Front Cover
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00311
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Spring 1996
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00311
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover 1
        Front cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 10
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        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
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        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

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eI complex in Cartegena, designed by VOA Associates, Inc., Chicago/Orlando

Genesis Studios is dedicated to the
artistic expression of Architecture.

The renderings shown are done in
designer's gouache, hand painted with
some airbrush, on illustration board.
The views are constructed using
computer generated wireframes
which afford multiple views prior to
painting.Views may also be drawn via
the projection method.

In addition to the styles described
above, we also offer an array of
"loose styles" and can produce
renderings on (see Orange County
Convention Center) photographs of
existing sites.

Please contact Genesis Studios for
more information and references.

Genesis Studios, Inc. is now affiliated
with Visions in Scale, Inc., Florida's
largest architectural model making

Oranae County Convention Center, designed by Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects, Inc., Maitland, FL

225 South Swoope Avenue
Suite 205
Maitland, Florida 32751

Tel. (407) 539-2606
(800) 933-9380
Fax (407) 644-7901

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Spring 1996
Vol. 43. No. 1

Orlando International
Airport, Great Hall.
Photograph by Kathleen



Light and Energy: Remembering Daylight 10
Walter Grondzik, PE., proposes that daylighting in
combination with other energy efficiencies is good for
architects and good for Florida.

Sophisticated Showcase 12
Jacksonville architect William Morgan, FAIA, designed
this dazzling beachfront home to accommodate the owner's
taste for interesting views and eclectic collections.

A Plan that Came Together 14
For the South County Civic Center in Palm Beach,
architect Robert G. Currie, ALA, created a versatile space
whose geometric forms contain practical spaces that are
serving the community well.

Lighting Design as an Integral Part of
Architectural Design 16
KBJArchitect David Laffitte, ALA, recounts the lighting
plan for the prizewinning Phase II of the Orlando
International Airport. His article draws substantially
from his May 1992 article for LD+A, the journal of the
Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

Carving Out a Downtown Niche 22
One may be surprised to discover the Urbanform Design
Group's colorful offices in downtown Fort Lauderdale. The
firm's architects and interior designers pooled their
resources to give this low budget renovation a great look.


New Products

by James P Fleming
by Robert J. Laughlin






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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Editorial Board
John Totty, AIA, Chairman
Ivan Johnson, III, AIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
Richard Reep, AIA
Vice President/President-elect
William Blizzard, AIA
Keith Bullock, AIA
Past President
John Tice, AIA
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
Santurce, PR
Regional Director
Henry Alexander, AIA
Coral Gables
Vice President for
Professional Excellence
Roy Knight, AIA
Vice President for
Political Effectiveness
John Cochran, AIA
Vice President for
John Awsumb, AIA
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Assistant Publisher
Joanna Booth
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Margaret Barlow
Art Director
Peter Denes
Contributing Editor
Diane Greer
Computer Graphics
Insty-Prints of Tallahassee
Boyd Brothers, Inc.
Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by
the Association, a Florida Corporation not
for profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive Office
of the Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301. Telephone (904)
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the
express permission of Florida Architect.
Single copies, $6.00; Annual subscription,
$20.33. Third class postage.


When lighting designer Robert Laughlin sent us a portfolio to select a
few visuals for his Viewpoint, we were in for a treat. Photo after photo
illustrated how thrilling and inspiring are the effects of lighting in archi-
tecture. In the course of an hour, without leaving the table, it was possible to tour
some highlights around the state, from the theatrical impressions of night-lit bridges
such as Dame Point in Jacksonville or Brickell Avenue in Miami, to the stunning
portico of the Florida Supreme Court in Tallahassee, to Orlando's elegant Church
Street Station and playful "kingdom of rock," the Hard Rock Cafe, and around again.
We would recommend such an object lesson to any young architect who has not yet
grasped the immense power of lighting.
We are fortunate in this issue to have been able to touch on a number of aspects
of lighting, the practical as well as the aesthetic. KBJ architectural lighting specialist
David Laffitte's glimpse into lighting considerations for the prizewinning Orlando
International Airport will interest architects and travelers, alike. In each of our
featured projects, as in many buildings in Florida, where sun is a great natural
resource, daylighting has been put into play, consciously or not, whether for its
energy saving possibilities or its reflective qualities. Lamp and lighting control
technologies have changed so rapidly that "lighting" no longer is simply a matter
of carefully choosing fixtures. Rather it involves the meticulous coordination of
intelligence aimed at facilitating the variety of tasks at hand, while conceiving a
broad range of moods and effects besides.
While the projects in this issue represent a cross-section of small and large
firms, we would like to be able to present the work of smaller firms more often.
The process for submitting projects to Florida Architect is quite easy. We publish
quarterly, and each issue has a theme, although we interpret our themes rather
broadly. For example, for our Summer issue on "Housing," we will consider vacation
homes, rural and urban domiciles, even a college dormitory. Other upcoming issues
will focus on Florida Schools of Architecture (Winter) and Working with CADD
(Spring 1997). Once again, we would like to request your help in locating meritori-
ous, well-photographed projects from around the state that fit within these themes.
In addition to projects, we also invite articles. We will consider feature-length
articles on subjects of interest to architects in the state and viewpoints relating to
pertinent legal or legislative issues, practice concerns, or other appropriate topics.
One of our editorial goals is to publish more work of younger architects and more
wisdom from experienced members of the profession.
Finally, in this issue we are initiating a section of letters to the editor. Whether
this is a permanent feature is up to you. Let's hear from you. MB

Florida Architect serves the profession by providing current information on design, practice management, technology,
environment, energy, preservation and development of communities, construction, finance, economics, as well as other
political, social, and cultural issues that impact the field.


In Defense of Architects:
Engineers' BOPE
Statement Halted
A five-year-old policy state-
ment that purported to allow
engineers to sign and seal build-
ing design documents has been
set aside due to the efforts
of AIA Florida. On December
11, 1995, the Florida Board of
Professional Engineers (BOPE)
voted to discontinue reliance
upon the statement,which was
drafted without public notice
and hearings. AIA Florida had
challenged the statement in an
administrative hearing process
on the grounds that the state-
ment had been approved in vio-
lation of state law.
A joint stipulation has now
been filed with the Florida
Department of Administrative
Hearings officially notifying the
public that the "Commentary on
Authority of Engineers to do
Building Designs" has been set
aside and is no longer a legal
document. The joint stipulation
was signed by BOPE, Florida
Engineering Society, and AIA
Florida attorneys.
AIA Florida sued the BOPE
last year after the Commentary
surfaced in response to com-
plaints by the Board of Building
Codes and Standards alleging
that several churches had been
improperly designed. BOPE
responded to the charges by
sending copies of the Commen-
tary to building officials in Dade
County as verification that engi-
neers could sign and seal build-
ing documents.
Although the recent BOPE
action and joint stipulation
effectively declare the "Com-
mentary" null and void, the
issue is not concluded. BOPE
has since voted to assign a com-
mittee to draft new language on
the issue of engineers signing
and sealing building documents
for consideration as a rule at its
next meeting.

Attending the
reception at the
Capitol, fi nn
left to right:
Secretary of
State Sandra
Mortham; Flori-
da Foundation
for Architecture
President lhan
Johnson, AL4,
and Representa-
twne Mayjorie

Florida Foundation for Architecture Unveils
Florida Treasures
The Florida Foundation for Architecture unveiled Florida
Treasures: A Celebrat ion of Florida's Historic Architecture
at the AIA Florida Legislative Reception on February 7. AIA
members from around the state joined friends and supporters
of the project, including Secretary of State Sandra Morthani
and Representative Marjorie Turnbull, to celebrate publication of
the elegant 46-page book. Author Vivian Young was on hand
to sign copies. The companion traveling exhibit will be touring
communities around the state during 1996-97.

AIA Florida will continue to
track BOPE and the rule-making
process. Any further BOPE
action that might allow engi-
neers to sign and seal building
design documents in violation of
the architectural or engineering
practice acts will be challenged
by AIA Florida.

Knight Steps Down as Dean
Roy Knight, AIA, will relin-
quish the post of Dean of the
School of Architecture at Florida
A & M University, Tallahassee, to
move into teaching, research,
and professional work at FAMU.
Since becoming Dean in
1988, Knight has been involved
in the development of FAMU's
academic and research pro-
grams, as well as the new

School of Architecture and Com-
munity design in Tampa.
FAMU's School of Architecture
is now ready for planned further
growth with commitments for
a major building expansion
approved by the legislature.
"Now that the school is poised
for its next period of advance-
ment, it is a good time for me to
pursue interests I have had to set
aside. I am excited by the oppor-
tunity to become an active advo-
cate for good architecture in the
state, including continuing to
serve AIA Florida."

Florida Design Arts
Florida Secretary of State
Sandra Mortham presented the


1995 Florida Design Arts
Awards to Riverwalk in Fort
Lauderdale and the Orlando
International Airport Passen-
ger Terminal Complex. These
projects "reflect the attention
and sensitivity being shown
to excellence in collaborative
urban design in the state of
Florida," said Mortham. The
awards were presented in
November at the Tampa Bay
Performing Arts Center.
Accepting the awards for
EDSA, which participated in
both projects, were C. Douglas
Coolman, Greg Meyer, and John
W Miller. Walter Taylor, FAIA,
Chairman and CEO for KBJ
Architects, Inc. accepted the
award for the Passenger Termi-
nal Complex for the Orlando
International Airport.
Entry kits for the 1996 Flori-
da Design Arts Awards program
are now available from: 1996
Florida Design Arts Awards,
Florida Division of Cultural
Affairs, Department of State,
The Capitol, Tallahassee, FL
32399-0250; or contact Valerie
Ohisson at (904) 487-2980.

AIA Design Awards Dates
and Deadlines
Mark your calendars. Dates
have been set for the AIA Flori-
da Design Awards program.
Calls for entries were mailed
mid-February. Entry application
forms must be received by
March 15, and all entries must
be received by April 24. The
juries will convene in May, and
awards will be presented on
August 17, at the 1996 Summer
Conference at Mariott Saw-
grass, Ponte Vedra Beach.
This year's Chairs are Bruce
Gora, AIA, Excellence in Archi-
tecture Awards Committee; Don
Green, AIA, Unbuilt Awards
Committee; and Joe Barany, AIA,
Test of Time Award Committee.

In Memoriam
Tampa Bay architect Will-
iam B. Harvard, Sr., AIA, died
December 11, 1995, after along
illness. He designed some of the
most significant landmarks in
the Tampa Bay area, including
the Williams Park Band Shell,
the St. Petersburg Main Library,
the Bininger Center and Lewis
House at Eckerd College. The
Harvard firm, founded 57 years
ago, now known as Harvard
Jolly Clees Toppe Architects, is
the largest locally owned archi-
tectural design firm in Central
Florida. William B. Harvard, Jr.,
now serves as its president.
C. Ellis Duncan, AIA
Emeritus, of Vero Beach, died
December 28, 1995. A Past
President of the Palm Beach
Chapter and State Director of
AIA Florida, Duncan also was an
active member of the Florida
Engineering Society. He had a
strong practice in school facili-
ties in Brevard, Indian River and
St. Lucie counties.
Charles Ernest Daffin I, a
long time AIA member, died

William B. Harvard, Sr,
AIA, 1911-1995, Founder of
Harvard Jolly Clees Toppe
Architects, PA.

January 16, in Birmingham,
Alabama. A lifelong resident
of Tallahassee, Daffin helped
organize and then headed the
Florida Architects' Political
Action Committee. A founding
partner of Barrett, Daffin and
Bishop, he most recently was
employed by the State Fire
Marshal's Office.

Roney J. Mateu, AIA,
Coral Gables, received the Miami
Chapter's 1995 Silver Medal for
De-sign, its highest honor. Mateu is
Pre-. lent and Director of Design at Mateu
Car ireil Rizo & Partners, Inc., and has been
a Ifeatlured speaker on architectural design.
Hi.- pri iects have been published nationally
and ni,-rnationally.

Jim Anstis, FAIA, West Palm
Beach, has declared his intent to
run for a second term as Secre-
tary of the American Institute of
Architects. The Secretary is
allowed to succeed to the office
one time.
Michael G. AuBuchon, AIA,
has been named a partner at
Ranon & Partners, Inc., Archi-


tects. AuBuchon is the 1996
President-Elect of the Tampa
Bay Chapter of AIA.
David H. Webb, AIA, has
joined the Safety Harbor office
of Fleischman Garcia as Project
Manager. Webb has over 23
years experience in the design
of education and government



Do you have a project in the following categories?


MARCH 15, 1996
APRIL 24, 1996
MAY 1996
AUGUST 17, 1996

Winners will be notified by telephone as soon as possible.


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Distinctive "Neutral"
Cera Wash Basins
TOTO KIKI USA's new line
of wash basins reflects a philo-
sophy of simple, elegant forms
to express a sense of order
and quality. The bowls come in
enamel, clear and frosted glass,
wood, soda glass, and alu-
minum. The soda glass colors-
red, green, and blue-are
meant to work well with light-
ing effects and strong color
schemes. The Cera basins can
be used as single units with
standard counter tops or with
other elements within the
modular Cera line of lavatories
and faucets. For more informa-
tion, contact Newbold Warden,
Marketing Supervisor, TOTO
KIKI USA, (714) 282-8686.

Sentry's St. Louis
New from Sentry is a replica
of the tulip-shaped luminaire
that lights the downtown his-
toric district of St. Louis.
Though its style is evocative
of yesterday, its performance
is definitely up to date. The
sculptured looking structure is
rugged cast aluminum; the
globe is polycarbonate (Lexan);
and the ballast unit is housed
deep within the cast base for
maximum protection. The St.
Louis luminaire meets UL 1572
and is available with HPS, MH,
or mercury lamps in wattage
ratings as high as 250. Specs
and details are available from
Sentry Electric Corp.; (516)
379-4660; fax (516) 378-0624.

HomeWorks'" Integrated
Lighting Control
The ultimate in lighting con-
trol systems from Lutron Res-
idential Systems Division makes
monitoring indoor and outdoor
lighting simple and convenient.
Controls are compact, easy to
use, and available in customized
finishes and designs. A single
master control can eliminate
the need for large banks of
switches and can even be
mounted in door trim or a door
jamb. Various HomeWorks"
system options permit linkage

0 *N
___ p.
40w11Ai A


to a home security system,
memorizing and replaying
lighting patterns (without
complicated programming) to
simulate occupancy during
vacations, system control from
a personal computer, and voice-
prompted access by telephone.
To find out more, contact
James R. Renner, Lutron Elec-
tronics Co. Communications
Project Specialist, (610) 282-
3800; fax (610) 282-6437.

Philips Mastercolor
Metal Halide PAR Lamps
Lightolier has expanded its
Calculite HID downlight and
ProSpec adjustable accent lamp
offerings. The Philips' Master-
Color PAR20 and PAR30 lamps
are more energy efficient than
standard metal halide lamps,
control color shift over the life
of the lamp, and yield superior

Wausau Precast Terrazzo Flooring

Wausau Tile, Inc.'s precast
terrazzo flooring is practical,
durable, and comes in a wide
choice of textures, styles, and
colors. Wausau Tile blends
aggregates and matrix colors
to create polished and slip-
resistant shot-blasted surfaces
in several thicknesses and
unlimited colors. Matching
standard accessories such as
base, treads, and transitions,

color rendering. Available with
either magnetic or electronic
ballast, they also match the
color appearance of halogen,
fluorescent, and other lighting
sources. Calculite's ProSpec,
a complete system of inter-
changeable light sources,
optics, and control media,
also offers the flexibility of
converting line or low voltage
incandescent into metal halide.
To learn more about these
Lightolier products, contact
Bill Schoetler, (508) 646-3124.

Juno Energy-Efficient
Recessed Lighting
Air LocIC, created by Juno
Lighting, Inc., is a completely
sealed recessed downlight fix-
ture that stops air from escap-
ing between floors and into roof
areas. The elimination of drafts
makes living spaces more com-

and tile setting materials
including thinsets, grouts, and
expansion joints are available.
Patterns, designs, logos, and
unique special effects are
made possible by on-the-job
or factory-provided cuts. For
samples, quotes, or informa-
tion, contact Dave Spangler,
Terra-Paving Division,
Wausau Tile, Inc.; (800) 388-
8728, fax (715) 359-7456.

fortable and reduces heating
and cooling bills. Compared to
traditional housings, Air-Loc
IC fixtures can reduce home
energy bills by $5 per recessed
fixture per year. The downlights
are available in a wide selection
of sizes and trim styles. For
more information, contact Per-
rie Hayes at (708) 827-9880.

-- 3m.


Light and Energy: Remembering Daylight
By Walter Grondzick, PE.

Light is a crucial aspect of
our daily existence. Some
authorities estimate that over
90 percent of the sensory input
a person receives in the course
of a typical day is visual. Light,
defined as visually evaluated
radiant energy, is the key to the
seeing process. Most outdoor
activities-farming, mowing the
yard, watching a parade, road
construction-have historically
been timed to coincide with the
availability of daylight. The sky
around us can provide more
than ample light for most visual
tasks during the daylight hours.
When adequate energy and
financial resources are available
to a prosperous and technologi-
cally advanced society, tradition-
ally daytime outdoor activities
can be conducted at night-
baseball under the lights and
amusement park visits. Build-
ings, too, have historically been
daytime environments. Fairly
recent technological develop-
ments, however, have dramati-
cally changed how we schedule,
use, and design buildings. Elec-
tric lighting was the catalyst
for this change, as well as the
cause of a dramatic increase in
building energy use.
Energy to cool a commercial
building in the hot, humid
South is typically distributed as
follows: 30 percent is attribut-
able to electric lighting, 20 per-
cent to solar heat gain through
glass, 15 percent to roof heat
gain, and lesser percentages to
internal and other loads. Obvi-
ously, energy used for lighting
is an important design and
operational consideration for a
building owner. Light is neces-
sary for the completion of sim-
ple tasks, for enhanced produc-
tivity, and for enjoyment of the
built environment; but it comes
to us at a substantial cost. On
a residential scale, because of
different design and usage
traditions and less demanding
tasks, lighting is not a very
large part of the energy-use pie.

The importance of lighting to
energy efficiency is reflected in
the standards developed to reg-
ulate this aspect of design. The
Florida Energy Efficiency
Codefor Building Construc-
tion contains a section address-
ing lighting energy consump-
tion in commercial buildings.
Likewise, ASHRAE Standard
90.1 (the most commonly used
nonresidential national energy
standard) allocates a chapter
to efficiency requirements for
lighting. Residential energy
standards are typically silent on
the issue of lighting energy effi-
ciency. Efficiency is generally
defined as the ratio of system
output to system input. The
greater the lighting output per
unit of electric input, the more
luminously efficient the system.
Rather than address system
efficiencies directly, U.S. energy
codes and standards tend to
prescribe a lighting power bud-
get (in watts per square foot)
which a designer can meet in
any manner that seems most

he energy consumption of
an electric lighting system
is primarily a function of four
factors: task requirements, the
light source, light distribution,
and controls. Building design-
ers should take a serious look
at the quantity of light that
must be delivered to a task
(known as illuminance) as a
means of reducing lighting
energy demands. All other fac-
tors being equal, the less light
to be delivered, the less energy
consumed. The Illuminating
Engineering Society of North
America publishes guideline
illuminance recommendations
for hundreds of task situations.
Only the project architect, how-
ever, can rationally determine
what tasks will occur where
within a yet-to-be-constructed
building. Task analysis is the
starting point for an efficient
lighting system.

Obviously, the ultimate source
of electric light is electricity.
There are, however, a number
of ways to produce light from
moving electrons. Less than
one hundred years ago the first
commercial electric lamps came
on the market and initiated a
radical change in the way we
design buildings. The first elec-
tric lamps (manmade light
sources) were incandescent,
where an electric current is
used to heat a filament until it
glows (incandesces) and emits
light. This is a proven and effec-
tive, but inefficient, means of
producing light. In the 1940s,
fluorescent lamps operating on
an entirely different principle
(gaseous discharge) were intro-
duced. The relatively high lumi-
nous efficacy (light output to
electric input) of fluorescent
lamps signalled a revolution
in building design through the
ability to provide high illumi-
nance levels in a building with-
out massive overheating and
without reliance on daylight.
Design was freed from histori-
cal precedents, but the price
for this freedom was energy
Over the past thirty years,
ever more efficient electric light
sources have been developed.
Many, such as metal halide
lamps, have found a ready
home in buildings; others, like
sodium vapor, have been rele-
gated to exterior applications
because of color rendering
concerns. The march toward
more efficient sources has not
stopped; T-8 lamps are rapidly
replacing T-12 lamps as the norm.
Electronic ballasts are replacing
magnetic ballasts. Government
labs and lamp manufacturers
continue the quest for greater
luminous efficacies. The federal
Energy Policy Act of 1992 dic-
tated that certain commonly
used lamp types no longer be
permitted in the U.S., a man-
date that will soon reduce the
palette of available choices.

Light emitted from a lamp
must be delivered to a task in
order for the light to be useful.
The task may be surgery, climb-
ing the stairs, or providing
appropriate background bright-
ness in a space, but in any
event the light source will nor-
mally be distant from the task.
The more effectively light is
conducted from lamps and
luminaires (fixtures) to tasks,
the more efficient the lighting
system. It is possible to have
very efficient lamps and very
inefficient distribution; the
result is an inefficient lighting
system. Lighting design is a
multi-disciplinary endeavor.
Manufacturers produce lamps
and luminaires; an engineer or
architect will select lamps and
luminaires for a particular
application; but only the archi-
tect can ensure efficient distrib-
ution. This is achieved through
design and specification of
material and content reflect-
ances, source locations relative
to tasks, and general propor-
tions of the space.
Lighting controls are an
emerging area of focus for
efficient lighting systems. A
lighting system only consumes
energy when it is turned on and
only need be turned on when
there is a task to be completed.
Controls may be manual or
automatic. In general, automat-
ic controls will provide greater
energy savings as they are not
forgetful or lazy. A number of
energy-efficient Florida build-
ings have made effective use of
occupancy sensor controls in
spaces that are not continuous-
ly occupied.

For thousands of years,
buildings were primarily
daylighted. Of course candles
and oil lamps have long been
available, but they are not effi-
cient or powerful light sources.
The image of Abraham Lincoln
reading by candlelight suggests
the luminous quality of most


historic buildings after dark.
The development of electric
light sources and an electric
distribution system to support
their operation changed this
picture. It was possible to be
overwhelmed by illuminance 50
feet below ground or 150 feet
and six partitions away from an
exterior wall. Building forms
changed; the art of daylighting
was generally forgotten.
Tapping into the naturally
available daylight source (the
sky surrounding a building),
distributing daylight
effectively to tasks, and
providing appropriate
controls are the essence
of daylighting design.
The main differences
between daylighting and
electric lighting are that
daylight is variable and
comes from outside the
building envelope,
whereas electric light is
constant and comes from
within the building enve-
lope. Dealing with these
differences is the key to
successful daylighting.
Radiation from the
sun consists of three
main components: in-
frared, ultraviolet, and _
visible. The infrared
portion makes itself felt Dayl
as heat and contributes Ener
nothing to seeing. The wine
ultraviolet portion can but i
play havoc with materials
and people and also con-
tributes nothing to seeing. Only
the visible portion is light.
Interior light harvested from
daylight is often viewed as a
"free" energy resource. From
the purchase and payment
point of view this is correct.
Additional first and design costs
may, however, be incurred to
properly collect and distribute
this resource. There are ample
examples and documented case
studies to suggest that the skill-
ful use of daylight-collecting
visible radiation, avoiding ex-


cessive infrared radiation, con-
trolling glare, and shutting off
unneeded electric lighting fix-
tures-can substantially reduce
the amount of energy required
to illuminate a building. Day-
lighting can also improve the
ambience of a building and
has been shown to increase
productivity among workers.

The Department of Manage-
ment Services (DMS) proto-
type office buildings in Talla-
hassee and the Florida Solar

has dramatically increased, effi-
cient lighting accounts for the
majority of this performance.
This efficiency was achieved
through the specification of rea-
sonable illuminance levels, the
use of efficient lamps, ballasts
and luminaires, and occupancy
sensors for lighting control.
The new FSEC Energy Cen-
ter uses both efficient electric
lighting and daylighting to set
a new standard for energy effi-
ciency in Florida. The electric
lighting system requires just 0.9

ight floods the 4,000 square foot visitors center of the Florida Solar
rgy Center Comfort and energy efficiency are protected by the special
low glazing, which lets in 67 percent of visible light while blocking al
percent of infrared heat.

Energy Center (FSEC) facility
in Cocoa provide examples of
how energy savings can result
from energy-efficient lighting
design. Metered electricity
consumption for the DMS pro-
totype offices in mid-summer
1995 was around 2.0 watts per
square foot. This includes all
electric uses (computers, lights,
air-handlers, etc.) except
chillers and is lower than just
the lighting load in most office
buildings built during the past
twenty years. As computer use

watts per square foot as a result
of the use of T-8 fluorescent
lamps, efficient fixtures, and
electronic ballasts. Spectrally
selective window glazing
improves daylighting effective-
ness by providing high light
transmittance (56 percent) but
low nonvisible transmittance
(shading coefficient of 0.33).
Building orientation and form
were architecturally manipulated
to make best use of the daylight
available on the site. Photomet-
ric sensors control continuously

dimmable ballasts to adjust
overall lighting levels as day-
light increases or decreases.
It is no secret that lighting
accounts for a major portion of
the energy bill in any commer-
cial or institutional building.
However, use of efficient lamps
and fixtures, consideration of
the distribution of light to tasks,
and control of light when not
needed can greatly reduce the
energy burden associated with
lighting. Skillful design of day-
lighting systems can take such
reductions even further,
with potential side bene-
fits to the overall quality
of design.

For further
Advanced Lighting
Guidelines, U.S.
Department of Energy,
DOE/EE-0008 (available
from National Technical
Information Service),
1993, is an excellent
review of reasonably
current thinking regard-
ing energy efficient
lighting systems and
Daylight in Archi-
tecture, by Benjamin
Evans, McGraw-Hill,
1981, although 15 years
il old, is a readable and
Ul wonderfully illustrated
introduction to daylight
in buildings.
The Building Design
Assistance Center, Florida Solar
Energy Center, Cocoa, Florida,
can provide a wealth of infor-
mation on electric lighting com-
ponents and daylighting design
for Florida's environment.

Walter Grondzik, PE., is an
Associate Professor, working
with the Florida Design Ini-
tiative at Florida A & M Uni-
versity School ofArchitecture,

Sophisticated Showcase

Residence of
Chapman J. Root I
Ormond Beach, Florida
William Morgan
Architects, PA

W en the first plans were
S drawn for the Root Resi-
dence, its setting was to be a
125-foot wide lot overlooking
the Halifax River, the Inter-
coastal Waterway. Initial sketch-
es envisioned two three-story
towers set well apart and linked
by bridges. The glazed west
wall of the connecting space
would permit views of the
waterway, while sunscreens
would deflect the afternoon sun.
Then the site was changed
to an 80-foot wide oceanfront
lot on the Atlantic. Securing
privacy from neighboring resi-
dences and the shore highway
meant adjusting the original
fenestration plan. Also, a maxi-
mum permitted building height
of 30 feet on the new site
necessitated some additional
modifications to achieve the
desired intention.
To gain height for the interi-
or volumes, the site was exca-
vated five feet into the dune.
This permitted ceiling heights
to range from 9 feet on the
lower floor to 13 feet on the
piano nobile, the second story,
to more than 31 feet in the
glazed refectory hall overlook-
ing the pool terrace and ocean.
The south tower contains
changing rooms on the terrace
level, a secluded study above,
topped by a crow's nest. Occu-
pying the north tower are the
kitchen and an informal living
area on the lower floor, a
library (accessible from the
foyer by means of a bridge)
above, topped by the master
suite. Guest accommodations
and service spaces are located
in the floors above the garage.
Load-bearing, fluted con-
crete-block walls support the
architectural masses of the

Glazed refectory hall overlooks the pool terrace and ocean.


6,500 sf structure. The walls
support horizontal floor and
ceiling planes that project alter-
nately from east to west and
from north to south. Stair runs
of varying lengths interconnect
the constantly changing levels
of the interior. As a result, mov-
ing through the house, one's
viewpoint always changes, and
ceiling heights alternately ex-
pand and compress.
Daylighting was a major
determinant in designing this
beachfront residence. Since
major glass areas face the dom-
inant view to the east, special
emphasis was given to control-
ling the morning sun by such
devices as vertical fin walls,
horizontal overhangs, adjust-
able blinds, and the refectory
sunscreen which is controlled
by photoelectric cells. In the
evening the entry terraces are
illuminated by lanterns inte-
grated into the garden walls,
and a sophisticated control
system provides five separate
moods for lighting throughout
the residence, terraces, and
As a precaution against
coastal scouring during severe
storms, the entire structure is
supported by auger piles. A
concealed gutter around the
edge of the terrace controls
stormwater runoff during
northeasters and hurricanes.
And for the 20 x 26-foot glass
wall of the refectory, four tem-
pered, 3/4-inch glass fins stiffen
the glass plates against wind
velocities of up to 120 mph.
Horizontal concrete box beams
above and below the window
transfer windloads to adjacent
reinforced-concrete walls.
Throughout the design pro-
cess, another priority was to
create opportunities throughout
the home to display the owner's
collections, including specially
commissioned glass sculptures
by noted artist Dale Chihuly.
Also, automobiles selected from
the owner's extensive collection


Night lighting accents the towers and many interior levels.

are showcased in a grand pavil-
ion. Visitors, after leaving their
own cars in a landscaped park-
ing section, walk through a
grass-covered forecourt to this

. .

As they continue toward the
entry, visitors ascend three low
terraces defined by a garden
wall, masonry lanterns, and
dense landscaping. Proceeding
through the foyer, they are

Dual towers rise from the dunes, which conceal auger piles
and other precautionary devices that protect the structure
from coastal storms.

surprised to find themselves a
full floor level above the refec-
tory hall and pool terrace.
From there they can view the
cascading pools that flank the
pool terrace and the path lead-
ing through the dunes to the

Architect: William Morgan
Architects, PA.
Principal in charge: William
Morgan, FAIA
Project Team: Theodore
Strader, AIA, Ronald Scalisi,
AIA, Thomas Duke, AIA
Structural Engineer: William
Simpson, PE.
Landscape Architect: Glenn
Herbert, ASLA
General Contractor: Foley &
Interior Designers: Pasanella
+ Klein; Wayne Berg, AIA,
Albert Ho
Owner: Chapman J. Root II
Photographs by George Cott,
Chroma, Inc.

A Plan That Came Together

Palm Beach South County
Civic Center
Delray Beach, Florida
Robert G. Currie &

Although it was born in con-
troversy, the Palm Beach
South County Civic Center has
drawn praise and crowds from
the day it opened in January
1994. Completed after years
of debate and changes in both
plan and site, the 14,000 sf
multi-use facility has become a
real center for the community.
Located on 1.2 acres of a
somewhat remote 5-acre site
south and west of town, the
civic center is assembled
toward the heart of the larger
site, for which future buildings
have been proposed. Visitors
encounter the striking glass
and stucco facade of salmon,
beige and aquamarine.
Local groups and organiza-
tions are taking advantage of
the center's very practical com-
ponents, including classrooms,
a kitchen, and a 600-seat audi-
torium. A soundproof wall sys-
tem allows the auditorium to
be used as a large hall for
performances and lectures or
divided into four autonomous
meeting or recreation areas.
The solid cube of the assem-
bly hall is the nucleus of the
facility. Three smaller ancillary
structures radiate from the cen-
ter, guided by a curved bisecting
wall. The free-form lobby creates
a fluid relationship between the
assembly hall and its satellites.
The arrangement of smaller ele-
ments around the entry, cascad-
ing from the curve, effectively
diminishes the substantial mass
of the hall, effecting a human-
scaled assembly open to its
surroundings. The standing
seam metal roof of each ele-
ment, although basically similar
in shape, shows a deliberate
variation in its slope and orien-
tation. Likewise, varying depth
of color of the independent roof

Entrance and main facade. Deliberate variations in roof pitch, orientation, and depth of color
distinguish each pod within the whole. Photograph by Chuck Wilkins


sections helps distinguish each
pod within the whole.
Each geometric element
houses a separate function
and is independent in terms of
sound, hvac, and lighting capa-
bilities. Largest of the satellites
is the administration complex,
comprising offices and a confer-
ence room. A multizone system
with cooled condensing units
promotes energy efficiency.
Natural sunlight illuminates
the glass-enclosed lobby, and
at night, a continuum of spot
lighting files above the curved
separating wall, reinforcing the
initial design concept. Lighting
in the auditorium is direct and
dramatic. Pendant downlights
hanging on a level plane from
the sloped and exposed struc-
ture create an implied ceiling of
light across the entire expanse.
Three suspended ceiling planes
over the stage area provide
both acoustical treatment and
positions for spotlighting.
Since the facility opened it
has seen capacity use by civic
groups and private users. The
center's flexible multiuse plan
is proving the perfect accom-
modation for a variety of
formal and informal user needs,
including meetings, classroom
programs, social events includ-
ing weddings and religious
gatherings, and small stage

Architect: Robert G. Currie &
Principal in charge: Robert G.
Currie, AIA
Landscape Architect: Palm
Beach County Parks
Structural Engineer: O'Don-
nell Naccarato Mignogna, Inc.
Civil Engineer: Sheremeta
Associates, Inc.
Engineer: Thompson
Engineering Consultants, Inc.
General Contractor: Select
Contracting, Inc.
Owner: Palm Beach County
Capital Improvements


Pendant lighting illuminates the auditorium, which can be used as a large hall or divided into
four autonomous areas. Photograph by Dan Forer

Daylighting and downlighting highlight painted accents and dramatic expanse of ceramic tile
flooring in free-form lobby, which doubles as an exhibition space. Photograph by Chuck Wilkins

Lighting Design as an Integral Part of Architectural Design*
By David M. Laffitte, AIA

Orlando International
Airport, Phase H
Orlando, Florida
KBJ Architects, Inc.

n 1987, KBJ Architects began
design of one of the largest
projects in the Southeast: the
Phase II Expansion of the
Orlando International Airport.
The original construction (also
designed by KBJ Architects)
consisted of one landside and
two airside buildings. Shuttle
trains connect the concourses
with the main terminal.
The Phase II Expansion
more than doubled the size of
the landside facility, including
a 450-room hotel and parking
garage on top of the building.
It also added a new airside
terminal, which became a hub
for Delta Airlines, serving
domestic and international
flights. Together the projects
represent 1.7 million sf of
enclosed space and over $200
million in construction costs.
Since it serves as an arrival
point for millions of visitors
annually, the client wanted the
experience of the facility to be
both pleasant and particular to
Florida. The architectural intent
was to evoke the essence of
Florida: "light and sunny" were
characteristics we sought to
include in these structures.
From the start, lighting de-
sign was an integral part of the
architectural design. Partner-
in-charge and project designer
Walter Q. Taylor, FAIA, decided
that all lighting design for the
public spaces would be devel-
oped first by KBJ, and then
handed off to the engineering
team. It has been our experi-
ence that early consideration
of lighting results in a more
successful project. There is an
interplay or "synergy" between
the design of interior spaces
and the lighting of them which
benefits both.
The design approach we took

was, in simplest terms, to inte-
grate the lighting with the arch-
itecture. Walls and defining
planes are illuminated with
wall-wash fixtures. Architectural
features and circulation nodes
are articulated by the design of
the ceilings and lighting. Where
ceilings are conceived as a
neutral element, such as in the
ticket lobby, low-brightness

my, most of the lighting fixtures
chosen were standard catalog
items. Though a small part of
the total, the most memorable
fixtures are the custom-built
ones we developed for special

Rental car and ticket counters
The need for custom fixtures
first became evident while de-

In each concourse, custom indirect light fixtures bracketed off
the columns provide ambient lighting to supplement daylight
from the windows and continuous skylights.

fluorescent and HID downlight
fixtures were employed. In oth-
er areas, where more definition
of the ceiling was desired, the
rental car lobbies for instance,
indirectly lit coffers add scale
and drama. Indirectly lit coffers
were also used in the baggage
claim lobby to aid in the identi-
fication of elevator and escala-
tor cores. For reasons of econo-

signing the rental car counters.
We were looking for a pendant
fixture to bring down the scale
at the counter to reflect the
person-to-person nature of the
transactions. We wanted the
friendly glow of a lamp shade,
in a linear-form, and we needed
to provide comfortable task
lighting for agents to work. We
quickly realized that there was

no suitable off-the-shelf product
and that a custom fixture was
the only solution.
The design that emerged can
be thought of as an indirect
fluorescent fixture that carries
its own reflector. Compact
fluorescent lamps and ballasts
are fitted into a 3-1/2-inch
diameter aluminum extrusion.
For the shade we chose perfo-
rated aluminum; we reasoned
that it would be both durable
and easily cleaned, as well as
being nonflammable. The units
are constructed in 11-foot 4-
inch lengths to coordinate with
the 34-foot bay sizes of the
Southern Manufacturing
Company of Orlando was se-
lected to construct the fixture.
Despite their well-equipped
plant, we had some initial mis-
givings about their ability
to produce the fixture: their
principal product line did not
include lighting at all. However,
after a mock-up was construct-
ed and details of connections
refined, we gained confidence
in the firm's technical ability.
Having ready access to their
plant was invaluable in the
development of the final details
of the fixtures.
The higher ceiling of the tick-
et lobby invited the design of a
larger fixture. The radius was
increased to just over two feet.
A 5-inch extrusion was selected
for the lamps. These units are
constructed in 17-foot lengths,
with six 5-foot lamps, to coordi-
nate with the 34-foot structural
bay of the building. They also
align with the rows of ceiling-
recessed fluorescent fixtures
perpendicular to the ticket coun-
ters. The typical (total) counter
and fixture length is 153 feet.

Elevator lobby
Two-story-high columns stand
in front of a pair of elevator
entrances. We took advantage
of their grand scale to create
light columns. Heavy-gauge



In the Great Hall and Hyatt Hotel atrium, streetlightfixtures and a lighted fountain help create an urban park atmosphere.

perforated aluminum and a
translucent liner shield four-
lamp industrial fluorescent fix-
tures mounted vertically on the
face of the columns.

The Delta Airside Building
The lighting design of the con-
course began with the decision
to take advantage of available
sunlight; artificial lighting is
supplemental. Full-height clear
laminated glass is used continu-
ously along the perimeter of the
concourses, affording views and
light. Trellis-like white metal
baffles provide shading of this
glass and redirect light into the


A continuous 5-foot-wide
skylight down the center of
each of the three concourses
provides top-lighting to balance
light from the windows. The
ceiling arches up to the skylight
to distribute the light more
evenly. The decision to light
the curved ceiling indirectly
seemed the only logical choice;
fluorescent fixtures suited the
linear nature of the space, and
bracketing the fixtures off
columns provided a way to inte-
grate the indirect cove details
of the outer bays with the cen-
ter bay.
The fixture was conceived as
a companion to the fixtures

designed for the ticket and
rental car counters, hence the
curved perforated metal form.
This fixture has some obvious
differences, however. For high-
er lumen output, continuous
rows of 40-watt compact fluo-
rescent lamps were chosen. A
reflector directs light from
these lamps toward the ceiling.
To create the glowing effect
from below, standard 40-watt
fluorescent lamps are mounted
on both sides of a supporting
center steel tube. The perforat-
ed metal dish is lined with
translucent plastic to shield the
lamp image. These fixtures
were fabricated in 27-foot

lengths; the total installed
length is 1,438 feet.
Around the semicircular
skylight well at the ends of
each concourse, decorative
wall sconces utilize two-lamp
13-watt compact fluorescent
wall-pack units shielded by a
lined, perforated metal shade.

Airside Concessions Atrium
The center of the airside build-
ing features a 150-foot-diameter
skylight supported by six steel
tri-columns--that is, three 24-
inch-diameter steel tubes in a
triangular cluster. To accentuate
them we developed a bollard-
Continued on Page 18


Lighting Design as an Integral Part of Architectural Design*
Continued from Page 17

like fixture which utilizes a
standard metal halide fixture
to uplight the columns. Slotted
metal cylinders with translucent
liners provide a glow at the
base of the column. These are
fitted with 13-watt compact
fluorescent lamps. Because the
columns are joined at the base
with three one-inch-thick hori-
zontal steel plates, the custom
fixtures were constructed in
nine separate sections and fit-
ted between the plates in the

Great Hall Landside Building
A 450-room hotel surrounds the
primary public circulation
space of the airport, creating a
six-story skylit atrium which
was designed to be perceived as
outdoor space. Lighting design
had to consider the visual com-
fort of both the passengers at
"street" level and hotel guests
To reinforce the perception
of the atrium as an urban park,
we designed special streetlight
fixtures with clusters of clear
glass globes. Clear incandes-
cent lamps are used for their
sparkle, though they are
dimmed slightly to extend lamp
Clusters of palms sur-
round the fountain at the
center of the atrium.
Because the skylights
admit only 14 percent of
available daylight, supple-
mental lighting is required
for the palms during the
day. Clusters of narrow-
beam adjustable H.I.D.
downlights were designed
for this task. These are
suspended from the sky-
light structure at 72 feet
above the floor and each
contains four 400-watt
metal halide units for day-
time use and a single 250-
watt mercury unit for
"moonlighting" effects at In
night. ill
To accentuate the archi- grt

Pendant fixtures provide a pleasant glow and comfortable task lightingfor ticket agents.

tecture of the hotel, compact
fluorescent uplights illuminate
each balcony column without
disturbing guests or producing
glare from below. Uplighting
of the fountain jets, and accent
lighting within the planters

the Delta terminal, bollard uplight:
iminate the columns that support ti
eat central skylight.

complete the lighting of the
atrium. The combination of
these sources and spill light
from the hotel provide efficient
and pleasant ambient lighting
for general circulation.
Throughout the entire pro-
ject we took every oppor-
tunity to enhance the
distinctive features of the
architecture with lighting.
Whether providing visual
cues to aid circulation or
reinforcing architectural
rhythms, the lighting
design was a carefully
considered part of the
whole. This is an
approach that can work
for any project, whatever
the scale. Lighting is one
of the elements of archi-
tecture, and it can be a
powerful design tool.

David M. Laffitte, ALA,
is a Senior Vice Presi-
S dent with KBJArchi-
he tects, Inc., Jacksonville
and Orlando, Florida.

Architect: KBJ Architects, Inc.
Principal in charge: Walter Q.
Taylor, FAIA
Lighting: KBJ Architects,
David Laffitte, AIA
Structural Engineers: Kun-
Young Chiu & Assoc., O'Kon &
Mechanical Engineers: New-
comb & Boyd, R. Douglas
Stone & Assoc.
Electrical Engineers: New-
comb & Boyd, Matern Profes-
sional Engineers
General Contractor: Great
Southwest Corporation
Owner: Greater Orlando Avia-
tion Authority

Photographs by Kathleen

*This piece draws substantially
from "Delta Lands a Winner,"
by David M. Laffitte, May 1992,
LD+A, 1992, published by
the Illuminating Engineering
Society of North America, 120
Wall St., New York, NY 10005.


The University of Miami School of Architecture
The American Institute of Architects, Miami Chapter
are pleased to announce the following Continuing Education Courses

January 16 April 25, 1996
The Natural and the Manmade
Vincent Scully
A series of lectures based on the
author's best-selling book.
Credit: 20 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 50

March 22 24, 1996
Historic Preservation:
A Short Course for Architects
Catherine Lynn and Lecturers
A series of lectures and discussions
at several South Florida landmarks.
Credit: 20 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 35

March 29 30, 1996
Smart Architecture and Virtual
Erick Valle and Bob Vila
A series of case studies and Internet
site visits explore new technologies.
Credit: 10 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 50

April 12 14, 1996

"The New Urbanism"
Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk

The New Urbanism proposes a series of principles for the sustainable organization of the metropolis.
These principles define a regional framework of neighborhoods, corridors and districts as well as the meth-
ods for detailing these elements from large scale public space and greenways to individual streets, blocks
and buildings.

Seminar participants examine urbanism from an historical and contemporary perspective, then focus on the
elements of the New Urbanism. Issues discussed include; the neighborhood as an increment of urban
growth; new-town grids in which street types regulate traffic flow; the role of the street section in spatial
definition; the value of landmark buildings and monuments, the interweaving of building types and uses to
establish a successful urban fabric; the relationship of built form to areas of natural conservation and
agriculture; the revival of historic neighborhoods and retail districts; and the retrofitting of post war subur-
ban development.

Capacity: 250 persons

Credit: 20 approved credit hours

Level of Instruction: Core

April 19 20, 1996
Wired Towns and Virtual Com-
Erick Valle
A series of interactive multimedia
discussions over the Internet exam-
ine these new urban strategies.
Credit: 10 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 50

June 22 29, 1996
Berlin-Bauhaus: Preserving
and Restoring Modern Heritage
Jean Francois Lejeune
A series of lectures and site visits
throughout Berlin and the Bauhaus.
A deposit is due by April 22, 1996.
Credit: 20 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 15

July 15 29, 1996
Recent Trends in European
Jose Gelabert-Navia
A series of site and office visits in
Berlin, Madrid, Barcelona and Paris.
A deposit is due by April 15. 1996.
Credit: 20 hrs. Level: Core Capacity: 20

For more information regarding these or other Continuing Education Courses offered at the University of Miami
School of Architecture please contact the American Institute of Architects, Miami Chapter at (305) 448-7488 or
visit our Internet site at http://www.arc.miami.edu/mmedia/prof/prof.htm.











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Carving Out a Downtown Niche

Urbanform Design Group
Architecture and Interior
Division Office
Fort Lauderdale, Florida
Urbanform Design Group,

Sandwiched between mostly
mundane commercial and
office buildings in downtown
Fort Lauderdale is the dynamic
and colorful office of Urban-
form Design Group, Inc.
Friends were surprised when, in
January 1994, the firm leased
two narrow, shotgun storefront
spaces in a dilapidated building
a block north of City Hall.
Transformation of the 3,600
sf space into separate but inte-
grated offices by-and for-
the firm's architecture and in-
terior design divisions would
be an interesting challenge.
The group was determined-
not to let a tight construction
and renovation budget
($56,000) dictate a low-budget
look. Much of the charm lies
in the imaginative use of space Recep
and of inexpensive and stock furnis
A central hexagon encom-
passes office areas for the interest
division managers. Large this co
interior windows created open popular
interior vistas as well as allow- able to
ing greater access to the limited and fir
exterior view. An octagonal con- ing loo
ference area and other angular expose
walls help break the monotony and el
of the long, narrow space on as a ha
the architecture side. meant f
An open, landscaped space Spe
was created for the interior to cole
division using columns and uncom
wood beams to create seven to vari
rectangular bays. Each bay Intens
displays a different selection of and as
colors and materials compiled help in
from samples received from Stock 1
distributors, including marble, selected
slate, tile, wood, and other nat- both p
ural and fabricated materials. functic
Striking columns feature a comply
variety of faux finishes and wall provide
coverings. Besides adding an lighting;

tion area and octagonal conference room incorporate an unusual range of colors, textures,
things, and natural and artificial lighting effects.

ting blend of textures,
ncept has proven to be
Ir with clients, who are
Ssee how the materials
dishes they are consider-
k installed. Likewise,
ed air-conditioning ducts
ectrical raceways serve
nds-on learning environ-
or clients.
cial attention was paid
ir and lighting. A slightly
ientional approach led
ety over homogeneity.
e colors-lots of them-
sorted lighting fixtures
terpret functional areas.
fixtures, in a carefully
d combination, serve
practical and decorative
ins. Pendant fixtures
cemented by desk lamps
e general and individual
g in the drafting areas,

Angular walls with sharp verticals elude monotony in passage-
way of architectural section. Interior glazing and light color
walls in conference room and principal's office add open feel-
ing to closed spaces.


Interior design section, with exposed air-conditioning ducts and electrical raceways. Bays defined by wood beams and columns
contain an interesting array of installed sample treatments for clients to encounter Faux finishes by Karen Berg.

while track lights accent walls
and art work. The interior
design section is lit with tracks
for general lighting as well as to
highlight displays. In the transit
and reception area and in the
coffee room, wall sconces help
create drama and definition.
Reflections caused by the differ-
ent types of light, with or with-
out added daylight, vary the
intense colors, broadening the
color spectrum even more.
Lest it sound like a helter-
skelter look prevails, the result
is quite the opposite. Forest
green and deep purple, the
colors of the firm's logo, define
principal spaces. Flooring in
the public zones, including the


reception and conference areas
and the principal's office, is an
expanse of slate. Work areas,
such as the drawing room are
installed with carpeting in the
logo colors.

Surrounded by a neighbor-
hood of neglected buildings,
first-time visitors are generally
surprised to find themselves

in this jewellike space. Besides
their own project to create a
vibrant office space from a
bombed-out shell within a
budget, Urbanform Design
Group, Inc. specializes in single
and multi-residential architec-
ture and interior design.

Architect: Urbanform Design
Group, Inc.
Design Team: Kaizer Talib,
AIA, Thierry Kawczynski,
Assoc. AIA
Interior Design: Beth Kaplan,
Cristina Towne

Photographs by Roy Crogen

Museum of Science and Industry, Tampa, Florida
Architect: Robbins Bell & Kreher Architects Inc., Tampa, FL
and Antoine Predock, FAIA



Architectural/Interior Design Photography

CHROMA INC 2802 Azeele Street Tampa, Florida 33609 a (813) 873-1374



"Utopia is always local."
Michael Sorkin

Can Engineers Practice

As a professional engineer
licensed to practice in Florida,
I find Mr. Huey's article in the
Fall 1995 issue to be highly
biased. Having been involved
with NSPE's review of the Fed-
eral anti-trust investigation, I
know there is a great deal of
vague misinformation thrust
upon the public, building offi-
cials, engineers and architects
by such biased articles. There
are a number of other cases
nationwide which shed light
upon the division line between
the practice of architecture and
the practice of engineering. As
general counsel of the Florida
AIA for 20 years, Mr. Huey's bias
is understandable, but his article
only represents his opinion.
The fact is, most statutes
specifically exempt engineers
from the statutes applicable to
architects, and vice versa. Most
building codes recognize the
design professional as either an
architect or an engineer. The
debate as to who may lead and
who may follow is largely acade-
mic. Both boards were created
to protect the interests of the
public, and in that purpose
there is common ground. Regis-
trants are qualified based upon
their training, education and
experience by both boards.
Although an electrical engineer
is registered as a professional
engineer, it would be uncom-
mon for him to complete the
structural design of the tower
and foundations which hold up
his cables, although legally
(under the law) he can accept a
contract for design of a power
transmission system. As a regis-
tered professional he is charged
to practice in areas only in
which he is competent by train-
ing, education and experience.
He is expected to associate a
structural engineer as required
by the assignment. Similar par-


allels can be drawn in architec-
ture. There are those architects
who specialize in residential
work, just as others specialize in
health care, educational, high
rise, commercial, etc.
It is the individual regis-
trant's responsibility to compe-
tently carry out any assignment
they accept; by affixing their
signature and seal, they certify
they have.
Consider for a moment the
medical profession. A general
practitioner would not attempt
a heart transplant or brain
surgery, although all are medical
The division line between
architecture and engineering is
a purely rhetorical, academic
discussion which is more of a
turf battle for clients than in pro-
tection of the public's interests.
The public's interest is served
by the employment of a design
professional who competently
carries out his assignment.
Each professional should
practice only in their area of
education, training and experi-
ence. It is a professional respon-
sibility for which each profes-
sional should be strictly held
accountable and liable. The
standard is due diligence and
care ordinary to the industry.
Violators should fairly be
subject to the wrath of their
registration boards whether an
architect or engineer or other
professional. Legislation or in-
terpretations which are protec-
tionist of turf between the
engineering and architecture
does nothing but create a
controversy and "in-fighting."
The energy would be better
spent in focusing upon pro-
fessionalism within your own
professional field.
And that is my opinion.

Kirk N. Nivens, EE. & EL.S.
Nivens Engineering, Inc.
Beaufort, South Carolina


John Howey
The Sarasota School of Architecture documents the work
of an extraordinary group of American architects who,
between 1941-1966, adapted the tenets of high Euro-
pean modernism to the unique tropical environment of
Sarasota-with striking results. Influenced by local
climate and regional culture, the work of the Sarasota
School marks a high point in the development of regional
modernism in American architecture.
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Light-The Power to Transform
By James P Fleming

Light and color are as natural
as sound and smell. And
it seems that today these and
other natural elements are find-
ing a renewed importance in
home design with the revival of
the concept of the home as a
Natural products like wood,
leather, stone, and interior trees
and plants often form the basis
of interior design programs.
Details such as running water
fountains, wind chimes, and
scented potpourri satisfy the
desire for soothing sounds and
Integration of the dynamics
of color and light are contribut-
ing, too, in a large way, to the
overall picture. The wise and
creative use of light, through
the collaborative efforts of
architect, interior designer, and
lighting designer, can bring out
the maximum design potential
of any space. A strategic tool in
creating an environment that

A light source
without a dimmer
can be compared
to a radio without
a volume control.
The ability to
moderate the level
of light is essential.

evokes a mood or a subtle
atmosphere of elegance or
drama, lighting has infinite
possibilities. The use of colored
filters with secondary light
sources further enhances the
ability to create drama and
warmth, transforming the entire
feeling or spirit of any interior
or exterior.
The lighting industry has
been experiencing a rapid devel-
opment in new lamp technology
and in control technology,
which, through the creative
manipulation of light, now
allows a homeowner to be a
"conductor" of the home envi-
ronment. Complete integration
of controls on all light sources
allows the lowering and layering
of light levels to modify and
enhance the mood of any space
or series of spaces.
On a basic level, it is possible
to transform a home or office
space through something as
simple as upgrading the current
light bulbs to various qualities
of bulbs that effect a layering of
color, shadowing, or texture.
For example, most homes have
high-hats or recessed cans in
the ceiling into which R30 or
A19 bulbs originally were
installed. By changing to new
capsule light halogen bulbs,
called Par 20, Par 30, or Par 38,
the feeling of those spaces can
be transformed. The new lamps
allow a fresh, crisp, clean light
that brings out the full color of
tile, marble, fabric, and other
Another easy but effective
way to enhance a space is to
replace wall switches with dim-
mers. Rarely is it desirable to
have lighting at full brightness
levels. Such illumination can be
harsh, cold, and even obtrusive.
It also is counterproductive to
creating the feeling and mood
that your home or other space
has the potential to offer. A light
source without a dimmer can be
compared to a radio without a
volume control. The ability to

moderate the level of light is
In the home, updating light
bulbs to include the new lamp
technology and installing dim-
mers throughout (that means
not just the living room but
kitchen, dining room, hallways,
bedrooms, bathrooms, and out-
door areas) gives the client
the ability to transform spaces.
It's important for architects
and interior design profession-
als to be aware of these low-cost
ways to achieve high client
Since many Floridians have
the luxury of year-round gar-
dens, it is worth mentioning the
rich possibilities that exist
in landscaping illumination.
Landscape lighting is no longer
an option but a requirement
for new luxury homes. New

products developed in the
past decade allow landscape
architects to incorporate beauti-
fully effective, low-maintenance,
economical outdoor lighting
Because of continuing ad-
vances in the industry, there is
much that is new and exciting.
To save time and mistakes in
sorting out what is good and
bad (and ugly), most architects
and interior designers can
benefit from the services of a
professional lighting consultant
or lighting designer.

James P Fleming is President
of Lite-Spec & Design Group,
Inc., and Vice President,
Lighting Designer and Interi-
or Furnishings Buyer/Indus-
try Consultant at Farrey's
Design Galleries, Miami.


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For more information or to receive a
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Harmonious by Design: Light and the Built Environment
By Robert J. Laughlin

Light has long been consid-
ered as fundamental to
architecture as form and func-
tion. In this century it was
Le Corbusier who said, 'Archi-
tecture is the masterly, correct,
and magnificent play of masses
brought together in the light..."
In addition to defining a
structure's planes and features,
light has always played a part in
defining its purpose. After all, it
was the light in the great cathe-
drals of Europe that exemplified
their spirituality.
Today light retains its impor-
tance in the success of any work
of architecture. Both its aesthet-
ic and its commercial value are
taken seriously, and the industry
is flourishing. The work of light-
ing consultants, too, is gaining
recognition, not just in block-
buster projects and night light-
ing, but in general commercial
projects, such as themed hotels,
restaurants and residences, hos-
pitals, shopping centers, facto-
ries and showrooms, and every
other type of construction.
More and more, architects
are realizing that using a light-
ing consultant can save time
and money in many types of
projects. The lighting consultant
already has done the research-
keeping abreast of new technol-
ogy and energy concepts, and
has the tools at hand-a vocab-
ulary of thousands of fixtures
from hundreds of sources and
the knowledge of what works
where. While there is a miscon-
ception that using a lighting
consultant means added costs
and expensive fixtures, more
often the reverse is true. For a
lighting consultant the goal is
achieving the right effect using
light, not using expensive fix-
tures. In fact, the best solution
seldom is the most costly.
Finding appropriate fixtures
for the project at hand, consid-
ering the desired look and effect
as well as cost, maintenance,
and energy efficiency, is the
foremost task. While often an

owner or architect may go for
the "hottest" or "coolest" new
look or technology, the lighting
consultant can advise whether
these will work to advantage-
and if not, what will.
Florida may have more
themed architecture than any
other place in the world. Recent-
ly, themed architecture has
spilled out of the theme parks
and is affecting virtually every
building type. The basis for
theming architecture and the
associated lighting is a "story
line," an overall program-
sometimes highly complex to
cover all the various elements
within a story or theme. The

The Florida Supreme
Court. Restoration by
Barnett & Fronczak
Architects, Tallahassee,
Florida. Lighting
designed by Robert J.
Laughlin & Associates.
Photo: Kathleen

story line is the lighting con-
sultant's guide for lighting the
facility in such a manner that
it takes on a particular feeling
or character-both interior and
The first level of lighting
should be of an adequate type
and character to provide the
lighting required for the intend-
ed use of the space. Additional
lighting should highlight or
bring out the character and
beauty of the architecture and
its forms and spaces. If exposed
light fixtures are required, they
should complement rather than
distract from the architecture.
Sometimes custom fixtures are

Bishop International Airport, Flint, Michigan. Reynolds Smith
& Hills Architects, Jacksonville, Florida. Lighting designed by
Robert J. Laughlin & Associates. Photo: Neil Rashba

designed to give a building its
own special sense of place, and
the architect, of course, con-
tributes to the design process.
However, it is often easier and
more cost effective to modify
existing fixtures. Using standard
components has the advantage
of saving problems down the
road in the form of costly
maintenance or hard-to-replace
parts. The lighting consultant
can choose from a repertoire of
thousands of fixtures to accom-
plish this.
An important element in any
lighting scheme is how it will
affect the people utilizing the
space. Unless patrons look
good, they will not feel good,
and this may affect their percep-
tion of the architecture and its
intended use. Lighting has a
strong impact on people and
their feelings and reactions.
Therefore, achieving effective
lighting helps achieve the maxi-
mum utility of any space.
Department store lighting must
make people look and feel good
or they might not buy. And in a
restaurant or grocery store, bad
lighting can make even the most
beautifully presented food look
An important responsibility
of both the lighting consultant
and architect is to see that every
aspect of their project works
together as a whole and does its
part to enrich whatever human
experience takes place there.
The more successful their light-
ing design is, the more success-
ful their architecture will be.

Robert J. Laughlin, of Robert J.
Laughlin & Associates, Light-
ing Consultation and Design,
Winter Park, is a long-time
ALA Professional Affiliate as
well as an active member of
the Illuminating Engineering
Society and International
Association ofLighting Design-
ers. Recognition of his work
includes several AIA Florida
Honor awards.


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