Title: Florida architect
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00305
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: Fall 1994
Frequency: quarterly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00305
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text
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Cover photo of Littlewood Elementary School, designed by Ponikvar & Associates, ., Gainesville.
Photo by George Cott.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994


DUPLICATE


CONTENTS


August, 1994
Vol. 41, No.3


Features

Architecture As A Tool For Learning
Littlewood Elementary School, Additions and Renovations,
Gainesville, Florida, designed by Ponikvar & Associates, Inc.

A Creative Learning Environment
Pine View School For The Gifted, Sarasota, Florida, designed
by Carl Abbott, FAIA.

Elementary Additions
Lake Forest Elementary School, Additions and Renovations,
Gainesville, Florida, designed by Flad & Associates.

Analogy To The Written Word
Evanston Public Library Proposal, Evanston, Illinois,
designed by Urbanform Design Group, Inc.

All The World's A Stage
University of Florida, Center for the Performing Arts,
Gainesville, Florida, designed by Flad & Associates.

So You Want To Design Schools
by Janet Mcllvaine

New Workers' Comp Rules



Departments

Editorial


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4 FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994







EDITORIAL


FLORIDA ARCHITECT


FloridaAssociation of the
American Institute ofArchitects
104 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Publisher/
EzecutiveVcPresident
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Senior Editor
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertsing
Carolyn Maryland
ManagingEditor
Joanna Booth
Printing
Boyd Brothers, Inc.
Communications Committee
Paul Renker, AIA, Chairman
Ivan Johnson, AIA
John Totty, AIA
Robert McCarter, AIA
Karl Thorne, AIA
Sam Ferreri, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
President
John Tice, AIA
909 East Cervantes
Pensacola, FL 32501
VicePresidenntt/P ident-elect
Richard Reep, AIA
510 Julia Street
Jacksonville, FL 32202
Secretary/Treasurer
Bruce Balk, AIA
290 CocoanutAvenue
Sarasota, FL 34236
Pat President
Jerome Filer, AIA
7438 SW 48th Street
Miami, FL 33155
Regional Director
John Ehrig, FAIA
7380 Murrell Road
Suite 201
Melbourne, FL 32940
Regional Director
Thomas Marvel, FAIA
1555 Francia Street
Santurce, PR 00911


T he Sarasota Design Conference was like a breath of fresh air. It's sole
purpose for being was to present a forum for the discussion of design that
illusive entity that often seems to be secondary to the day-to-day mechanics of
running an architecture office.
On hand to get everyone excited about design were E. Fay Jones, Hugh Newell
Jacobsen and Michael Sorkin. Fay Jones won the AIA Gold Medal last year and
despite that fact, he is as soft-spoken and unassuming as Hugh Newell Jacobson is
urbane, witty and outspoken. Both of these men have produced a large body of
work which has brought them national recognition, but their concerns about the
future of architectural practice are seemingly no different than those of the
conference attendees. Fay Jones talked about his client Sam Walton, who owned a
little dime store in Arkansas and couldn't borrow $65,000 to build the house Jones
designed for him. Michael Sorkin lamented urban plight and some would-be
solutions were bantered about. In short, the problems that face architects are
timeless.
Most interesting to me as a teacher of architectural history was the fact that
both Jones and Jacobsen are clearly architects whose design solutions are
frequently tied to historic prototypes. During Jones' talk, he interspersed slides of
his own work with well-known historic buildings from which he derived inspiration.
Sam Walton's Arkansas house is a case in point. Instead of building near a creek on
the property, he built over it, citing the French chateau at Blois as a source of
inspiration. The most notable and obvious parallel in Jones' work is between the
Gothic cathedral and his masterpiece, Thorncrown Chapel. The importance of the
architectural continuum is not wasted on this Arkansas educator.
Faye Jones also talked a lot about his beginnings in the studio of Frank Lloyd
Wright. Like his mentor, Jones has never lost his sense of the importance of
architecture being one with nature. He speaks with great conviction about organic
architecture and he expresses himself almost poetically by saying that an architect
should never "embarrass his materials" by using them inappropriately.
Hugh Newell Jacobsen is an architect with a formula that works. He is no less
than Fay Jones a man whose designs have obvious historical parallels. His
preference for breaking buildings up into small intimate spaces, "pavilions" as he
refers to them, creates a fractured image of specific historical prototypes, be they
Georgian, Federal or Greek Revival. The end result is irresistable a recognizable
style suited to a contemporary program. Instead of large formal rooms, there are a
series of small "familial" spaces.
The Gulf Coast Chapter and Conference Chairman Mark Smith deserve to be
applauded. The conference was inspirational, as only a true "design" conference
can be. It brought some of the giants of architecture to Florida and made them
accessible. It was educational. It was fun. DG


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 19M








NEWS


Jim Anstis, FAIA, and family.
New Members
The following persons have
been accepted into member-
ship in the AIA from Florida
since May, 1994.

AIA MEMBERS
Leonard Alvarez, AIA, Miami
Wayne Berenbau, AIABoca
Raton
Mark W. Birkebak, AIA, Orlando
Tim J. Blair, AIA, Tampa
Eugene A. Brandner, AIA,
Gainesville
Karen F. Brown, AIA, Pensacola
Keith D. Chambers, AIA, Boca
Raton
Todd R. Chase, AIA, Ft. Lauderdale
Hugh D. Clark, AIA, Palm Bay
William P. Feldkamp, AIA, WPB
Paul G. Fermano, AIA, Bonita Spgs
John R. Forbes, AIA, Coral Gables
Marvin D. Goodman, AIA, Miami
Rene Basist Hutcheson, AIA, WPB
Kenneth A. Jacobsen, AIA, WPB
Roger P. Janssen, AIA, WPB
Luis H. Jauregui, AIA, Coral
Gables
James G. Johnston, AIA, Tampa
Mary J. Juckiewicz, AIA, Vero Bch
William F. Knetge, AIA, Delray Bch
Richard A. Lecznar, Sr., AIA,
Gainesville
William A. Leuthold, AIA,
Jacksonville
Eduardo Llorca, AIA, Miami
Paul A Locar, AIA, Ocala
William E. Lockard, Jr., Niceville
James R. McVicker, AIA,
Tallahassee
Raymond L. Manning, AIA, WPB
Diane J. Milam, AIA, Pnte Vedra Bch
Marco A. Orlando, AIA, Sarasota
Theodore C. Prince, AIA,
Melbourne Beach
Dan Robertson, AIA, Miami
Beach


Felicia M. Salazar, AIA, Coral
Gables
Rafael V. Sixto, AIA, Coral Gables
Michael F. Sofarelli, Jr., AIA,
Clearwater
Craig Thomson, AIA, St. Augustine
Richard C. Thurlby, AIA, Tampa
Eduardo Alberto Vazquez, AIA,
Miami
Roy C. William, AIA, St.
Augustine Bch
Robert C. Wulbe, AIA, Jacksonville
Ignacio Zabaleta, AIA, Miami

ASSOCIATE AIA MEMBERS
Alexander C. Barrett, Associate
AIA, Clearwater
Virgilio Campaneria, Associate
AIA, Miami Springs
Juan C. Contin, Associate AIA,
Boca Raton
Craig D. Davisson, Associate AIA,
Jacksonville
Adriana B. Guerra, Associate
AIA, Miami
Andrew Scott Kirschner,
Associate AIA, Melbourne
Jean Francis LeJeune, Associate
AIA, Coral Gables
Ira Locks, Associate AIA, Orlando
Richard H. Talbert, Associate
AIA, Miami Beach
Daniel L Thorn, Assoc AIA, Orlando
Vicki L. Vath Russo, Associate
AIA, St. Petersburg
John M. Vaughan, Associate AIA,
Ft. Lauderdale
Jonathan C. Weiss, Assoc AIA,
Sarasota
Harlan Woodard, Associate
AIA,Miami

ALLIED MEMBERS
Michael Cimorelli, Boca Raton
Russell Meyers, Boca Raton
Stephen Wilbur, Sarasota


Anstis to Receive
the Gold

Newly elected AIA Secre-
tary, James Anstis, FAIA,
West Palm Beach, will be pre-
sented with the State
Association's highest award,
the Gold Medal, when mem-
bers gather October 20-22 for
the Fall Conference and An-
nual Meeting in Orlando.
Anstis, a Past President of
AIA Florida and former Re-
gional Director, was selected
for the award by a unanimous
vote by the AIA Florida Board
of Directors during its meet-
ing in Sarasota based on a
nomination made by the Gold
Medal Nominating Committee
headed by Ted Pappas.
A University of Florida
graduate, Anstis has been ac-
tive in the AIA for more than
25 years and now practices in
West Palm Beach under the
firm name ofArchitects 4. The
committee cited his prolonged
and extended service to the
profession and the AIA, at all
levels, his continuous involve-
ment in civic affairs, and his
advocacy of architects in the
public sector over and above
that normally expected of any
member as reasons for Gold
Medal recognition.
The Board also voted unani-
mously to award the Hilliard
T. Smith Silver Medal for
Community Service to Sol J.


So Fleisman, Jr., AIA
Sol J Fleischman, Jr., A"A


Fleischman, Jr., AIA, of
Tampa for his leadership and
community activities, which
have been of a direct benefit
to the profession of architec-
ture. The AIA Tampa Bay
Chapter nominated Sol for the
focus on historic preservation
in Tampa and Hillsborough
County which he brought to
bear through his involvement
in helping to form the Historic
Preservation Board, the
County Preservation Founda-
tion and the Tampa Architec-
tural Review Commission.
"Mr. Fleischman has gladly
donated many thousands of
hours in the interest of the
preservation movement and
as a result, his buisness and
personal finances have suf-
fered dire consequences," the
Chapter noted.
The Anthony L. Pullara In-
dividual Award will be pre-
sented to Rudolph Arsenicos,
AIA of the Palm Beach Chap-
ter, for his outstanding service
to the profession and AIA. In
selecting Arsenicos, the Board
noted his many years of ser-
vice to the AIA as an officer,
director and member of the
Board, his continuous atten-
dance and involvement in
chapter and state AIA activi-
ties, all of which exemplified
the memory of Anthony
Pullara, a Tampa architect for
whom the award is named.
Based on submittals of pro-


Rudolph Arsenicos, AIA


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fag 1994
















grams and activities con- Design/Build Under Study
ducted in 1993, the Board
voted to present The Anthony The AIA Florida has formed a
L. Pullara Staffed Chapter Project Delivery Study Task
Award be presented to AIA Group to look into the use ofde-
Tampa Bay for outstanding sign/build and to provide guid-
service to the members ofAIA ance to architectural firms and
Tampa Bay. The Anthony L. owners looking for a more accept-
Pullara Unstaffed Chapter able means for designing and con-
Award will be presented to structing a building.
the AIA Tallahassee chapter One of the major problems en-
for the excellent program con- countered in design/build proce-
ducted in 1993, a well de- dures, according to Liability Up-
signed and written newsletter date newsletter published by
and an outstanding commu- CNA/Schinnerer, has been the
nity awareness program, requirement that the design/
The Architectural Photogra- build team competitors submit
pher of the Year Award will be conceptual drawings which may
presented to John Gillan, be up to 30-35 percent complete,
from Miami, for outstanding with only the final selected team
work performed during 1994. being paid for that initial work.
The architectural photogra- Those proposals are then evalu-
phy work of Mr. Gillan is of a ated on the basis of quality ofde-
quality and originality that sign, price, and other factors with
advances the cause of out- the selected proposer entering
standing architecture in the into contract with the owner. The
state of Florida. other proposers end up with no
R. Andrew Maass will re- money with the architect being
ceive the Bob Graham Archi- the biggest loser having complet-
tectural Awareness Award, for ed a substantial portion of the
his leadership in programs that work for no pay.
have increased public educa- The Task Group, under the
tion and awareness of the pro- leadership of Bill Blizzard, AIA,
fession of architecture, of St. Petersburg, will be looking
The Outstanding Builder into the expectations which own-
Award will be presented to ers have in utilizing the design/
R.M. Williams Contractors, build process and whether those
Inc. of Tampa. The restoration expectations are being realized.
work on the veranda of the H. The use of design/build is grow-
B. Hall, at the University of ing. Several federal agencies
Tampa, showed sincere and have suggested changing the fed-
genuine interest in effecting eral procurement reform law to
outstanding craftsmanship. enable agencies to seek qualified
Ron Pickos and Ed Lamar will proposals without conceptual de-
receive the Mellen C. Greeley sign and without cost or price in-
Craftsman Award for outstand- formation. From the list of pro-
ing workmanship on restora- posals, the agency would select
tion of the Old Polk County three proposers who would each
Courthouse, built in 1908. submit designs with cost infor-
mation. The agency could select
on the basis of best design or
CORREX price but not lowest price.
In the June issue we incorrectly A recent policy statement by
indicated Vernon Pierce was a the American Consulting
member of AIA. He is not and Engineers Council calls for a two-
regret the error. t/ tep process in which the owner

FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994


selects a design professional to
prepare design criteria up to 35
percent of design level and project
cost estimates. Thereafter, the
policy proposes that the owner
solicit proposals from design/
build teams, including a design
professional to be named in the
proposal to provide design and


related services. The design
professional so named would then
represent the owner throughout
the entire project. Of course, this
would be a departure from the
basic concept that design/build
normally provides which is a
single contract between owner
and design/builder.


"Can-Struction" event at Sawgrass Mills Mall, in Ft. Lauderdale.


Public Awareness Through
"Can-Struction"
Efforts to develop good public
awareness programs have pro-
duced some successful results.
The Ft. Lauderdale communi-
ty became directly involved with
the AIA Ft. Lauderdale chapter,
and the popular "Can Struction"
event.
Past-president, Stan Schachne,
used the event to promote public
oriented programs in the Ft.
Lauderdale chapter. In 1993,
Schachne teamed with a local
mall management who endorsed
the program and helped organize
the event.
Architects, together with a lo-
cal corporation, and local radio
stations requested mall visitors to
bring canned goods or other non-
perishable foods for donation. The
team planned the design of a
canned food sculpture that best
characterized the theme "Stamp
out Hunger." Local grocery stores
were searched for types of con-
tainers needed to accomplish the


design. Once the foods were cho-
sen, a list of food items were tar-
geted for collection.Accumulated
food items were transferred to the
mall one day prior to the build-
ing of the sculptures. The finished
sculptures were on display for one
week. During that time, the mall
visitors could vote for their favor-
ite sculpture by donating a quar-
ter. All monies collected through
voting went to the local food bank,
whose volunteers manned the
voting tables throughout the
week. After the competition, all
food was donated to the local food
bank. Thanksgiving holiday com-
pletion date allowed the collect-
ed food to be distributed prior to
the holiday.
A collection of 16,391 pounds of
food and over $846.00 provided
approximately 15,700 meals.
The event was a tremendous
success, and had wide media cov-
erage from two newspapers, sev-
en radio stations and three major
television networks.








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LEGAL NOTES





Interior Design: From Title Act To Practice Act


J Michael Huey, General Counsel;
Huey, Guilday & dTcker, PA


On July 1, some 3,000 licensed in-
terior designers in Florida came un-
der new regulations which were
passes by the Florida Legislature
during the 1994 Regular Session.
Since 1988, interior designers have
been regulated under a "title act",
which allowed only certain persons
to hold themselves out to the public
as"interior designers", but otherwise
did not preclude anyone from pro-
viding interior design services to the
public. The new regulations oper-
ates like the architects'practice act,
allowing only persons who meet
specified educational and experience
qualifications to hold themselves out
to the public or practice interior de-
sign. The introduction ofthe bill cre-
ating the practice act caused quite a
furor among the ranks of the archi-
tects, interior decorators, and pe-
ripheral design groups.
Design professionals should be
aware of the new law and under-
stand its impact on the regulation
ofprofessional employees, its restric-
tions on services rendered by non-
professionals, and its limitations on
persons signing, sealing and submit-
ting documents of service to build-
ing officials. The most pertinent pro-
visions of the law are as follows:

Board Membership and
Qualifications for Licensure
The membership of the Board of
Architecture and Interior Design has
been increased from 9 to 11, consist-
ing of 5 architects, 3 interior design-


ers and 3 lay persons. Persons pre-
viously licensed under the practice
act if they have successfully com-
pleted either the NCIDQ, AID or
another board-approved examina-
tion. Those persons previously li-
censed who have not successfully
completed such an exam must suc-
cessfully complete the NCIDQ
exam section on building and bar-
rier-free codes, before April 1, 1996
in order to retain their licenses.
New applicants must be graduates
of FIDER-accredited, or other
board-approved interior design pro-
grams of four or more years. Also,
they must have at least 2 years ex-
perience with a 4-year degree or 1
year experience with a 5 year de-
gree.

Exceptions and Exemptions
Architects and architectural
partnerships and corporations con-
tinue to be able to provide interior
design services and to hold them-
selves out as interior designers.
However, other persons are now
precluded from offering or provid-
ing these services with a narrow
exception for"interior decorator ser-
vices" involving selection of surface
materials, window treatments,
wallcoverings, paint, floor cover-
ings, surface mounted lighting or
loose furnishings. The exemption
for design of certain building types
one or two family residences, farm
buildings, or other buildings cost-
ing less than $ 25,000 is applicable
to interior design as well as archi-
tecture.

Interior Design Definition and
Submission of Documents for
Permitting
The definition of interior design
has been modified to include
contract administration of
nonstructural interior design
construction and to clarify that
interior design does not include
design of architectural and
engineering interior construction
relating to building systems,
including structural, plumbing,


heating, ventilation, air
conditioning and mechanical and
electrical systems. Also, the
existing statute applicable to
signing and sealing of interior
design documents and their
submission to building officials was
modified. The new statute
specifically allows interior
designers to sign, seal and submit
interior design documents (if
required by a permitting body.)

However, the law was also clarified
to specifically prohibit interior
designers from submitting
documents containing any
structural, mechanical, plumbing,
heating, air conditioning,
ventilating, electrical, or vertical
transportation systems or
materially affecting life/safety
systems pertaining to fire safety
protection such as fire-rated
separations between interior
spaces, fire-rated vertical shafts in
multi-story structures, fire-rated
protection of structural elements,
smoke evacuation and
compartmentalization, emergency
ingress or egress systems and
emergency alarm systems.

Board Rules and Further
Legislative Review
It is anticipated that the newly
constituted board will adopt rules
more specifically implementing
some of the new provisions.
However, it will probably take some
period of time before the new board
members are appointed and such
rules are published. Meanwhile,
we understand that several of the
community colleges in the state
who have 2 year and 3 year interior
design programs are upset that
these programs are not sufficient to
meet the minimum educational
requirements for licensure. NCIDQ
or AID examinations will attempt
to persuade the legislature to
grandfather them as licensees
rather than require them to pass
any examination for licensure.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994













Architecture As A Tool For Learning


Littlewood Elementary
School Renovations and
Additions
Gainesville, Florida
Architect: Ponikvar & Asociates,
Inc., Gainesville, Florida
Principalin-Charge: Lewis Brown,
Jr.,AIA
Project Architect: Jack Ponikvar
Production Coordinator and
Contract Administrator.
Robert Williams
Consulting Engineers: Ingley,
Campbell, Moses & Asso.; Project
Management, Bodo & Associates,
Inc.; Structural, Gary W. Siebein &
Asso.; Acoustical Consultant,
Chance & Causseaux, Inc.
Civil Contractor. Charles R.
Perry Construction
Owner: Alachua County School
Board

Through extensive renovations
and additions, Littlewood
Elementary School received a
facelift in 1990 which doubled the
size of the facility. It was one of 40
schools designated for capital
improvements as part of a $100
million bond issue passed in 1990
for Alachua County Schools.
Originally built in the 1950s,
the Littlewood campus, although
unobtrusively tucked among the
trees, became a community land-
mark while the city expanded
around it. Unattractive temporary
structures accumulated at the
school site to accommodate the
city's growing population into the
northwest school zone. Now built
out from the trees and situated at
a very visible Gainesville intersec-
tion, Littlewood administers to
755 children.
Program directives from the
Alachua County School Board
included using architectural
innovation to provide an exciting
learning environment and
respecting the design diversity of
other campuses in the county.
With no "re-use" constraints, the
architect's parameters centered on


budget, educational specifications
and regulations and contextual
considerations.
In the area of contextual con-
siderations, the school works par-
ticularly well. The scale, massing
and use of materials are very ap-
propriate to the environs. The
use of color and the playful build-
ing elements which the architect
designed are very empathetic to
the children who attend the
school.
Similar to the existing struc-
ture are the materials, eave
height, width and color scheme.
Brick, concrete block, stucco and
glass were selected for continuity
with existing materials and dura-
bility and the existing green roof
carries over to the new standing
seam metal roof. Known for his
use of color and natural light,
Project Architect Jack Ponikvar
incorporated symbolic elementary
forms in yellow and red to articu-
late the simplistic openings in the
interconnecting walkways. Blue
tile insets and green cupolas fur-
ther emphasize the buildings
playful quality.
One of the first one-story
schools built in Alachua County,
the Littlewood campus radiated
out from a 350-foot central side-
walk that is similar to a "main
street" in a community. During
preliminary stages, the design
team named this sidewalk
"Littlewood Lane" and incorpo-
rated this basic community layout
into the new additions.
Littlewood Lane was extended
270 feet and it now intersects
with a new main sidewalk, Cake
Walk, which the students named
after school principal Jacque
Cake. This crosswalk, complete
with official street.signs, marks
the juncture of the old and new
facilities and serves as a land-
mark for the children, staff and
visitors.
The project consisted of ap-
proximately 40,000 sq. ft. of new
construction and 27,500 sq. ft. of


bTp, a crosswalk into courtyard, looking north; bottom, site plan Photo
by George Cott. Drawing, courtesy ofArchitect.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994
















renovation. With total construc-
tion cost of $5.4 million, the major
components included a new food
service building, a new adminis-
trative suite, new Head Start
classrooms, new classrooms for
pre-kindergarten students with
learning disabilities and physical
and emotional handicaps and a
new music suite.
Renovation work included as-
bestos removal, roof replacement
and several classroom expan-
sions. The library was also gut-
ted to accommodate more natural
light, storage areas and a produc-
tion room to house a student-run
news broadcast. The existing caf-
eteria was converted to an acous-
tically-sound multi-purpose room
which lends itself to special pro-
grams and events which include
parents.
The school originally had a di-
rect expansion air conditioning
system with electrical heat strips.
The engineer converted the reno-
vated spaces and all the new con-
struction to multiple air-cooled
chillers with air handlers and
VAV boxes.


Top, interior of library, street side
view, below left, Pre-Kindergarten
classroom looking east, lower
right, courtyard looking north to
east/southeast classrooms. Photos
by George Cott.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994











A Creative Learning Environment




Pine View School For The
Gifted, Sarasota, Florida

Architect: Carl Abbott FAIA
Architects/Planners PA Sarasota,
Florida
Architect of Record: W.R.
Frizzell, Inc. Owner: Sarasota
County
School Board Construction
Representative: Carol Woodson

T he new Pine View school is
uniquely suited to both the
specific educational programs
which it administers and to the
tropical environment in which it is
located. The first permanent cam-
pus for the Sarasota County
School Board's innovative gifted
program, this project combined
programmatic elements of inde-
pendence and a sense of commu-
nity into an architectural form
that relates to the tropical envi-
ronment.
The architectural team sought
to insure a feeling of openness
and independence in the siting
and orientation of the 150,000 sq.
ft., 47-acre-school. The horseshoe-
shaped masterplan for Pine View
takes its direction from Thomas
Jefferson's plan for the University
of Virginia. This school, however,
has a tropical central green which
focuses on a view of native Florida
wetlands and pines. The Media
Center serves as a focal point for
the school, recalling UVA's Ro-
tunda in its curved form. Exterior
walkways and courtyards connect
the 14 independent buildings on
the campus and shape the exte-
rior courtyard/classrooms.
Pine View serves 1,200
students in grades two through
12, a wide range of social
developmental stages that the
architects addressed through
careful control of scale in the
masterplan of the campus. The
classrooms are color-coded,
organized by subject being taught
and arranged beneath a series of


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994


j ~ I
















bright blue canopies which line i j'
walkways all around the school. c'
A towering OSHA-yellow mall
canopy provides shade and a
meeting area for students
adjacent to the cafeteria and
auditorium, both of which are
brightly colored. The gymnasium,
with its bold colors and exposed
structural ceiling is a straight
forward expression of both
volume and form while the
sloped-ceiling Media Centers
window wall offers a view of a
pine hammock.
Very much a tropical school,
the campus preserves its natural
surroundings by careful siting of
the buildings A large wetland
serves as focal point for the cen-
tral green. Pine View is a "green
school" in other ways, as well.
Classrooms can be opened to al-
low for cross-ventilation, non-4-
PCH formaldehyde-free carpeting
has been used to minimize indoor
air pollution and energy-saving Facing page entry detail, top, and
tinted glass was used on the gymnasium interior, below. This
south side of the buildings to pag top site plan, and below,
minimize heat load. view from covered walkway. Photos
The architects worked closely by Cooper Abbott. awin g courw
with school administration, teach- tesy of the architect.
ers and students during the de-
sign process and were careful to
address the unique range of de-
velopmental stages and educa-
tional missions of the school's pro-
gram while meeting budgetary
constraints.
By combining the skills of de-
sign-oriented professionals with
educational facility-oriented
firms, the architectural team cre-
ated a synergy of talents well-
suited to the project. The new
Pine View school seems to have
rekindled Sarasota County's de-
sire for quality designs that be-
gan in the 1950s with Paul
Rudolph's Sarasota High School.







FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994 13












Elementary Additions


Lake Forest Elementary
School, Additions and
Renovations, Gainesville, Fl

Architect: Flad & Associates
Gainesville, Florida
Principal-in-Charge: John
Blassick, AIA
Consulting Engineer. Affiliated
Engineers SE, Inc.
Landscape Architect: Flad &
Associates
Interior Designer: Flad &
Associates
Project Team: Michael
Vascellaro, AIA, Fred Robbert, Joe
Cearcia, AIA, Phyllis Brumfield,
IBO, Casey Upshaw, AA, Bill
Bethke, PA, Paul Hagel, RA, Ken
Blassick
Contractor: Bradley Construction
Owner: Alachua County School
Board


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994
















































The design concept for
additions to Lake Forest
Elementary School evolved from
the idea of developing images of
the "little old school house" rather
than planning one large single
complex.
The existing school was built in
1954 as a "finger plan" which
opens classrooms onto covered
walkways interconnected with
common use facilities. The exten-
sive additions designed by Flad &
Associates were defined by plan-
ning small building clusters- like
"individual school houses" creat-
ing courtyards that function as
exterior rooms. The additions re-
sulted in a strong image transfor-
mation.
The scope of the project in-
cluded the creation of new Kin-
dergarten, Administration Suite,
Art, Music and Media Centers,
and a Multi-Purpose building
which included Cafeteria and Au-
ditorium. Pre-school ESE and

FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994


Exceptional Education Resource
Suites, four general classrooms
and the remodeling of existing re-
source rooms were also part of the
project.
The extensive nature of these
additions allowed for a complete
image change for the school. In
addition to separate brick
buildings with courtyards and
covered walks, each building and
exterior space is clearly and
functionally identified, and each
has its own character. The design
for the portico of each building
allowed for the definition of a
particular identity while the
covered walkways that thread
through the school gave the
project a cohesive quality.
Lake Forest Elementary
received the 1994 City
Beautification Award for
Gainesville, in the Institutional/
Facilities category.


Photos by Kathleen McKenzie Drawing courtesy of the Architect.

15





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Analogy To The Written Word


Evanston Public Library
Proposal
Evanston, Illinois

Architect: Urbanform Design
Group, Inc. Fort Lauderdale, Fl.
Design Team: Kaizer Talib,
AIA, Principal; Fabrice Clouteau,
Design/Drawings; Thierry
Kawczynski, AIA Intern, Design/
Drawings; Voytek Szczepanski,
Renderings/Photos; Christine
Harris, Interior Design
Consultant


The following is excerpted
from a project proposal en-
titled 'Concept: Analogy Tb The
Written Word/Books Within
Books/the Library As A Stack of
Books"
Literature transcends human
experiences. Books are a product
of such experiences. From the
days of the fables told by one per-
son to another to the published
words of our time in books or on
laser recordings, books are loved
by one and all and they continue
to be part of us.
In an attempt to reflect the
functional aspects of a library and
thus "books," the subjects attempt
to become the object. The build-
ing begins to honor its contents
and in turn it infuses and invigo-
rates it with forms and textures
that intrinsically reflect its char-
acter. This analogy is carried fur-
ther to make legitimate claims to
its forms and details, thus mak-
ing the library spiritually part of
its primary reason for being LIT-
ERATURE WITHIN LITERA-
TURE BOOKS WITHIN
BOOKS. The building begins to
metamorphose itself in almost
Kafka-like manner and it
emerges from its structural
bounds to "become" a STACK OF
BOOKS.
While the base reflects how
strongly the building is built in a
rigid structural pattern, the first
floor and the mezzanine present a

FLORIDA ARCHITECT FaH 1994


bTp, perspective view of en-
trance; center, view of
atrium looking towards en-
trance; bottom, isometric of
above view of plan. Draw-
ings, courtesy of Architect.


visually dynamic space. The
entrance is covered with booklike
forms made of steel and fiberglass
sculptures. It allows the user to
enter the building by symbolically
immersing himself in books. Once
inside, as one moves around, he
knows that the spirit of literature
-the book- is becoming part of the
spirit of the user. He leaves the
outside world to enter the
fascinating realm of books which
transcends the physical world and
where literature becomes an
enlightening link devoid of the
realities of life.












All The World's A Stage


University of Florida
Center for the Performing
Arts, Gainesville, Florida
Architect: Flad & Associates
Gainesville, Florida
Consulting Engineer: Affiliated
Engineers SE, Inc.
Interior Designer. Flad &
Associates
Principal in Charge: John
Blassick, AIA
Project Team: Wendell Adell,
RA, Bilal Ajami, William Bethke,
RA, Ken Blassick, Phyllis
Brumfied, IBO, Bob Filippi, RA,
Joe Garcia, AIA, Paul Hagel, RA,
James McGinley, AIA, Fred
Robbert, Robert Taylor, RA, Casey
Upshaw, AIA
Contractor: The Auchter Co.
Owner: Board of Regents,
State University System
Theater Consultant: Robert A.
Lorrelli & Assoc., Amityville, NY

T he Performing Arts Center is
one of three key components
forming the nucleus of a cultural
complex located at the perimeter
of the University of Florida cam-
pus. The central design challenge
was to provide a state-of-the-art
theater experience within the pa-
rameters of an extremely limited
budget. This facility, constructed
for under $9 million, approaches
less than one-half of the cost of
similar structures. The reduction
in cost is probably attributable to
the decision to use a larger portion
of the budget on state-of-the-art
sound systems, lights and other
technical enhancements rather
than "marble floors and brass
handrails."
The 60,000 square foot facility
is handled like a black box theater
with traditional proscenium, dual
stage lifts and full fly gallery
features. The theater provides
orchestra seating for 1,000 and
mezzanine or balcony seating for
800, including 72 box seats in two
levels. The "Shoe Box" design was


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994















selected to achieve the required
box seating while maintaining
optimal sight and acoustical
design lines. There is an
acoustically-designed mechanical
system using large volume
underground return air ducts for
sound abatement.
Also included in the design are
formal lobbies, restrooms and
concessions, administrative of-
fices, a full range of private and
chorus dressing facilities, loading,
working and storage spaces and
technical support functions. The
siting along a formal axis, exte-
rior detailing and the exterior
lighting of the Center were de-
signed to create a sense of arrival
and enhance the theater experi-
ence as one approaches the
facility.
Construction material is stucco
over concrete block with custom-
designed metal work. The audito-
rium uses bow trusses with long
span acoustical metal deck. The
main facade of the theater has a
very formal presence and is obvi-
ously inspired by historicist mo-
tifs. The curving roofline with
central pavilion and bracketed
Photos of main facade and lobby, facing page and interior of auditorium, above, by Kathleen McKenzie Longitu- cornice gives a formal feeling to
dinal section drawing courtesy of Architect. the facade and clearly defines the
entry


TM -


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994









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Fall Conference
October 20-23,1994


Downtown Orlando


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Contact: AIA Florida (904) 222-7590
20 FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994









Don'tyou wish

we couldjust do this to CFCs.

In a way we can-
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VIEWPOINT




"Value Engineering": A Tool To Help Cut

Costs Without Sacrificing Project Goals
By William C. Mignogna, PE.


V alue engineering is a concept
which emerged almost by
accident during World War II
when widespread shortages of
labor and materials forced a
search for alternatives in the
manufacture of everything from
electricity to shoelaces.
Today, the concept is more rel-
evant than ever, especially as a
tool to enhance cost-efficiency in
the design and construction of
both public and private sector
projects.
Essentially, value engineering
is an organized process of inves-
tigation and analysis. Each ma-
jor element of a proposed project
is systematically reviewed in
terms of its function, its cost, al-
ternatives which could be used,
and the cost of those alternatives.
A structural engineer can per-
form a value analysis for the ar-
chitect at the outset of project de-
sign (before formal presentation
to the client) or later, to meet re-
vised budget parameters set by
the client.
Here are three "real life" exam-
ples of how value engineering was
used in three very different
project scenarios:

CASE #1--a new elementa-
ry school. The School Board Ad-
vised the architects that they
were seeking presentations at
$56/s.f. To build at that modest
price level, we suggested to our
architect client that pre-engi-
neered, manufactured metal
(structural steel plate girders) be
used instead of a structural steel
building frame (beams, columns,
joists).
However, in return for cost sav-
ings, there are compromises
which must be considered. The
pre- engineered components are


22


usually used with standing seam
metal roofs which, if not installed
properly, could have leakage prob-
lems, thus boosting life cycle
costs. Reroofing is a problem, too.
A new roof can be installed over a
standard metal deck and mem-
brane roof without disrupting use
inside the building. If a standing
seam roof leaks or its purlins de-
teriorate, it may have to be re-
moved, rendering the building
unusable until a new roof is in
place.
Using pre-engineered metal
also makes a building less flexi-
ble in terms of future add-ons,
such as additional loading for
lighting or air conditioning units.
However, in this case, the need
for more classroom space right
now, at an affordable price, out-
weighed concerns about future
building flexibility.
We also recommended use of
bare block for perimeter walls: ar-
chitectural block for the exterior
face with no stucco, and painted
block with no drywall on the in-
side. It would have been slightly
less expensive to build an exteri-
or wall system using metal studs
with stucco and gypsum sheath-
ing, but that system would not
have been as durable as block.
For interior walls which are less
susceptible to damage from
schoolyard play, we recommend-
ed metal studs with drywall.
Additional value engineering
recommendations included mini-
mal landscaping (sod with no ir-
rigation system), and elimination
of cosmetic treatments such as
canopies, towers and covered
walkways.

CASE #2--a resort facility.
The building features a parking
garage at ground level, a lobby


level above, and three stories of
guest room. The building is 355'
long and 110' wide.
Original plans called for 8"
post-tensioned slab for the top
three floors, 22" post-tensioned
transfer slab over the lobby, and
a series of over 100 post-tensioned
transfer beams, 7' to 12' wide and
26" to 42" deep, over the parking
level. Support columns did not
line up, resulting in these two
transfer levels.
Changes included lining up the
support columns from roof to
foundation. Where it was neces-
sary to move a column out of line
for space utilization purposes, a
beam was used to spread the load.
Plan revisions involved lining
up most columns on the lobby and
guest levels. As a result, most of
the second floor was changed from
22" to 8" slab.
Lining up the columns saved
almost 1,200 cubic yards of
concrete, or 130 truckloads. It
also saved weight (almost 2,500
tons), which reduced foundation
costs. The parking level was
changed to a solid 24" slab with
no beams. This produced
substantial savings in terms of
forming and steel costs, while
completely maintaining
structural integrity.

CASE #3--structural
repairs to a 15-year-old parking
garage. The facility is a one-story,
parking garage with parking on
ground level and on an uncovered
deck above.
Cracks on the upper deck were
causing rainwater to leak onto the
ground level parking area. Leak-
age had become so severe, the
deck was described as a "sieve."
There was concern that the leak-
age might also be rusting steel re-


enforcement bars in the concrete
slab.
The owner wanted a solution
which would stop the leakage at
the very lowest possible cost. Had
budget restrictions not been so
severe, we would have
recommended using a membrane
coating on the deck to waterproof
it. This coating typically lasts
about five years. The bare bones
alternative was a water sealer,
which was cheaper to apply but
will have to be reapplied every
year. The owner understood the
tradeoff.
To close deck cracks which had
been caused by normal expansion
and contraction due to thermal
conditions, we originally
recommended epoxy injections.
However, since the budget would
not support that approach and
since we determined that the
cracks were not structural
defects, we caulked the cracks
instead of injecting them.
The original recommendation
to re-stucco inside and outside
walls also had to be revised to
meet budget constraints. The al-
ternative was to apply heavy wa-
terproof paint over existing stuc-
co walls.
The low-cost alternative ap-
proaches that were utilized will
not provide the long-term solu-
tions we prefer to achieve for our
clients. However, they did give
the building owner the structur-
ally-safe, very low-cost solution
he wanted at this time. Cost sav-
ings from original recommenda-
tions were approximately
$75,000.
As construction costs continue
to rise, value engineering is cer-
tain to become an ever more com-
monplace and crucial element in
the preliminary design process.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fall 1994


















For the design team, there are
marketing ramifications as well.
Engineers and architects who ini-
tiate value engineering activities
send a clear signal that they are
sensitive to the client's needs and
willing to make every effort to
satisfy those needs.

William C. Mignogna, P.E., is
President ofO'Donnell, Naccarato
& Mignogna, a structural
engineering firm based in West
Palm Beach. The firm provides
structural design and inspection
services throughout the Southeast.


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technology transforms sun-
shine or dim daylight into an
even diffused interior light-
ing. Panels are available in
flat, curved, pyramid or dome
shapes and provide energy
conservation, reduced green-
house effect, and less UV dam-
age to building interiors. For
more information contact Kal-
wall at P.O.Box 237, Manches-
ter, NH 03105, call (603) 627-
3861, or Fax (603) 627-7905.

Curved Panel Available
An updated selection of curv-
ing metal panels are available
for systems building manufac-
turers. Curveline panels in-
clude a wide range of exposed
fastener roofing and wall pro-
files. Standing seam panels can
be curved up to 3 inches in
depth. Sheet metal trim and
flashings, and metal panels are
available for radiused concrete
fromwork. Designer may spec-
ify any desired radii and angles
of curvature to create contoured
roofs and walls, fascias, cano-
pies, decking and other compo-
nents. For further information
contact Curveline, Inc., 1-800-
899-0311 or Fax at (909) 947-1510.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994


Poured Safety Surfaces
A new, poured-in-place rub-
ber safety surface is available
for sports and recreation in-
dustries. Thirteen standard
colors and UV resistant, the
Viturf products are used
around swimming pools, in
weight rooms, and terraces.
Logos and patterns of choice
can be specified and installa-
tion is available. Tested for
shock attenuation and non
slip properties, all systems are
CPSC and ADA compliant.
Additional information is
available from Vitricon Inc,
(516) 231-1300; 800-777-6596
or Fax at (516) 231-1329.

I _


Railing System
A stainless steel, double bal-
uster railing has new design
applications that can be cus-
tomized to most building re-
quirements. Railings mount on


either floor, stair or stringer,
with different fittings and fill-
in panels allowing more indi-
vidual design flexibility. Flow-
ing lines add visual elements to
all stair forms. Systems meet
all codes. P&P ARTEC will de-
sign to order and install. For
more information contact P &
P ARTEC at 1461 Mark Street,
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007, or
by calling (708) 860-2990 or Fax
at (708) 860-0570.
New Removal Products
for Lead Based Paints
A new line of extra-viscous
strippers are now on the market
for effective abatement of lead-
based paints. A high-perfor-
mance removal of difficult oil
and latex paint, varnish, shellac,
enamel or urethane has been
formulated. For additional infor-
mation, contact Fiberlock Tech-
nologies, Inc., 1-800-342-3755 or
Fax (617) 547-6934.



























Glare Free Sconces
New wedge shaped, wall
mounted luminaries generate
high light levels and are pro-
tected by powder coat finish.
The trapezoidal, outdoor sconc-
es are suitable for both down-
lighting and uplighting applica-
tions, and offer uniformity of il-
lumination with minimized
glare, light trespass, and sky or


pollution. Precision optical sys-
tems allow for wide fixture
spacings with recommended
mounting height of 10-14 feet.
Additional information maybe
obtained by contacting the
manufacturer, mcPhilben Out-
door Lighting, 2661 Alvarado
Street, San Leandro, CA 94577,
or call at 1-800-227-0758.


Paintable Fiberglass
Wallcovering
TASSO is a pre-primed,
paintable fiberglass wallcover-
ing that requires only one coat
of paint instead of two at instal-
lation. It reduces installation
time, labor, and material costs,
has maximum wet dimension-
al stability during installation,
and a new technique binds any
loose fibers. Styles are available
in herringbone, burlap, and lin-
en textures and are 39 inches
wide with pretrimmed edges.
TASSO is an environmentally
friendly material and mold and
mildew resistant. Call TASSO,
1-800-888-2776, or Fax at 1-
305-429-8208.

Composite Windows
A new line of windows com-
bines exterior shield of compos-
ite material with interior wood
finish. The new line withstands
extreme weather without cor-


roding, bending or warping. The
windows offer low maintenance
and high performance compo-
nents. Available in standard siz-
es. Integrity windows products
include casements, awnings,
pictures, bows and bays. For
more information contact Integ-
rity, P.O. Box 100, Warroad, MN
56763; or call 1-800-862-7587.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT




e the Number


It's quick. It's free. It's important!

The advertisers in this issue of Florida Architect
are the financial backers of the publication. Our
advertisers know their ads are successful when you
inquire about their products and services. Help
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FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fa 1994
FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994


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So You Want To Design Schools...
By Janet Mcllvaine


Your energy mission..should you
choose to accept it...
"We want to save energy, but we
need to keep construction costs
down." We've all heard that before.
"It's up to you"..."you decide"..."I
trust your judgement"..."I'm sure
you know what's best." The school
board believes that you, the profes-
sional, will act in its best interest
when it comes to saving energy for
new facilities. Whether you consid-
er yourself an expert or not, the
tough decisions will be up to you.
Your client respects your advice,
but you may get some looks of
doubt when you inform your build-
ing committee that you advocate a
special glazing that costs $3 per
square foot more than plain clear
glazing. The most effective way to
overcome skepticism is with cold
hard numbers on the expected pay-
back. This is a regular component
of energy design review process for
commercial buildings at the Build-
ing Design Assistance Center
(BDAC) at the Florida Solar Ener-
gy Center.
Electronic ballasts or energy ef-
ficient magnetic ballasts? Single or
double pane glazing? Skylights?
Occupancy sensors? Increased ven-
tilation? Landscaping? Tough de-
cisions. A new resource, Energy
Efficient Design for Florida Edu-
cational Facilities, will soon be
available from the Florida Depart-
ment of Education, Office of Edu-
cational Facilities (DOE/OEF) to
assist design teams with energy
conservation decisions. The train-
ing manual summarizes a year's
worth of research on efficient de-
sign for new schools in three main
sections that should sound famil-
iar: Schematic Design, Design De-
velopment, and System Design.
Several energy design strategies
are discussed in each section. For
each strategy, the simulated annu-
al energy savings, annual energy
cost savings, net lifecycle savings,
and simple payback are presented
for several different Energy Con-
servation Measures (ECMs). In all,


approximately 40 different ECMs
were evaluated, each falling into
one of the following strategies:

Strategies for Schematic Design
Orientation
Spatial Configurations

Strategies forDesignDevelopment
Glazing Selection
Window Shading
Enhanced Envelope

Strategies for Systems Design
Efficient Lighting
Efficient HVAC

To compare 40 different options
and choose the right ones may seem
like an overwhelming task and it
certainly can be. But energy design,
like any other design skill gets eas-
ier and more intuitive with prac-
tice. Don't let the vast array of
ECMs prevent you from learning
to design a more energy efficient
project
Getting started. Begin by mak-
ing a commitment to select ECMs
that will save your client operating
funds. Before you can do that, you
need to know how your school is
likely to use energy. Energy use in
educational facilities varies wide-
ly from residential energy use, so
even if you have been successful at
residential energy conservation,
you'll do well to consider how ener-
gy is used in Florida schools (see
figure).


2%
Water heating
21,000 kWh
3%
Exterior
33,as Vh


>8%
Miscellaneous
101,000 kWh

6%
Refrigeration
63,000 kWh
5%
Cookin /
54,000 kMh


The philosophy of the DOE/OEF
manual is aimed at the big targets:
lighting and air conditioning.
Lighting not only consumes elec-
tricity (about 30% of the total), but
also produces heat (about 15% of
the peak load). This is obviously a
good place to take a swing at ener-
gy consumption. Obtain BDAC's
publication "Side-by-Side Testingof
Commercial Lighting Systems" for
detailed information on the perfor-
mance of approximately 40 differ-
ent lighting assemblies. Target the
HVAC system by minimizing inter-
nal heat gains (see chart below)
wherever possible and by selecting
efficient system components.


Step 1: To begin with, make sure
that whatever HVAC and lighting
systems you have specified are ac-
tually installed and operated ac-
cording to spec. Building commis-
sioning to ensure proper installa-
tion and operation is very impor-
tant, particularly with energy sav-
ing measures, such as occupancy
sensors, whose successful opera-
tion depends on calibration and
adjustment.

Step 2: Browse the pages of the
new DOE/OEF training manual,
ask around for other energy coor-
dinators' experiences, and then se-


Peak HVAC Load for a Typical Classroom Building
Type of Load Component of Load % of Total Load

Internally generated heat Occupants 29
and moisture Lights 15
Equipment 6

Walls I
Roof 2
Externally gained heat Glass conduction 2
and moisture Glass radiation 7
Underground 2
surfaces 36
Infiltration/
Ventilation


Source: Mclvaine, Mallette, Parker, et al, 1994. Energy Efficient Design for Florida
Educational Facilities. Florida Department of Education, Office of Educational
Facilities, TIllahassee, FL.


.... I "Ltn__ TT-- TH- I- 1K1..A 1n 1.. -i -. -_iI l *I-.'1A* -_


Iypical Annual Energy use um rlonda Educational macllles
10%
ventilation
109,000 kWh
33%



Source: Synergic
Resources Corpo-
ration, 1992. Elec-
600 & trcity Conserva-
tion and Energy Ef-
ficiency in Florida:
Phase I Final Re-
32% port. SRC report
Interor 7777-RC, Florida
3 hti 0ng Energy Office, Tal-
344 lahassee, FL.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fa 1994















lect one or two cost effective ECMs
to incorporate into a single build-
ing or facility design. Call on
BDAC if you need assistance mak-
ing the choice. After the design
grows into a building, evaluate the
performance of each ECM. Did it
behave as expected? Are the clients
and users of the building satisfied
with its performance? Question the
outcome of the experience before
making an ECM a standard design
procedure.
I encourage this conservative ap-
proach to allow designers, engi-
neers, facilities planners, building
users, administrators and opera-
tions staff a chance to warm up to
new building features. Obviously,
this process makes more sense with
a new technology or an ECM that
is affected by the use patterns of the
building rather than with an ac-
cepted technology like compact flu-
orescent lamps.

Step 3 Drop me a note to let me
know how it all worked out. We'll
get the word out to others.

Step 4 Repeat Step 2 incorpo-
rating ECM(s) as you go. It may
take many rounds of energy design
practice to get to an optimal ener-
gy design process.

The process in fast forward. In
writing the new training manual,
we had the luxury of being able to
simulate all the possibilities and
then pick the one that produced the
greatest net lifecycle savings (the
lifecycle savings minus the lifecy-
cle cost). For classroom buildings,
that ECM turned out to be spectral-
ly selective glazing, an advanced
glazing with a very low shading
coefficient and a high visible light
transmittance. We incorporated it
into our classroom building and
then reevaluated all the other
ECMs again. We continued this
process of selecting the most cost
effective ECM until we ran out of
ECMs that had a net savings..This
process produced an optimized en-
FLORIDA ARCHITECT Fal 1994


ergy design for this classroom
building (see figure). Plotted along
with the cumulative lifecycle sav-
ings for this set of ECMs is the cu-
mulative first cost required for each
addition. Though we don't recom-
mend that design teams bite offthis
much on the first try, it is an en-
lightening analysis. Compare the
magnitude of net savings, which
already has the lifecycle costs sub-
tracted out ofit, to the required first
cost for each ECM. The savings
potential is large.


occupant use characteristics. These
include dimming lighting controls,
window shades, occupancy sensors,
and HVAC systems. For example,
a daylighting system is affected by
spatial configuration of the build-
ing as well as orientation, window
shading, and glass type. In prepar-
ing the manual we found that some
ECMs, such as daylighting, are
more complex but have big energy
payoffs. The manual will assist you
in coordinating the components.


Optimal Integration of ECMs
into Classroom Building

' Cumulative net lifecycle savings -- Cumulative first cost


$180,000
$160,000
$140,000
$120,000 .
$100,000 -
$80,000 -
$60,000
$40,000
$20,000
$0
Base Case 1 2 3
1 Spectrally selective glazing
2 Screw chiller
3 T-8s with electronic ballasts
4 Occupancy sensors

Hints for Step 2 For your first
try at incorporating an ECM, select
an advanced glass (one with a very
low shading coefficient), optimal
orientation (long axis of each build-
ing aligned with the east-west axis),
or an electronic ballast lighting sys-
tem with T8 lamps. None of these
measures rely on other building
characteristics to save energy; they
are non-interactive ECMs. Other
non-interactive ECMs include re-
flective exterior finishes (solar in-
frared reflectivity of 0.5 or greater)
and LED exit signs.
Interactive ECMs require more
thoughtful consideration because
they may be affected by building or


4 5 6 7 8
5 Reflective roof finish
6 Dimming electronic ballasts
7 LED exit signs
8 Reflective exterior wall finish

The future. The DOE, Office of
Educational Facilities will soon be
announcing a series of workshops
on energy efficient design for edu-
cational facilities. These free work-
shops will use the new manual,
Energy Efficient Design for Florida
Educational Facilities as a basis for
bringing you up to date on the lat-
est information while providing a
forum for the exchange of ideas.
As you begin your energy design
adventure, remember that BDAC
provides free energy analysis
through its commercial building
design reviews. This service pro-
vides design teams with recommen-
dations on appropriate energy de-


sign solutions. Our recommenda-
tions are free and no one is required
to comply with our recommenda-
tions. Our job is to work with the
design team to bring about the most
energy efficient design within the
given program. We have three
main objectives which are embod-
ied in both the design review pro-
cess and the new manual. They are
to:

-Clarify the typical energy use pat-
tern of the building type,
-Evaluate and implement ECMs
available at the current phase of
design,
-Suggest ways of improving on the
process next time.


Each of these three points plays
an important role in our education-
al mission. If you want to learn
more about the new training man-
ual for energy-efficient school de-
sign or if you want to get on the
mailing list for our semi-annual
newsletter BDAC energy files, con-
tact me at (407) 783-0300 ext. 296;
300 State Road 401, Cape Canav-
eral, FL 32920; or fax to (407) 783-
2571.


Janet Mcllvaine holds a BS in
Design from Clemson University's
CollegeofArchitecture. Shehasbeen
a research assistant at the Florida
Solar Energy Center for four years.
This work was sponsored by the
Florida Department of Education,
Office of Educational Facilities.


--






New Workers' Comp Rules


The Florida Legislature re-
cently changed the Workers'
Compensation Act to narrow the
definition of compensable inju-
ries. Employers can now deny
claims for injuries not directly
caused by job duties, but be
aware that doing so may open the
door to civil suits and wide-rang-
ing liability.
Previously the Act defined a
compensable injury as "arising
out of" the claimant's occupation.
Courts consistently interpreted
that language broadly. Essen-
tially, they held than an employ-
ee suffering an accident at work
-- such as a fall while walking to
the plant's restroom -- was enti-
tled to Workers' Compensation
benefits. Under the new defini-
tion, an injury is compensable
only when the employee's work is
a "major contributing cause."
That means the slip-and-fall on
the way to the restroom isn't com-
pensable; an injury sustained as


the employee worked on the pro-
duction line would be.
While employers may be quick
to deny some claims under this
new definition, in many cases a
wiser alternative is accepting the
Workers' Compensation claim.
Here's why: Once an employer
agrees that an injury is compens-
able, the Workers' Compensation
Act bars the claimant from pro-
ceeding with any civil lawsuits.
Further, the Board of Industrial
Claims has strict formulas regu-
lating how much compensation
an employee can receive. The
employer's liability exposure is
fixed, and the company knows
exactly much must be paid.
On the other hand, if the em-
ployer denies the claim, the em-
ployee can sue in circuit court or
county court. Here, depending on
the injury's severity, the pain-
and-suffering damages a jury or
judge could award are potential-
ly unlimited. Furthermore, the


employer may have to pay 100
percent of lost wages until the
claimant turns 65. Under Work-
ers' Compensation, the employer
is responsible only for a certain
percentage of the salary, calculat-
ed by standard formulas. The
employer is responsible for all
current medical expenses and
sometimes future medical ex-
penses. These are just some of
the additional exposures the em-
ployer could face in a common law
suit.
Rather than automatically re-
jecting Workers' Compensation
claims that don't meet the defini-
tion, employers are well-advised
to quickly and thoroughly inves-
tigate these claims.

ED. NOTE: This information
was provided by, and is the opin-
ion of, Richard D. Heller and Paul
O. Lopez of the law firm, Tripp,
Scott, Conklin & Smith in Ft.
Lauderdale.


Classified Ads
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Send resume and copy of ad to
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33135-3014, Ref: Job Order
#FL-1077487.


FLORIDA ARCHITECT FaD 1994


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