Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00307
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Spring 1995
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00307
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text



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If you like Hardie siding. you'll love HardisoffitiT
Sillit and siding Irom J.inrs Hardie' ha\' the same
niasonry-like composition. A concrete reason
why hoth can weather some -.if the
most humid climates.
No problem.

Looks like wood. acts like masonry
Hardie siding has all the advantages oI wood.
but ni,-ne of th: drawbacks. It has the :look and warmth uf
w\\J nd isn i installed in the
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by standing up tit humidity in
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I i.S". i- usually a mette 75"...'

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leader in fibel -
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Another strike against wood
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S / money can buy.

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Now these rugged building materials
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Which means if Hardie siding and
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' for that matter.

Let it blow
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I r ~

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a company made
of some pretty
Strong stuff.
And it's been
that way ever.
since "Doc" Rinker
built our first concrete
block plant in 1937.

Our cement facilities operate 24 hours
a day to move nearly
two million tons
a year. We have
more than 60
readymix sites.
And we sell wallboard,
glass block, brick, stone, pavers, as well as
hundreds of other specialty items.



Today, Rinker is
the largest supplier
of building materials
in Florida and we
sell a lot more than
concrete blocks.
Rinker quarries
produce enough
aggregate to fill 385 rail cars a day.

Every day, up and down the
coasts, our fleet
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and trucks delivers product directly on site.
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So give us a call at 407-833-5555. And find
out what kind of stuff we're really made of.

) Rinker
L a^




When it comes to picking strong, long-
term partners, we're hard to beat.

DPIC offers the most comprehensive and
innovative professional liability insurance
services available for architects today.

With DPIC you get proactive loss
prevention measures, contract review
services, and the most knowledgeable,
professional independent agents in the
business. And you get DPIC's proven track
record in the industry.

Of course, the real test of any insurance
company is its performance on claims.

In three consecutive independent AIA
member surveys, DPIC ranked #1 among all
its competitors for customer satisfaction in
loss prevention and claims handling services.

* Premium credits-up to 35%-for
improving your business practices
* Early Warning System responds to
disputes, without affecting deductible or
policy limit
* Deductible reductions-up to
$12,500-for using mediation to
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* AIA continuing education credits for
workshops and in-firm programs
* Project insurance with partnering
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* Network of independent agents to offer
insurance and risk management advice

At DPIC we operate differently. As your
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For more information about the DPIC
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of the Orion Capital Companies
A.M. Best Rating: A (Excellent)
DPIC Companies, Inc. 800/227-4284



The Future of Technology
and Architecture 8
Professor Tom Martineau looks into
his crystal ball and sees afew surprises.

Florida Under Glass 12
SHOK bring drawings to life for The Florida
Aquarium, Tampa's newest attraction.

Out-of-Sight Service 14
Wolfberg/Alvarez design for VA. Medical Center,
West Palm Beach redefines service and hospitality.

Museum Designs by Distinguished
20th-Century Architects 16
Diane Greer visits lastfall's exhibition
at the Jacksonville Art Museum.

Fast Finish 19
Spencer and Jonnatti's modular prototype
for Checkers Restaurants spawns 7-day wonders.

Taking Stock 20
KBJ's award-winning corporate headquarters
takes its form from a camera.


Editorial 5
News 6
Firm Profile 23
Carl Abbott FAIA, Architects/Planners
Legal Notes 25
by Larry Schneider, AIA
Viewpoint 27
by Frank McLane, AIA Emeritus

Cover photo of the Florida Aquarium by George Cott, Chroma, Inc.
Diagrams, HOK

Spring 1995
Vol. 42. No. 1




a lam actun, v -4 l-. ntut
&as GulfCoa

Mr Brian Cassdl,
Southwest Chapter

Mr. Henman Loie,
Miami Chapter

Mr Kerry Cdlag
Jacksonvie, Tallahassee Chaps

Mr George Miller, Odano,
Space Coast, Indian Rir,
Gaisvile Chapers

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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Editorial Board
John Totty, AIA, Chairman
Ivan Johnson, III, AIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
Richard Reep, AIA
Vice President/President-elect
William Blizzard, AIA
St. Petersburg
Keith Bullock, AIA
Past President
John Tice, AIA
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
Santurce, PR
Regional Director
Henry Alexander, AIA
Coral Gables
Vice President for
Professional Excellence
Roy Knight, AIA
Vice President for
Political Effectiveness
John Cochran, AIA
Vice President for
John Awsumb, AIA
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Assistant Publisher
Joanna Booth
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Margaret Barlow
Art Director
Peter Denes
Computer Graphics
Insty-Prints of Tallahassee
Boyd Brothers, Inc.
Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by
the Association, a Florida Corporation not
for profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published
.four times a year at the Executive Office
of the Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32301. Telephone (904)
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the
express permission of Florida Architect.
Single copies, $6.00; Annual subscription,
$20.3t. Third class postage.


My appointment as editor just before the holidays signalled the beginning of a
new era for me as well as for Florida Architect. For me, it meant revitalizing
a long-standing interest. For the magazine, it marked a break with a comfort-
able past not just a new editor but a new designer, Peter Denes, as well.
My training as an art historian took place (at The Pennsylvania State University)
in the mid-sixties when the discipline was still called art and architecture history. It
was the architecture part that first attracted me. As a teenager, I spent a lot of time
in New York City, looking up and around, and as an undergraduate I "studied abroad"
one semester at the historic and grand University of Salamanca, in Spain. Architec-
ture, including the study of its history, was no less than awe-inspiring, an alliance
of spirituality and practicality, of genius and geometry. (For one good reason and
another, I got sidetracked, and after some teaching stints in small East Tennessee
colleges, arrived in Florida working as an editor and writer.)
In preparing this issue, it was clear that these values are still being fought for
and observed. Albeit, in this age of bean counting, many of the "powers that be" lack
the vision to recognize the value of paying a little more for the spirit and the genius.
Frank McLane decries this situation in his Viewpoint, while Larry Schneider's Legal
Note concerning ADA requirements graphically points up the abiding need for practi-
cality and geometry.
I look forward to learning and writing about Florida's architectural community
and its inspired work-the old and the new, inside and out, from functional systems
to elegant details. For this issue the assigned theme was "new technology," and I
pursued applications on many fronts and with a tight schedule. My profound thanks
to those of you who responded but whose projects did not arrive quite fast enough
for consideration. Those projects featured here represent only a few of the widely
various new technology applications you presented: Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum's
pioneering use of CADD-CAM; Spencer and Jonnotti's modular prototype; and
Wolfberg/Alvarez's interstitial space design for containing and maintaining the service
systems of a large, modern medical center. Pragmatic, but also fun (and more than a
bit disconcerting), characterizes Tom Martineau's look at how technology will affect
the profession in the near future.
Gratefully, I can report that longtime editor Diane Greer, who is now devoting
herself to teaching architecture full-time and editing some academic publications,
will continue contributing features and reviews.
With high expectations, I look forward to a rewarding relationship with AIA
Florida members and to sharing your accomplishments as well as your 'iews on
important issues. MB

Florida Architect serves the profession by providing current information on design, practice management, technology,
environment, energy, preservation and development of communities, construction, finance, economics, as well as other
political, social, and cultural issues that impact the field.


1995 Awards Program
in Full Gear
The Call for Entries for AIA
Florida's Awards for Excellence
in Architecture is4n the mail. If
it seems earlier than usual, it is.
The annual- meeting and awards
event are scheduled for July
this year, instead of in the fall,
so entries are due sooner. A
previously entered project is
still eligible-this year's jury
may think it's just great.
There will be a special
emphasis this year on projects
that have a value to society, in
addition to esthetics. Architec-
ture has meaning to the client
and society beyond just looking
beautiful. So be sure to describe
how your good design also
benefits society. This aspect
will be considered by the judges
and will play a key role in the

enhanced public awareness
program being planned for the
award winners.
Categories also include
projects for unbuilt designs,
test of time, and firm awards'.
Entry requirements are sim-'
pie and rewards are great.
Entries are due at state head-
quarters by April 26, 1995.
Good Luck!

Government Affairs,
The Miami Way
"Things are a little different
here," an old slogan used by the.
Greater Miami Tourism Board,
aptly describes the activities of
the Government Affairs Commit-
tee of the Miami AIA Chapter.
The committee currently over-
sees ten subcommittees dealing
with every aspect of govern-

ment influence on the practice
of architecture.
Various subcommittees
concentrate on important areas
such as resolving code issues,
streamlining bureaucratic
processes, and defending the
profession from encroachment
or limitation by others. The sub-
committee handling public
agency work maintains a liaison
with every major county agency
that routinely hires architects
for its projects. This subcommit-
tee also addresses scope and
contract issues, monitors and
advises during the selection
procedures, and seeks to assure
that typical areas of practice
are not limited or "warped" by
client agencies.
A new initiative, called "Leg-
islative Partnering," eventually
will partner each Dade County
delegate to the state legislature
with a local member architect,
who will consult, advise and
represent the AIA position on
issues sensitive to the profes-
sion as well as those of general
import. The program promotes
the views of architects by giving
them the ears of lawmakers.
Another intent is to ensure
that architects are considered
for appointment to any board,
commission, or committee that
deals with planning, designing,
preserving, or enhancing the
built environment.
A well-known and respected
local lobbyist, brought on-board
last year to advise the Chapter
on the ways of accomplishing
given goals, "has put our fingers
directly on the pulse of local pol-
itics," says Mike Rodriguez, Vice
President of the Miami Chapter
AIA and Government Affairs
Committee Co-Chairperson. A
Chapter Fax Network not only
advises interested members of
ongoing events but also notifies
them when a strong architectur-
al presence is needed at any
hearing or event. In the past
three years, the committee has

rrret every challenge head-on,
putting architects in South
Florida on the map. Rodriguez
encourages other chapters to
institute similar programs if
they have not already done so,
saying, "Only when we are
heard will we be fully under-

BPR Online
The Department of Business
and Professional Regulation
(BPR) has implemented a new
online computer service that
will allow architects to verify
the status of a license.
BPR Online was created to
process the voluminous mail
and telephone requests for
licensure verification. To check
on one license during the re-
newal phase, or thirty licenses
to verify project consultants,
users can access the system
by dialing (904) 488-3387 via
PC-based modem.
Individuals or businesses may
access this service free for 75
minutes during each 24-hour
period. For information on how
this system works, contact Chris
Oliver at BPR (904) 921-0125,
or call Joanna Booth at AIA
Florida (904) 222-7590.

New Florida Foundation
Tallahassee Architect, Ivan
Johnson, III, AIA, has been
elected President of the Florida
Foundation for Architecture.
Partner in Johnson Peterson
Architects of Tallahassee and
Sarasota, Johnson has been a
Trustee since 1991. He will
serve a two-year term.
Wayne Drummond, AIA,
Gainesville, was elected Vice
President. Drummond is Dean
of the University of Florida
College of Architecture.
Frank Folsom Smith, AIA,
Sarasota, continues as Treasur-
er of the Foundation. He is a






15979 N.W. 151ST STREET, SUITE 105, MIAMI LAKES, FL 33014
305-822-7800 FAX 305-362-2443 305-463-8601

Don Cooper (below) and the Southern Home Award-winning addition to
the Moore-Mays home. Photos Copyright by Southern Living, Inc., 1994.
Reprinted with permission.

partner in the Folsom Group,
and has been a Trustee of the
Foundation since 1991.
Herbert Savage, AIA, Mar-
co Island, also was re-elected to
a two-year term as Secretary of
the Foundation. Savage has
been a Trustee since 1990.

Don Cooper, AIA,
honored by Southern
Living Magazine
Tampa architect, Don Coop-
er, AIA, has won a Southern
Home Award from Southern
Living magazine. Cooper, who
is president of the Tampa firm
Cooper Johnson Smith Archi-
tects Inc., designed an award-
winning addition to the home
of Analee Moore and Mat Mays.
Featured in the February issue
of Southern Living, the home
was one of six winners chosen
from more than 250 entries ip
the magazine's annual awards
"Don Cooper's design makes
maximum use of available space
and turns an already attractive
home into something extraordi-


nary, said Southern Living
Homes Editor Linda Hallam.
"'Cooper blended regional her-
itage with innovative features
to create outstanding design."

Book Review
The Energy Design
Edited by Donald Watson, FAIA
The AIA Press, 1993
520 pp., b & w illus., references
Reviewed by Diane Greer
At a time when energy-
efficient design should be of
primary concern to designers
and clients alike, this book is
an absolute must for every
architecture office. Each chap-
ter is an edited version of sepa-
rate monographs that were
published previously in The
Architect's Handbook of Ener-
gy Practice. That work was
prepared by the research staff
of the AIA Foundation. A new
approach was used for the
current text, which is formatted
for self-study using a method
developed with educational
Energy expert Donald Wat-
son has presented the material
in two parts. The first 360 pages
are brought together under
the general heading "Design,"
addressing everything from
Climate and site to the building
envelope, passive cooling and
heating, shading and sun con-
trol, daylighting, HVAC systems,
active solar systems, and photo-
voltaics. The remainder of the
text comes under the heading
'Analysis" and deals with topics
such as energy transfer, U-val-
ues, thermal analysis, heat gain
and loss, and estimating energy
use. Together, these two sec-
tions present an extremely con-
cise and thorough overview of
the energy issues that relateto
architecture and are of critical
concern to today's practitioners. '
Interspersed throughout the
. chapters are case studies deal-
ing with specific buildings that
have successfully incorporated
the particular system being dis-
cussed. Florida readers will note
the conspicuous absence of

references to Florida projects.
These case studies include a
photograph and a project des-
cription that is brief and to the
The Energy Handbook con-
tains hundreds of explanatory
drawings, diagrams, and charts
designed to be easily read and
understood even by practition-,
ers with little experience in
the energy arena. The energy
design concepts described can
be incorporated into the design
of any project, beginning with
the initial goal statement, site
analysis, and schematic design
and continuing through design
development, lighting, mech-
anical systems engineering,
construction, and use.
As Watson notes in the intro-
duction, today's concerns about
energy and the environment
"can be said to have evolved
from the long-established Vitru-
vian 'conditions for building
well'-utilitas, firmitas et
venustas, or commodity, firmn-
ness, and delight-an enduring
definition that becomes richer
as our conception of architec-
ture becomes more responsible
and profound."

Florida Architect has been
notified that credits listed in

the Fall 1994 issue for the
design of Pine View School For
The Gifted, in Sarasota, were
in error, due .to incorrect infor-
mation provided to FA. The
Architect of Record is WR.
Frizzell Inc., Ft. Myers, and the
Associate Design Architect is
Carl Abbott Architects/Planners,
P.A., FAIA, Sarasota; the Owner
is the Sarasota County School
Board; the Owner's Construc-
tion Representative is Carol
Woodson. The Principal of the
School is Steve Largo.

The Future of Technology and Architecture
By Thomas Martineau, R.A.

Likely technological trends
and developments during
the next 10 to 20 years in the
building design and construc-
tion industry are certain to
change architectural practice,
and the entire construction
industry, forever. '
Major trends that will influ-
ence the impact of technology
on architecture in the coming
two decades are:
*High-performance materials
*Automation and robotics
*Information systems and

Reconstruction: The Next
In many areas of the United
States the amount of money
spent on reconstruction now
equals or exceeds expenditures
for new construction. Recon-
struction is becoming the domi-
nant share of construction

Mid-South, Rocky Mountain,
Middle Atlantic, and "Oil Patch"
states showed an average of
88 cents of reconstruction for
every dollar of new construc-
With respect to building
types, a recent U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce survey
revealed that the majority of
health-care facilities are already
in the reconstruction category,
and educational facilities show
nearly 90 cents of reconstruc-
tion for every dollar of new con-
Florida architects might con-
sider one or more of the follow-
ing strategies to ride the crest
of this wave.
*Getting a reconstruction pro-
ject track record by obtaining
small jobs first, then larger
ones. (Large nonresidential
reconstruction jobs are out
there. For example, New York

WooadltI' Glut, Biomass Crunch Continue

Wood/Steel Glut, -j aria c.,lpiMCM..r.9
trend be.un ,,n ir-6 aa- I a,- lee FO E l irer f.
havoc irk tr hl~rb 11 rGl/Ii .:. ~ l% d,,~i ilo ~ ry~iiijolr I~ G
inr.r.i. qV.,N l iii r fi" gel usCe'j iiSO a~
are out ar-,3 E16C y o C nerr-, .PCil l,1:1 .: c~~e a' ~

ever dufi*' a ""'a anre'otmC I aiwi 0 .. ine C.i lie ,P
bloriasla sib] n i3 3,eacn, Ai r ,x' a am
the plair i I' a. 0"Al I .-. .'. naa jrO., wmi ill E-p
.aftl Sier' 5ei -i01- T" *'t" 11r. r_ ` '- i :.Me
ceneiivpe' .0yr,3 S~efrr~r
th Africani" 6e i nulls Ter5 ilr.' % ir.iiimlIl ii
tire c^hi I 0i": 1 tL.r-
ha ~~ c"": i .. '"' ,r -1 : ,,-rc axj~n' I-rsisti'f r"a~ue
Supplierscaai c i" .'"I
*EIB had *inlr~l i -rinoI- m i aumq~
the peil .36cac e ,gan-U-01g. rais wen-Ing fL'

markets in developed nations,
including the United States.
By the end of 1992, the U.S.
Department of Commerce
showed reconstruction already
had reached near equality with
new construction in the South
Atlantic and Pacific Coast
states and had outstripped new
construction in the New En-
gland and Plains states. The

City's 626,000 s.f. "320 Park
Avenue" project is a complete
reconstruction of an existing
tall building. Under current
zoning laws, a new building
could only have about two-
thirds of the original floor
area, but a reconstruction of
the 1961 vintage structure
lets it be "grandfathered" in
under old zoning laws.)
*Hiring personnel experienced

in reconstruction or training
existing staff in such areas
as cost estimating, contract
documents, construction
methods, new materials and
products, construction man-
agement, etc.
*Establishing a separate cost
center for reconstruction
*Studying market opportuni-
ties to offer specialty services
in such areas as historic
preservation and other
restoration, radon and
asbestos mitigation, pipe
relining, concrete coring,
small-and large-diameter
boring and tunneling, etc.
*Forming a relationship-per-
haps design-build-with a
contractor or builder strong in

"Space age," higher
strength, lightweight metals
and concretes have found
Increased use around the
globe, as attempts are
made to lighten structural
S system loads and simulta-
neously increase load-bear-
ing capacity.
For example, the
recently completed,
World's tallest reinforced
concrete buildirig, Chica-
go's 311 South Wacker
Drive Office Tower, is a
pioneering application of
rapid construction with
high-strength, polymer-added
or polymer-alloy concretes.
Other examples include a
"fire-resistant" structural steel,
whose Japanese producer has
initiated test-marketing, claim-
ing that fireproofing of its mem-
bers will be unnecessary in
most applications. A Canadian
company has developed a mag-
nesium oxyphosphate cemient
Technology allowing the prepa-
ration of countless blends or

downlfik to Fast Edy's Newsbar

114th Congress

SOpens in

w Reality ,c
R l January 1,2015

SCongress will open its 114th
Session tomorrow in reality at
I the historic United States Capitol
Museum in Washington,
S Columbia Columbia Governor
Smihn explained "According to
the 48tn Amendment. both
Houses of Congress are to meet
S at least one day at the start of
every new session in reality in
order to snake hands and
experience each other
physically Thereafter, all
committees and general
sessions will meet in the usual
virtual really' Smith continued,
'Tne 48th also requires all
Members of Congress to live in
their respective slates and
distncs during ine session*
The Smithsonian Institution
S reports its National Capnal
T Museum and Park will be closed
to reality visitors tomorrow, but
Extra vinual reality access
Channels will be opened for
optimum citizen participation

recipes combining cement and
biomass for imitation wood,
slate, and, ironically, plastic
laminates, which are them-
selves often imitations of wood,
Marble or other traditional fin-
ishes. Special paints and poly-
mer coatings have been and are
being developed for the
restoration and rehabilitation of
existing structures. Selective
low-emissivity exterior glass
has been engineered in the
United States with the capabili-
ty of allowing daylight to pene-
trate a building's interior while
virtually eliminating all heat
radiation from passing through
the material.
Codes and standards organi-
zations have been the tradition-
al barriers to the acceptance of
new materials and methods.
However, efforts are now under-


way in most such organizations
to put in place mechanisms to
assure the well-informed,
speedy acceptance or certifica-
tion of new technologies. These
efforts need the fervent sup-
port of all industry participants.

Automation and Robotics
As is the case with most con-
temporary industries, automa-
tion and robotics are finding
increasing use in the building
design and construction fields.
Some developments will be a
continuation of existing trends.
*Further automation of archi-
tectural offices, including full
digital integration of drawings
and specifications
*Broadening of the automated
support of the full process of
planning, programming,
design, contract documents,
construction management,
and long-term facility manage-
ment, using a single item of
software and one common,
evolving database
*Broadening of building manu-
facturing activity, with
increasing use of CADD-CAM
technology on the part of
designer-manufacturers. In
the residential sector, this will
take the form of modules and

download from Commuters United for Social and Economic
LabDepSec: Commuter Class Rev
Likely, Sporadic Strikes Certail
April 17. 2004 ,e
U.S. Secretary of Labor Moses Usufani. interviewed on America OnLin

Commutersare the logistical backbone of our sonety. Even though I
us can choose where to ,e.. ommuteg obs are he anchor which 1e
them to be near their acknowledge lt commuter obS
necessary and obviously in ess desirable ara, near industrial pro
and supply ones,
The U.S Congress has authonead additional expenditures for the 'v
improvement of these arOas, and for an enas0 in the variety of vlir
reality available for dreo and des- smg e ala making veryI
assuage tre udertaniablcjalousyb, angel and sostratio n t1 ourh
commuer classes and eproess a thhopehat in th twe ll
automhlsother0 areas o f indusy al and food production, thus free.
the commuters 10 move up to lolecommubng and distance leaerngm
Ths union i not rest until every Amecan enjoys the same freedo
ocaion indepoendence, unshackled from the ball and chain ofr a
requiring a p ysinal presnes, somo ugly, dacoyrng 00001 oily
said Barb Tawin, AFL-CIO-UFW prosadoor yoie 01 01 oonbaS
up to 15 minutes one way per ree day work week yoar, a
1i hours per week times the horty wnek wOrk year, or45 hours Of It
oasted per year. Ths is intolerable.
For up to-date job action fo, go to INTERNET. aficoal@ olub

Excessive Togetherness Syndrome
(ETS) Reason for Strife, Divorce

Special from WorldtealthLine
reply to WHL@cpu.com
Families with two or more telecommuters and several distance
learners are at greater risk for family conflicts and family
breakups, especially in the United States and Europe, a new
WHL survey finds. Japanese social values apparently let such
families cope more successfully.

"People are simply together in the same place too long when
they all telecommute and distance learn," said Olivia Berquist,
Senior Sociopsychologist at the Mount Fuji Famly Trauma
Mitigation Research Center & Hospice.
(fujitrau@caritas.edu.res.c) decades ago, most people le
their homes to do work or to go to school, and the pressures on
families were less severe as a result." Berquist suggests
families affected by Excessive Togetherness Syndrome Snoul.1
get out into the world in real time, or make greater use of rlnual
reality hookups to get away from it all.

panels, and in the nonresiden-
tial sector, components in an
open- or closed-system fash-
ion. Design-build enterprises
using factory-based produc-
tion will increase, with archi-
tectural practitioners as key
*Continued use of robotics and
automated technology on the
construction site, concentrat-
ed on hazardous operations
(asbestos removal,
underwater con-
S struction, suspen-
S sion bridge inspec-
o.. i tion and painting,
0 etc.) and on small-
today diameter remote
tunneling and boring
s o10 for infrastructure
uron b construction. (Many
exotic on-site robots
,to will remain curiosi-
ableto ties.)
more of
lau As with high-per-
ms of formance, high-tech-
oenter. nology materials,
dnup robotics and
automation techno-
logy development is
also a global effort,

garnering the enthusiastic par-
ticipation of all developed
countries, especially Japan and
some European nations.

Information Systems and
The automobile and the tele-
phone changed the configura-
tion of our towns and cities,
causing new and often insur-
mountable challenges for archi-
tects and urban designers. The
advent of new information and
telecommunications technolo-
gies has the potential to effect
yet another, similarly radical,
transformation of the structure
of our communities.
Four major technological
developments appear to be the
keys to this radical change.
1. The personalized office
Instead of being a permanent
space in an office building, "the
office" is becoming synonymous
with the person who is the
office-holder: the office will be
wherever the office-holder is
located at any given time. Com-
munication via fax, fax modem,
e-mail, personal telecommuni-

cation devices, teleconference,
picture telephone-and occa-
sionally in person-along with
electronic record management
and access, already are shifting
the location of the office from a
central place. Eventually, video-
conferencing by holographic
projection will give greater real-
ism to virtual conferences and
business meetings between
people in remote locations,
thus cementing this trend.
2. Personalized
communications access.
As an extension of the person-
alized office concept, most
telecommunications systems
will eventually focus on the
location of a person instead of a
physical location such as a
home, office, or car. The tele-
phone will be as much a per-
sonal accessory as a watch, eye-
glasses, or a pacemaker, and
each person will have a person-
al telecommunications device
with a unique access number.
Hand- and voice-print signa-
tures will permit authentication
and legal transactions via elec-
tronic channels.
3. Universal wireless
information transfer.
As radio data transmission,
laser, satellite, and cellular digi-
tal technologies become the
standard for all types of data
transmission, hard-wiring will
become a thing of the past. Any
building will have the potential
of becoming "smart" overnight,
as no permanent wiring har-
nesses will be needed.
4. Global information and
communications networks.
What is known in the vernacu-
lar as the "information super-
highway" already is well under
construction. Every form of
communication and every type
of information system we know
will soon be interconnected
and available to anyone from


Selected Scenarios
The following scenarios have
been developed as logical, plau-
sible extensions of these devel-
Scenario 1:
Focus on home base.
Homes will have some dedi-
cated office space with sup-
port facilities such as a
telecommunication center
and, perhaps, teleconferen-
cing space. Single-family
homes may have one or more
adult telecommuters (i.e.,
working at home). Children
may become "distance learn-
ers, telecommuting to school
and college. A 100-percent
switch to telecommuting and
distance learning is unlikely,
for human nature, with its
need for personal contact, will
not tolerate a total conversion
to electronic communication.
Implicationsfor the
It is not too early (or too late)
for schools of architecture and
urban design to explore (a)
house designs and communities
that can accommodate multiple
telecommuters and distance
learners, and (b) reconfigura-
tions of urban areas to account
for fewer actual office com-
muters and, perhaps, more
leisure time visitors to cultural
and community events.
Scenario 2:
Location independence.
Families whose members
telecommute can choose the
location of the family resi-
dence independent of its
physical proximity to a job or
school. Families may choose
their home location based
instead on climate, scenery,
or available recreational
opportunities, opting for few-
er though perhaps longer,
commutes to sites at existing
urban clusters where physical
offices, schools, and colleges
may still be located. As yet

unimaginable population
shifts are likely. Further exo-
dus of permanently resident
middle-class families from
urban areas and suburban
bedroom communities to ru-
ral seaside, lakeside, moun-
tain, or desert resort commu-
nities could lead to a double-
threat:further decline of
existing urban areas and
increasing pressure on envi-
ronmentally sensitive regions
for the development of new,
permanent communities. On
the other hand, city-loving
telecommuters will be attract-
ed to relocate to "world class"
cities for their cultural and
social amenities.
Implications for the
Location independence will
place a dual challenge and
responsibility on architects and
urban designers. Working in
concert with public officials
and the development communi-
ty, they must use their utmost
creativity (a) to reinvent our
major downtown as attractive
places to live and "bathe" in the
sociocultural advantages of
urban life, e.g., museums, the-
aters, night clubs, parks, recre-
ation, sports, conventions, and
(b) to prevent the potentially
explosive growth in resort
areas from devouring the very
resources that attract people to
these locations.
Scenario 3:
Emergence of the "tune-in"
The decline in demand for
downtown office space will
affect other types offacilities
located in central business
districts. There also will be
less emphasis on libraries,
banks, schools, colleges and
many types of stores as physi-
cal "walk-in" or "drive-in"
facilities. We will "tune in" to
their services instead. Early
signs of "telebanking,"

Architect Sues Sysop
DoMIt Indqstrla[ ", MI
Rea us North Amian
Au st IS, 009
ral NYVNPnTies. owclnk 3a .l0ugh
Dearborn architects Meyer, Unger, Stevens and
Horvath iled suit yesterday in North-Central
litigation Court against Barney Hopewell, Sysop
of the Midwestern States Automated Plans Review
and Permitting Clearinghouse for gross
negligence and dereliction of duty with malicious
intent, the Detroit industrial Online Press reported
The suit stems from a 2008 incident in which the
Sysop allegedly allowed the plans and
specifications prepared by MUSH for a tune-in litfe
provisions supply center to be forwarded to the
manufacturer for preparation of panels and
modules before plan review and permitting had
been completed. Useless, unapproved and
unpermitted panels, modules and other
components, valued at approximately $6 billion,
had been erroneously produced by the CAM
routine before the error was caught by an
independent, self-policing, internal software
monitoring loop.
Wallace Stevens, attorney for MUSH, noted that
"Because the Clearinghouse is fully automated, an
error such as this had to be caused on purpose by
l th qc,, in nrer to harm MUSH, the building
producer the client, and perhaps the industry as a
whole. When asked about Mr. Hopewell's
possible motive, Stevens observed, Mr Hopewell
and his family were among the last holdouts to
leave Detroit when i was converted and rezoned
for exclusive industrial production purposes.
MUSH prepared the master plan for this
conversion, and the tune-in sppce ws to be
located in the same spot where the Hopewell
family home used to be. We seek full restitution
and punitive damages from the Sysop."

"teleshopping, and other
"tele" activities are already
in evidence to support the
"tune-in" prediction.
Implications for the
A plausible-and desirable-
consequence of the availability
of numerous vacant or under-
used buildings is their adaptive
reuse for other purposes such
as housing, educational, social,
recreational and health-care
facilities. This reinforces the
previously noted challenge to
reinvent our major downtown.
Adaptive reuse of existing facil-
ities will need to become an art
form and a major service of
architects and urban designers,
.far beyond the present trend
toward reconstruction. Schools
of architecture should therefore
place greater emphasis on
adaptive reuse in the design
studio, and practitioners should
become better versed in this

An amiably cynical view of
unknown origin is often pre-
sented by members of the
building design and construc-
tion industry:
That the industry's product
consists generally of one-of-a
kind, costly prototypes called
"buildings," which are hand-
assembled outdoors, by people
who may or may not have
worked together before, from
drawn and written instruc-
tions prepared by other peo-
ple, within antiquated and
often-contradictory codes and
standards, based on the
designer's interpretation of
the needs of an owner (who
may be unable to know or
articulate those needs), from
materials and parts that come
from hundreds of different
manufacturers and numerous
suppliers-and all under the
scrutiny of underpaid and
overworked building officials.
Despite the predictions of
pervasive and profound techno-
logical changes over the next
two decades, it is doubtful that
our industry's basic profile will
ever veer radically from these
cynical moorings. In addition, it
would appear safe to predict
that roofs will continue to leak,
change orders will not go away,
and litigiousness will rule. Why
tilt at windmills?

Thomas Martineau is a
Professor of Architecture at
Florida A&M University in
Tallahassee. He has
researched and written
widely on diverse topics in
architecture, construction,
and facilities planning.



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Florida Under Glass

The Florida Aquarium
Tampa, Florida

Architects: Hetrliuth, Obata
& Kassabaum, Inc., and
Esherick, Homsey, Dodge &
Davis, Inc., (joirit venture)
Design Principals: Gyo Obata,
AIA, and Chuck Davis
Principal in Charge:
Pete Karamitsanis, AIA,
Project Designer:
Robert Stockdale
Project Manager:
Alan Temple, AIA,
Exhibit Designer: Joseph A.
Wetzel Associates, Inc.
Contractor: Turner/Kajima
Owner: The Florida Aquarium,

T he Florida Aquarium's
distinctive maritime con-
tours-shell-shaped dome,
sail-shaped canopies, and port-
hole-shaped windows-are
some of its signature features.
While the ideas may have origi-
nated on the drawing board,
the working designs for this
geometrically complex project
were accomplished using com-
puter-assisted technology.
Among the pioneers in CADD,
Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum,
Inc. (HOK) has used its own
HOK draw Vision software,
which includes "walk-through"
capabilities, to develop this
and many other large projects.
When some of the consul-
tants felt early on that the elab-
orate Aquarium program could
not be built for the budget,
HOK's response was, "Let's
draw it." This kind of practical
determination kept the mission
and goals of the collaborative
effort between HOK and Eshrick,
Homsey, Dodge & Davis, Inc.
(EHDD), in focus. As a result,
the project will open on time,
March 31, and on budget.
The 152,000 square foot,
$84 million Florida Aquarium
will present, in microcosm,
the aquatic "story" of Florida's

unaer the aome

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Cafe area
Cafe area




Aerial view. Below is detail of westfacade.

unique environment and ecolo-
gy. Architecturally, the goal was
to convey as much richness and
diversity as the natural habitat
exhibits. Two major building
components were required. In
one, beneath the dome, a lofty
skylit space in the shape of a
seashell houses the Wetlands
and the Bays and Beaches ex-
hibits. The second, a two-story
black box area, is the setting for
the spectacular 500,000-gallon
under-the-sea Coral Reef tank.
In the dramatic Coral Reef
exhibit area, sequential gradua-
ted ramps wind their way
around and "through" a coral
reef, replicating the experience
of an actual dive into dark
depths. Windows are arranged
so viewers will see the exhibits
without seeing each other. The
largest window, a 43-foot-wide
by 14-foot-deep bay, is more
than a foot thick at its base.
To carefully control daylight
at the top level of this exhibit
(as well as to provide service
access) the tank will be open
to the sky but covered and pro-
tected from direct sunlight.


On approach to The Florida
Aquarium, the multifaceted
glass and structural steel dome

is the dominant focus. The
image already has become a
symbol of the Tampa water

front's evolving Garrison Sea-
port Center. Laminated glass
chosen for the dome permits
healthy growth of hundreds of
species of sea and plant life
while reducing heat gain and,
thus, energy loads. Building
systems have been integrated
with some ingenuity. For exam-
ple, air conditioning ducts inside
the domed area are housed
inside artificial trees. Unusual,
too, areas housing the pipes,
filters, and other aquarium-
maintenance systems will be
open to curious visitors.
In this project, meant to edu-
cate and inspire, architectural
design had to reflect, rather
than dictate, exhibit design.
Essentially a life support for
the exhibits, the building was
conceived as a dynamic design
that would allow for continuing
refinement of exhibits and
support systems without com-
promising its own integrity.
Photography by George 'Cott,
Chroma, Inc.

Out-of-Sight Service

Veterans Administration
Medical Center
West Palm Beach, Florida

Prime Architects and
Engineers: Wolfberg/Alvarez
& Partners
David A. Wolfberg, AIA
Engineering Principal:
Julio E. Alvarez, P.E.
Project Designer:
Aristedes Garcia
Project Manager: Raul Estevez
Health Care Facility
Planners: Lammers + Gershon
Associates, Inc.
Civil Engineers: Post Buckley
Schuh & Jernigan
LAnd Planners and
Landscape Architects:
Edward D. Stone, Jr.
Geotechnical Engineers:
Jammal & Associates
Owner: U.S. Department of
Veterans Affairs

It has been 20 years since
the Department of Veterans
Affairs built a totally new med-
ical center. A lot has changed
in that time. Treatment has
progressed, not just in terms of
medical technology and systems
but in terms of the physical
environment in which health
care is delivered. Wolfberg/
Alvarez & Partners, Architects
& Engineers, designed the
new facility to help realize the
Department of Veterans Affairs'
effort to humanize patient care.
While endeavoring to create
what architect and partner
David Wolfberg calls a "hospital-
ity environment," the project
team also succeeded in coordi-
nating a broad spectrum of
innovations that will take the
hospital gracefully into the
next century.
The 400-bed, $106 million
hospital will provide medical,
surgical, and intermediate care
as well as psychiatric care to an
estimated 9,000 inpatients and

144,000 outpatients annually.
The engineering design team
took a creative approach to
solving the complex building
requirements, incorporating
state-of-the-art technologies for
building systems and energy
conservation. All building sys-
tems-HVAC, fire protection,

plumbing, electrical power,
emergency power, medical
gases, communication, and
illumination-are distributed
via an Interstitial Space Design.
This was accomplished through
the development of three)
dimensional service modules
that could be used repeatedly

throughout the building. Each
one-story-high module includes
a large scale assembly of build-
ing subsystems and is organized
by a single independent hori-
zontal distribution network.
The interstitial "service zones,"
located above each floor, are
subzoned to accommodate the


n-if &cM UeWW


floor and inlterstilial( l oor alternation.

various building systems.
According to Julio Alvarez,
engineer and partner in Wolf-
berg/Alvarez, this approach to
engineering offers numerous
improvements to the entire
structure and significant advan-
tages to life-cycle maintenance
and operating costs. Not only
is the I1!. i. 1.. of hospital
resources enhanced, but with
areas that require routine
maintenance located away
from patient care areas, normal
hospital functions are rarely if
ever disrupted.
A dramatic atrium with 80'
x90' W-.lil andal0-story
vertical window floods the hos-
pital's central core, including
patient rooms, with natural
light. A second, smaller atrium,
located in the five-story west
wing, contains a food court
desigried to resemble an outdoor
caf&. Although spatially different
in scale, these two clerestoried
courtyards serve as organiza-
tional elements between work-
ing and public spaces. The 10-
story, V-shaped tower rises
from a colonnaded entry that

provides a human-scale, pedes-
trian link to patient areas.
The exterior look was
inspired by the architectural
vernacular of West Palm Beach.
Materials include precast con-
crete finished in a mediter-
ranean palette of pastel and
terracotta tones, with limestone
and quartz aggregate detailing.
Green-tinted windows were
used throughout. Visual interest
was maintained through finely
scaled fenestration and overall
building geometries and a com-
bination of familiar and new
shapes and materials.
Even the location has its
therapeutic features. Extensive
sitework and landscaping of the
scenic 69 acres have enhanced
its natural beauty. Besides seven
acres of wetlands that are being
restored, there are quiet patient
sitting areas, even bike and
jogging paths with exercise
stations. Six manmade lakes
help make the environs attrac-
tive for the community as well
as for the patients.

i 'i, ... I 1. i .' by Mark Roskams


Museum Designs by Distinguished 20th-Century Architects

Jacksonville Art Museum
Jacksonville, Florida
September 19-October 10,
Catalogue, with essay by
William N. Morgan, FAIA

By Diane Greer

Jacksonville architect \.'. ,il, i
N. Morgan was Guest Cura-
tor for a recent exhibition of
notable museum designs of the
last 50 years. Although most of
the museums included in the
exhibition, held at the Jackson-
ville Art Museum, are in the
United States, nearly half of
their designers were born
abroad in places such as Argen-
tina, Estonia, France, Japan,
Spain, and Switzerland. What
all of the museums have in com-
mon is the exceptionally high
level of design excellence they
Some of the designs included
in the show utilized new ideas
while others examined unex-
plored possibilities of earlier
schemes. Several of the designs
were for new museums, others
envisioned major additions or
expansions, and still others
encompassed galleries, exhibi-
tion spaces, and educational
institutions. Most of the muse-
ums are situated in urban
environments and required

careful integration with existing
buildings and civic spaces.
The exhibition focused on
the creative process of design,
not on the designers them-
selves. Each architect whose
work was included was asked to
provide one or more conceptual
drawings illustrating his method
of creating and communicating
ideas. Not surprisingly, says
Morgan, "The results are unique
and richly diverse."
The works selected for this
important exhibition are by no
means the only examples of
excellent museum designs of
the 20th century. Rather, the
purpose was to suggest a broad
array of ideas presently at work
in the art and architecture of
museum design.
Media in the show included
graphite, colored pencil, ink,
pastels, charcoal, gouache,
silkscreen, crayon, and water-
color, presented variously on
bond paper, Strathmore, sketch
book pages, Arches, napkins,
file cards, vellum, mylar film,
and tracing paper. Most of the
drawings are original, but pho-
tographic copies were present-
ed in cases where the original
documents are either too fragile
for exhibition or were otherwise
The completion date of each
project established the order of

Brooklyn Museum Addition, 1986
Brooklyn, New York
Arata Isozaki, Architect, with James Stewart Polshek & Partners
In this competition-winning design, the architect developed an
appropriately scaled addition to a historic museum, including a
monumental staircase and a gridded titanium cube rotated above
the new western gallery.

-, -t


SolomonR. Guggenheim Museum, 1959
New York City
Frank Lloyd I i. .. ., Architect
A conceptual section drawn in 1943 reveals Wright's extraordinary
vision of an expanding spiral that rises through a continuous .7 .. :
and is crowned by natural light. Small sketches appear in the lower
right-hand corner, human figures suggest scale, and planting is
shown on rooftops.


presentation. The chronological
sequence was intended to assist
the visitor in understanding
what possibilities had been ex-
plored before subsequent ideas
were introduced, and how later
ideas may have related to earlier
Several influences guided the
development of American archi-
tecture in the years following

the Second World War. These
included steel-framed glass box-
es responding to the discipline
of Mies van der Rohe, increas-
ingly sculptural buildings de-
signed by the French master
Le Corbusier, and the spirited
creations of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Wright's works have informed
generations of designers since
the late-nineteenth century.

During the sixties, however,
a spirit of restlessness became
widespread in America and else-
where. The new spirit called
for re-evaluation of preciously
accepted principles and for ex-
ploration of new directions in
design. Museums representing
the new era include Paul
Rudolph's highly creative
designs recalling the spirit of

Museum of Contemporary Art,
Los Angeles, California
Arata Isozaki, Architect

This splendidly crafted museum
amidst the skyscrapers of
downtown Los Angeles consists
Of //ll I ,,-p m ;,, ...- ,, i. ,'/. ries
surmounted by pyramidal
skylights across a courtyard
from a barrel- ...... /. ....
The building reveals the archi-
tect's preference for simple
geometric shapes, recalling such
structures as Egyptian pyramids
and Roman vaults.

Wright, and one of Louis Kahn's
timeless and unsurpassed
masterpieces, the Kimbell Art
In more recent decades,
designers have explored a broad
spectrum of new directions,
often with remarkable virtuosity
and brilliance. Given the current
high level of achievement in
American architecture, curator
Morgan assures us that "we
may expect to see in the years
ahead, an increasing number of
distinguished museum designs,
and quite likely a few master-
pieces, as well."

All photos by Kathleen McKenzie

Nelson Fine Arts Center 1989
Arizona State University,
Tempe, Arizona
Antoine Predock, Architect

In this design, a central plaza
suggests a metaphorical desert
surrounded by rugged mountains.
Throughout the architect expresses
his preference for sensory con-
trasts and for adventure and
discovery, rather than for ease
of access or clarity of plan.




Don'tyou wish

we couldjust do this to CFCs

In a way we can-
if we cool our buildings with
natural gas.
Natural gas absorption
cooling equipment cools with
water, rather than with CFCs,
which deplete the ozone layer.
It also has fewer moving
parts than conventional cooling
systems, which means mainte-
nance costs are lower.
And, because it costs
much less to operate, it cuts the
energy costs of cooling-by
up to 50%.
There's another big benefit,
-_ too. It saves electricity during
the heat of the summer, when
demand is at its highest.
As a result, we can help
-' i our cities avoid brownouts.
And help reduce the need for
power plants. Best of all, we
can help America balance the
use of its energy resources.
lilll |||No doubt about it, natural
gas is a high-tech, low-cost
way to keep cool without
It's a cool way to help save
our ozone layer, too.

Ciclil, 'cOui, Hal'mill hia l( gdas. Think what we'll save.

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Fast Finish

Checkers Restaurant
Tampa, Florida

Architect: Spencer and
Jonnatti Architects, Inc.
Stephen Spencer, AIA
Consulting Engineer:
D.W Lowe, PE.
Design Team: Mark Jonnatti,
AIA, Stephen Spencer, AIA
Contractor: Champion
Modular Restaurant Company,
Owner: Checkers Drive-Thru
Restaurants, N.A.

46"ast" in the restaurant
Business no longer
means just the food.
The fast-growing Checkers
Restaurant chain, founded just
10 years ago, now numbers
almost 500 stores. One reason
is an incredibly fast construc-
tion system made possible
with an array of metal prod-
ucts and a precision-engi-
neered foundation setup.
The prototype for Checkers's
modular .ii.! rng system was
designed by Spencer and

Prefabricated section on truck

Jonnatti Architects, Inc., of
Largo, Florida.
The system was adopted by
the Checkers chain in the late
1980s to replace its earlier
site-built method. Both man-
ufacture of the prefabricated
metal components and installa-
tion of the kitchen equipment
are completed at a factory in
Clearwater. The
31-ton unit is then
trucked to the job
S site and hoisted
by crane onto a
concrete slab.
U Three prefab-
ricated sections-
a main one and
two drive-through
ing 14' x 48' over-
all, are then bolted
together on-site.
A high degree
of coordination is required
between the civil engineering
and building construction doc-
uments because of the close
tolerance of the foundation sys-
tem. The "open-for-business"
sign can go up in seven days.
With no indoor seating in
the small facility, the interior
look is entirely functional. The

unique exteror design, which
has been compared to a 1950s-
style juke box, is another story.
Black and white ceramic tiles
outlined with stainless steel,
glass block, and lots of neon
lighting make Checkers espe-
cially eye-catching after dark.
The design has been recog-
nized several times, including
a 1990 "Night Beautiful Award
for Imaginative Nighttime
Lighting" from the Florida
Department of Commerce.
The lively exterior belies a
framework of tubular steel and
metal studs, and a rugged skin
of ceramic tile around the bot-
tom with an exterior insulation
system and finish system
above. The neon-trimmed
drive-through canopies are
manufactured from 20-gauge,
shop-formed bright annealed
stainless steel with a #8 mir-
ror finish. Columns and the
mechanical equipment roof
screen are 22-gauge steel,
shop-formed and coated.
The latest engineering tech-
nology was applied in creating
a structure that could with-
stand winds up to 120 m.p.h.,
a worst-case scenario for struc-
tural loading. A "field-test"

came unexpectedly, on August
24, 1992, when Hurricane
Andrew destroyed much of
south Dade County. A new
Checkers Restaurant was
scheduled to open there the
day the hurricane hit. Sustain-
ing only minor damage from
flying debris, the store opened
for business the next day,
using gas-powered generators.
As one of the few businesses
operating in the aftermath of
the storm, it got off to a big
start. The major competition
in the neighborhood was the
Red Cross mess tents.
Spencer and Jonnatti have
been approached by several
other restaurant companies
to create modular double
drive-through designs for their
formats. A design is underway
for the Quick Pit Corp. of
Vero Beach, Florida, whose
NASCAR-themed barbecue
restaurants will accommodate
a full-size smoker and a larger
kitchen. To replace its site-
built design, Long John Silver's
Seafood Restaurant has com-
missioned a wide prototype
that will require two half
modules bolted together.
Photography by Brenda Nixon


Taking Stock

Superstock /
Jacksonville, Florida

Architect: KBJ Architects, Inc.
Jacksonville, Florida
Owner: Superstock, Inc.
Developer: The Beeckler Company
Contractor: Elkins Industrial
Contractors, Inc.

Judged by Princeton architecture
professor Michael Graves to be
worthy of an Award for Excellence in
Architecture, this small commercial
project was so honored by the Jackson-
ville Chapter/AIA at its 1994 Awards
Interior gallery

v--p -L-i-. - - 7^- / -- -- < --
-__-'_. r -'<'---_-- --'-:-- -. _- -----_:-_ ,------ - ---^-----
... 4-A- 4tA-/:.. -- -..-A '. . .. .. . ..'. .. .. . ... A .
AA ... '_'- .- A .. . -*'_-_ ' "" ,, .' . J --

... ;;, .

Night front
This building is a 30,000-square-
foot corporate headquarters for a stock
photography company. Its Jacksonville
architects designed the building as an
architectural interpretation of a 4" x 5" .--. ,
box camera. The design is a true.. ;
square, built on axis and inwardly
oriented. The black punched exterior E
walls, with postage stamp windows,
feed into the centroid of the space and" '
come out on the other side, extending
beyond the interior of the building. The
walls are, in effect, an interpretation of
film leading into the camera. Eye-level front


The entrance to the building, which
serves as a focal point, was designed
as a gallery, with a high ceiling and
narrow walls. The company uses this
space to display some its most striking
stock photographs. Above the entry
corridor gallery is a bridge that extends
past the central elevator shaft to the
rear of the building. The open interior
design allows unobstructed views from
the first to the second floor.
Ceilings throughout the building
have been omitted so that the mech-
anical components are exposed and
visible. These components were care-
fully choreographed and enlarged
with high pressure ducts for a more
dynamic effect. Like a camera, the
purpose was to be able to view the
inner working parts of the facility. DG

All photos by Timothy Hursley

Birdseye view

Interior around walkway at bridge

Interior around reception desk with bridge above


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A Belief in Architecture

Carl Abbott FAIA

When you look at theflow
of materials, energy, and effort
that goes into building, and
the effects of space on people's
lives, you understand the
importance and power of

The Principle
The faith that architecture
can shape and improve the
quality of life is a tenet of Carl
Abbott FAIA Architects/Plan-
ners. Design remains a richly
evocative process for firm mem-
bers-one tied to a strong belief
in the power of architecture.
Individuals in the firm carry
on a legacy-both within the
profession and with clients-of
outstanding design and investi-
gation into the design process.

The Preparation
The design education of
Carl Abbott was formed from
the very beginning by an envi-
ronmental perspective. After
receiving a Bachelor's degree
from the University of Florida
and a Master's from Yale, Abbott
worked in Honolulu, in New
York with I. M. Pei, and in
London with Norman Foster
and Richard Rogers. The pro-
cess Abbott developed early on,
"of seeking spaces of wonder "
that belong to a specific region"
and of recognizing their sense
of place and spirit, remains a
vital focus of his work.

The Team
Design at the Carl Abbott
firm is practiced as a true team
effort: individuals of many back-
grounds and perspectives work
toward a common goal. Along
with architects, the small, 5-
member firm, has included
industrial designers, artists,
photographers, sociologists,
economists, anthropologists,
archaeologists, environmental-


S' ." t- c J

Carl Abbott with sons Mark (left) and Cooper (right) in front of Sarasota Memorial Hospital's Child Care Center
II. Photo by Gwen Mitchell

ists, and students. If there is a
single defining characteristic
of the team, it is a developed
capacity for creative problem
solving within the real-world
requirements of time and
Among the architects and
designers who have been affili-
ated with the practice are
Mark Smith, Michael O'Donnell,
Michael Sheppard, and Joseph
King. A key member of the team
is Cooper Abbott, vice-president
of the firm, whose background
in planning, anthropology, and
environmental sciences has
brought a fresh energy and
awareness of contemporary
issues to the firm.

The Process
Carl Abbott is a believer in
the great potential of "design
teaming" among firms. "Given
the impact of currently evolving
technologies," he says, "all view-
points are needed-big and
small firms, architects and plan-
ners, voices of experience and

fresh voices. .. Everyone can
offer something to invigorate
and enhance the design process."
"Architecture and planning,"
says Abbott, "are unique among
professions in the level of syn-
thesis they have the potential
to offer. The design process can
make different points of view an
asset-rather than an adversari-
al proposition, design is a means
for reaching a consensus of
sometimes extremely divergent
elements. We can all take great-
er advantage of this."

The Credits
Carl Abbott Architect, AIA,
was first established in Sarasota
in 1966. During 1973-77, the firm
expanded and briefly became
the Zoller/Abbott/Friedman

Partnership. The latest of many
honors conferred on the firm
was the 1994 FA/AIA Firm of
the Year Award.

The Promise
A strong commitment to
architecture's responsibility in
supporting environmental and
social improvement has won
for the firm an ever growing
base of repeat clients. The
Carl Abbott firm continues to
dedicate itself to a widely
diverse range of projects.


AIA Florida Design Awards

Do you have a project in the following categories?
Prepare your entry and send your application to AIA Florida

Firm Award

Unbuilt Design Awards

Test of Time Award

Awards For Excellence

in Architecture

Call for Entry Deadline: April 26, 1995
AIA Florida Awards
for Excellence in Design Program
Questions Contact:
Chairperson, Bruce Gora, AIA
or Contact: Joanna Booth,
AIA FL 904:222-7590

Awards will be presented at the AIA
Florida Summer Conference
at the Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach, FL
July 28-30.




;"I~i i
5-- iF


Sizing the Accessible Toilet Stall for Compliance in Florida
By Larry M. Schneider, AIA

There may not be an official
court order, but there is a
serious problem, and architects
and builders in the state are
being warned. Design guidelines
for required accessible toilet
stalls in new construction, as
outlined in Florida's accessibili-
ty law, do not meet the federal
guidelines for accessibility. This
was the recent "guidance" from
a U.S. Department of Justice
official in response to an inquiry
from Metro Dade County.
The Florida accessibility
requirements fall short in
permitting sufficient space
for persons in wheelchairs to
maneuver. A quick decision to
embrace guidelines for an acces-
sible restroom stall containing
an accessible lavatory, found in
the 1994 Florida Accessibility
Code for Building Construction,
could mean trouble. According
to Florida's Code, section
4.17.3(2), the stall "shall be
not less than 68 inches by 68
inches," and the lavatory "not
less than 19 inches wide by 17
inches deep, nominal size, and
wall mounted." Further, if the
stall is to have a front entry,
Florida law requires a 60-inch
diameter wheelchair turnaround
area be accommodated within
the stall.
The problem area, according
to U.S. Justice Department
Public Access Section Chief
John L. Wodatch, in a letter
(dated August 8, 1994) to Metro
Dade County Manager Joaquin
G. Avino, is that the presence of
a lavatory within an accessible
stall may preclude compliance
with the clear floor space
requirements. 'A lavatory,"
wrote Wodatch, "within the
clear floor space limits access
to the toilet to a diagonal
approach, and obstructs maneu-
vering room; therefore, it is
not permitted." According to
Wodatch, "The text of 4.16.2
specifies that figure 28, which
allows for an accessible lavatory.
to overhang the clear floor


space at the toilet, is to be used
only for toilets not in stalls."
However, added Wodatch,
'ADA Standards do not prohibit
the placement of a lavatory
within an accessible stall,
provided that the clear floor
space requirements are met."
It is possible for architects,
owners, and builders in Florida
to observe both state and feder-
al requirements by enlarging the
size of the accessible stall. To do
this, it is recommended that the
back wall/plumbing wall be a
minimum of 79 inches in coun-
ties and municipalities that use
the Standard Building Code, or
a minimum of 83 inches in Dade
and Broward counties. The con-
trolling factor for the width of
the stall will be the lavatory
The Florida Department of
Community Affairs submitted
the state's Accessibility Code
to the U.S. Justice Department
for approval in 1994 and is still
awaiting an official ruling on
compliance. However, the letter
of guidance to Metro Dade sig-
nals that problems may be
ahead for the Florida law.

Larry M. Schneider AIA, is
Chair of the Florida Board of
Building Codes and Standards.

Pertinent sections of Florida Accessibility
Code for Building Construction (Jan. 1994).
NEW CONSTRUCTION: The following requirements
[for] size and arrangement shall apply to new construc-
tion only:
4.17.3(2) The accessible restroom stall shall be not less
than 68 inches by 68 inches and shall contain an accessi-
ble lavatory within it, the size of shall lavatory to be not
less than 19 inches wide by 17 inches deep, nominal size,
and wall mounted (see Figure 30(e). Additional stalls
shall be provided in conformance with 4.22.4.
4.17.3(4) The stall door shall be located in the wall
adjacent to the accessible lavatory, asfarfrom the lava-
tory as possible, or the stall door shall be located in the
wall opposite the accessible lavatory if a 60-inch diameter
wheelchair turnaround can be accommodated within
the stall (see Figure 300f). The accessible stall door shall
swing outward, shall be not less than 32 inches wide,
and shall be self-closing. Such lavatories shall be counted
as part of the required fixture countfor the building.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
guideline reads as follows.
4.17.3* Size and Arrangement
The size and arrangement of the standard toilet stall
shall comply with Fig. 30(a), Standard Stall. Standard
toilet stalls with a minimum depth of 56 in. (1420 mm)
(see Fig. 30(a) shall have wall-mounted water closets. If
the depth of a standard toilet stall is increased at least 3
in. (75 mm), then afloor-mounted water closet may be
used. Arrangements shown for standard toilet stalls may
be reversed to allow either a left-or right-hand approach.
Additional stalls shall be provided in conformance with
EXCEPTION: In instances of alteration work where
provision of a standard stall (Fig. 30(a) is technically
infeasible or where plumbing code requirements prevent
combining existing stalls to provide space, either alternate
stall (Fig. 30(b)) may be provided in lieu of the standard

Typical Accessible Toilet Stall

k 4 .7-/ FHCC 555.504(12)(b)

r I/
ADIA FlC 31(n)





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Accepting Responsibility Is Essential-and Profitable
By Frank McLane, AIA Emeritus

Over the last half of this
century, we architect prac-
titioners have witnessed great
shifts and changes in design and
revolutionary new construction
materials and methods. We
have witnessed the waxing and
waning of the power of the
developer to dictate design in
our communities. We have ex-
perienced the absorption of the
computer into most aspects of
our profession-from production
of design documents to man-
agement of construction. We
have observed the arrival and
departure of "building delivery
systems." We have watched as
modern architecture evolved
from clarity to confusion, cul-
minating perhaps in the much-
copied and admired caricature
of architecture in what is really
park village design.
We have experienced some
exciting architectural space-
and even more that we won't
even speak about.
We have even seen the archi-
tect become a figure in enter-
tainment, from Howard Roark
of The Fountainhead, to the
owner of Mister Ed the horse, to
lovers and moguls whose charac-
ters add prestige to the movies
and soap operas they inhabit.
More important, we've also
seen what a real architect like
John Portman can do when the
architect is the developer and
the synthetic wisdom of "the
experts" can be weighed and
' However, we have also wit-
nessed the long-dreary retreat
of the architectural profession
in general, a retreat that seems
never to end. As an architectural
firm owner (26 years) and as a
public official who employed
architectural firms (15 years),
I have watched the profession
erode and deteriorate. The con-
tributing factors are numerous
and varied-low nonnegotiable
fees, poor decisions by the insur-
ance industry regarding liability,


the thrust of responsibility onto
the backs of owners, and federal
"restraint of trade" prohibitions,
to name a few. Regardless of
the causes, the worst effect on
the profession, to my mind,
has been a steady retreat from
authority and responsibility, a
retreat from professional
respect. I call it Moon Walking.
In my arrogance, during the
early days of a partnership, I
proposed to a partner that we
stand up to and take a proper
professional position with a
public-body client with whom
our firm had a solid relationship.
My partner refused, explaining
to me that "architects were a
dime a dozen." Not then, not
ever, did I believe that about
myself or the quality of the work
that bore my name. Neverthe-
less, I knuckled under.
I once hung a sign in my pri-
vate office that read, "We know
what the costs are to provide
top-quality service. Those who
can charge less know what their
services are worth." My partners
pressured me to take it down.
They did not wish any client to
think we were high-priced.
These stories are offered to

I believe it is time for
these professionals

to stand behind
their work,
to share in
the risk.

illustrate two critical problems
among architects: not wanting
to say "No" to anything, even to
a losing proposition, and want-
ing to appear "competitively
priced." Inevitably, base-level
fees have led to reductions in
service and in quality-and in
acceptance of liability.
Small wonder that with archi-
tects accepting fees dictated by
the customer they must seek
ways to bring the level of ser-
vices in line with compensation.
Small wonder that with archi-
tects being forced to accept
unrewarding fees they must
seek to reduce their liability.
Small wonder that with
current fees barely covering
product/ services costs, leaving
no cushion to bear the cost of
liability, architects are joining
contractors, subcontractors,
and engineers in finding new
ways NOT to face construction
problems-doing the Moon Walk
Here's the spin. It is much
like "reverse English" in the
game of pool. When service is
reduced, so is the quality of
service. And with less quality of
service comes a greater risk of
error and omission-and greater
probable liability. Yet current
fees vs. delivered product/ser-
vices costs leaves no cushion
to bear liability costs. Ironically,

I I o: Iiore the design
,N pr, fessional tries to
I lack away from
responsibility, the
greater the exposure
to becoming truly
One of the causes
-..f the profession's
!. rng-dreary retreat
over the past 40
years has been
the development
of the professional
liability insurance
industry. Hindsight
suggests that in-
surance companies,
acting in good

faith, have misserved the very
professions they sought to
Had the insurance industry
promoted adequate spending
up front (read: appropriate
compensation for the architect
and engineer to support suffi-
cient time and resources to do
the job right), it could have
benefitted from fewer construc-
tion claims and smaller settle-
ments and judgments. Even
the meanest, most unreason-
able negotiator for an owner
would not push a negotiation
below the point where liability
is forfeited.
Worst of all, instead of re-
viewing each task cost analysis
with the architect and declining
to insure those jobs for which
adequate fees were not nego-
tiated, insurers established pro-
grams to teach architects and
engineers how to minimize
(read: avoid) responsibility.
Further, instead of working with
owners to help them understand
the importance of adequate
planning, the insurance industry
encouraged the AIA to modify
its standard documents, line by
line, shifting responsibility to
owners and contractors. And
since contractors were repre-
sented in the rewriting, owners
ended up bearing the brunt of
the responsibility.
For many years owners have
had the need and desire to find
someone to accept-or at least
share-responsibility. And for
the Moon Walking to stop, archi-
tects (and engineers) must start
accepting a share of the respon-
Attorneys who draw agree-
ments between owners and
architects (and engineers) can
help by rewording standard
agreements. I believe it is time
for these professionals to stand
behind their work, to share in
the risk. (Practicing what I
preach, in my role as a public
official, I was able to influence
many such agreements and

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effect contracts in which all
parties shared the. risk.)
It is time for architects to
begin to step forward and accept
responsibility. But first, they
must stand up for fair and ade-
quate compensation. The day
has come when many a large,
stable client is hungry to hear,
"Here's what I can and will be
responsible for." What's more,
that client is also ready to hear,
"Here's a task cost analysis. And
here's the amount I need to be
able to shoulder responsibility
for these tasks."
If this sounds like a pipe
dream, it's not.
It's a question of how. I offer
the following example.
Since my retirement from
public service, I've been asso-
ciated with a mechanical-electri-
cal-plumbing (MEP) engineering
firm that contracts, above and
beyond its initial delivery ser-
vices, for what we call Gold Key
service. This contract extends
the responsibility of the design-
ing MEP engineer two years
beyond the date of substantial
completion. Besides extending
the warranty of the HVAC equip-
ment, Gold Key service provides
for a long list of customized ben-
efits, including training in the
system for the owner's operating
and maintenance staff, system
start-up and shake-down by the
designing MEP engineer, record-
ed air monitoring (an excellent
lawsuit-prevention tactic), and
many other critical services.
Sounds costly?
Gold Key clients say it's
worth every penny. These are
clients who, after bitter experi-
ences with Moon Walkers, have
realized they can't afford NOT
to pay for quality assurance and
These skilled MEP engineers
have the hands-on experience
to stand behind their product/
services. Likewise, when an
architect is in the chain of
command, Gold Key service
includes a markup (typically

10 percent) above the MEP
engineer's fee for appropriate
additional benefits.
In this win-win-win situation,
the engineer and architect are
compensated adequately to
stand behind their work, and
the client gains satisfaction that
the occupant's complaints will
be resolved by qualified profes-
sionals. The idea of selling re-
sponsibility-and getting paid
adequately for accepting it-is
a means of beginning to end the
long-dreary retreat.
The architects themselves
can identify which particular
responsibilities they are willing
to accept for additional compen-
sation. A good place to start
would be to reword the stan-
dard AIA Architect-Owner
Agreement, identifying in shop
drawings and submittals pre-
cisely what the architect will
be responsible for. Next, since
the architect as well as the
architect's engineer will be re-
sponsible for work done under
the contractor, the architect
should establish the right to
approve or reject any specific
"specialty engineers" and the
method of calculations and
There are, of course, those
things for which the architect
can not be responsible. But
accepting responsibility for
those for which he or she can
is essential, and even can be
profitable. For the day the pro-
fession begins to specifically
accept responsibility will be
the turning point in the long-
dreary retreat. The end of
Moon Walking will signal a new
beginning for respectability and

Frank McLane, ALA Emeritus,
now writes on issues and



The 1995 AIA Florida Annual Conference will be held at







For More Information Call AIA Florida (904) 222-7590




A custom home conjures up an image of individual
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So call us at 1-800-282-3633 for more information on
the best homeowner value for roofing.

The Concrete Roof Tile for Beauty, Protection and Longevity






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