Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00312
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Summer 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00312
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

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Seprints of articles that the article exactly as it
Iave appeared in Florida appeared in Florida Architect.
Architect over the past two For more information,
years are available for use cost estimates, and help with
in mailings and the layout and design
presentations. These of your reprints, call:
custom promotion Karen Jones,
brochures reproduce 904-222-7590

FIL.ORII)A AR( IIITE :T Summer 1996

summer 1u99
Vol. 43. No. 2

Vacation home, Florida Keys.
Photograph by Carlos




Gracious Geometry 12
Mitchell O'Neil, AIA, used a narrow waterfront lot to
best advantage in designing this vacation retreat with
boat storage in the Florida Keys.

A Collegial Environment 14
In designing town homes in the College Landings
community for retired professionals, Mudano Associates
Architects Inc., used a "kit of parts" approach.

Psychical Spaces 16
Ancient architectural motifs and modern building
techniques, spirituality and pragmatism are a few' of
the components architect Robert Barnes factored into
this family home.

From Small and Simple
to Sumptuous Showplace 18
Chal tlub/Lanio Architects' Lemon Grass project hiJghligh ts
the Caribbean vernacular through 'white woodwork,
breezy porches, and mired construction.

Student Rooms with a View 20
Rink Reqnolds Architects pleased both the budget watchers
and the students who are enjoying the courtyards and
rice's at this University of North Florida dormitory.

Trading on Nostalgia 22
Don Evans, ALA, envisioned old-style homes with metal
roofs and wride porches and curving streets lined with
ancient oaks to attract contemporary home buyers to this
wa'terside development.


Editorial 5
News 6
Letters 9

Viewpoint 23
by S. Keith Bailey
Viewpoint 26
by Robert C. Stroh, Ph.D., AIC
Viewpoint 28
lb John Howey, FALA

FI.4 )IHI).\ .\i 1











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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Editorial Board
John Totty, AIA, Chairman
John Howey, FAIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
William Blizzard, AIA
Vice President/President-elect
John Cochran, AIA
Keith Bullock, AIA
Past President
Dick Reep, AIA
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
Santurce, PR
Regional Director
Henry Alexander, AIA
Coral Gables
Vice President for
Professional Excellence
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Vice President for
Political Effectiveness
Debra Lupton, AIA
Vice President for
John Awsumb, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Assistant Publisher
Joanna Booth
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Margaret Barlow
Art Director
Peter Denes
Contributing Editor
Diane Greer
Computer Graphics
Insty-Prints of Tallahassee
Boyd Brothers, Inc.
Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by
the Association, a Florida Corporation not
for profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive Office
of the Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301. Telephone (904)
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the
express permission of Florida Architect.


s the debate between architects and engineers over
professional overlap continues to concern architects in
the state and the nation, Keith Bailey, who chairs AIA
Florida's Legislative Initiatives Committee, gets to the root of the
issue by comparing the education architects and engineers receive
with respect to designing buildings for human habitation.
It is unfortunate that designing buildings for human habitation
is no longer purely an architect's domain. Builders do it, do-it-
yourselfers do it, developers do it, anyone with a napkin and a
pencil may do it. But we would like to think that architects do it
better, and that their particular knowledge makes a difference in
how people feel about the city- and townscapes they experience, the buildings
they do business in, and the homes they live in. John Howey is not sure
that this is the case, and in a strongly worded Viewpoint, he exhorts his
compatriots to heed the warning signs and to confront unplanned, unre-
stricted growth in our state.
This issue of Florida Architect looks at some of the housing that Florida
architects are designing for a variety of consumers-college students,
families, vacationers, and retirees. Coincidentally, all the projects share a
proximity to water, sought variously for its vistas, for sport, or for its reflective
and soothing properties.
Environmental concerns now play a large role in any project, whether
public or private land is involved. College Landings is a community of person-
alized townhomes, associated with an Eckerd College program for active
retirees. Its location in a flood zone posed one of a series of challenges
for Mudano Associates Architects. In siting the Osprey Landing dormitory at
the University of North Florida between a protected cypress wetlands and
a lake, Rink Reynolds Architects incorporated the views at a distance, but
provided courtyards for the students' outdoor activities.
Two vacation homes included here, one new and one renovated, were
recognized with 1994 honor awards by their respective chapters. Mitchell
O'Neil's (Palm Beach Chapter) design for a contemporary informal getaway in
the Keys uses a small lot to great advantage. It's hard to imagine that the
Caribbean-style showplace in St. Croix, done by Chalgub/Lanio Architects
(Virgin Islands Chapter), was once a simple beach cottage.
Architect Robert Barnes based his design for a family home on the convic-
tion that its architecture must both reflect and strengthen the beliefs of the
family unit and the talents of each individual member. The result is a blend of
timeless values and spirituality with practical considerations and contemporary
methods and materials. In tune with the more typical consumer, who wants
the look of yesterday but the convenience of today, are The Evans Group's fast-
selling homes in The Inlets at Riverdale development.
Finally, Robert Stroh, Director of the Shimberg Center for Affordable
Housing at the University of Florida, reminds us that for a growing segment
of our population, the concern is for something more basic-decent
affordable housing. MB

Florida Architect serves the profession by providing current information on design, practice management, technology,
environment, energy, preservation and development of communities, construction, finance, economics, as well as other
political, social, and cultural issues that impact the field.


New Florida Fellows
The American Institute of
Architects has elevated six
Florida architects to its eminent
College of Fellows, recognizing
AIA members who have made
significant contributions to
the profession nationwide.
New Florida Fellows for 1996
are Wayne Drummond, FAIA,
Gainesville; Frank Folsom
Smith, FAIA, Sarasota; and
Miami-based architects Robert
Chisholm, FAIA; Andres Duany,
FAIA; Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,
FAIA; and Roger Schluntz, FAIA.
The Florida/Caribbean Region
hosted a reception in their hon-
or at the AIA National Conven-
tion in Minneapolis, on Sunday,
May 12.

Student Bronze Medals
and Scholarships Awarded
Four Florida SUS Schools
of Architecture nominated stu-
dents to receive the AIA Florida
Bronze Medal for student excel-
lence and Florida Foundation
for Architecture scholarships.
Students awarded the Bronze
Medal were Scott Carlisle,
Florida A&M University School
of Architecture, Tallahassee;
Glenn Grosse, University of
Florida College of Architecture,
Gainesville; Bruce Gibson, Uni-
versity of South Florida School
of Architecture, Tampa; and
Michael McGuinn, University of
Miami School of Architecture,
Miami. Those receiving the
Florida Foundation scholarships
were Gibson, McGuinn, Sophia
Mojadidi, University of Florida,
and Lavina Liburd, Florida A&M

Treasures Honored
Florida Treasures, the Flori-
da Foundation for Architec-
ture's Florida Sesquicentennial
Project, was selected to receive
the 1996 Tallahassee/Leon
County Historic Preservation
Award. The Florida Heritage
Foundation and the Historic Tal-
lahassee Preservation Board

recognized Florida Treasures
for outstanding achievement in
historic preservation education.
Florida Foundation President
Ivan Johnson, AIA, accepted
the award on May 16 in Talla-

Fax on Demand JobBank
AIA Florida is offering a new
job listing service, free to AIA
members and firms. The job
bank will list both positions
available and persons seeking
work. Documentation can be
found via the Fax on Demand
Service. Job applicants may reg-
ister a two-line name/address/
phone listing plus the type of
work being sought. Positions
will be listed for 60 days, and
job seekers will be listed for six

Florida Communities
Network and Public Works
The Design and Construction
Center is located on the Internet
and offers opportunities for
architects, engineers, and con-
struction firms to obtain listings
of upcoming jobs and projects
from the Department of Man-
agement Services and the Board
of Regents. Projects are listed
by county and by types of jobs.
The online URL address is:
http://fcn.state.fl. us/fen/ren
ters/design/design.html The
site also links with AIA Florida's
home page and The Florida
Design Initiative.

Get Published
Florida Architect is inviting
projects, articles, viewpoints,
and letters to the editor. While
individual issues of the maga-
zine carry broad themes, there
is always room for a unique
project or topical article. Sub-
missions may be sent to AIA
Florida headquarters for review
by the editorial committee. The
Letters to the Editor section
presents a forum for your opin-
ions on important issues. Let
us hear from you.

Darryjl Paulson, Associate Professor of Government at the
University of South Florida, moonlights a.s at political humorist.

Summer Conference Shaping Up
The Annual Summer Confer- contractors, interior designers,
ence at the Marriott Sawgrass, and building officials. Among
August 14-18, promises to be an those being offered are "How
interesting mixture of education to Use the Internet for Fun
and entertainment. Highlights and Profit," "Effective Security
include keynote speaker Joe System Design," "Value Analy-
Riley, five-time mayor sis," and "Effective
of Charleston, South Presentation Tech-
Carolina, who was niques."
instrumental in re- Speakers like Pro-
storing the city and fessor Darryl Paulsen
its historic districts will entertain, and
after Hurricane Hugo others like leadership
in 1989, and the and team-building
AIA Florida annual specialist Professor
awards programs. Peter Hammerschmidt, from
Some of the most popular Eckerd College, will educate
events are the continuing educa- participants at a variety of
tion courses. This year's list of events throughout the con-
courses has been approved for ference.
recertification for architects, Participants can get together

Fl.( )lA,1) .\ 1( :11TH CT Summer 1996

for some recreation, too, at
golf and tennis tournaments,

sand castle
competition, I orida
and a family-
style beach
For further
information, details, and regis-
tration information, please con-
tact Melody Gordon at (904)

The architectural firm of
Criswell, Blizzard & Blouin
has been designated the St.
Petersburg Area Chamber of
Commerce Small Business of
the Year. CBB was selected on
the basis of financial staying
power, growth in sales and
employees, innovativeness, re-
sponses to adversity, and contri-
butions to the community.
William Blizzard, AIA, is the
1996 President of AIA Florida.

Linda D. Stevenson, AIA,
president of Stevenson Archi-
tects, Inc., Bradenton, recently
completed the Richard Morris
Hunt Fellowship in Mont St.
Michel, Carnac, France. The
prestigious program is designed

to foster the exchange of exper-
tise between American and
French architects working in the
field of historic preservation,
using state-of-the-art conserva-
tion and management tech-

Alan Helman, FAIA, of Hel-
man Hurley Charvat Peacock,
Maitland, received a resolution
from the Governor and Cabinet,
on May 14, 1996, recognizing
the 10-year anniversary of the
issuance of the Challenger
license tag. Helman successfully
lobbied for the legislation to cre-
ate the commemorative tag. The
popular Challenger license tag
has raised over $30 million, with
50 percent of the funds going to
the Astronauts Memorial Foun-
dation, which Helman founded
in 1986. The remaining monies
go to educational endeavors
focusing on mathematics and
technology education.

Our condolences to the family
of Stephen B. Whitehouse,
Assoc. AIA. Whitehouse, 42, a
civil engineer, died April 27,
1996. Steve and his wife, partic-
ipated in many state and AIA
Tampa events as well as consult-
ing on projects with architects
around the state.

Bill Criswell, Bill Blizzard and Joe Blouin receive 1996 Snuill
Business of the Year Award.



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Coordinator, Facilities Planning

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of
Facilities Operations is currently recruiting for a Coordinator,
Facilities Planning. Starting salary: $26,330, commensurate with
qualifications. Minimum requirements: Master's degree in
Interior Design, Architecture or related field preferred, or a
Bachelor's degree and 2 years in the same. Experience in space
planning, programming and renovation of university facilities
such as research and teaching labs and other research support
facilities is desired. Please send cover letter and resume to Lisa
Hodges, University Personnel Services, P.O. Box 115002,
Gainesville, FL 32611-5002 by July 1, 1996. Refer to
LP#95733L. If an accommodation is needed to apply for this
position, please call (352) 392-4621 or TDD (352) 392-7734.

F.( )RII).\ARi(:IIITE(:T Summer 1996

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for AIA Florida architectural firms.

For more information or to receive a
Quote-By-Fax form, please call
Robbie Bederov at 1-800-854-0491.


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FI.( )RII)A AR.C( ITE CT Summer 1996


T k [a, (A I% %N rl'i I



On Recognizing
Professional Competency
I read with interest the
article of Mr. Huey (Fall 1995)
and the response of Kirk Nivens,
PE. (Spring 1996). I found an
interesting parallel in the debate
between architects and engi-
neers on the design of buildings
and the diverse views of archi-
tects and landscape architects
on the practice of landscape
The argument that Mr. Nivens
makes suggests that engineers
are capable of designing build-
ings. This may be seen by some
as a valid observation, and is a
likely view, especially amongst
engineers. But those of us
trained in the aesthetics of
design-architects, landscape
architects, interior designers,
industrial designers, and the
like-would surely argue that
engineers are not appropriately
trained to design buildings, in
the very same manner that civil
engineers would argue that
architects are not trained to
design bridges or roadways.
These observations do not
exclude, however, the possibility
that there may be some engi-
neers capable of designing
beautiful, well-crafted, and
highly functional buildings,
and some architects who are
capable of designing safe, func-
tional bridges. More than any
others, Leonardo Da Vinci and
Michelangelo defined the poten-
tial of "cross-over" creativity,
but most would likely agree
that those with such accom-
plishment can be counted on
but a few fingers.
The suggestion that Nivens
makes that "the division line
between architecture and engi-
neering is a purely rhetorical,
academic discussion" borders
on the ignorant. One need mere-
ly assay the history of both
disciplines to understand that
there is indeed a finite line of
demarcation, as there is also

i.l( ll)A.\l( IllTrE(:T Summer 1996

between architecture and land-
scape architecture. Nivens's
suggestion is akin to a scenario
in which a specialist in inter-
nal medicine-well educated
and highly experienced-might
operate on a brain tumor. The
financial, social, psychological,
and moral costs to society to
care for the unfortunate patient
in the likely aftermath of such
an operation, would be signifi-
cant. Likewise, ill-conceived,
poorly designed, and inade-
quately functioning buildings
carry a cost that society must
bear, though the cost is perhaps
neither as surficially nor imme-
diately apparent as in the
aforementioned botched brain
surgery. The costs run much
deeper, and are surely longer
lasting, as they contribute
potentially to the erosion of
aesthetic values, the lack of
a sense of place, and the deteri-
oration of community identity
and neighborhood pride.
Nivens does seek-unknow-
ingly perhaps-to overcome his
faux pas by noting that "each
profession should practice only
in their area of education, train-
ing, and experience." This is a
sound rule for all design
professionals to abide, and it
recollects a recent conversation
I had with an architect about
Dade County's new landscape
code. This particular architect
discovered that the signature
and seal of a licensed landscape
architect were required on plans
submitted to Building and
Zoning. He felt he should be
permitted to seal his planting
drawings. I patiently explained
that I agreed he should be per-
mitted to do so, if he could
demonstrate knowledge, for
example, in Florida's ecosys-
tems or in defining xeric
vs. mesic plant communities
and their importance, abilities
expected of examinees for land-
scape architecture licensure. I
noted as well that the education
of landscape architects encom-

passes substantially more detail
related to such factors as eco-
systems, plant growth charac-
teristics, water regimes, planti-
ng procedures (soil mixes, addi-
tives, stabilizers, fertilizers,
canopy reduction, root pruning,
bark tracing [when required],
and tree bracing), xeric and
mesic plants, plant communi-
ties, native plants and the like.
Such course content can not
be found in most--if not all-
architectural curricula, and to
suggest that most architects are
properly educated, trained, and
knowledgeable in these areas is
not supported by the facts, or by
most landscapes created by
I am sure that this architect
was not pleased with my obser-
vations, but it seemed of value
to share them with your readers
in the midst of the ongoing
debate related to professional
competency, divisions of profes-
sional responsibilities, and the
substance of profession-related
knowledge, skill, and abilities.
Ted Baker
Assistant Professor
Graduate Program in
Landscape Architecture
Florida International

The Real Problem
The problem is not engineers.
Quite frankly, the kind of pro-
jects and clients which deem an
engineer as the lead profession-
al are not the reason I chose to
practice architecture. The ener-
gy and resources of the AIA
should refocus immediately.
The real problem is "carpet-
bag lawyers."
There are now firms, most
notably from Broward county,
who specialize in approaching
Condominium Associations with
a contingency fee arrangement
to aggressively sue architects,
engineers, and contractors.
Unfortunately, a perfect set of
documents has yet to be pro-

duced, so finding an issue is
never a problem. The game is
not to go to trial but to cause the
architects so much expense in
discovery that a settlement is
offered. These heinous low-lifes
take 40 percent of the spoils.
I am told that almost every
condominium project in Florida
has been approached by this
outrageous scam.
I would much prefer our dues
and lobbying efforts join in
seeking protection for all
professionals from frivolous
lawsuits and the adoption of a
realistic statute of limitations
which allows architects to take
the target off our back one
year after the certificate of
Guy Butler, RIBA, AIA
Butler & Lemons, PA.

Prepare design concepts and
detail drawings for engineering
and building purposes, prepare
sketches, renderings, models
and computer aided drawings
(AutoCAD) and 3 dimensional
computer models to illustrate
with realistic style architectural
designs form preliminary design
concepts, prepare renderings of
well prepared and developed site
plans, considering functional
layout and environmental con-
straints, coordinate with engi-
neering consultants and contrac-
tors to carry designs into con-
struction documents, confirm
compliance with building codes
and prepare construction docu-
ments. Requires Bachelor of
Architecture degree and 6 years
of experience. 40 hr/wk, 8am to
5pm. $31,000/yr.

Florida Jobs and Benefits Center
701 SW 27th Avenue
Room 27
Miami, Florida 33135
Re: Job Order No. 1407888

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Fl.( )RIL)A AH(:IIJTEI:T Summer 1996



Continuing Education

at the

1996 Summer Conference

Florida AIA members will be required to have 20 CEHs by
February 1997, and 36 LUs by October 1997.

You can get a head start by attending some of the many
for-credit sessions available at the 1996 Summer Conference.

Check out these sessions:

8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Session A: DPIC
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
11:00 a.m. 12:30 p.m.
Session B: Joseph Riley, Mayor of
Charleston, South Carolina
Moderator: Bill Blizzard, AIA
Host: Dick Reep
3.0 CES/LU hours
3:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Two Concurrent Sessions
Session C: Urban Design Panel
Mayor Joseph Riley; Michael Wallwork,
PE; Jack Diamond, FAIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
3:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Session D: How To Use the Internet for
Fun & Profit
2 CEH hours 4 CES/LU hours

8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Two Concurrent Sessions
Session E: Value Analysis
Larry M. Schneider, AIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
8:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m.
Session F: Urban Community Crime
Prevention through Environmental Design
Randy Atlas, Ph.D. AIA CPP
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
10:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m.
Two Concurrent Sessions
Session G: Effective Presentation
Ed Pike & Mary Halliday
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours

10:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m.
Moderator: Bill Blizzard, AIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
1:00 p.m. -'3:00 p.m.
Two Concurrent Sessions
Session J: Leadership Panel
Moderators: Ted Pappas, FAIA &
Dick Reep, AIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours
1:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m.
Session K: Walkable Communities
Michael Wallwork, P.E.
Moderator: Bill Bishop, AIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours

10:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m.
Session H: Architectural Lighting
David Laffitte, AIA
2 CEH hours; 4 CES/LU hours

For details, look in your 1996 Annual Conference Schedule, or
call Melody Gordon at (904) 222-7590 or the AIA/CES Hotline number (202) 879-3089


Gracious Geometry

Vacation Home
Florida Keys
Mitchell O'Neil, AIA

This comfortable home,
designed for a small water-
front lot in the Florida Keys,
was a 1994 AIA Palm Beach
Chapter award recipient. The
house was intended primarily
as a retreat, a place where the
owners could relax and unwind.
With its informal atmosphere,
it is typical of a vacation home
designed for short stays and
easy upkeep.
What is atypical is that the
driving force behind the design
was the husband's passion for
flats fishing. It became a fun-
damental requirement that the
owners be able to hoist their
boat from an existing boat slip
and store it. This led to the de-
velopment of a design based
on an overhead rail system that
aligns with a garage. In fact,
the width dimension of the slip
became the determining mod-
ule used throughout.
Considering the 55-foot
buildable lot width and an un-
usual setback for one section of
the house (required by the boat
slip), the architect suggested a
three-story, modular scheme.
The house is divided into eight
bays, with the fourth bay re-
moved as a breezeway at the
ground and roof levels. It is
designed to be approached by
water, so the large glass areas of
the front elevation face the pris-
tine canal, while service elements
such as staircase and baths are
on the back, street side.
At first glance, the house
looks relatively simple, with its
boxy forms and barrel vaulted
roof. However, a subtly complex
geometry is at work. The loft
and roof terrace railing follows
a serpentine path that bisects
both the double-high living
room and the entire roof ter-
race on the third level above
the master bedroom.
Addressing the design ver-

The front elevation turns its back on the street infavor of large glass areas and views to the
canal. Photograph: Carlos Domenech


nacular of the region, the gal-
vanized metal roof was meant
to recall traditional Key West
houses. However, the underly-
ing structure is masonry and
poured concrete. For the first
level of the house, a break-away
masonry system with poured
structural columns was used,
and all floors and flat roofs are
poured concrete. Laminated
timber trusses were used for
the exposed barrel vault over

the roof terrace, traditional
wood trusses for the interior
vault. Windows and doors are
painted aluminum. Laminated
glass, used throughout, offers
vital hurricane protection while
helping to dampen sound in
the living room. The base appli-
cation of the smooth stucco
exterior was fashioned to mimic
stone, with dark recessed joints.
A free-standing concrete

provides shade. Passive sys-
tems, such as the electric roll-
down shutters concealed in the
upside-down U-shaped concrete
beams, build in hurricane pro-
tection as well as allowing a
quick and easy means of secur-
ing the house between short
stays. It takes the owners just
minutes to open the house, in-
cluding setting furniture out on
the decks, and it can be closed

grid in front of the south wall just as quickly when they leave.

Mitchell O'Neil, AIA
Principal in charge:
Mitchell O'Neil, AIA
Landscape Architect:
Blakely & Associates
Structural Engineer:
G.V Pirez Associates, Inc.
General Contractor:
Ron Hemeyer
Interior Designer:
H. Allen Holmes, Inc.

The glazed facade helps to define the modular, eight-bay design, inside and
out. Primary colors and casual furnishings play up the informal nature of
this waterside retreat. Photograph: Carl Francetic


A Collegial Environment

College Landings
Eckerd College,
St. Petersburg, Florida
Mudano Associates
Architects, Inc.

College Landings is a resi-
dential community focused
toward the Academy of Senior
Professionals at Eckerd College
(ASPEC). Residents are retired
professionals participating in
a unique 15-year-old program
at the college which involves
them, along with students and
faculty, in a variety of cultural
and academic activities. Its
impressive list of distinguished
members continues to grow.
The residential project, a
community of sophisticated
town homes situated adjacent
to the Eckerd campus, on Boca
Ciega Bay, began taking shape
in 1992. The basic concepts
and components were well
established when Mudano Asso-
ciates was invited to oversee
its design. The enterprise has
continued to evolve, thanks to
strong cooperation and team-
Eventually, the community
will comprise 275 homes. A
cluster concept was adopted,
both to make better use of
valuable waterfront and water-
view land and to give buyers a
greater value. Completed to
date are 21 buildings with 55
town homes.
The initial design concept
was that buildings not be iden-
tical. Each building contains
three or four homes, selected
from six models (each with
two elevations) and then drawn
using computer technologies
and a "kit of parts" approach.
Although this works well in the-
ory, each building does require
individual attention to resolve
structural, electrical, site, and
custom-detailing issues. Track-
ing design changes through
construction has proved de-
manding, as most residential

subcontractors are accustomed
to tract developments with
identical units.
Major challenges were posed
by the project's location in a
flood zone, requiring that fin-
ished floors be at least 12 feet
above sea level. In a viable
solution that provides usable
space, hides parking, and
avoids stilt-type construction,
the lower level of each unit,
which includes an enclosed
two-car garage, covered car-
port, and utility space, allows
flood waters to flow through.
The location is also one of
Pinellas County's primary evac-
uation zones. Mindful of this,
gas (which generally is not
disrupted during storms) was
used for cooking, heating, and
some lighting. To decrease envi-

Clerestory windows use the vaulted ceiling to best advantage and bathe the principal living
area in natural light.


A finished look at ground level and the placement of the main entrance halfway between street and floor levels avoids the look
of stilt construction.

ronmental impact in the event
of storm damage, green areas
were raised several feet. Build-
ing clusters are sited to provide
most of the window exposure
to these landscaped expanses.
Even the smallest units,
which contain about 1,465 sf
of living area (plus a 205 sf
lanai and 1,025 sf utility/garage
space), appear spacious, thanks
to an open arrangement and
large windows. The largest, five
luxury waterfront duplexes,
have up to 4,500 sf of living
area. Besides a bay view, most
of the homes feature vaulted
ceilings and arched windows.
Pergolas, latticework, and tile
roofs enhance the exterior
character, while natural wood
and other high-quality finishes
accent the interior.


Measures were taken to avoid
a "matchbox" look often seen
in townhome developments.
The roof (scissors) trusses are
set to span between the side
walls of each unit instead of the
more usual front-to-back. This
accomplished two "signature"
elements. First, each home has
an identity from the exterior
expressed by a high gable end
(which also allowed a gable end
window to bring natural light
deep into the interior). Second,
the entry doors are a half level
up from the street and centered
on the ridge of the truss. As a
result, upon entering the home,
the first, overwhelming impres-
sion is that of soaring ceilings
and profuse natural light-very
much a contemporary Florida

College Landings has suc-
ceeded in becoming a real
neighborhood. Pleasant gaslit
walkways outnumber feeder
roads, and even the "motor
courts" (each has its own de-
sign and character) resemble
narrow European streets.
Pedestrian greens, raised to
about four feet above street
level, were patterned after the
academic courtyards of tradi-
tional college campuses. Rais-
ing these areas closer to the
elevation of the living level
accomplished a "front porch"
atmosphere in which neighbors
have come together naturally.

Architect: Mudano Associates
Architects, Inc.
Principals in Charge: Frank
R. Mudano, FAIA, Stephen B.

Lafferty, AIA
Project Architect:
Brian D. Seufert, Architect
Concept Development:
Gaynor Nielson Development,
William Gaynor, Architect
Landscape Architects:
Anderson-Lesniak Assoc., Ltd.,
Inc., King Engineering Associ-
ates, Inc.
Civil Engineers: King Engi-
neering Associates, Inc., Florida
Design Consultants, Inc.
Site Contractor: Kearney
Development Co., Inc.
General Contractors: R.L.
Welsh, Inc., Peter Brown con-
struction, Inc., R.J. Bunbury, Inc.
Developer: College Landings
Limited Partnership, Richard L.
Benware, General Partner

Photographs: Ken Kelly

Psychical Spaces

Architect's House,
South Dade County, Florida
Robert Barnes & Assoc.

This unusual home was con-
ceived by unusual means.
It is an architectural response
to the needs of a present-day
family, based on an apprecia-
tion of past cultures and the
spiritual make-up of their build-
ings. However, as a hands-on
research project that explored
pushing traditional limits of
reinforced masonry and light-
gauge steel, it also represents
an appreciation of more con-
temporary building techniques.
Looking back to Mayan
builders in the Yucatan, archi-
tect Robert Barnes discovered
block-type massiveness and
some unique design elements
that addressed his philosophical
as well as structural require-
ments. He adopted a rustic
masonry exterior finish to de-
pict the "fortress-like resiliency"
of the human spirit, and an
"eye of the hurricane" motif,
symbolizing a center of energy,
to embellish its broad surface.
Water pools at the east and
west entrances are intended to
be both calming and inviting
and to offer elements of reflec-
tion and balance. Curved walls,
too, serve symbolic and practi-
cal purposes. The east-west axis
is oriented toward the rising
and setting sun.
It was perhaps a more practi-
cal consideration for the family
to select a site near good
schools, in a relatively secluded
but high-density suburban area.
The three-level plan, too, is
practically as well as spiritually
motivated. The top floor, "do-
main of those who manage the
family's growth," houses a mas-
ter bedroom suite with a roof-
top deck. Communal spaces
and the children's rooms are
found on the main floor. A
ground floor-actually below
ground, "site of creative pro-
cesses," accommodates an art

Intended to be an example of "green" architectural design, the plan incorporated natural light
and solar energy as well as environmentally sensitive building products.

studio, office, and guest room.
Set on slightly more than a half-
acre, the total enclosed space
measures 4,350 sf.
Energy-efficiency was built
into the house through a num-
ber of means. The curve of the
exterior "eye wall" provides a
pocket designed to catch pre-
vailing easterly winds, and the
combination of cross-ventilation





Contrasting colors, deep spatial forms, and the Mayan influenced "eye of the hurricane" motif add plastic depth and dramatic
interest to the rustic masonry exterior

and a thermal chimney effect
via the stairwells further en-
hances interior air flow. Solar
energy will be used to heat the
swimming pool and potable
water (through a photovoltaic
water pump). Gas appliances,
solid poured exterior masonry,
and light-gauge metal walls
assure thermal lag and high
insulation values. The ground


floor, dug into the earth, main-
tains a stable low temperature.
A number of environmentally
sensitive building products
were incorporated into all phas-
es of the construction process.
Using light-gauge steel for
roofs, floors, and interior walls
created high relilient strength
and provided space for high
insulation values, as well as

avoiding potential wood rot and
termite problems. Water-based
urethanes and paints were used
throughout, and trees felled
during Hurricane Andrew were
used to supply wood finishes.

Architect: Robert Barnes &
Principal in charge: Robert
Barnes, AIA

General Contractor:
Richard Mullins & Co.
Construction Management:
Robert Barnes, AIA
Pond Construction:
Walter Dawson
Owner: Robert Barnes, AIA

Photographs: Carlos

From Small and Simple to Sumptuous Showplace

Lemon Grass
St. Croix, Virgin Islands
Chalgub/Lanio Architects,

Total transformation is the
only way to describe this
remodel-with-addition of a
1960s one-bedroom beach cot-
tage into an elegant year-round
residence, a showplace. A pri-
mary consideration for owner
and architect was privacy, to
exclude the context (the house
is just yards from a public
beach) and define comfortable
and secure interior spaces for
daily living and entertaining.
The addition consists of two
parts: a second story for the
original square structure, and
a large horseshoe-shaped
extension incorporating four
bedrooms, service areas, and
an enclosed courtyard with a
fountain, swimming pool, and
spa. Enclosed space now totals
7,174 sf. The one-acre lot,
which required extensive land-
scaping to achieve the desired
privacy, easily accommodated
the addition of a long, private
The remodeled existing
section now houses the main
indoor entertaining areas. An
original surrounding porch
has become a glass-enclosed
gallery, where louver doors
form a protective layer between
the outdoors and the more
formal indoor spaces as well
as a filter for light, sea breezes,
and the ocean view.
Just above, on the new sec-
ond floor, besides the spacious
master suite, is an open den/
library area overlooking the
living room below. Ornate
white-painted woodwork, ex-
tending the full height of the
living room, contributes a light,
vernacular feel to that book-
lined formal space. From the
master bedroom one looks
across the second-story living
room to see, framed in glass,

The extent of the renovation is evident here (before extensive landscaping created a more
private sphere) in the second story addition to the original cottage, the porches and pergolas,
and the U-shaped extension containing open and enclosed spaces.

the sea and sky. The wrapping
deck on the second floor, has
been transformed variously
into a pergola, a covered porch,
or an open terrace, again pro-
tecting the interior space while
remaining an extension of it.
Characteristic of Caribbean
architecture is a mixed cgn-
struction system, incorporating
masonry for the lower floor,
wood frame for the upper,
wood siding, and galvanized
corrugated roofing for the
steeply sloped hip roof and the
shed roofs over the porches
attached to the main house.
Also standard are a septic tank
and drain field, and a rainwater
cistern with pump. As with
other houses on the islands,

Light painted woodwork draws the eye up to the
added second floor gallery. Ornate wooden structures
throughout reflect the Caribbean vernacular


there is no built-in HVAC. Cool-
ing and heating are accom-
plished with high windows and
a system of movable louvers. A
survivor of Hurricane Hugo,
the house was constructed to
withstand 125 mph winds, with
all connectors for the main
structural elements galvanized
steel plates with bolts.
In selecting this project for
a 1994 AIA-Virgin Islands
Chapter honor award, the jury
noted the "elegant renditions of
spaces and articulations" and
"intelligent complexity in the...
interior sequence of spaces."
Perhaps most significant,
though, was their recognition
of the transformation from cot-
tage to formal house "without

Indoor spaces and
outdoor views are
joined through
surrounding porches.

losing the basic qualities of
Caribbean architecture."

Architect: Chalgub/Lanio
Architects, Inc.
Principal in charge:
Hortensia D. Lanio, AIA,
Maria M. Chalgub, AIA
Project Team:
Laura M. Urrechaga
Structural Engineer:
Carlos Ensefiat, PE.
Engineer: Victor Reeve, EE.
General Contractor:
Richard Schierloh
Owner: Mr. and Mrs. Richard

Photographs by the architect


Student Rooms with a View

Osprey Landing
University of North
Florida, Jacksonville
Rink Reynolds Architects

Most of us don't recall dor-
mitory living as one of the
high points of our college expe-
rience, with cramped rooms,
close quarters, and long walks
to the bathroom. Some of these
characteristics are unavoidable,
to be sure. And tight budgets
and cost-cutting mandates
make it an ever-increasing
challenge to provide comfort-
able, reasonably priced student
housing in a pleasant environ-
But it can be done.
Lake and cypress wetlands
views, courtyards and sun-
decks, operable windows, and
private bathrooms are some
of the features that student
occupants say make for agree-
able living in UNF's new three-
dormitory complex.
The Beaux Arts-inspired
design has three principal
zones. In each a three-story,
150-bed dorm forms a triangle,
which, following Italian palazzo
typology, shows its formal face
toward the main campus while
enclosing a courtyard for resi-
dents. These intimate court-

Main entrance into the dorm complex where a central courtyard visually unites the three
discrete zones.

yards connect with a large cen-
tral courtyard that is on an axis
with the main entrance to the
complex, parking, and pedestri-
an walks to class buildings and
other campus destinations.
As an experiment in cost
management, University of

Trellis detail at corner entrance of phase 3 dorm leads into a

North Florida opted for a
design/build approach to devel-
op this dormitory project. The
team that was selected, Rink
Reynolds Architects and Nor-
wood Construction, did not
Understandably, many re-
strictions and hurdles defined
the project. A fixed budget of
6.4 million for 450 beds, in-
cluding extensive site work and
generous landscaping, proved
easily workable. The first of
three planned phases was com-
pleted on time (July 1994) and
within budget ($44/sf building
cost). Quick achievement of full
occupancy, jumpstarted release
of the next two phases. Again
deadlines (September 1995)
and budgets ($45/sf) were met
The site was tight, close to
an existing dorm, and bounded
by Candy Cane Lake on the
west and a wetlands area with

cypress trees on the east.
Approval of the plan by St.
Johns River Water Management
required that their jurisdictional
line be observed. For example,
in adding necessary earth dur-
ing the construction proceed-
ings, the line protecting the
wetlands and the area around
the lake could not be violated.
The obvious solution for siting
the complex was to orient the
buildings so that many of the
rooms overlook either the lake
or wetlands, and to keep pedes-
trian and automobile traffic away
from these protected areas.
Brown brick, standard for
all UNF buildings, covers the
exterior walls facing campus.
Horizontal banding of precast
concrete was added above and
below the windows. Interior
courtyard walls are stucco on
masonry. The complex's angu-
lar geometry and the curved
stair towers used to link the


Brick and precast horizontal banding and angular geometry of buildings with contrasting stair towers are campus hallmarks.

dorm sections are in keeping
with a number of other campus
buildings. Interior finishes are
the expected carpet, vinyl tile,
and painted concrete block.
Even so, double-wall construc-
tion on all exterior walls and
double insulating glass for all
windows have succeeded in
keeping energy costs down.

Rink Reynolds Architects PA.
Principal in charge:
Thomas W Reynolds, Jr., AIA
Project Architect:
Andrew Hausler
Interior Architect: Jennifer
Wiesinger, AIA
Landscape Architect: Envi-
ronmental Design and Planning


Masterplan Architect:
Junck & Walker Architects/
Planners, Inc.
Structural Engineer:
H.W Keister Associates, Inc.,
Consulting Structural Engineers
Civil Engineer:
Robert M. Angas Associates
Mechanical Engineer:
Sunbelt Engineering, Inc.
Electrical Engineer:
John Searcy & Associates,
Consulting Engineers
Design Build Contractor:
The Norwood Company, S.E.
Owner: Florida Board of

Photographs: Sue Root
Barker, Root Photography

Trading On Nostalgia

The Inlets at Riverdale
Bradenton, Florida
The Evans Group

Designs that evoke yester-
day's image but are aimed
at today's market are behind a
fast-selling community of
homes along the Manatee River.
The 300-acre project, which
had been platted in 1958, fea-
tures hundred-year-old oaks,
old canals, and a river. The site
was quite a find.
Although the developer
initially planned a community
of contemporary Southwest
Florida waterfront homes,
architect Don Evans had a dif-
ferent idea. He envisioned an
old-fashioned-looking neigh-
borhood of curving gaslit
streets and homes with metal
roofs and wide porches.
The homes, described vari-
ously as Cracker-style and San
Francisco Victorian-but with
a nautical theme-range from
1,664 to 3,110 sf of living area.
Old trees grace many of the 723
lots, 600 of which are sited
along one of the saltwater or
freshwater canals. Every home
has direct river access, an ideal
arrangement for boat owners-
the targeted market for these
Four models, named after
America's Cup yachts, feature
concrete block construction
with metal roofs and Hardie-
siding exterior, verandas front
and back, a porte cochere, and
a motor court leading to a rear
side garage. Open floor plans
and large, abundant windows
make interiors bright and com-
fortable. One- and two-story
plans offer a variety of optional
arrangements, including bed-
room/den configurations, extra
garage space for a boat, an
open loft for a "children's
retreat," and a private viewing

In this community
of model homes
for contemporary
families, old-fash-
ioned curving
streets accommo-
date vintage-look
houses with up-
to-date amenities.
Photograph: Kim
Sargent, Sargent &

Architect: The Evans Group
Principal Architects:
Donald E Evans, AIA, Carl
Land Developer: Nordic of
Florida, Dick Bishop, Norman
Builder: Camlin Home
Corporation, Kenneth Keating
Land Planner:
Enviroscape, Kent Foreman



Florida Engineers Are Not Educated to Design

Buildings for Human Habitation
By S. Keith Bailey, AIA

Architects and engineers
continue their debate in
state legislatures and licensing
boards, in the courts, and
between professional societies
regarding overlap between the
practice of architecture and
engineering. A recent article
appearing in Codes Forum
(January-February 1996) enti-
tled, "The Practice of Engineer-
ing and the Legal Authority of
Engineers in Building Design,"
by Clyde R. Tipton, Jr., RE.
and Arthur E. Schwartz, Esq.,
presented the engineers' case
for allowing clients to select a
professional of their choice,
architect or engineer, to provide
building design professional
The concluding statement is
one that allows agreement for
both architects and engineers:

"The necessary corollary is
that individuals who do
not possess demonstrated
education, experience and
qualifications should be
prevented from offering
such services to the public
because they have not met
the legally required level of
professional competence."

Traditionally, the professions
of architecture and engineering
are defined individually by each
state in its statutes and adminis-
trative codes. In Florida, archi-
tecture is defined by State
Statute 481 and Administrative
Code Chapter 61G1: 11-23, and
engineering by State Statute
471 and Administrative Code
Chapter 61G15: 18-33. The
definitions are as follows.
481.203 Definitions
(3) Architect: a ... person who
is licensed... to engage in the
practice of architecture.
(6) Architecture: the render-
ing or offering to render
services in connection with
the design and construction
of a structure or group of
structures which have as


their principal purpose hu-
man habitation or use, and
the utilization of space within
and surrounding such struc-
tures. Services include plan-
ning, preliminary study
designs, drawings and speci-
fications, job site inspection
and administration of con-
struction contracts.
471.005 Definitions
(4) Engineer: a person who is
registered to engage in the
practice of engineering.
(6) Engineering: any service
of work, the adequate perfor-
mance of which requires engi-
neering education, training,
and experience in the appli-
cation or special knowledge of
the mathematical, physical,
and engineering sciences to
such services or creative work
as consultation, investigation,
evaluation, planning, and
design of engineering works
and systems, planning the use
of land and water, engineer-
ing surveys, and the inspec-
tion of construction for the
purpose of determining in
general if the work is proceed-
ing in compliance with draw-
ings and specifications, any
of which embraces such
services or work, either public
or private, in connection
with any utilities, structures,
buildings, machines, equip-
ment, processes, work sys-
tems, projects, and industrial
or consumer products or
equipment of a mechanical,
electrical, hydraulic, pneu-
matic, or thermal nature,
insofar as they involve safe-
guarding life, health, or prop-
erty; and includes such other
services as may be necessary
to the planning, progress, and
completion of any engineer-
ing services....

Educational Requirements
for Architects and Engineers
in Florida
In the case of both architects
and engineers, the state defines

Among the causes
of the controversy
is the simple fact
that every state
has its own
regulations, and
even when language
is the same or
similar, legal
have differed widely.

a standard of education consid-
ered necessary to attain the
legally required level of profes-
sional competence.
Architects. The educational
requirements for architects are
defined in Chapter 61G1-
13.003, as follows:
1. Completion of a five- or six-
year degree program at a school
accredited by the National
Architectural Accreditation
Board (NAAB).
2. 160-hour curriculum, to
include 96 credit hours in edu-
cation required for designing
buildings for human habitation,
as follows:
a. 50 hours design of structures
for human habitation or use
including graphics and architec-
tural communication.
b. 30 hours technology and pro-
fessional administration, includ-
ing 12 hours structures, 6 hours
materials and methods of con-
struction, 6 hours environmen-
tal and mechanical systems and
6 hours professional practice.
c. 16 hours history, theory,
human behavior and environ-
mental studies.
3. Acceptable transcript.
4. School of Architecture Stan-
Engineers. The educational
and practical experience re-
quirements for engineers are
defined in Chapter 61G15-20
and Section 471.013, as follows:

1. Graduate of approved four-
year engineering curriculum at
a school accredited by Accredi-
tation Board for Engineering
and Technology (ABET).
2. Four years of active engineer-
ing experience; master's or
doctoral degree in engineering
from an approved school can
count as one year of experience.
3. Acceptable transcript.
4. Provide applicant's curricu-

Observations Regarding
Educational Requirements
The minimum requirement for
state examination for licensure
for architects in Florida is 160
semester hours. However, the
six-year professional degree, for
example the University of Flori-
da (UF) Master of Architecture
degree, requires 183 semester
hours (based on the 1995-96
graduate catalogue).
By comparison, the minimum
requirement for state examina-
tion for licensure for civil engi-
neers in Florida is graduation
from a four-year program. The
UF Bachelor of Civil Engineer-
ing degree requires 139 semes-
ter hours; requirements for
Bachelor degrees in other engi-
neering disciplines at UF range
from 125 to 137 semester
hours. Based on UF degree pro-
gram requirements, engineers
take 44 to 58 fewer semester
hours than architects prior to
sitting for their professional
exam in Florida.
Again based again on UF
programs, civil engineering
students do take 18-24 hours
related to architecture (none
of which are among the 96
credit hours mentioned previ-
ously). Other engineering disci-
plines do not require even 18
credit hours similar to architec-
ture. Thus, engineers generally
are lacking in the coursework
covered in the 96-credit archi-
tecture core, which represents
over three years of education in
Continued on next page

Florida Engineers are Not Educated to Design
Buildings for Human Habitation
Continued from previous page

designing buildings for human
Needless to say, but impor-
tant to note, the Florida engi-
neering examination does not
include items on designing
buildings for human habitation,
nor are engineers required
to intern designing such build-
Required Courses Common
to Architects and Engineers
Architecture and engineering
students do take some courses
in common, primarily result-
ing from the State Board of
Education's Gordon Rule. This
university-wide general educa-
tion requirement dictates 45
semester credit hours in English
Composition, Literature and
the Arts, Historical and Philo-
sophical Studies, International
Studies and Diversity, Social Sci-
ences, Mathematical Sciences,
and Physical/Biological Sci-
Civil engineering students
take courses relevant to archi-
tecture, totalling 24 semester
credit hours (based on UF
undergraduate 1995-96 cata-
logue), in the following areas:
Computer Aided Design, Statics,
Strength of Materials, Construc-
tion Methods and Management,
Analysis and Design in Steel,
Analysis and Design in Rein-
forced Concrete, Advanced
Steel Design, and Advanced
Reinforced Concrete Design.
These courses deal with the
resolution of forces and corre-
sponding sizes of members,
such as beams and columns,
shear walls, foundations, and
the like, while designing the
structural skeleton system or
structural components of a
building. To a limited extent,
constructability issues relating
to the appropriateness of vari-
ous building materials are cov-
ered in this coursework.

Courses on Designing Build-
ings for Human Habitation.
Architecture curriculum re-

quirements uniquely prepare
architectural students in the art
of building for human habita-
tion. A total of 87 semester
credit hours are required in the
following areas: Architectural
Design, Research and Analysis
(55), Architectural History and
Theory (12), Building Arts Tech-
nology (14), and Architectural
Practice (6). No such courses,
representing the very heart and
soul of what is needed to design
buildings for human habitation,
are required for engineering
This fact became evident
during a review of engineering
curriculums at the University of
Florida for courses that would
prepare engineers in the art of
building for human habitation.
No such courses were evident in
the following engineering cur-
riculums: Industrial, Electrical,
Aerospace, Industrial and Sys-
tems, Agrisystems, Engineering
Science, Soil and Water Re-
source, Environmental, Food
and Bioprocess, Materials Sci-
ence and Engineering, Chemi-
cal, Mechanical, Surveying and
Mapping, Nuclear, Computer,
and Nuclear Engineering Sci-
Lacking in each curriculum
are architectural history and
theory courses that teach archi-
tects, among other things, about
styles, lessons learned, and the
evolution of the art of buildings
designed for human habitation;
building arts technology dealing
with constructability issues;
architectural practice dealing
with client, business, and regu-
latory issues; and, last but not
the least, architectural design,
research and analysis, focusing
on how to design buildings for
human habitation.
None of the approximately
three years of coursework con-
taining unique instruction in the
art of building for human habi-
tation, required of architectural
students for a degree and licen-
sure, is required by any engi-

neering curriculum adminis-
tered by the State of Florida.
Nor are the courses even listed
as elective requirements within
the UF engineering department.
In addition, there are no shared
programs or professional orga-
nizations between architects and

Graduate Engineering
Curriculums with Building-
Related Courses
A review of the graduate
engineering programs in the
University of Florida 1995-96
catalogue reveals that some
graduate engineering curricu-
lums include building-related
activities, although none deal
specifically with building for
human habitation. For example,
Coastal and Oceanographic
Engineering includes courses on
port, coastal, and offshore
design and structures; Electrical
Engineering has advanced com-
puter design; Environmental
Engineering Sciences covers
groundwater protection and
remediation, systems ecology
and energy analysis; and Mech-
anical Engineering graduate stu-
dents study energy conversion
systems, mechanical systems,
acoustics, automatic controls,
solar energy and vibrations.
Of all the engineering disci-
plines, Civil Engineering, espe-
cially its concentrations such as
Specialties of Construction,
Geotechnical Engineering, Pub-
lic Works, Structures, Materials,
Surveying and Mapping, Man-
agement, Geotechnical Engi-
neering, Hydraulics and Trans-
portation Engineering, share the
most coursework in common
with architecture.

What the Regulations Say
Among the causes of the contro-
versy is the simple fact that
every state has its own regula-
tions, and even when language
is the same or similar, legal
interpretations have differed

* The engineer's position in the
Codes Forum article-one with
which architects agree whole-
heartedly-is that:

"A license is an official
permit to do what one
is trained to do. This
restriction is a presumably
valid exercise of the state's
powers to protect the
public health, safety and
we(fare-the so called
police powers."

* In 1930, Arizona vs. John-
son, the United State Supreme
Court wrote: "Application of
a State's Professional Licen-
sing Laws and Regulations is
an attempt to regulate the
competence of individuals per-
forming those services within a
* The Florida Statutes limit an
engineer's practice to areas of
competence in an engineering
discipline based on education.
According to 61G15-20.0002
(1)(6)1, "The acquisition of
acceptable engineering experi-
ence should logically follow and
constitute an application of
the engineering education pre-
viously obtained." Thus, if an
engineer does not have specific
education in an engineering dis-
cipline, he or she should not
provide services in that area.
Based on Florida engineering
curriculums, engineers com-
pletely lack education in the art
of building design for human
habitation, that is, architecture,
and thus should not provide
services in that area.
* Although in Florida, profes-
sional service overlap state-
ments (481.229 and 471.003)
allow overlap services "purely
incidental" to each profession,
engineers should keep in mind
the Florida Statute language
of 471.003(3), that "No engi-
neer shall practice architec-
Engineering is defined in
Florida 471.005(6) by "disci-


plines" or "branches of engi-
neering," i.e., Chemical, Civil/
Sanitary, Electrical, Mechanical,
Industrial, Agricultural, Nuclear,
Structural, Aeronautical/Aero-
space, Mining/Mineral, Metallur-
gical, Petroleum, Control Sys-
tems, Manufacturing, and Fire
Protection. Engineers are thus
limited in practice by their edu-
cation. A chemical engineer
is neither competent in nor
educated to practice electrical
engineering. Since architecture
is also a discipline requiring
education, and certainly not a
branch or discipline of engi-
neering, clearly no engineer has
been trained in it, per se.

Recent National Trends to
Limit Practice Overlap
Architects in Florida are in
agreement with the national
trend to limit engineering over-
laps into architecture practice in
the state because of engineers'
inadequate education in archi-
tecture. Recently three states
passed legislation along these
lines, as follows.
* New Jersey, 1990: Law defines
each profession's scope of
practice by building classifica-
* Kansas, 1992: Eliminated in-
cidental practice exemptions in
the licensing laws.
* Arkansas, 1994: State Attor-
ney General issued an opinion
that engineers in the state were
not permitted to design build-
ings for human occupancy or
habitation; and 1995: Engineers
may design buildings for accom-
modation of equipment or for
other utilitarian purposes.

Architects in Florida believe
that we are the appropriate
design professionals to design
buildings for human habitation
in Florida, since, based on Flori-
da's statutes and standards, we
are uniquely educated to design
such facilities. Conversely, engi-
neers, who are not mandated to


receive equivalent education in
designing buildings for human
habitation, are not the appropri-
ate design professionals to
design such facilities.
Architects wholeheartedly
agree with the engineers' state-
ment that:

"individuals who do not
possess demonstrated
education...should be pre-
ventedfrom offering such
services to the public
because they have not met
the legally required level of
professional competence."

S. Keith Bailey, AIA, of the
Maitland firm of Helman
Hurley Charvat Peacock,
chairs AIA Florida's Legisla-
tive Initiatives Committee.


porft ... mor of wht you watro

seilyb ilingpout upir

ill a ..Itl f o


Helping to Provide Affordable Housing in Florida
By Robert C. Stroh, Ph.D., AIC

Reductions in federally sup-
ported housing programs
and the accompanying shift
of responsibility to the states
pose a challenge for the archi-
tectural community to develop
affordable housing solutions.
Fortunately, Florida's public and
private sectors are among the
most progressive in the country
at organizing to face this new
responsibili y.
Between 1980 and 1990
newly authorized budget author-
ity for subsidized housing in the
United States fell 60 percent,
and annual subsidized housing
starts fell almost 90 percent.
Almost no federal public hous-
ing starts are now taking place.
The number of homeless in
the United States continues to
grow, as does the gulf between
that segment of the population
which occupies safe, decent,
and affordable housing and
that which is either homeless,
housed in overcrowded or sub-
standard conditions, or overbur-
dened by the cost of housing.
As the federal government
has backed away from providing
housing opportunities for lower-
income families, Florida has
assumed a leadership role at the
state level. Most noteworthy
among Florida's housing initia-
tives has been the landmark
Sadowski Affordable Housing
Act (1992) and its State Hous-
ing Incentives Partnership
(SHIP) program. This year $80
million has been dedicated to
helping finance affordable hous-
ing around the state, through a
broad array of county- and city-
based programs. This funding,
expected to increase annually,
can be used to leverage up to $1
billion in affordable housing
construction. The kind of low-
cost housing evisioned by these
programs is well-designed, well-
built single- and multiple-family
dwellings that use available
space creatively and blend into
established neighborhoods.
Florida also is fortunate to

have one of the most aggressive
and successful housing finance
agencies, plus a statewide net-
work headed by the Tallahassee-
based Florida Housing Coalition
that supports nonprofit hous-
ing providers. In addition, the
Governor's Affordable Housing
Study Commission functions as
an independent advisory body
that annually reviews the most
serious housing challenges fac-
ing the state and provides rec-
ommendations to the governor
and legislature regarding policy
and program improvements.
In 1988 the Florida legisla-
ture recognized that within the
State University System was
contained considerable knowl-
edge and expertise in a variety
of disciplines that could con-
tribute to improving housing for
Floridians. As a result the Board
of Regents was asked to estab-
lish a multidisciplinary Center
for Affordable Housing in the M.
E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building
Construction of the College of
Architecture at the University of
The Center for Affordable
Housing works in collaboration
with other related disciplines
and institutions in the State Uni-
versity System to:
a) conduct research related to
housing affordability in the
state for families below the
median income level and
to disseminate their findings
b) provide public services to
local, regional, and state
agencies by helping them
create regulatory climates
that are amenable to the pro-
duction of affordable housing
c) conduct special research
related to fire safety
d) provide a focus for teaching
new technology and skills
relating to affordable housing
in Florida
e) develop a base of informa-
tional and financial support
from the private sector for
the activities of the Center

The kind of low-cost
housing envisioned
by these programs
is well-designed,
well-built single-
and multiple-family
dwellings that use
available space
creatively and blend
into established

f) develop prototypes of both
multi-family and single-family
Center faculty also meet
annually with the Department of
Community Affairs to coordi-
nate research activities and
review recommended research
topics for the Center that appear
in the annual report from the
Governor's Affordable Housing
Study Commission.
Since becoming operational
in 1990, the Center has focused
its research activities in three
a) Housing Data: Establishing
the Florida Housing Data
Center, including quantitative
data describing the Florida
housing inventory and
resources for referral for pro-
gram and implementation
b) Housing Technology: Iden-
tifying alternative building
designs and systems or mate-
rials that claim advantages
over conventional practices,
and documenting perfor-
mance in terms of structure,
thermal, cost, and other fac-
tors as well as compatibility
with the existing housing

delivery system.
c) Housing Policy and Regu-
lations: Examining the
nature and extent of regulato-
ry exclusion and restriction
of housing options in a
variety of localities, and
critiquing effectiveness of
solutions proposed.
In 1991 the Center was re-
named the Shimberg Center for
Affordable Housing in recogni-
tion of James H. Shimberg, a
leader in promoting affordable
housing in Florida and the
nation and developer of Town
& Country Park in Tampa.
Shimberg's major gift to the
University of Florida endowed
the Center.
The mission of the Shimberg
Center also includes various
teaching and service compo-
nents. The Center sponsors a
university course in housing
policy and a Summer Housing
Institute continuing education
program. Shimberg Center and
Florida Cooperative Extension
Service faculty have jointly
developed both a home-buyer
education program and a post-
occupancy homeowners manu-
al, My Home Book, available
statewide through Extension
Service county offices. The Cen-
ter also disseminates housing-
related information through a
Technical Note Series and its
bimonthly newsletter, Afford-
able Housing ISSUES.
Architects and others
throughout the state may bene-
fit from research and referrals
provided by the Shimberg Cen-
ter. To inquire about any afford-
able housing issue, call (352)

Robert C. Stroh, Ph.D., AIC,
is Director of the Shimberg
Center for Affordable Housing
in the M. E. Rinker, Sr School
of Building Construction, Col-
lege ofArchitecture, Universi-
ty of Florida, Gainesville.







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If Our Houses Could Talk
By John Howey, FAIA

f Florida homes could speak
to us, you might hear some-
thing like this:
We've had a great history,
starting with St. Augustine,
where Spanish settlers built
dwellings of native coquina
rock and cedar timbers. They
were close to the land, and
self-sufficient in every sense
of the word. Unfortunately,
only traces of these first
homes remain.
Our early Florida forebears
sheltered families, friends,
social gatherings, political
events-and anything of im-
portance. We often had large
porches, dog trot breezeways,
and shutters over our doors
and windows to give our own-
ers shelter from the sun and to
catch cooling breezes.
Then came homes in town,
in small communities and in
growing cities. We often were
walled-in, fenced, and gated
to provide a comfortable
refuge for our owners. Some-
times we bordered tree-lined
squares and parks. Building
design was now more original
and indigenous and we were
As Florida became more
accessible by train, some of us
became second homes, great
vacation mansions for our
wealthy owners. Still, we had
a strong sense of being cared
After World War II, the
state really started to grow.
The automobile made it easy
for people to travel to their
jobs, and a booming economy
made it possible for many
more Americans to own their
own homes. There was quite
a love affair between us
and Floridians for 20 years
or so. Architects designed us
especially for our place and
for their clients, our owners.
We knew that they took pride
in us.
In the late 1960s, some-
thing happened. As Florida

Tampa architect John Howey, author of The Sarasota
School of Architecture (MIT Press, 1995), recently submitted
this design for an urban solution to the Governor's Island
(New York Harbor) competition.

boomed, an indifference set
in. National promoters of pre-
packaged products arrived on
the scene, announcing a new
domestic cookie-cutter house
model every year A new nip
here, a tuck-in there, a sunken
living pit here, and wet bars
everywhere (even in the bath-
rooms) were offered to the
consumer (Note that the client
became the consumer.)
The super-cooled, multipur-
pose, hydroponic, hyperac-
tive, hybrid Florida habitat
had come into being. Floridi-
ans were told that they could
"arrive" by purchasing one
of these latest cosmetized
abodes. We had lost our inti-
mate relationship with the
land, with our owners. We
felt manipulated, misused,
and misrepresented? What
happened? Where were the
Before World War II, Ameri-
cans mainly thought in terms
of single-family residences on
single lots. Frank Lloyd Wright
was probably the best-known
architect, and Fallingwater, one
of his most famous homes, was
completed in 1938. Further, he
had proposed Broadacre City,
advocating the single-site subur-
banization of America.
After the war, with abundant
land in Florida to foster the

spread of suburbs, large corpo-
rate design-builders came to the
state to do just this-on a large
scale and with enormous profits.
The responsibility for designing
most residences slipped from
the hands of architects, and
houses became anonymous,
rather than special designs for
specific places.
People flocked to Florida to
buy inexpensive condominiums
and tract homes. These cheap-
to-produce forms of housing,
coupled with what seemed end-
lessly available cheap land,
helped to create the largest
building boom Florida has seen
in this century. The term "geog-
raphy of nowhere" was recently
coined to describe this massive
Soon to become the third
most populous state, Florida
now faces some obvious prob-
lems. Resources and the envi-
ronment are now stretched to
the crisis stage. Our road and
highway systems have become
vastly inadequate to handle
Florida's citizens, much less
the tourist population at peak
seasons. Florida's growth has
reached such proportions that
few comprehend its implica-
It is to this last point of con-
cern that I would like to address
some remarks. The state legisla-

ture recently appropriated fund-
ing to begin realizing a high-
speed rail system that would
connect Tampa Bay, Orlando,
and Miami, three of the state's
most densely populated areas,
by bullet trains by the year
2000. The flatness of the terrain
makes this an ideal transporta-
tion mode between these cities
and their airports. Such a sys-
tem no doubt will accelerate
growth along its routes, foster-
ing the creation of long, dreary
suburban-urban corridors-if
not well planned.
Florida architects, if they use
their foresight, have a great
opportunity to become major
participants in planning this
inevitable new growth. We must
think large, must deal with
mega Florida structures and
cities, and must find new ways
to make today's single residen-
tial unit fit in and work with the
complex whole of urbanism. It
is up to us to employ a "new
urbanism" that can digest and
solve the situation-one of
enormous scale-confronting
the state. And in the process we
can help preserve the land,
views, lush growth, and water
that comprise our unique envi-
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