of
the poetics of use and construc-
tion in the formation of spatial
experience, the design of public
programs within both natural
and historic contexts, the
design of multifamily housing
at the city edge, as well as the
individually defined final thesis
or design project.
Second, to achieve an under-
standing of the cultural basis for


(Above) Advanced Graduate
2 Studio, Museum of Maya
Artifacts, St. Augustine, site
model. Dustin Lindblad
(Robert McCarter, studio

(Right) Advanced Graduate
2 Studio, Museum ofMaya
Artifacts, St. Augustine, section
model. Jonathan Wood (Robert
McCarter, studio critic).

the act of building, the curricu-
lum offers numerous opportuni-
ties for off-campus travel and
research in contexts which
enrich the student's conception
of architecture and its place in
historic and emerging cultures.
To this end the Department
houses no less than four off-
campus programs, located in
Vicenza (Italy), Nantucket
(Massachusetts), Miami, and
the Caribbean.
In addition, during each year
of their studies, as part of their
studio courses, our students
make extended field trips to
New York, Boston, Chicago,
Charleston, Savannah, Atlanta,
New Orleans, and other exam-
ples of regional and national
urbanism. These cities become
the sites for that semester's
studio project.


Architecture in Florida
While these various opportuni-
ties to focus on the larger con-
text of contemporary practice
are essential to the education
of architects today, the faculty
of architecture also believe that
our location in Florida offers
unique opportunities for archi-
tectural education. Two studios,
one each from the undergradu-
ate and graduate program,
have been selected to illustrate
the manner in which the De-
partment endeavors to engage
Florida as the context for
architectural investigation and
Undergraduate Design 5
Studio: Landscape and Detail.
The fall studio of the third-year
undergraduate Bachelor of
Design in Architecture program
has for many years focused on

the natural landscape of Florida,
and the experience of architec-
tural space within that context
in its detail, structure, and
material aspects. The studio
often begins with the students
constructing a plan and section
that runs across the entire state
from Atlantic to Gulf coasts,
allowing them to identify and
examine the subtle attributes
of place. Sites are selected,
often at the edges of state
parks and wildlife preserves,
and programs are developed
that involve the introduction of
occupants to the unique mixture
of limestone, soils, water, and
plant life that constitute the
state's delicate ecology. In order
to impart the importance of pre-
cise and careful engagement of
the necessarily limited language
of architecture, the students
focus on a section of the struc-
ture and develop material and
detail proposals intended to
capture and present their under-
standing of the Florida land-
scape and our relation to it.
Graduate Advanced 2 Stu-
dio: The Poetics of Construc-
tion. The spring studio of the
first year of the advanced por-
tion of the Master of Architec-
ture program focuses on the
pivotal importance of methods
of construction, qualities of
materials, and the articulation
of details in the characterization
of space and its experience. For
the last three years the project
has entailed the design of a
museum for 20 selected Maya
artifacts, including a temple
front, to be sited in St. Augus-
tine, adjacent to the Alcazar
Hotel (now the Lightner Muse-
um). The students engage the
range of materials and construc-
tion methods in appropriately
housing these artifacts from a
culture that existed in the
Yucatan, its climate, ecology,
and geology quite similar to
that of Florida. The artifacts
themselves are made of a range
of materials-jade, limestone,
flint, ceramic clay-and the

students are required to investi-
gate material as well as spatial
relationships between architec-
ture and those who inhabit it. In
the studio, emphasis is placed
on the qualities of materials, in
their tactility and response to
sunlight; the expression of the
joint in construction; the rela-
tionship between the light (sky)
and the heavy (ground) in the
act of building; the rhythm
imparted to space by structure
and the possibilities for its reve-
lation; and the manner in which
the inhabitant responds to these
attributes of architecture.

Robert McCarter, AIA, chairs
the Department ofArchitec-
ture at the University of
ForiMa and is president of
D-Mc Architects, Gainesville.

Advancing Public and Professional Concerns

School of Architecture, Florida A&M University
By Tom Pugh

The School of Architecture
at Florida A&M University
has distinguished itself in
several areas of architectural
research. During the 1970s
and early 1980s, research
focused primarily on low-cost
housing solutions and tech-
nology-transfer training pro-
grams overseas. Beginning
in the late 1980s, funded
research activity shifted
toward issues more directly
affecting the architectural
profession and the people
and economy of Florida, such
as handicapped accessibility,
facilities assessment, and
Several projects since 1990
have dealt with understanding
radon generation and trans-
port and developing cost-
effective, radon-resistant
construction methods and
details. In a research area
where architects are more
often conspicuous by their
absence, FAMU's work has
led to sound, flexible, and
economical guidance that
maximizes opportunities for
creative design while helping
assure public safety. Extensive
work aimed at developing
sensible, effective building
codes has gained FAMU recog-
nition for its expertise in syn-
thesizing complex research
into simple and understand-
able code language.
Research efforts on a
number of fronts are now
coordinated through the
School's Institute for Build-
ing Sciences. Three recent,
closely related projects at the
Institute-the Florida Design
Initiative, Florida Energy
Update, and the Sustainability
Database-are aimed at noth-
ing less than re-engineering
the building design, delivery,
and operation process. Based
on the notion that the profes-
sion has been reactive far

too long, these projects are
aimed at leadership through
developing and introducing
powerful electronic design
tools into architectural offices
across the state.
The Florida Design Ini-
tiative (FDI) is a leadership
forum funded by the Florida
Energy Office to promote the
design of energy-efficient,
high-performance environ-
ments. The Initiative acts as
a catalyst to bring the design
professions to the table to
sample "best practices." Activ-
ities include Partners Pro-
grams for professionals, aca-
demics, governments, and
corporations; an annual
Roundtable; and sponsoring
conferences and workshops
related to efficiency and high
performance. FDI's print
newsletter, e design, is dis-
tributed to some 10,000 build-
ing professionals in the state,
while e design Online, an
electronic journal on the
World Wide Web, promotes
"best practices" through dis-
semination of information
and opportunities for online
e design Online presents
feature articles and interviews
with key players in the envi-
ronmental design disciplines,
plus reviews of Internet sites,
computer software, and books
related to energy efficiency,
sustainability, and building
performance. Other features
include pointers to critical
information resources, a cal-
endar of energy-related
events, and editorial opinions
on issues affecting the design
and operation of buildings. e
design Online is "published"
on a rolling schedule, with
information being added and
archived as appropriate. Eval-
uation, feedback, and dialog
buttons virtually everywhere
stimulate interactivity.

The Florida Energy
Update, funded by the
Department of Management
Services, will bring existing
documents relating to energy
use and efficiency in new and
existing facilities into confor-
mance with current standards
of practice and evolving
expectations of building own-
ers, managers, and occupants.
This information, too, is being
created in an Internet-accessi-
ble electronic form. Separate
documents for new and exist-
ing buildings are being
merged into a single Internet-
resident Process Guidelines
for High-Performance Build-
As a means of providing a
flexible user interface for this
information, the Update pro-
ject developed the Built
Environment Center (BEC).
Located in the Florida Com-
munities Network, the BEC
serves as a one-stop resource
for key documents, databases,
guidelines, and links to exter-
nal resources related to Build-
ings and Facilities, Infrastruc-
ture, Open Space, and Urban
and Community Development.
The Sustainability Data-
base project, funded by the
Florida Energy Office, is
developing a web-accessible
database of resources related
to sustainable design and
planning. The Institute has
contracted with the Florida
Chapter of the American Soci-
ety of Landscape Architects
and the Florida Chapter of the
American Planning Associa-
tion to develop discipline-
specific information struc-
tures and content. Expected
to expand to include all design
professions, the completed
database will be publicly avail-
able through the BEC.
The common component
of each of the current projects
is its reliance on the World

Wide Web. Although many
firms resisted the transition
to computerized drafting,
virtually every office has
adopted that technology now.
We see the Web as the medi-
um for delivering the next
generation of tools, one that
is fast becoming indispensable
to the conduct of all types of

Tom Pugh is Director of
the Institutefor Building
Sciences in the School of
Architecture at Florida
A&M University.



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designing, building, and managing our bult



Buildings and Facilities

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Ten Years and Counting

School of Architecture, University of South Florida
By Alexander Ratensky, AIA

This year marks the tenth
anniversary for USF's
School of Architecture and
Community Design. Since
opening in August 1986, in
rented space, off-campus, with
a dozen students, the school
has grown and prospered.
Today the school enrolls 107
graduate students and its 68
alumni are scattered in firms
throughout the city and state
as well as in Atlanta, New York,
Texas, California, Kingston,
Jamaica, and other near and
distant parts.
From the beginning the USF
program in architecture has
taken a distinctive cast. At its
start-up, it was directed by the
Florida Legislature to study
urban issues. This challenge,
unique among schools of
architecture in Florida's State

University System, is the core
focus of the school's own mis-
sion statement, which draws
attention to the problems and
opportunities of the state's
urban areas and of its rapid
urbanization. The program
uses its immediate setting and
the region as a learning labora-
tory. Numerous Tampa sites
have been studied, including
a recent redevelopment study
of Ybor City, and projects
involving the Garrison and
Ybor channel districts, the
so-called west bank area south
of the University of Tampa,
and west Tampa.
Statewide issues such as the
development along interstate
corridors also have been the
subject of intense scrutiny as
well as outside interest. For
example, an examination un-

dertaken with visiting Eminent
Scholar Jonathan Barnett,
FAIA, of ways to intensify
development along the 1-75
corridor where it flanks Tampa,
received national attention in
Architectural Record (Feb.
1992) and was featured in
Professor Barnett's 1995 book,
The Fractured Metropolis.
The School's research arm,
The Florida Center for Commu-
nity Design and Research, also
engages in numerous regional
investigations. A current pro-
ject of broad interest is its
World Wide Web site, FICUS
(Florida Internet Center for
Understanding Sustainability).
FICUS, which has received
substantial support from sever-
al private foundations, puts in
digital form more than 800
pages of useful data about

Florida's ecosystems, environ-
mental protection laws, issues
for sustainable development,
and more.
As a graduate program, the
School has drawn many non-
traditional students, those who
for one or another reason
elected not to attend one of
the traditional five-year under-
graduate programs that pre-
dominate in architectural
education. Many of these are
"second-career" students, and
their mix of age and experience
has greatly enriched the pro-
gram. Last year the average
age of students was about 32
years; 37 percent were women,
and 12 percent were classified
as Hispanics.
Since its inception, the
School has emphasized excel-
lent preparation for the practice
of architecture, including rigor-
ous study of design, tying
issues of environmental ethics
to all coursework. Its courses in
areas of professional practice,
the introduction to technology,
and the broad emphasis on
environmental ethics, have
been declared "national models"
by several visiting practitioners.
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of Tampa, Angeliki Mantas. (Above fight) Detail, Axono-
metric of Design Development Drawing, Boston Business
Library Visitor Center, Michael Faulhaber

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Thesis: Meditations on a Museum of Fine Arts, Knight Martorell.
(Left) Ink/paper collage. (Above) Model.


Integrating Diverse Community and Professional Challenges

School of Design, Florida International University
By John A Stuart

Last spring, after nearly a
decade of dedication to
undergraduate education in
design, the Florida Board of
Regents authorized the School
of Design to offer the profes-
sional Master of Architecture
degree. The first class of 15
graduate students formed this
fall in new facilities located
in Viertes Haus, the School's
home on the University's West
William G. McMinn, FAIA,
was selected to direct the pro-
gram, which is expected to
form a strong interface with
the existing graduate programs
in Landscape Architecture and
Construction Management as
well as with related undergrad-
uate programs in Architectural
Studies and Interior Design.
While forging communication
among students and disciplines
on the FIU campus, the pro-
gram will foster a special effort
to engage Miami and South
Florida in its exploration of
design issues. Already the
school has developed partner-
ships with local venues that
bring together professionals,
students, and the general pub-
lic for lectures and exhibitions
in downtown Miami and Miami
Beach. Projects such as a
greenway design for North
Dade County and Metro-Dade
Art in Public Places have
involved students, faculty, and
community members in joint
With a large majority of the
School's 330 undergraduates
commuting to campus, there
has been special emphasis on
creating innovative and flexible
teaching environments. Dis-
tance learning opportunities,
evening design studios, and an
array of interdisciplinary cours-
es are available for students.
The School focuses students on
the important roles of project
management and uses of tech-

Vertes Haus, home of IU's School of Design.

nology in the professional
workplace. A new computer
laboratory will become an
integral component of design
education for the future. The
School's most recent programs
and offerings may be viewed
on the Internet.
Already an important com-
ponent of FlU, the School of
Design is dedicated to advanc-
ing the profession of architec-
ture in the State of Florida, to
realizing the potential of its
diverse international faculty
and student body, and to taking
a prominent position in the
intellectual life of the universi-
ty. The School's energy, taken
together with Miami's dyna-
mism, make it a certainty that
the two become linked in a
design partnership for the

John A. Stuart is an assistant
professor of architecture in
the School of Design.


Making a Strong Entry

School of Architecture, Florida Atlantic University
By Dr Peter Magyar

Florida's newest School of
Architecture is based within
the College of Urban and Pub-
lic Affairs at Florida Atlantic
University (FAU). Behind its
five-year professional program
is a dedication to uniting the
highest aims of architecture
and urban design for our times.
The city of Fort Lauderdale
and its surrounds will serve
as a learning laboratory where
students practice cooperation
with other professionals, art-
ists, builders, manufacturers,
and municipal officials. Stu-
dents will focus attention on
urban design and sustainability.
Our Vision of Learning for
the new school encompasses
shared learning among stu-
dents, faculty, and practition-
ers, and a goal of societal
usefulness as a measure of
academic achievement. In
preparing students to work
and compete successfully as
architects, the program will
emphasize exploring multiple
options and solutions in order
to create flexible, functional
systems with the ability to
accommodate future, unfore-
seen conditions and circum-
stances. Students will develop
the architectural skills to initi-
ate designs that respond to
and celebrate the various con-
ditions and circumstances of
site, program, technology, and
culture as well as serve client
requirements and demands.
Enrolling students bring
with them completed general
education requirements and a
basic knowledge of architec-
tural design, theory, and
structures. Students may
enter the 150-credit B-Arch
program as third-year students,
after completing a two-year
preprofessional architecture
AA degree program at a com-
munity college, or at the fifth-
year level after completing a
four-year architecture degree.


This dynamic start-up aca-
demic year has already yielded
an interesting exhibition of
designs for a house in Venice,
Italy, from the first biannual
charrette, titled "Virtue and
Virtuosity." Designs for this
house along the historic Grand
Canal had to accommodate
both the practical and spiritual
needs of a retiring violin virtu-
oso. "Virtue and virtuosity,"
according to the project des-
cription, are two concepts that
are "indismissably relevant to
architecture.... Neither can be
achieved without self-imposed
discipline, [and] both offer
great rewards, if attained."
Although the physical require-
ments of the program were
somewhat prescribed, the
charrette was characterized
also as a "spiritual exercise."

Biamnual Design
ChareUe 1996.
(Above) Best T2hrd-
Alexandra Drpic.
(Below) Best Fifth-
Year PrAect, Detail
Elevation, Horacio

1111111 IMUL]

U_ 0

The Shadow as Dwelling for a New School of Architecture in the Caribbean

School of Architecture, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
By Jorge Rigau, ALA

First read Gaston Bachelard's
The Poetics of Space in high
school, following the advice of
a bookshop owner who opened
my adolescent eyes through an
evergrowing reading list that
led me to, among others, ..3
Brecht, Bruno Zevi, and the
Latin American Boom. Along
with Zevi's Saper vedere, I
remember Poetics as one of
the first texts through which I
became aware of the complexi-
ties of design. Three decades
later, having been recently
entrusted with the responsi-
bility of establishing a new
School of Architecture in the
Caribbean region, Bachelard's
stance provides, in a succinct ^
phrase, an appropriate frame-
work for introspection. -W M1
Bachelard's contention that
"a shadow can be a dwelling"

regarding its current concerns v
and future possibilities. From
what man may understand to
be the shadow-the shade of
geographical distance and
global affinity-we aim to
come to terms with the parti-
cular context in which we have
chosen to operate, the same
context we expect to impact
and expand: that context we
think of as home.
Peripheral cultures like ours
are nowadays better equipped
to gauge their achievements in
terms of metropolitan expecta-
tions, acknowledging and
appreciating inherited values
but also challenging these as
such. The lens through which
we filter happenings in New
York, Berlin, or Hong Kong
can never again be obscured
by the innocence of previous
centuries of influence. The
goal is no longer to try blindly
to emulate these cities/centers
from which ideas, issues, and
trends emerge, but rather to
test their potential, to question
these against contrasting reali- Weichers-Villaronga House, seat of Polytechnic University's branch on the Southern coast of
ties. And this makes us unique, Puerto Rico. It houses an architecture museum run by the School ofArchitecture in collaboration
for all other schools in the with the Institute of Puerto Rican Culture.


Urban solution within a traditional fabric, Carlos Yunque (First-Year Design).

students must fulfill a mid-
career research requirement,
an investigation of a freely
chosen topic, finite in focus,
leading to its translation into
design criteria. Fourth year
allows urban concerns to sur-
face and clash in a Mexico City
studio, an ad-hoc atelier devel-
oped by us for such purposes.
Faced with one of the world's
largest cities, students will
learn in Mexico about the
urban and technical scale at
which it is feasible for our
Latin culture to pursue archi-
tecture as a goal.
While the curriculum pro-
fits very specifically from our
surrounding Caribbean and
Latin American milieu, it by
no means excludes the larger
international, globalized land-
scape against which future
professionals will practice. We
aim at discerning, for us and
all who are interested, what is
an appropriate legacy-what
can be lost... and what can be

Caribbean region laid their
foundations in more traditional
ideologies that-now internal-
ized for a significant number
of years-have become difficult
to supersede.
Youth means freedom. But
it would be foolish to acknowl-
edge such liberty without the
responsibility, as shared by the
team of students, faculty, and
administration jointly entrusted
with making Polytechnic Uni-
versity's School of Architecture
a relevant effort.
In many respects, our cur-
riculum reflects the institu-
tion's interest in granting its
students both competence
and confidence. Committed to
pedagogical sedimentation,
the first year allows students a
glimpse of the different areas
architecture is concerned with:
design, history, theory, technol-
ogy, and drawing. At second
level, preservation is integrated


into the design sequence, and
at the end of the year, an intro-
ductory course on practice
(with field experience) is
offered. The history sequence
includes Caribbean architec-

ture and historiography; in
command of the history of
history, students can then
pursue in-depth studies of
specific time periods. Upon
completion of third year, all

Abstract Spatial Visualization Project, Josud Col6n (First-Year

Redefining a Classical Education

School of Architecture, University of Miami
By Beth Dunlop

In the computer lab, Erick
Valle is at work, impulses
flashing across the screen as
students watch, rapt, as Le
Corbusier's Villa Savoye emer-
ges. As the images change,
the students virtually tour the
house, taking it apart and
putting it back together again.
Across a courtyard, first-year
students are hunched over
drawing tables, absorbed in
their assignment as they pain-
stakingly draw a 1926 Coral
Gables house, reconstructing
it detail by detail. And in the,
model shop, more students
are at work, constructing scale
models of other historic Miami
buildings from shop drawings
they have done.
At the University of Miami
School of Architecture, depic-
tion is a well-used word. Stu-
dents examine architecture in
its many aspects as they create
computer imagery of buildings,
draw them, and even construct
them to scale. One could call it
architectural education in one,
two, and three dimensions.
From the first days of first year
to the last master's degree
classes, UMSA students find
themselves learning architec-
ture in a classical fashion,
even if some of the tools are
They draw.
It is, of course, just one
aspect of architectural educa-
tion, but the emphasis on de-
piction sets UMSA apart-and
gets it noticed. Students regu-
larly win competitions, (just as
an example a UM student has
garnered the top prize in the
ACSA's Wood Council design
awards for the past two years).
In recent years, students have
taken "drawing trips" to Rome,
Peru, and Mexico, studying
great monuments and vernacu-
lar buildings-all with sketch
pads and pen and pencil.
The computer lab is a digital
domain where images travel
through cyberspace to let stu-

A Maya Christmas Card (1991), Nelson Bean.

dents see inside great Gothic
cathedrals and vast Italian vil-
las. Without leaving UM's
Coral Gables campus, comput-
er students have ventured far
away, as well. One group spent
several years reconstructing
Michelangelo's Laurentian
Library in exquisite computer
Why draw?
"Eventually, architects draw
to imagine buildings that don't
yet exist," says Associate Pro-
fessor Joanna Lombard, who
is in charge of the school's
first-year curriculum. "The first

Cemetery, Yucatan (1991), Eric Vogt.



ARC 101 Project Drawing for Habana, Cuba, Lazaro Alvarez.

step in architectural education
is to learn by studying and
drawing the world around us."
UM's dean, Elizabeth Plater-
Zyberk, dismisses the often-
prevalent academic idea that
drawing-or perhaps in the
computer era the more accu-
rate phrase is indeed the depic-
tion of existing buildings-is
merely a technical skill of
architecture, a craft rather than
an essential part of the learning
process. She asserts that it is
time for educators to "reassess
the role."
Thus, students at UMSA
plunge in from the very start.
This year's new students start-
ed off the semester creating


fine-tuned plans of their own
hometowns replete with archi-
tectural images. From there,
they went on to a longer
project of designing an infill
house in the 1920s Dutch
South African "village" in Coral
Gables, a project that required
extensive study of the existing
houses. "There's no sense in
being esoteric or postponing an
encounter with architecture,"
says instructor Luis Trelles.
"That's why they use pen and
ink and do exactly what archi-
tects do. Making beautiful
drawings is not a frivolous
pastime. It's a way of learning."
Students in computer classes
have recreated from plans the

university's first great (and
never completed) structure,
the Merrick Building. In the
model shop, historic landmarks
are constructed to scale (one
recently became the center-
piece at a Democratic fundrais-
ing luncheon featuring Hillary
Clinton). Even students in Vin-
cent Scully's spring-semester
architectural history course
are sent off to draw as part of
their course assignments.
Scully, the distinguished Yale
architectural historian who now
splits his time between New
Haven and Coral Gables, was
so impressed by the artistry
he found at UM that he-along
with his wife Catharine Lynn

and colleague Jorge Hernan-
dez-published a book on the
subject. Called Between Two
Towers (Monacelli Press), it
features work by both faculty
and students. The drawings,
said Scully, "are, in my opinion,
the most beautiful being pro-
duced by any school of archi-
tecture at the present time."
The work in Between Two
Towers is work done by
hand-pencil, pen and ink,
colored pencil, watercolor.
With computers, students of
architecture can take struc-
tures apart and put them
together again. They can move
through a building room by
room, to understand the
sequence of spaces. They can
reconstruct-from photos and
drawings-long-lost works of
architecture, or even never-
built ones such as the Merrick
Miami offers a master's
degree program in Computing
in Design, and the school's
undergraduate and graduate
curriculum now includes ten
different course offerings,
from an introduction to com-
Continued on next page

ARC 101 Project Drawing for St. Augustine, Florida, Magdalena Mroz.

puters to advanced computer
"The computer faculty and
staff have figured out ways to
make computers accessible to
all students," said Plater-
Zyberk, "and not just in terms
of the size of the facility but in
the teaching methods that rec-
ognize the ways the computer
can be used as an integral tool
in design, not just as a separate
Students and faculty regular-
ly take their skills with pencil
and paper or on the computer
into the real world, to study the
past and help build the future.
UMSA offers a Historic Ameri-
can Buildings Survey course,
in which undergraduate and
graduate students learn the

official way to document a
structure. The current project
is documenting historic build-
ings in Chockoloskee and
Everglades City.
After Hurricane Andrew,
Associate Professor Rocco Ceo
was able to provide important
architectural information on
houses that had been severely
damaged; his students had
spent the year before drawing
and documenting the historic
farm community of Redland.
The work continued after the
hurricane, as students helped
reconstruct-in drawings-
what had been lost.
Likewise, after the hurricane,
computer imaging techniques
were used to help citizens
visualize the innovative ways

their neighborhoods could be
rebuilt. The New South Dade
Charrette, a town-gown collab-
oration sponsored by both
UMSA and Florida International
University, aimed at offering
innovative answers to the prob-
lems wrought by the storm.
Assistant Professor Valle, the
author of a book on Key West's
architectural typologies, offers
courses in which students use
the computer to assemble
information on every aspect of
a community. In looking at Key
West, for example, students
gain a mastery of a town that
could only otherwise come
from long years of research.
Their work begins to build a
data bank for designers and
city planners who might want

to know the average tempera-
ture and rainfall for July or
what the zoning is in a parti-
cular neighborhood-or even
simply see what it's like to
walk along a certain street.
Through the school's Center
for Urban and Community
Design, the computer lab is
linked up to the real world.
Valle did a zoning code for the
Village of Key Biscayne after
its separation from the Metro
Dade County government and
likewise helped Key West
modify its code. His students
worked on those projects as
part of a "digital design" studio.
And, in a departure from the
norm in which other faculty
members and local officials
might be invited to a year-end



Even the computer lab is
distinguished by its underlying
commitment to humanistic
academic work and community
outreach, well beyond the nuts
and bolts of computer design.
"One thing I find interesting
is that most people see the

computer not as an end in
itself. Rather, they look at the
ways it enriches other work,
from individual building analy-
sis and design to urban and
environmental planning at the
scale of the region," said

Beth Dunlop is an architec-
ture critic living in Miami.
She is most recently the
author of Building a Dream:
The Art of Disney Architecture

review, Valle asked a team of
international zoning and urban
design experts to look at the
student work, by computer.
The request for jurors went
out over the internet. Valle got
19,000 inquiries and over 100
responses from architects and
planners on three continents.
"It's a thrill to see that
architectural students, under-
graduates, at this point in their
careers, can do work as sophis-
ticated as this," said Valle.
Plater-Zyberk is known
around the world for her pio-
neering work (with her hus-
band Andres Duany) in town
planning, work that is holistic
and humanistic in its approach,
-and this philosophy has long
guided the school as well.
Thus, students learn to draw
buildings in context, not
merely as icons standing alone.


The University of Miami School of Architecture
The American Institute of Architects Miami Chapter
announce the following State ofFlorida

Continuing Education Courses
being offered by the February 28, 1977 deadline

Multimedia Presentations for Marketing Design Services
It Isn't Just CADD Anymore
Computer Aided Design and Construction Documents
Three-dimensional Computer Modeling and Animation
by Curtis Charles

Introduction to Computing in Architecture
Technology Briefing for Design Professionals
State-of-the-Art Computing for Design Professionals
Desktop Publishing
Desktop Presentations
Paint & Image Processing
by Richard Langendorf

Historic Preservation: A Short Course for Architects
by Catherine Lynn & Lecturers

Traditional Neighborhood Design
by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk & Lecturers

Yucatan: Maya, Creole and Contemporary Architecture
Peru: Lima, Cuzco and Machu-Pichu
travel courses with Tomas Lopez-Gottardi

The above Continuing Education Courses range from four to twenty
credit hours and cost between thirty-five and fifty-five dollars
per credit hour. For more information please contact our Office of
Continuing Education at (305) 284-4750 or visit our Internet site
at http://www.arc.miami.edu


Architecture and Education, Posing a Challenge
By H. Dean Rowe, FAIA

Historically, the education
of an Architect began as
an apprenticeship at the feet
of a Master Architect. The
apprentice usually had accu-
mulated some education pri-
or to signing on. During a
long period of apprentice-
ship, these students learned
everything needed to solve
the problems that would
face them in designing and
constructing the buildings
of their time and place,
from methods of timber and
masonry construction to the
complex geometry of vaults,
from staircase design to
securing patrons. Not that
long ago apprenticeships still
took place in architectural
offices, where young stu-
dents learned from experi-
enced mentors.
Toward the end of the last
century, the first of the
formal professional degree
programs were initiated.
With the studio emphasis
came a change in direction of
an architectural education
that largely removed the
student from the "hands-on"
atmosphere that was the
foundation of the age-old
master-apprentice system. It
was this change in course
that ultimately led to a great
gap between the schools
and the profession that is
an acknowledged problem
Unfortunately, the present
architectural educational sys-
tem rarely allows enough of
that "hands-on" involvement
in designing and building.
This brings me to my strong
conviction that we need to
get students involved with
actually designing, building,
and experiencing their cre-
ations at an earlier point
in their educational career,
much as the earlier appren-

tices did under the guidance
of their master.
As I have heard Hugh
Newel Jacobson, FAIA, say in
lecture, "The biggest prob-
lem with our profession is
that we all so love what we
do that we get the guilties
for charging our clients for
the fun we are having."
That love for the profes-
sion, the excitement of solv-
ing a problem, improving the
environment, and experienc-
ing the satisfaction of a
building or space created and
complete-built and unbuilt-
today does begin in school.
But it does not and can not
end there.

I would like to
challenge both the
AIA and the schools
of architecture in
this state to join
forces and to take
this opportunity
that mandatory
continuing education
offers to finally
come together.

Believing this to be the
case, I have devoted a por-
tion of my professional
career to finding a way to
bridge that gap between
architectural education and
the profession. Additionally,
I have long acknowledged
and been a proponent of the
need for architects to contin-
ue their education until they
lay down their pencil-or
shall I say their mouse. Of
course, some of us will never
lay down our pencil or put
away the mouse because we
love what we do!
I continue to be a strong
advocate of the studio pro-
cess and the open critiques
and learning from one anoth-
er that it fosters. However, I
believe schools of architec-
ture must diligently endeavor
to include more practitioners
on their faculty. One way is
to have practitioners in the
classroom who can show and
share their designs and built
experiences with students,
and better yet, get students
involved with very real
projects. Another way of
achieving this goal is through
some form of cooperative
work-study education. Such
a program exists at the Uni-
versity of Cincinnati, for
example, where a strong
relationship between the
school and local practition-
ers has resulted in mentor-
ships and "hands-on" em-
ployment experiences for
At the same time, one
must certainly recognize that
a student's education in
architecture does not stop
upon completion of the for-
mal education. That is only
the beginning. Education in
the profession must continue
through registration and, as
now mandated, with lifelong

learning throughout one's
This brings me to the
important role the Intern
Development Program plays
in the education of an archi-
tect. While there has been
much vocal criticism of this
program, it does guarantee
the young intern an exposure
to the many and complex
aspects of our profession and
its practice. This program
has offered the profession an
organized training system.
Granted, it has forced both
the intern and architect/ em-
ployer to recognize the need
for a system that adds value
to both parties and improves
the profession overall.
Prior to this program, it
was common practice for
students to finish their in-
ternship time and pass the
exams (demonstrating mini-
mum competency) without
ever having stepped onto a
job site or attended an inter-
view or a client meeting. On
the one hand, the program
has, in a sense, forced practi-
tioners to accept some
responsibility for continuing
the education of their
interns, to make them more
well-rounded, valuable mem-
bers of the team. It has also
forced interns to be more
organized in their record
keeping and to speak up for
the experiences they need.
Finally, now, the profes-
sion has entered into the
realization that architectural
education requires lifelong
learning. If we are to keep up
with advancing modern tech-
nology and the changes that
come with it, we must accept
the responsibility to devote
time and energy to continu-
ing education.
It is my opinion that the
mandate for continuing edu-


cation, first from the Florida
State Board of Architecture
and now from the American
Institute of Architects, repre-
sents a significant opportuni-
ty for the schools to become
more strongly integrated
with the profession. Unfortu-
nately, I do not see much evi-
dence that this opportunity is
being recognized-by either
party. Conversely, neither do
I see efforts being made on
the part of the AIA to join
with the schools in partner-
ship to make it happen. What
I do see is a number of enter-
prising professionals within
and outside of the state
jumping out front to create a
new livelihood of teaching
other architects.
Shouldn't the schools be
taking the lead here?
It is my belief that the
schools have the structure
and the facilities, in most
instances, to be able to capi-
talize on this opportunity.
Why not initiate continuing
education seminars utilizing
both their own faculty and
outside practitioners (local
and/or "imported") as course
instructors? Ideally, courses
would be offered in the
evenings or on weekends and
at rates comparable to or less
than the courses that are
springing up everywhere.
Most practitioners find vis-
its to their alma mater enjoy-
able and energizing, whether
to check out what students
are doing or to participate
in the education process.
Personally, I find it so.
I would like to,challenge
both the AIA and the schools
of architecture in this state to
join forces and to take this
opportunity that mandatory
continuing education offers
to finally come together. If
that can happen, they can


significantly bridge that gap
between architectural educa-
tion and the profession, and
more importantly, strengthen

H. Dean Rowe, FA4A, Presi-
dent and Founding Partner

ofRowe Architects Incorpo-
rated, has a longstanding
interest in the education of
architects. His firm has
mentored many of the
state's finest practitioners,
and he is a strong support-
er of the University of

Florida School of Architec-
ture as well as one of the
primary practitioners be-
hind the inception of the
University of South Florida
Graduate School of Archi-


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The Builder and the Architect
By Everett Ray Johnson, AIA

4 Change!"

You've heard the cries! In
fact, our profession is chang-
ing. Fees are too low. Bidding
is more competitive. (Why
take the risk?) There are too
many rules, and on and on. As
a great philosopher (notably
this author) once stated, "The
only constant in our world is
change." But is this so? Is it
Sure, our tools are more
sophisticated, but have we
really changed? Look at the
plight of the builder/contrac-
tors. While you may not find
them in Las Vegas, Atlantic
City, or Reno, they are gam-
blers. They gamble every day.
So does the architect who
starts with a blank sheet of
paper (or a blank screen) and
guesstimates his or her fee for
an unknown entity.
There are few professions
or businesses of vast magni-
tude and technical nature in
which the element of deliber-
ate, known chance enters so
largely-one might say, so
overwhelmingly-as in the
building world. The life of
the builder is a gamble from
January to December.
Under the competitive sys-
tem of bidding now custom-
ary, a builder is compelled
to take all sorts of chances.
He must gamble his time
against that of other bidders
to "get the job. "He pores
over intricate blueprints for
days and far into the nights.
He spends money also, as
overhead, in letter writing,
telephoning, and estimators'
salaries. His bid when com-
pleted is a gamble. He gam-
bles that material will not
rise in price, that wages will
not go up during the course
of the building operation. He
bets that no unusual labor
conditions will arise, that

none ofhis sub-contractors
will go bankrupt, die, or
refuse to go on with their
work at the price agreed.
He gambles that the work
can be completed within a
certain number of days and
bets that the weather will
not hinder its completion.
Then he frequently agrees
to be fined smartly for each
day his contract is incom-
plete after the specified
date, and his prospective
profit thereby becomes the
ultimate gamble. The more
or less dignified practice of
architecture is also a gam-
ble. At one time within the
memory of middle-aged
practitioners, it was more
so than a horse race, for the
stakes were larger, the ele-
ment of chance fully as
This was written in Decem-
ber 1929, by Rossell E.
Mitchell in "The Adventure of
an Architect," in Pencil Points,
in Architectural Record.
Mitchell's statement, made
almost 70 years ago, is
still true. Yes, our tools are dif-
ferent, but the nature of the
profession is still the same. In
the same issue, Pencil Points
editor Russell F. Whitehead
If the men [and women,
we'll add] of our profession
are not willing to do this
[seize every opportunity to
impress upon this communi-
ty the value of architectural
services], they are going to
see their field more and
more encroached upon by
other factors in the building
corporations with architec-
tural departments, building
contractors with salaried
designers and real estate
organizations offering
architectural services
gratis. These elements are

History tells us
that the business
of architects has
not changed
radically. We are
still gamblers,
and we seek
solutionsfor the
same problems
as our predecessors.

all active-it is time for
architects to be active.
Truly, the same statements
could be made today.
Changes? Yes! Engineers have
recently issued a policy state-
ment claiming that any
licensed engineer is allowed to
sign and seal architectural
documents. Clients are looking
for single-point responsibility,
and that is why we see more
ads for designbuild. School
boards believe that they can
provide A/E services more
economically by having A/Es
on staff. When all costs are
considered, whether it costs
less to perform these services
in-house or out-of-house re-
mains questionable. In addi-
tion, myriad other issues face
us today, such as partnering
(which we probably should
have been doing anyway ver-
sus the adversarial relation-
ship), CM at risk, etc. All of
these new approaches stem
from client dissatisfaction with
conventional procedures.
What can we do to meet the
clients' needs? One approach
to a solution may lie in what
I call The Process.
I believe that most clients
want single-point responsibili-

ty for construction, including
construction documents. This
can be achieved quite easily by
utilizing a design criteria
package approach, with the
A/E hired by the client serving
as the client's representative
throughout the entire process.
Then, by using design/build
(or design/CM at risk), the
design/ build contractor team
has single-point responsibility
for construction documents,
shop drawings, and construc-
tion. The design/build contrac-
tor accepts the project at a
fixed amount on a certain
schedule. Change orders are
minimized except for owner
changes and unforeseen con-
cealed conditions. In addition,
the design criteria profession-
al(s) can serve as the "clerk of
the works" to verify perfor-
mance of the construction
team and to verify that the
documents conform to the
design intent.
While this is oversimplifica-
tion, the point to be made is
that a simplified process is
needed to work in today's
History tells us that the
business of architects has not
changed radically. We are still
gamblers, and we seek solu-
tions for the same problems
as our predecessors. While we
can learn from the past, we
may not be capable of chang-
ing the course of the future.
Perhaps it is time to re-
group, rethink, and adopt a
simplified process. Let archi-
tects do what they do best-
design, and let contractors/
builders do the documents and

Everett Ray Johnson, AIA, is
the president of Ray Johnson
& Associates, PA., Architects
in Orlando, Florida. His
firm recently celebrated its
tenth anniversary.







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