Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00308
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Summer 1995
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00308
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text



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Summer 1995
Vol. 42. No. 2

Cover: Carpenter Gothic.
St. George's Episcopal
Church (1882), Ft. George
Island, Florida. Photo: Judy


In Celebration of Florida's
Preservation Board Consultant Vivian Young looks
back over 150 years of architecture across the state.

Restoring Harmony
Barger + Dean's restoration of the Sarasota Opera
House is an adaptive reuse of a Mediterranean
Revival landmark.

An Eye to the Past
A look at several restoration projects by Jacksonville
architect Ken Smith reflects diversity and challenge.

Antique Retreat
In creating Pan's Garden for the Preservation
Foundation of Palm Beach, Leslie Divoll used historic
materials, including Mizner Industries products.
Also, a thumbnail sketch of the Miiner Industries
phenomenon by John P Johnson.

Illuminating a Legacy
The first temple in Miami Beach, an Art Deco
structure, has been restored by Giller & Giller to
house the new Ziff Jewish Museum of Florida.

Collegiate Gothic
Contributing editor Diane Greer looks at Elliott and
Marshall's sophisticated Dodd Hall renovation and
addition on the FSU campus


by Herschel Shepard, FAIA
by C. Trent Manausa, AIA




Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Editorial Board
John Totty, AIA, Chairman
Ivan Johnson, III, AIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
Richard Reep, AIA
Vice President/President-elect
William Blizzard, AIA
Keith Bullock, AIA
Past President
John Tice, AIA
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
Santurce, PR
Regional Director
Henry Alexander, AIA
Coral Gables
Vice President for
Professional Excellence
Roy Knight, AIA
Vice President for
Political Effectiveness
John Cochran, AIA
Vice President for
John Awsumb, AIA
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Assistant Publisher
Joanna Booth
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Margaret Barlow
Art Director
Peter Denes
Contributing Editor
Diane Greer
Computer Graphics
Insty-Prints of Tallahassee
Boyd Brothers, Inc.
Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by
the Association, a Florida Corporation not
for profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive Office
of the Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301. Telephone (904)
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the
express permission of Florida Architect.
Single copies, $6.00; Annual subscription,
$20.33. Third class postage.


s part of our observance of Florida's sesquicentennial year, it seems fitting
that we sample some of the architecture that has been preserved around the
state. Clearly, as described by Vivian Young, diversity was, and remains, the
key to our architectural heritage. We also see that a great deal of effort by groups and
individuals at all levels has gone into preserving architecture of the past, whether
plain or fancy, functional or fantasy, or a vernacular or revival style. Jacksonville
architect and University of Florida Distinguished Lecturer Herschel Shepard brings
his experience to bear in a discussion of the National Register criteria that will
interest every professional with a passion for this pursuit.
For most of the architects doing this kind of work, the abounding challenges are
counterbalanced by their enjoyment of the process. Reconciling idiosyncratic building
methods and materials with current needs and standards requires as much creativity
as a new design. In fact, one of our "historic preservation" projects is a totally new
design. For Pan's Garden, a native plant botanic garden next to downtown Palm Beach,
Leslie Divoll created an antique-style garden space, incorporating a collection of "re-
cycled" architectural fragments and antique Portuguese and Mizner Industries tiles.
Across the state restored public buildings continue to serve their communities in
their functional capacity as well as providing lessons in history. Restored to its
Mediterranean Revival dignity by Barger + Dean, the old Edwards Theater is now
the Sarasota Opera House. Much of its charm lies in the fact that behind the polish
and refinement of its beautifully restored surfaces, a backstage visitor can encounter
the real past, for example, in a wall of original exposed rough Georgia clay brick. In
Miami Beach, the Art Deco temple that housed the first Jewish congregation in that
city has been restored by Giller & Giller and rededicated as the Jewish Museum of
Florida. In Tallahassee, on the Florida State University campus, Elliott & Marshall's
renovation of turn-of-last-century's Dodd Hall complements its turn-of-this-century
Ken Smith is one of several Florida architects whose restoration projects cover a
wide range-churches, courthouses, lighthouses, and every other kind of house. In
viewing a few of his projects, one gets a sense of the amount and variety of restora-
tion work out there that needs to be done. And for a look at how it is done, Tallahas-
see architect Trent Manausa describes his practice of "forensic architecture," finding
old bugs and fixing them while remaining "historically correct." MB

Florida Architect serves the profession by providing current information on design, practice management, technology,
environment, energy, preservation and development of communities, construction, finance, economics, as well as other
political, social, and cultural issues that impact the field.


Legislature Approves
Massive Changes to
Educational Facilities
Florida legislators completed
their 60-day 1995 Regular Ses-
sion in May with approval of a
massive rewrite of the Educa-
tion Facilities statute, setting
the stage for major changes in
the manner in which school
buildings will be designed, con-
structed and approved in the
years to come.
Scheduled for sunset if not
reenacted by July 1, ES. Chapter
235 was rewritten following a
thorough year-long review by
many committees and organi-
zations, including AIA Florida.
The basic tenor of the changes
made to the statute was to pro-
vide more autonomy to local
school districts. At the urging of
newly elected Florida Education
Commissioner Frank Brogan,
legislators sharply reduced the
number of staffers in the Office
of Educational Facilities, shift-
ing responsibility for surveys
and plans review to the local
level. School districts may still
request a Phase III plans review
from the state level but are free
to approve all phases if they
wish to do so.
Architectural services for
school designs still will be
competitively selected under
the Consultant's Competitive
Negotiation Act, but school
districts may also use a varied
array of project delivery pro-
cesses. Under the revisions, a
school district may contract for
architectural services to utilize
the plans and specifications
prepared in another county
without going through the
CCNA process.
A section was added to the
statute allowing the Department
of Education to develop school
plans, but the program was
unfunded. AIA Florida succeed-
ed in amending the provision to
require that the DOE utilize a
registered architect/consultant

Florida's First Chancellor
Ellis W Bullock, FAIA, of Pensacola,
began his term as Chancellor of the Col-
lege of Fellows early, after the resignation
of Robert Coles, FAIA. Bullock, a past
president of AIA Florida and Vice Presi-
dent of the Institute, began serving in
April 1995 and will serve through 1996.
He is the first Fellow from Florida to
serve as Chancellor.

New Fellows (left to right) John J. Diamond, FAIA,
Stephanie Ferrell, FAIA, and David M. Harper, FAIA.

to prepare the prototypical
plans when and if the program
is activated. The provision is
permissive, and Commissioner
Brogan indicated to AIA Florida
that he only expects to utilize
such a program to benefit
smaller school districts that
may need help in the future.
The provision regarding
schools being constructed to
serve as fallout shelters was
amended out, and the Depart-
ment of Community Affairs was
required to establish a state-
wide emergency shelter plan
which would provide school
districts with guidance in deter-
mining which schools need to
be constructed as shelters to
correspond with the plan.

Practice Act Amended
The Florida Legislature ap-
proved changes to the Architect
and Interior Designer Practice
Act during its recent 60-day

session. Chapter 481 Part 1,
ES. was amended initially to
reinstate the two-year junior
college interior design educa-
tion program and to allow
provisional licensees to take a
continuing education program
in lieu of a test on building
code and barrier free code re-
quirements to qualify for full
AIA Florida succeeded in
getting approval for amend-
ments to the statute affirming
that architects have all the
rights and privileges necessary
to offer interior design services.
Architects also may obtain an
interior design license if they
so choose, but the law now
preempts any city or county
government from disallowing
an architect from consideration
for interior design work.
Legislators redefined "inter-
ior design" to specifically ex-
clude design of or responsibility

for architectural and engineer-
ing work. Also included in the
act are a broader definition of
what that work includes and
definitions for terms such as
"nonstructural element," "re-
flected ceiling plans," "space
planning," "common areas,"
"diversified interior design
experience" and "interior
decorator services."

Ca' d'Zan To Be Restored
Ca' d'Zan, the former
residence of John and Mable
Ringling, is undergoing a $5.8
million restoration. Nationally
recognized preservation archi-
tects Ann Beha Associates, of
Boston, Mass., are gearing up
to begin the first phase of a
five-year plan. Tampa architect
Jan Abell, FAIA, will serve as
local liaison for the project.
John Ringling was a success-
ful business magnate and early
developer of the resort colony
at Sarasota, in addition to being
a founding member of the Rin-
gling Brothers Circus. He was
also one of the country's major
art collectors in the early-twen-
tieth century.
"This is by far the most im-
portant project we will under-
take at the Ringling Museum
in the coming decade, and a
restoration project in which all
the people of Florida can take
pride. We look forward to a
fruitful collaboration," says
David Ebitz, Director of the

Home Safe Project
The Palm Beach Chapter of
AIA is developing plans for a
$1.1 million facility that will
be used by authorities for tem-
porary housing for severely
abused children in the Palm
Beach County area. A group
of twelve Chapter members
is involved in designing the
one-story, 9,200 sq. ft. facility,
which will have a residential
Please turn to page 8


Reader Survey Results

As Florida Architect experi-
enced organizational, staff and
layout changes during 1994,
one question frequently arose:
"What do the readers want from
Florida Architect?" In early
February 1995, a reader survey
was broadcast-faxed and mailed
to 700 AIA firms throughout
the state. A dozen questions
inquired about such diverse
concerns as reader interests,
the current level of satisfaction

and the type of audience desired
for the magazine.
Response was rapid. Within
72 hours headquarters counted
a 27% response rate, with the
overwhelming majority of read-
ers expressing general satisfac-
tion with the magazine. It was
clear that the readership pre-
ferred that Florida Architect
inform architects about the
profession, with a smaller but
significant group interested in

directing the magazine's focus
toward the general public. The
graphs best indicate the level
of interest on specific topics.
Comments, suggestions
and satisfaction indicators gave
the magazine staff a wealth of
information to support deci-
sions and provide feature ideas
in the years ahead. Two clear
areas of concern which did

emerge were that more than
just a "select few" architects
should be published, and that
more "good projects from
less densely populated areas"
should be considered.

(ED. Tell us about these good
projects so we can recognize

Readership Survey
Florida Architect
Conducted Jan/Feb 1995; 27% response

Keep Architects Informed

Inform General Public

Inform Owners/Contractors

Inform Allied Professionals

Vision for Magazine
Keep Architects Informed
Inform General Public
Inform Allied Professional
Inform Owners/Contractors

News Briefs
New Products
New Technology

New Architecture
Personal Profiles
Urban Design
Photo Essays
Practice Stories


Not Interested

Geographic Coverage
Writing Quality
Graphic Design
Photo Quality

126 48
170 13
149 29
83 93
173 11

Book Reviews
Legal Notes
Member News

writing graphic Photo
Quality Design Quality



Not Satisfied


Continued from page 6

Programs will serve children
who have been sexually and/or
physically abused. Medical, law
enforcement, and HRS officials
would see children at the facili-
ty rather than taking them from
agency to agency. An umbrella

committee of the Home Safe
Board of Directors is conduct-
ing a fund raising campaign to
raise the needed $1.1 million.
Contact Board member Jim
Anstis, FAIA, to participate or
make a contribution.

Awards for Excellence
The AIA Florida 1995 Design
Awards for Excellence in Archi-
tecture projects were selected
May 5 in Atlanta by ajury made
up of Peter Q. Bohlin, FAIA,

Lloyd Bray, AIA, and Greg
Peirce, AIA. The jury selected
the following projects, which
will be published in the Septem-
ber issue of Florida Architect:
Astronauts Memorial
Foundation Centerfor
Space Education
Architect: Hellmuth, Obata &
Kassabaum, Inc.
Pinecrest Elementary School
Architect: Martinson Forbes
Residential Restoration
and Addition to a 1922
Addison Mizner house
Architect: Smith Architectural
Group, Inc.
Moor/Juckiewicz Residence
Architect: Moor & Associates,
Architects, PA.
Tampa Museum of Art
Architect: Alfonso Architects, Inc.
Dorothy F. Schmidt Arts
& Humanities Center
Architect: Schwab, Twitty &
Three-acre housing
development with 23
detached houses
Architect: Andres Duany &
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk
Architects and Town Planners
The 1995 Firm of the Year
Award goes to Hunton Brady
Pryor Maso Architects, of
Orlando. The jury selected from
six submittals the firm whose
collected body of work was
found to be deserving of the
prestigious Firm Award. Mem-
bers of the jury included Carl
Abbott, FAIA, of Carl Abbott
FAIA Architect/Planners, PA.;
William Lindner, Secretary,
Florida Department of Manage-
ment Services; Robert Fried-
man, Associate Vice-Chancellor,
Office of Capital Programs,
State University System; and
James Dehaven, President,
Dehaven-Brett Equities.
This year the Test of Time
Award will go to Lemontree
Village, Coconut Grove, by


Charles Harrison Pawley, FAIA.
Lemontree Village, completed
in 1970, is a development of
multifamily duplex townhouses
and is one of the first uses of
planned area development in
which buildings could be moved
around to take full advantage
of on-site trees. The flexible
design has been recognized
with local, state and national
awards over the years. The Test
of Time Award is presented for
distinguished architecture, rec-
ognized for its timelessness of
design and influence on other

Gerken Chosen for the
Carl Gerken, AIA, Ormond
Beach, will be presented with
the State Association's highest
award, the Gold Medal, at the
annual meeting in Palm Beach
on July 29, 1995. The nomina-
tion was made by the Gold
Medal Nominating Committee,
headed by Ted Pappas, FAIA,
and was ratified by the Board
of Directors at their meeting in
Atlanta, May 6. Gerken was
selected for his outstanding and
consistent service to the profes-
sion for the past twenty-five
years. In particular, the commit-
tee noted Gerken's leadership
during the 1970s when the
State Association underwent
many changes and its head-
quarters were relocated to Tal-
lahassee. Gerken, the current
chair of the Board of Architec-
ture and Interior Design, served
as president of AIA Florida in
1979. His nomination for the
Gold Medal noted his years of
dedication to AIA Florida and to
the profession of architecture.
The Board also voted to
award the Hilliard T. Smith
Silver Medal for Community
Service to Enrique A. Wood-
roffe, AIA, of Tampa. The
Tampa Bay Chapter nominated
Henry and applauded his
efforts to improve the quality


of life in the Tampa community.
He has assisted with policy
issues and fund raising for
numerous projects and has
been active in legislative issues
at the state level.
The Anthony L. Pullara
Individual Award will be
presented to Herbert R. Savage,
AIA, Marco Island. Herb is a
member of the Florida South-
west Chapter, and has dedicated
many years of leadership and
service to the profession. Herb
is a past president of the asso-
ciation and a current trustee
of the Florida Foundation for
Architecture and has made a
significant impact on increas-
ing membership at the chapter
The Award for Honor in
Design Committee nominated

Edward J. Seibert, AIA, Saraso-
ta to receive the Award for
Honor in Design. Seibert has
a proven record through his
designs of a special sensitivity
to Florida Gulf Coast culture,
environment, history and archi-
tecture. The committee noted
Seibert's recognition, during his
career, of the need to nurture
interns and young architects,
which added further to the
excellence of the architecture.
The Board of Directors also
voted to recognize three allied
professionals for their contri-
butions to the profession. The
Architectural Photographer
of the Year Award will be pre-
sented to George A. Cott, Chro-
ma, Inc., Tampa, for outstand-
ing work performed during
1995. The architectural photo-

Carl Gerken, AIA
Gold Medal

EnriqueA. Woodroffe, AIA Herbert R. Savage, AIA
Silver Medal Individual Pullara

graphy of Mr. Cott has been
recognized again for quality
and creativity in advancing the
profession of architecture.
The Outstanding Builder
Award will be presented to
Wass-Phillips Construction
Company, Miami. The nomina-
tion noted that this company
has become known throughout
the Miami area for its quality
workmanship, teamwork and
outstanding problem-solving
abilities. Support for the nomi-
nation included the Miami
Chapter and local architects.
Sandra Warsaw Freedman,
past mayor of Tampa, will
receive the Bob Graham
Architectural Awareness
Award. AIA Tampa Bay nom-
inated Ms. Freedman in recog-
nition of her extensive efforts
to improve community life in
Tampa. She led the work to
revitalize neighborhoods in
Tampa with an emphasis on
housing, law enforcement,
growth management, citywide
recycling and water conserva-
tion programs. She organized
public-private partnerships with
local lending institutions and
private nonprofit agencies to
create the Mayor's Challenge
Fund, which has won recogni-
tion as one of the nation's most
creative housing programs.

Edward J. Seibert, AIA
Honor in Design

In Celebration of Florida's Sesquicentennial
By Vivian Young

F rom earliest European
contact, La Florida-the
land of flowers-has been a
state of adventure, of hardship,
and of promise. All of these
facets are melded into the
historic architecture of Florida.
From modest pioneer home-
steads to opulent fantasy man-
sions, historic buildings reflect
Florida's unique heritage.
Communities are gearing
up for the Sesquicentennial, as
this year Florida celebrates its
150th anniversary of statehood.
From a rural, agricultural state
with a sparse population of
70,000, Florida today is rapidly
growing and cosmopolitan,
with over 13.6 million people
and an economy that rivals that
of many nations. As Floridians
zoom along the interstates,
abandoned farmhouses and
decaying crossroad stores tell
stories that few now recall.
Lighthouses and railroad sta-
tions, once Florida's lifelines
to civilization, are little more
than quaint reminders of the
past. The Sesquicentennial
provides an exciting opportuni-
ty to look back at those historic
resources that tell part of the
story of Florida's development.

The Lake Mirror Promenade, designed by Charles W Leavitt and completed in 1926, shows
Lakeland's adaptation of the City Beautiful movement. Photo: Division of Historical Resources,
Florida Department of State

Florida's early architecture
reflects adaptation to its steamy
climate and indigenous building
materials. Beginning with the
Spaniards and British, settlers
found the durable coquina, a
natural lime and shell conglom-
erate from Florida's shores,

admirably suited for construc-
tion. Native longleaf pine, once
blanketing the northern half of
the state, provided plentiful
lumber for many a pioneer
homestead. Early on, builders
learned the benefits of high
ceilings, cross-ventilation, and

F Burral Hoffman and Paul Chalfin designed Dade County's Italian Renaissance masterpiece,
Vizcaya, begun in 1914. Photo: Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State

good building orientation,
taking advantage of wafting
breezes for natural relief from
the sweltering heat.
Early Floridians were follow-
ers in architectural design.
Most built utilitarian shelters
using locally available materials.
Accounts abound of pioneers'
primitive log cabins. As settlers
became more established, so
did their homes-more perma-
nent vernacular structures,
often raised on piers, with
wood siding and sheltering
porches. "Florida Cracker"
buildings appeared through-
out the state into the 1900s.
Some areas developed distinc-
tive vernacular variations. In
Key West, influences from the
Bahamas and other tropical
ports led to the "conch"
house-characterized by
verandas, louvered shutters,
and deep eaves. At the other
end of the state, Pensacolans
favored the simple yet elegant
raised "Gulf Coast" cottage
with broad, overhanging roof.



.,,,,~ ~I

CarrBre and Hastings's St. Augustine masterpiece, the 1988 Ponce de Leon Hotel, was one of Florida's first "fantasy" buildings.
Photo: Tommy L. Thompson, 1992

Few architect-designed build-
ings existed in early Florida-
most settlers built what they
remembered from their native
state. Following the example
of Thomas Jefferson and others
further north, those attempting
an architectural style often
chose Classical Revival-some-
times with impressive results.
Symbolically appropriate for
a new country filled with prom-
ise, Revival styles symbolized
the lofty ideals of democracy
and enlightenment. They could
also be fairly easily copied
from design books and did not
require elaborate millwork
difficult to obtain in frontier


With its emphasis on symme-
try, and Classical columns often
in the form of a portico, the
Greek Revival style became
popular for churches, planta-
tion houses, and other early
Florida landmarks. Florida's
first masonry capitol building,
designed by Cary Butt of Mo-
bile, Alabama, was completed
just in time for Florida's 1845
entry into the union. Greek
Revival structures remained
popular throughout the ante-
bellum period.
Most Floridians, of course,
did not live in mansions. In
1860, just prior to the out-
break of the Civil War, over 40
percent of Florida's population

of 140,000 were slaves. Little
still stands as built testimony
to how the slaves lived, except
perhaps the tabby quarters at
Kingsley Plantation in Duval
County. It is only through
archaeology and the written
record that we can begin to
patchwork this aspect of Flori-
da's history together.
The aftermath of the Civil
War threw the South into eco-
nomic, political, and social
upheaval. Construction slowed
dramatically. When it picked
up again America headed in a
new architectural direction. A
Romantic movement swept the
nation, rejecting formal Classi-
cism in favor of more eclectic

design. The new styles had
Medieval and Renaissance
models as their inspiration.
Nationally, designers such as
Andrew Jackson Downing had
begun publishing books high-
lighting these new styles in the
1840s. By the 1870s pictur-
esque Gothic Revival churches
and Italianate homes dotted
Florida's landscape. By the
1880s the Queen Anne style
had become popular. With its
irregular massing, ornate gin-
gerbread detailing, dominant
porches, and turrets, it repre-
sented American architecture
at its most playful. Some
structures were designed by
Please turn to page 12

Florida's Sesquicentennial
Continued from page 11

architects, but many were the
work of the owner and builder,
perhaps assisted by an archi-
tectural pattern book and the
local sawmill.
A few farsighted entrepre-
neurs embarked in yet another
direction, "Florida Fantasy."
The state's reputation as a win-
ter retreat for the wealthy and
the ill was established by the
1870s, as promoters success-
fully extolled the beautiful
climate and cheap land. Two
wealthy northern industrialists,
Henry Flagler and Henry Plant,
opened up much of the state
for development. In love with
the climate and enthralled
with St. Augustine's Spanish
heritage, Flagler commissioned
New York architects Carrbre
and Hastings to build a hotel
appropriate for the historic city.
It opened in 1888-a flamboy-
ant Spanish concoction of local
coquina with Tiffany windows
and all the opulence any visitor
could desire. Flagler next began
acquiring rail lines, forming the
foundation of his Florida East
Coast Railroad. Not to be out-
done, Plant established the
South Florida Railroad and in
1891 opened his own Moorish
fantasy hotel in Tampa. As the
competing rail lines pushed
through Florida, they opened
new territory for settlement-
and for embellishing the Florida
Following in these more exot-
ic footsteps, society architect
Addison Mizner brought what is
now known as the Mediteranean
Revival style into full flower.
Early this century he brought to
Florida the vocabulary of the
Mediterranean, including the
stuccoed walls and red barrel-
tile roofs still synonymous with
some areas of this state. Not
content to design just buildings,
Mizner planned the entire Worth
Avenue area of Palm Beach, and
began developing Boca Raton.
Likewise, wealthy aviator Glenn
Curtiss and architect Bernhardt

In 1902, architect Frank Milburn modernized Florida's capitol building in Tallahassee, giving it
a Beaux Artsflavor Photo: Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board, Florida Department of State

Mueller designed and developed
the fanciful Moorish city of
Opa-Locka. Many of these
dreamers saw their visions
crash with Florida's real estate
bust beginning in 1926.
In the late 1800s, drawn by

growth and expansion, archi-
tects-some professionally
trained, some self-proclaimed-
began establishing practices
here. The Florida Association
of Architects was created in
1912, and four years later,

Vernacular wood frame buildings on raised piers, such as
the c. 1804 Julee Cottage in Pensacola, have been common
throughout much of Florida's history. Photo: Division ofHistor-
ical Resources, Florida Department of State

Florida's first professional state
licensing exam for architects
was given; four passed.
Architects and architecture
were moving in divergent
directions as the century
turned. One movement, seek-
ing more academically correct
revivals of early architecture,
had its roots in part in the
"City Beautiful" movement.
The World's Columbian Exposi-
tion, held in Chicago in 1893,
expounded a vision of the grand
American city, ironically mod-
eled after Baroque Paris! "Make
no little plans" extolled archi-
tect Daniel Burnham as he
transformed part of Chicago's
waterfront with columned
white Neoclassical buildings
and tree-lined boulevards.
Thousands who visited the
fair left impressed. Classical
buildings enjoyed a resurgence,
and for decades civic leaders
emulated the boulevards and
plazas in their town designs.


The Moorish Revival Opa-Locka City Hall, by architect Bernhardt Muller was completed in 1926.
Resources, Florida Department of State

Simultaneously, at the turn
of the century, the building
industry was undergoing tre-
mendous changes. Inventions
such as the elevator and rein-
forced concrete made "sky-
scrapers" possible. Architect
Louis Sullivan called for new
honesty in design, where "form
follows function," and Frank
Lloyd Wright developed the
organic, spare, and distinctively
American "Prairie School." Jack-
sonville architect HJ. Klutho
and others brought the new
concepts to Florida, where they
enjoyed a brief flowering. But by
the end of World War I another
new movement emerged.


With cars on the road, planes
in the air, and electric toasters
in the kitchen, America's love
affair with technology was
flourishing. This was reflected
in sleek buildings that appeared
better suited to speed across
the ocean or take off in flight
than to remain anchored to the
soil. Strongly influenced by
European designers, the sophis-
ticated Moderne style, also
called Art Deco, took hold-
particularly in the fast-growing
vacation paradise Miami Beach.
Florida experienced a flower-
ing of architecture early this
century-from Mediterranean
and other Revival fantasies

reflecting the wealth and aspi-
rations of new settlers, to new
styles such as Prairie and
Moderne, which developed a
distinctive vocabulary for the
twentieth century. After World
War II, the advent of air condi-
tioning and other technological
changes lessened, for a while,
the need to develop architec-
ture specially suited to this
state and its climate. Neverthe-
less, Florida's historic architec-
ture has had a lasting impact.
Historic landmarks remain as
testimony, and lessons from
the past continue to be seen in
new development across the
state. 0

Photo: Division of Historical

Vivian Young is Community
Assistance Consultantfor
the Historic Tallahassee
Preservation Board. For
the Sesquicentennial, she
is assisting the Florida
Foundation for Architecture
in developing a traveling
exhibit, slide presentation,
and booklet highlighting
Florida's historic architec-
ture. To arrange bringing
this Sesquicentennial pro-
gram to your community,
contact Joanna Booth at
(904) 222-7590.

Restoring Harmony

Sarasota Opera House
Sarasota, Florida
Stuart H. Barger, AIA

The opening of the doors
of the Edwards Theater, on
April 10, 1926, "admitted Sara-
sota into a fairyland of costly
decoration, rich furnishing and
never-to-be-forgotten artistry,"
said the Sarasota Herald.
Jacksonville architect Roy A.
Benjamin ("a master designer
of amusement enterprises")
was credited with designing
the three-story steel frame and
masonry complex.
Owner A.B. Edwards, Sara-
sota's first mayor, conceived
the building as a year-round
moneymaker in the winter
resort town. Besides the theater
auditorium, the original struc-
ture contained eight "exclusive
shops" off the arcaded en-
trance, five business offices on
the second floor, and a dozen
furnished apartments on the
third floor arranged around a
three-story skylit atrium.
Traveling companies brought
music, vaudeville, and plays to
the theater. But from the 1950s
(when it was renamed the Flori-
da Theater) until it closed in
1973, movies were the main
fare. Over the years, cosmetic
changes reflected changing
times and uses. With the Sara-
sota Opera's purchase of the
building in 1979 began a con-
tinuing campaign to raise funds
to refurbish the interior, and in
January 1981, the company's
25th season opening was cele-
brated in its "new" facility. Two
years later the Sarasota Opera
House was placed on the Nation-
al Register of Historic Places.
In 1987 the Opera commis-
sioned the Sarasota firm of
Barger + Dean Architects, Inc.
to add an Educational Wing. As
work progressed, the need for
a total restoration and rehabili-
tation of the original building
became evident. Funds were

After restoration (above), the loggia has been
reinstalled, and ornamental plaster "stone"
work emphasizes detailing of second floor
windows. The "Opera House" sign is in keep-
ing with the original "Edwards" sign, and a
sculptedfigure that was destroyed by an ear-
lier tenant has been reproduced by a local
artist and placed in its original corner niche.
At left is the 1987 Educational Wing addition.
Before restoration (left), showing enclosure
of third-floor loggia, monochrome treatment
of windows, and empty sculpture niche below
sign area (removed). Photos: Barger + Dean

raised locally, and the following
year the Florida Department of
State, Division of Historical
Resources, and the National
Endowment for the Arts pro-
vided grants totalling close to
$600,000 to restore the exteri-
or and to renovate and rehab-
ilitate the auditorium.
Barger + Dean helped design
a master development plan, to
be completed in stages as funds
were raised, and restoration
was begun. Original photo-
graphs and drawings were used
in restoring the original appear-
ance and character.

The three-story entrance
facade exemplified the Mediter-
ranean Revival style, popular in
southern Florida because its
heavy masonry walls, barrel-
and-pan tile roof, and set-back
punched windows provided
some pre-air-conditioned cool-
ing. Cream-colored stucco was
embellished with ornamental
plasterwork imitating stone.
The second story was divided
into nine bays marked by two-
over-two, double-hung sash
windows. Each second floor
window was characterized by
projecting window sills and

quoined surrounds. An open
loggia occupied the center
three bays of the third floor.
Additions that were removed
during the Barger + Dean
restoration included a tesserae
entrance surround (1950s)
and a stuccoed wall containing
three windows that enclosed
the third-floor loggia.
The ground floor was divided
into five bays marked by arched
openings carried on piers and
engaged cast stone columns.
The openings originally con-
tained fixed-glass shop windows
with leaded glass transoms


Low-key Mediterranean
Revival style characterizes
the auditorium (above).
The cool contrasting
exterior color scheme
was applied inside
as well. Acoustics are
excellent, thanks in part
to the original upward-
tilting balcony design.

Entrance lobby atrium
(left). Original railing,
hand-turned columns,
and stained glass skylight
can be seen at second-floor
level. Entrance doors
replicate originals. Here,
as in a number of cases
throughout the building
where money-saving
measures precluded
extensive restoration of
details, the roughness of
worn capitals adds charm
and a bit of "soul." The
chandelier is from "Tara,"
the movie set for Gone With
The Wind. Photos: Barger +

above. The entrance was locat-
ed in the central bay within a
segmental arch protected by
a canvas awning.
Inside the rather simply
decorated auditorium, the suc-
cessful color schemes of the
exterior guided the interior
wall and accent colors. Missing
plasterwork, stained glass light
fixtures, and other details were
recreated from originals and
photographs. In meeting the
Opera's expanded seating
needs, platforms, risers, and
loge sections were reraked to
comply with code requirements
and to provide better sight lines.
A new lighting bridge was de-
signed within the existing ceiling.
The main entrance lobby has
been restored and the original
atrium reopened to the third
floor, although the original
stained glass skylight was recre-
ated at the second-floor level.
Street-level spaces have been
renovated and expanded, an
elevator installed, and
restrooms enlarged. Newly
renovated offices and meeting
rooms are housed on the sec-
ond and third floors.
Firm principal Stuart Bar-
ger also designed the Asolo
Center for the Performing
Arts, which includes the 1921
Dumferline Theater restoration,
and the state-of-the-art Booker
High School theater, both in
Sarasota. 0

Owner: Sarasota Opera
Owner's Design Consultant:
Frank Folsom Smith, AIA
Architect: Stuart H. Barger, AIA,
Barger + Dean Architects, Inc.
Acoustician: Bertram Kinzey, AIA
Structural Engineer: Stephen-
son, Stirling & Associates
Engineers: Raytech Engineer-
ing, Thomas and Jones, Handy &
Civil Engineer: Smally
Wellford & Nalven
Construction Management:
Square One Contracting, Inc.,
The Moss Group


An Eye to the Past

Kenneth Smith Architects
Kenneth R. Smith, AIA

restoration projects make up
about half of Ken Smith's
work. Before founding his own
Jacksonville firm in 1984, he
was associated with two other
firms. As a vice president of
Shepard Associates, Smith
served as project manager for
the restoration of the Florida
State Capitol building to its
1902 appearance.
A list of Smith's historic res-
toration (and award-winning)
projects includes numerous
residences; churches, including
St. John's Cathedral (Gothic
Revival, Jacksonville), and the
relocation of the 1888 Carpen-
ter Gothic St. Paul's Episcopal
Church to the Jacksonville
Children's Museum; a series
of additions and renovations
for St. Augustine's singular
Lightner Museum; the St. Au-
gustine Lighthouse; and various
other large projects such the
twelve-story Greenleaf Build-
ing in Jacksonville. The oldest
is the Sequi Kirby house,
St. George's Episcopal
Church (1882), Ft. George
Island, Florida. This
Carpenter Gothic style
mission church (above)
was one of several built
along the St. Johns River
Deteriorated exterior wood
was replaced, and stripping
exposed the original dark
green window trim color
Wood siding was added
at the base of the newly
straightened bell tower
Interior work (left)
included replacing
damaged flooring and
beaded board wainscot,
restoring plaster finishes,
and painting to match
original colors. Photos:
Judy Davis-Photographer


St. Augustine, which has served
as a library for the past hun-
dred years and dates to before
1763. He has served as historic
restoration consultant to other
firms for the renovations of
Floyd Hall at the University of
Florida, Gainesville, and on
additional projects.
Smith approaches each proj-
ect with the goal of preserving
the architectural integrity of the
historic building. Researching
and restoring original structural
configurations, materials, and
colors requires detective work
and casting a wide net for sup-
pliers and capable artisans.
However, the greatest creativity
often is devoted to bringing an
old building up to code and
accommodating the modern
electrical, mechanical, plumb-
ing, circulation, and communi-
cation needs of the client. All
work meets the Secretary of the
Interior's Standards for Historic
Preservation Projects.
Even when a restoration
budget is small, the results can
be striking. Take the case of St.
George's Episcopal Church.
One of a dozen Carpenter Goth-
ic style river missions built by
the Episcopal Church along the

St. Johns River in the late
1870s and early 1880s, the
present congregation numbers
about twenty families. The
restoration budget was limited
to $35,000. The focus of the
project was to repair structural
damage caused by age and
termites to floor beams and
joists, and to replace deterior-
ated wood siding, battens, trim,
and skirt boards, and interior
woodwork, plasterwork, and
flooring. The bell tower needed
straightening, and stained glass
windows and plaster wall finish-
es were restored. Fresh interior
and exterior paint gave the final
It is not uncommon for
restoration projects to be done
in stages. Too, in an office situ-
ation where daily work must
proceed on the construction
site, mutual accommodation
and patience are crucial, says
Smith. During phases I and II of
the restoration of the Jefferson
County Courthouse, Monticello,
completed in 1994, county
offices did business as usual
and a major trial took place.
To update air conditioning
and electrical systems without
Please turn to page 18

St. Augustine Lighthouse (1874), for Junior Service League of
St. Augustine. Oil shigtrog buiildin windows (which had been
filled with concrete block) and shutters were tdelilled based on
original biihldig dlia, inlq.s. A new historically accurate cast
iron main gallery cornice sill surround was cast and installed.
All masonry and metal surfaces were repaired and repainted
to the period. Photo: Denis Duckett, Sky-Shots


Kenneth Smith
Continued from page 17

forfeiting the original high ceilings
of the first floor offices at the court-
house, Smith employed a technique
he also used in the 1928 portion of
the Swisher Mansion/Dahl Residence.
He minimized air conditioning duct-
work by introducing several units
cooling small zones instead of a
single large unit. This plan will allow
the restoration, in the current phase
HI, of the original second-floor court-
room balcony (which was boarded
up to house air conditioning equip-
ment and ductwork in the 1960s),
and the pressed metal ceiling.
The restoration of the 1874 St.
Augustine Lighthouse won Smith
awards from the Jacksonville Chap-
ter of AIA and the Florida Trust for
Historic Preservation. Done in phas-
es to reverse major deterioration,
the project included restoring win-
dows, shutters, handrails and other
features to the extent possible, or
replacing missing details with his-
torically accurate reproductions.
It is not uncommon for the
search for historical accuracy to
generate surprises, particularly
where original paint colors are
concerned. The Jefferson County
Courthouse is no exception. The
building has been painted white for
as long as county residents can
remember, and the county commis-
sioners were not thrilled to learn
that the original door and window
color was dark green. Historical
accuracy, it seems, does not always
satisfy contemporary taste. 0


Swisher Mansion (1928)
(Mr and Mrs. James Dahl
Residence), Jacksonville,
Florida. The complete renova-
tion included two additions,
a south wing (top, shown left
of middle chimney) replacing
an earlier, nonhistoric addi-
tion, and an open, colonnad-
ed "river room" (bottom).
Original ornamental metal-
work was restored, and
deteriorated windows were
replaced with new matching
windows fabricated by
original manufacturer New
clay tile roofing by original
manufacturer was added
to match original roof All
interior and exterior sur-
faces were refinished, with
detailing to match historic
finishes. Photos: Judy Davis-

- Jefferson County Courthouse
(1908), Monticello, Florida.
Much of the first-floor work
and the tower were completed
in phases I and II. Exterior
I finishes, a new elevator, and
S the restoration of the second-
I1 floor courtroom are among
-- the main focuses of phase II.
Research is underway to
determine the floor and rail
S design of the original balcony
in the second-floor courtroom.
Removal of acoustical tile
added during the 1960s
revealed pressed metal ceil-
ing and cornice, which will
remain exposed. Drawing:
David Luke, George Gillespie


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Antique Retreat

Pan's Garden
Palm Beach, Florida
Leslie Divoll, AIA

The Preservation Foundation
of Palm Beach is often
asked, "What does a new park
have to do with historic preser-
The answer, "A lot!" gives a
clue to the expanded role that
preservation organizations have
come to play in communities
With Pan's Garden, the foun-
dation has buffered a historic
area, stabilized the edge of an
established neighborhood, re-
stored a section of the town's
street grid to its former pattern,
reintroduced one hundred spe-
cies of native plants represent-
ing the botanic heritage of the
area, recycled historic building
materials, rescued doomed
architectural fragments, intro-
duced antique art for public
enjoyment, supported tradition-
al master crafts, and stimulated
the vitality of an architectural

Native plants grace shaded walk toward the center pavilion (left), designed as an open-air
classroom. Cuban barrel roof tiles were found on the site. Photo: Stephen B. Leek, Photographer

Pan's Garden opened in No-
vember 1994. The foundation
acquired the 25,000-square-
foot site, located two blocks
from historic Town Hall and
one block off Worth Avenue,
and commissioned Palm Beach
architect Leslie Divoll to create

a public green space that would
bridge residential and commer-
cial zoning districts. At founda-
tion expense, the street and
sidewalk were realigned to their
narrower historic layout, rein-
forcing the established neighbor-
ing residential character.

Intended to recreate the
basic palette of native Florida
landscape materials available
to the town's early settlers,
Pan's Garden will serve as an
education center. Foundation
programs will demonstrate how
Palm Beach can meet modern

The Miner Industries
By John Johnson

Addison Mines, the legendary Palm
Beach architect, created an integrated
system forth manufacture of furniture
and arclftecral elements that were used
in the homes leesined for wealthy
clients. 1rst-prompted by a desire to
control the color and texture of day r(f
tiles, Mizner acquired a pottery business
and three kllns from his friend Paris
Singer, the sewing machine hei In 1919
he established the Las Manos Potteries,
the first division of Miner Industries.
Located adjacent to the Florida East
Coast Railroad tracks in West Palm Beach,
the Industries expanded to include seven
kilns for the manufacture of roof tiles,
floor tiles, and glaed pottery; a furniture
factory to produce both "antique" repro-
ductions and the architect's owndesigns;
a workshop to produce a woodlike com-
posite material "woodite"; a blacksmith

shop to make wrought iron and hardware;
a cast stone plant to fabricate ornamenta-
tion for window and door surmounts,
columns, capitals, and balustrades; a
workshop to assemble bronze window
and door frames; as well as drafting rooms
and storage sheds. hi 1929 Mizner added
a workshop to cut large blocks of coquina
rock that were quarried in the Florida Keys
and transported by rail to the site.
The artists, artisans, and architects
employed by the Industries produced fix-
tures, furnishings, and variety of elements
for the popular style of architecture known
as Mediterranean Revival. In the 1920s most
architects and builders throughout south
Florida looked to Mizner Industries for the
items needed to construct and decorate
residences, hotels, and public buildings.
Many of the original buildings of Addi-
son Mizner and his contemporaries are

preserved and cherished by their owners.
Too, close inspection ofurmnishings in
many houses and public buildings has
revealed the rich diversity of products
still in use and coveted as antiques. The
legacy of Mizner Industries continues to
influence modern architectural design
and furnishings in Florida.

John R Johnson, Director f the
Historic Palm Beach County Prser-
vation Boa4, recently completed an
%ndustria l archaeology'proect,
looking into the tools, machinery,
and practices ofa MinerIndustries
successor company


Irreplaceable antique Portuguese and Mizner Industries tiles cover the landscape wall used to
create a dramatic wallfountain and focal point of the garden. Pan's Garden has been awarded
the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation's 1995 award for Outstanding Achievement in
Landscape Design. Photo: Stephen B. Leek, Photographer

environmental challenges with
less reliance on skilled garden-
ers and limited irrigation water.
Preserving architectural
heritage sometimes means
performing rescue operations
for both magnificent
fragments and hum-
ble-but irreplace-
materials. The foun-
dation rescued seven
sections of tiled
landscape wall des-
tined for demolition
at the landmarked
Casa Apava estate.
Built in 1918 for the
Bolton family, Casa
Apava's extensive
landscape walls were
part of the design
created by Abram
Garfield, architect
son of President
James Garfield. The
entrance axis termi-
nates at the dramatic
wall fountain created
by this salvaged Detail c


architectural artifact. Irreplace-
able antique Portuguese and
Mizner Industries wall tiles also
were worked into new landscape
features and interior finishes.
"Recycled" paving brick and

old Cuban barrel roof tile sal-
vaged from derelict structures
on the site were matched with
carefully selected new materials
and used in new construction.
In architecturally conserva-

tive Palm Beach, Mediterranean
Revival remains the preferred
style, even for new structures.
The design intent was to respect
the tradition while creating a
fresh expression of the style.
Divoll and landscape archi-
tect Sanchez and Maddux col-
laborated closely to integrate
every aspect of the park design.
The formal layout is organized
around a central entrance axis
that both links and divides the
garden into discrete "upland"
and "wetland" segments.
Enclosed interior space is
reduced to a practical mini-
mum. Three open-air pavilions
are joined through vine-covered
cast stone and cypress pergolas
that flow easily onto mulched
paths continuing through up-
land and wetland zones. The
central pavilion was designed
to accommodate a class of
schoolchildren. The adjacent
patio may be tented to shelter
social events.
Though they are clearly cur-
rent in concept and execution,
the large bronze and copper
entrance gates were produced
by Reich Metal Fhbricators, one
of the surviving Mizner Indus-
tries. Just inside the gates is a
bronze casting of Pan, ancient
Greek god of woods and fields,
from which the garden takes its
name. Sculpted by Frederick
MacMonnies in 1890, another
casting of this popular work
stands in the Courtyard of
American Sculpture at the
Metropolitan Museum of Art in
New York City

Architect: Leslie Divoll, ALA,
Leslie Divoll, Inc.
Landscape Architect: Sanchez
& Maddux, Inc.
General Contractor: Worth
Builders, Inc.
Owner: Preservation
Foundation of Palm Beach

f landscape wall. Photo: Stephen B. Leek, Photographer

Annual Florida Chapter,
American Planning
Association (FAPA)
State Conference at
Hyatt Regency,
Downtown Tampa
September 27-29.

* Featuring program mPkv ioPmer k f
sessions on 4 tracks: -o ?w[Sr. soMr CO>m
Environmental Reflections
Transportation Reflections
Community Reflections
Professional Reflections
* Joel Garreau, author of Edge Cities and The Nine Nations of
North America
* Neal R. Peirce, syndicated urban columnist; and other speakers
* Excellent series of Planning Commissioners' workshops
* Professional Development and Planning Law workshops
* Mobile workshops including bay trip, bike trails, "rehab"
neighborhoods tours, Sarasota's Florida House, & more
* Reception at newly-opened Florida Aquarium
Early Registration by: August 1
For more information call:
813/226-8908 Inside Tampa Bay Region
1-800/559-8909 Outside Tampa Bay Region

P. O. Box 422347 Kissimmee, FL 34742-2347
407-933-6595 800-345-5361
FAX No. 407-933-8469


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Illuminating a Legacy

Sanford L Ziff Jewish
Museum of Florida
Miami Beach, Florida
Ira D. Giller, AIA

Sne of the most recently
restored Art Deco buildings
on Miami Beach has been dedi-
cated as the Sanford L. Ziff Jew-
ish Museum of Florida. Ongoing
exhibitions will celebrate 230
years of the Jewish presence in
the state, beginning in Pensacola
in 1763. The former temple
that housed the Congregation
Beth Jacob, Miami Beach's first
Jewish congregation, was built
in 1936 by architect Henry
The only building outside the
Art Deco District with a historic
designation features 77 stained
glass windows, an elegant
facade, and a Moorish copper
dome. Miami businessman Ziff
rescued the old temple from
demolition and provided seed
money for the restoration. Miami
architect Ira D. Giller took
charge of the extensive restora-
tion. Inside, wooden flooring,
concrete foundations, plaster-
work, and original Art Deco
lighting fixtures were restored
and the balcony turned into
executive offices. On the outside,
the dome was restored and all
exterior surfaces repaired and
Restoring and safeguarding
the stained glass windows,
which form the centerpiece of
the museum's collection, was
aided by a grant from the Florida
Department of Historic Preser-


A vintage 1940s postcard
provided a guide to colors for
the newly repainted Art Deco
window panels. (above)
The "Meyer Lansky" window,
was donated by the Prohibi-
tion-era gangster who was a
member of the congregation.
Photo: Alex Gort

ovation. The delicate windows
have been protected using
Dupont "SentryGlas" composite.
Seen through its glasslike trans-
parency, the bright colors are
beautifully visible inside and
well protected outside. The clear
composite is resistant to the '
impact of hurricane force winds,
vandalism, or abrasion, and was
the first glass product to meet
Dade and Broward counties'
tough new building codes. M

Architect: Ira D. Giller, AIA,
Giller & Giller
General Contractor: Giller &
Owner: Sanford L. Ziff Jewish
Museum of Florida

We'll supply any

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311 Post Road
Orange, CT 06477
(203) 795-9767

537 Canal Street
Stamford, CT 06902
(203) 967-2937

State University System of Florida
Office of Capital Programs
Position #09156
Bachelor's Degree in Architecture;
Arch. Regis.; Min. 5 years project
management exp. Preferred: exp.
with facilities programming,
design and const. of ed. facilities.
Knowledge of state const. process;
strong admin. skills. Advises uni-
versities in all aspects of const.
projects. Reviews/approves design
and const. docs., inv., etc. Salary
$42K-47K (Annual)

Personnel Manager
Board of Regents Office
Suite 1402
Florida Education Center
325 West Gaines Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-1950
(904) 488-4147
Call (904) 487-8083 with
Resume and cover letter must be
postmarked by the closing date of
June 15, 1995
Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer

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draft construction procedures for
structural design, review plans
and specifications, structural
inspections on existing and
new structures to ensure code/
contract compliance; structural
design, computer modeling of
high rise structures. Salary for
a 40 hr wk 9:00 am 5:00 pm
Mon Fri is $34,500.00 yrly.
Applicants with B.S. in Architec-
tural Engineering and 1 yr exp on
the job with proficiency in com-
puter programs ETABS, SAP90,
SAFE; working knowledge of
So. Fla. Building Code, ASCE code
#794 ability to perform dynamic
analysis for wind tunnel design,
send resumes only to Job Service
of Florida, 701 S.W 27th Ave.,
Rm: 47, Miami, Florida 33135.
Ref: Job Order #FL-1233752

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Tilahaamee, Florida 32301
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Collegiate Gothic

Dodd Hall Addition and
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida
William Elliott, Jr, AIA

One of the most difficult
tasks an architect can
undertake is creating an addi-
tion to a historic building. This
becomes doubly difficult if the
original building is an outstand-
ing example of a recognizable
style or period. In this case, the
architect was charged with cre-
ating a new auditorium building
adjacent to Dodd Hall, one of
the most historically significant
buildings on the Florida State
University campus. Dodd Hall
is located on the east end of the
campus in the midst of a group
of Collegiate Gothic structures
dating from the late-19th centu-
ry. Elliott and Marshall's design
for the new auditorium is re-
spectful of the hallmarks of that
style. It also introduces a con-
temporary element in that it
does not attempt to disguise its
The remodeling and renova-
tion of Dodd Hall required the
conversion of 40,000 square
feet of space into new academic
and counseling offices, confer-
ence rooms, and small refer-
ence library areas. Stringent
programmatic requirements
along with fixed exterior shell
conditions led to a "floating
floor" concept in select areas
of the building. The addition of
several structurally independent
floors resulted in a multilevel
system. Careful planning
ensured handicap accessibility
and compatibility with interior
circulation patterns.
State-of-the-art lighting
and HVAC were painstakingly
integrated into the historic
structure. Other imperatives of
the restoration project included
the installation of new elevators

Renovated lobby and stair of Dodd Hall. Photo: Sue Root Barker


Dodd Hall, south and east
elevation showing low-
walled entry portico.
Photo: Sue Root Barker

and open office systems, cre-
ating below-ground tunnels,
making fire code corrections,
waterproofing the basement,
and reroofing the steeply
pitched clay tile roof.
In concert with the restor-
ation, Elliott and Marshall
designed a new 120-seat audito-
riumn building of approximately
5,000 square feet. A narrow,
steeply sloping site and com-
plex existing pedestrian circu-
lation patterns dictated careful
placement of the new building.
Low planter walls and landscap-
ing were used to make the tran-
sition from the high vertical

walls of the auditorium down
to the level of the sidewalk.
Requirements for a climate-
controlled basement beneath
the auditorium, an underground
tunnel, and connecting elevator
were satisfied despite problems
related to a high water table,
unstable soils, and the steeply
sloping site. The tunnel was
needed to connect the Pepper
Library, where personal arti-
facts belonging to the late Sen-
ator Claude Pepper are on dis-
play, and the archives housed
below the new auditorium.
This underground space was
also designed for multimedia
presentations and use as a
lecture hall.
The project was recognized
by AIA Tallahassee with a 1994
Honor Award for Excellence in
Architecture and by the Talla-
hassee/Leon County Historic
Preservation Board with a 1994
Award for Outstanding Achieve-
ment in New Construction
Compatible with a Historic
Structure. DG

Architect: Elliott and Marshall,
PA. Tallahassee, Florida
Principal-in-Charge: William
Robert Elliott, Jr., AIA
Project Architect: Brad Innes,
Specifications: William
Douglas, R.A.
Production and Project
Representative: David
Vincent, R.A.
Consulting Engineers:
Kun-Young Chiu and Associates,
Structural; Liebtag Robinson
& Wingfield, Mechanical;
Ardaman and Associates,
Geo-Technical; Broward Davis
and Associates, Civil
Landscape Architect:
Smith-Gilchrist, PA.
Interior Design: Elliott and
Marshall, PA.
Contractor: Harbert General
Owner: The State University
System of Florida and Florida
State University


The 120-seat auditorium addition to Dodd lHal. Photo: Sue
Root Barker


The National Register Criteria
By Herschel Shepard, FAIA

Design professionals are deal-
ing with increasing numbers
of buildings and districts listed
on the National Register of His-
toric Places, and most are famil-
iar with the Secretary of the
Interior's Standards and
Guidelines for Rehabilitation.
However, many are not familiar
with the criteria for evaluating
properties for listing on the
Register. Several criteria deter-
mine the significance of proper-
ties protected by the Standards
and Guidelines, and certain
aspects of the criteria that are of
particular interest to design pro-
fessionals are briefly addressed
in this essay.
The Register includes proper-
ties that are deemed significant
at the national, state, and com-
munity levels. The following cri-
teria are listed in the public
information brochure distrib-
uted by the U.S. Department
of the Interior, National Park

The quality of significance in
American history, architec-
ture, archeology, engineering
and culture is present in dis-
tricts, sites, buildings, struc-
tures, and objects that possess
nit qr'itll of location, design,
setting, materials, workman-
ship, feeling, and association
a. that are associated with
events that hare made a
significant contribution to
the broad patterns of our
history; or
b. that are associated with the
lives of persons significant
in our past; or
c. that embody the distinctive
characteristics of a type,
period, or method of con-
struction, or that represent
the work of a master, or
that possess high artistic
values, or that represent a
significant and distin-
guishable entity whose
components may lack indi-
vidual distinction; or

d. that have yielded, or may
be likely to yield, informna-
tion important in prehisto-
ry or history.

Buried in the first phrases is
a key word, "integrity." Often
overlooked and misunderstood,
its meaning may be made clear-
er if "essentially unchanged" is
substituted for "integrity of."
Note, however, that later modifi-
cations to original conditions

often find it difficult to justify
rehabilitating these structures
or districts, and there is a strong
temptation to "improve" them.
Although structural and code-
related modifications often are
unavoidable, changes based
upon subjective preferences
prevent us from experiencing
these sites as our predecessors
experienced them, and a funda-
mental reason for preserving
them is subverted if these

...the history of technology of a community is
encapsulated in its structures, just as history
and prehistory are encapsulated in its
archeological sites.

may themselves be considered
historically significant and,
therefore, part of a site's "integ-
rity." The meaning of integrity
for a specific site is defined by
the scope and emphasis of the
National Register nomination
for that site. It is wise to review
the nomination with Florida
Bureau of Historic Preservation
personnel before accomplishing
any work.
Design professionals should
be aware of the architectural
consequences of phrases a.
through d. above. The first two
deal with significance through
association, the last two with
significance that is "embodied"
in, or capable of being "yielded"
by, the property itself.
Buildings and historic dis-
tricts associated with events
or persons as stated in phrases
a. and b. may have little or no
inherent architectural merit.
They are in fact viewed as
artifacts, the value of which is
usually derived solely from a
relationship with persons or
events to whom we assign sig-
nificance. Typical examples
include Civil War battlefields
and homes of the famous (and
infamous). Design professionals

changes are permitted. The
Standards and Guidelines are
very clear in their requirements
for accurate restoration.
However, the fact remains
that properties in these categor-
ies can cause major interpretive
and maintenance headaches.
At one extreme, strict conser-
vation rather than rehabilitation
is often an only choice if a site
is viewed as a "museum quality
artifact"; rehabilitation and
adaptive use may substantially
diminish the significance of
the site. At the other extreme,
documentation followed by
renovation (or even demolition
and new construction) believed
essential to revitalize an area
may be more appropriate than
preservation to commemorate
a person or event. This is parti-
cularly true in historic districts
nominated in this category
where many buildings are
random artifacts that simply
happened to coexist with the
significant person or event. A
mind-boggling example of
buildings that gain significance
as random artifacts is found in
the historic districts in Atlanta
associated with Dr. Martin
Luther King, in which adjoin-ing

national landmark historic dis-
tricts are included within a
national park that commemo-
rates Dr. King. Here, apparent-
ly, all structures which existed
during his life and all activities
in the area are considered to
be significant, but proposed
plans that attempt to revitalize
the area indicate that a strict
interpretation of the legislation
creating the park is not being
Architects usually accept
criterion c. without difficulty,
because significance is defined
as resulting from an embodied
characteristic or representation
found in the work itself. Rehabil-
itation and adaptive use of
buildings and districts in this
category enhance the architec-
tural features from which sig-
nificance is derived, and the
problems encountered under
criteria a. and b. are avoided.
Finally, criterion d., often
thought to be applicable only
to archeological sites, is equally
applicable to all construction
and is determined by another
characteristic: information.
Note particularly that the his-
tory of technology of a com-
munity is encapsulated in its
structures, just as history and
prehistory are encapsulated in
its archeological sites. The
workmanship and materials of
previous eras present in older
structures cannot be duplicated
because we cannot duplicate the
imprint left by the passage of
time. For this reason recon-
struction, no matter how accu-
rate, can never recapture this
aspect of the "integrity" of the

Herschel E. Shepard, FALA, is
a Distinguished Lecturer in
the Department ofArchitec-
ture, University of Florida,
Gainesville. He regularly
consults on and directs a
variety of historic preserva-
tion projects in the state and
around the nation.







Sprints of articles that the article exactly as it
Ihave appeared in Florida appeared in Florida Architect.
Architect over the past two For more information,
years arc available for use cost estimates, and help with
in mailings and S the layout and design
presentations. These of your reprints, call:
custom promotion Carolyn Maryland,
brochures reproduce 904-222-7590



Lessons from Yesterday Give Insights for Today
By C. Trent Manausa, AIA

Too often in our culture, a
quick-fix, throwaway mental-
ity has influenced important
building decisions. That per-
vasive mindset not only has
created "temporary" buildings
but has led to the demise of
many very restorable and usable
older buildings. How many of
today's structures, built to meet
a budget not a function, will
stand the test of time? If we hope
to create lasting architecture, we
should take some lessons from
buildings of the past. In the
process of preserving these
enduring structures, we can gain
considerable knowledge for the
creation of new architecture.
While building practices and
materials continually change,
the fundamental elements and
purposes of buildings remain the
same. Buildings provide shelter
from the elements. They provide
organized spaces for education,
recreation, business, entertain-
ment, social interaction, reli-
gion, and government. A build-
ing's architecture often express-
es the social, political and reli-
gious values of the times.
A major aspect of our firm's
practice is forensic architecture,
the diagnosis and solving of
building problems. Although
we sometimes deal with brand
new buildings, working toward
the historic preservation and
restoration of notable old
buildings provides us special
Besides taking great pleasure
in exploring old buildings, seeing
the craftsmanship and details of
our past, it is always rewarding,
personally, to figure out what an
architect was trying to accom-
plish and how it got done. It is as
true today as in the past that
many skilled craftsmen are need-
ed to complete a truly functional,
well-built building. It is a sad
commentary, but we often sense
that craftsmanship and pride in
the work are rapidly diminishing.
Shortcuts and expediency take
precedence, often leaving the
long-term owner subject to

considerable maintenance and
Investigating the true histori-
cal background of a building or
building component is fascinat-
ing and often full of surprises.
One of our projects involved
replacing a deteriorating and
leaking tile roof on the historic
post office in Fernandina Beach,
Florida. Our initial inspection
revealed the red clay tile roof to
be very fragile, with many tiles
broken from foot traffic during
attempted repairs. We also
determined that this was not
the original roofing tile, and that
the deteriorated underlayment
required replacement.
The only "clues" given to us
were some old black and white
photographs taken around the
time the post office was con-
structed. In searching the old
basement below the post office
(with the Postmaster's permis-
sion) we made some interest-
ing discoveries. We found the
original blueprints-specifying a
green tile roof. We also found
several "original" roof tiles:
green "Ludowici" tile, which
fit the specifications and were
probably maintenance tiles
given the owner at completion of
Based on this information our
documents were completed, the
project bid, and a contract
awarded. The contractor had
to order the tiles from France,
and while awaiting delivery he
removed the red tile and in-
stalled the new roofing underlay-
ment. When the new green tiles
arrived, he began stacking them
on the roof for installation.
About this time the Postmaster's
phone began ringing. Numerous
callers were complaining about
changing the "historical" red
tiles to green. Even the local his-
torical soci-ety called demand-
ing work be stopped.
A public meeting was held.
It was duly noted that our firm
had contacted the State Archives
with our findings and proposed
roof replacement, and the state

had given approval prior to bid-
ding. The facts were presented
regarding the original specifica-
tions and the actual old green
tiles shown. Finally, everyone
was satisfied, even pleased, that
the historical integrity was
intact. This is a prime example
of how "memories" must be con-
firmed by other sources. The red
tile had been on the post office
so long, there was no one left
who remembered the original
green tile.
Renovation work in histori-
cal buildings can also generate
creative methods of preserva-
tion that don't destroy or alter
the original materials. Our work
on the Prime Osborn III Conven-
tion Center, Jacksonville, is an
example where research and leg-
work resulted in a new approach
that will continue to affect archi-
tectural preservation. The con-
vention center is a restored
1919 Neoclassical railway termi-
nal, now used for conventions,
meetings, trade shows and exhi-
bitions. One of the major prob-
lems encountered was water
intrusion through the limestone
on the exterior walls. Our task
was to stop this water intrusion
while maintaining the original
integrity of the limestone.
It turned out that the lime-
stone panels had not been
properly grouted. They leaked
and were badly discolored.
Investigation and consultation
with the State Archives revealed
that the National Park Service
and preservationists did not
allow water-repellant coatings
on historic limestone structures.
Thus, the exterior was not
sealed following high-pressure
washing during the 1984 reno-
vations and expansion of the
old terminal for its present use.
Preservative coatings have
come a long way in the past ten
years, and we were able to find a
product system specifically
designed for the porosity of
limestone. We obtained permis-
sion from the National Park
Service and the state to use the

product, and this became the
first project in the country
where waterproofing of historic
limestone was approved. The
project was closely monitored by
the state and the National Park
Service. Again, research and
documentation of all the facts
made a big difference. The lime-
stone was properly cleaned,
grouted, and sealed. It now
looks like it did when first con-
structed, and the water-repellant
sealer has stopped the deteriora-
tion of the interior plaster work.
Investigating details of the
past has given us many enjoy-
able times and memorable
moments. We have explored
and renovated the old Armory in
Appalachicola. We designed
a unique system to operate the
original teller windows in the
historic post office in Appalach-
icola. My partner rappelled
down the Historic Capitol dome
to determine the cause of water
intrusion around the ornamental
metalwork. We provided re-
search and details for restoring
the Carnegie Library at Florida
A & M University. Our redesign
of the gutter system and a new
copper standing seam roofing
system saved the historic Cente-
nary United Methodist Church in
Quincy. All these and more add
up to a very pleasurable and sat-
isfying practice of architecture.
They also add to our knowledge
for design of new buildings for
today's market.
While we cannot go forward
by copying the past, we must
learn by understanding, improv-
ing on, and correcting, not
duplicating, architecture and
details of the past. The insights
we gain by the study of history
can be used to create architec-
ture compatible with current val-
ues using today's and tomor-
row's technology.

C. Trent Manausa, ALA, of
Manausa & Lewis Architects,
Inc., Tallahassee, has com-
pleted more than a dozen
historical restoration projects.



JULY 27-30, 1995
Earn Mandatory Continuing Education Hours (CEH)
& AIA National Learning Units (LUs)
QUESTIONS? Call Melody Gordon, AIA Florida Meeting Planner/Membership Director at
(904) 222-7590 for help! FAX (904) 224-8048.
For complete registration information, dial our FAX bin: (904) 668-5811

Graphic provided by Jay Guthrie. VOA Associates Incorporated


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