Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00300
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1993
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00300
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text


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Circle 5 on Reader Inquiry Card



Energy-Efficient Design An
Architectural Challenge 16
An exploration of the role of the architect
and the Florida Design Initiative by Larry Peterson.
The World's Most Energy Efficient Building 19
SThe new Florida Solar Energy Center in Cocoa is
being designed by the Architects Design Group, Inc.
Ingrid Melody
Recycled Buildings Restore Life To A Community 22
Currie Schneider Associates AIA, PA, has restored an old
Delray Beach school and turned it into a showstopper
Spring 1993 Crystal Kauffan
Vol. 40, No. 2
A Corporate Model of Energy Efficiency 24
Spillis Candela & Partners designed energy saving features
into the world headquarters ofAAA in Lake Mary, Florida
Patty Hattaway
The Nuts and Bolts of Energy Efficient Design
From the Architect's POV 26
Florida architect Larry Maxwell, AIA, has had first hand
experience in designing energy efficient buildings. In this
article, he tells FA readers how to rise to the challenge
of the 90s.
Learning About Tensioned Fabric Structures 28
Students in the Florida A & M School ofArchitecture design
a fabric structure for outdoor events.
Molly E. Smith

Editorial 7
News 9
Chapter Awards 10
Technology 12
Residential Rainfall Collection Systems:
Technology As Form Determinant Molly E. Smith
Legal Notes 15
Misplaced Faith In Forms Steven A. Anderson, Esq.
Rooftop Revenue: The Roofing System's Role in
Energy Savings Paul Kidwell 31
Signage ... ADA Compliant or ADA
Complicated? Vince Harrigan 33
Checking Fenestration Test Results Pays Off
In Florida Howard Moore 35
New Products 37

Cover photo of the tensioned fabric structure at Florida A & M University is by Ron Shaeffer



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Circle 11 on Reader Inquiry Card



Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Design and Production
Peter Mitchell Associates, Inc.
Boyd Brothers Printers
Publications Committee
Roy Knight, AIA, Chairman
Keith Bailey, AIA
Gene Leedy, AIA
Will Morris, AIA
Don Sackman, AIA
Editorial Board
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Dave Fronczak, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Jerome Filer, AIA
250 Catalonia Avenue
Suite 805
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Vice President/President-elect
John Tice, AIA
909 East Cervantes
Pensacola, FL 32501
Richard Reep, AIA
510 Julia Street
Jacksonville, FL 32202
Past President
Henry C. Alexander, Jr., AIA
4217 Ponce De Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, FL 33146
Regional Directors
James H. Anstis, FAIA
444 Bunker Road, Suite 201
West Palm Beach, FL 33405-3694
John Ehrig, AIA
7380 Murrell Rd., Suite 201
Melbourne, FL 32940
Vice President/Member
Services Commission
Karl Thone, AIA
P.O. Box 14182
Gainesville, FL 32604
Vice President/
Public Affairs Commission
Rudy Arsenicos, AIA
2560 RCA Blvd., Suite 106
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410
Vice President/Professional
Excellence Commission
William Blizzard, AIA
11300 Fourth St N., Ste. 100
St. Petersburg, FL 33716

This important issue of Florida Architect is all about energy. Please take
time to read the articles and study the charts and graphs. This issue is
full of up-to-date information for any architect who plans to design
buildings in Florida in the coming decades. These articles represent the ideas
and opinions of architects, students, professors, clients, public officials and
representatives of the Florida Solar Energy Center and the Governor's
Energy Office.
Projects featured in this issue range from a Florida A & M University stu-
dent project using tensioned fabric to the "most energy efficient building in
the world"- the new Florida Energy Center in Orlando.
According to Larry Peterson, the author of this issue's lead story and a pol-
icy advisor to the Florida Energy Office (FEO), "The Chiles Administration
and the FEO are committed to achieving energy efficiency in state buildings
and to developing an energy efficiency business sector in Florida. Every dol-
lar that is saved in energy expenses is a dollar that goes directly into Florida's
economy. Redirecting $1 billion from current energy expenditures could cre-
ate $2 billion of new growth in the Florida economy." Peterson and others
believe we can redirect some of the dollars we already have in Florida and
spend them on building our own businesses rather than export the dollars,
and the business, out of state.
The architect's role in all of this is tremendous. If building designers are to
emerge as heroes in the 21st century, they must begin right now "taking the
high road" as Peterson calls it insisting upon designs that maximize energy
efficiency as a primary requirement. "The question," he says, "is not whether
a design should be energy efficient, but how can we make it more energy effi-
cient?" That is the challenge to Florida's architects.
Also, special thanks to architect Steven Langston of Architects Design
Group for sharing his sketches of the Florida Solar Energy Center which
were used as illustrations throughout this issue. DG


Ijaf \


Francis Walton Passes
After designing more than
800 buildings, Florida architect
Francis R. Walton, FAIA, died at
the age of 82. Mr. Walton was a
longtime resident of Volusia
County where he left a legacy of
designs including Peabody
Auditorium, two Volulsia Jai Alai
frontons, the Ormond Beach
Library, the Children's Home
Society offices, the Tomoka
State Park Museum and the
Florida Power and Light
Francis Walton graduated
from the University of Florida
School of Architecture in 1934
and was a longtime member of
the American Institute of Archi-
tects. In 1971 he was made a
Fellow of the Institute and in
1970, he was awarded the Gold
Medal by the Florida Associa-
tion/AIA, the highest honor that
the state association can bestow
on one of its members. Mr.
Walton was always very actively
involved with the practice of
architecture at both the state
and local levels. In 1947, he
organized the Daytona Beach
Chapter of the AIA. He was a
member of the State Board of
Architecture and past chairman
of the Daytona Beach Down-
town Development Authority.

FAMU/SOA Holds 2nd
Annual Kinship
The second annual celebra-
tion of "Kinship: An African-
American Aesthetic" was spon-
sored by the Florida A&M
University School of Architec-
ture, February 21-28. The week
long celebration was directed by
Dr. Richard K. Dozier, Associate
Dean, and it focused on African-
American communities. An
exhibit of the work of African-
American architects and pro-
jects was on display in the
School of Architecture Gallery.
"Revisioning Frenchtown"
was the title of a Design Char-
ette which was held in conjunc-
tion with the program. The
intent of the charette was to

examine the possibilities for
Frenchtown, a African-American
community in Tallahassee, and
to target visions which would
provide continuity to the area as
an ethnic urban landscape.
Invited architects led teams of
students in an all-night charette
which produced plans and draw-
ings that were presented to the
entire conference the following
Featured speakers for the
Kinship Seminar were Jack
Travis and J. Max Bond, Jr.
Travis is the Editor of African-
American Architects in Current
Practice. He is an award-winning
architect and interior designer
who served as the architectural
consultant for the film "Jungle
Fever". His recent works
include commissions for film-
maker Spike Lee and actor
Wesley Snipes.
J. Max Bond, Jr. was former-
ly the Dean of City College of
New York and he has served on
the New York City Planning
Commission. He is currently a
partner in the New York firm of
Davis, Brody Architects and
commissions include the Martin
Luther King, Jr. Center for
Nonviolent Social Change in
Atlanta and the Schomburg
Library, Harlem Studio Museum
and Lionel Hampton houses in
Kinship activities were coor-
dinated by SOA faculty mem-
bers Andrew Chin and David
Brown with funds partially pro-
vided by the Title III program.

J Max Bond, Jr.

Jack Travis

1993 HMA Buyer's Guide
The Hardwood Manufactur-
er's Association has its 1993
Buyer's Guide & Directory avail-
able. The book is a valuable tool
for purchasers of hardwood
lumber since it provides accu-
rate information on member
mill's species, products and
The Buyer's Guide primary
list consists of 46 pages of com-
panies organized alphabetically,
followed by a useful index list-
ing companies geographically,
by city and state. The directory
includes a comprehensive cata-
loging of sawmill and concentra-
tion yard locations, speciality
products, hardwood species,
hardwood-producing states and
mill capabilities.
To order the HMA Buyer's
Guide, contact the Hardwood
Manufacturer's Association, 400
Penn Center Blvd., Suite 530,
Pittsburgh, PA 15235, (412) 829-
0770, or fax (412) 829-0844.

Affordable Housing
Winners Announced
The Community Redevelop-
ment Agency (CRA) and the City
of Delray Beach honored the
winners of the Affordable
Housing Competition, a program
which is part of the CRA's
Affordable Housing Program.
The goal of the program is to
revitalize deteriorating neighbor-
hoods by introducing new
homes priced from $55,000 to

$75,000 for home buyers with
annual incomes between $17,500
and $25,000. The winning entries
were considered for use in a
Model Block Program in Delray
Approximately 100 teams of
architects, landscape architects,
general contractors and manu-
factured housing specialists
from South Florida and other
areas entered the competition. A
jury comprised of community
leaders, City and CRA officials,
design and construction profes-
sionals, and financial specialists
awarded four $1,000 first prizes,
two $500 second prizes and
three commendations. Winning
entries were selected on the
basis of their appropriateness in
the neighborhood, relationship
to the street, development of the
outside spaces, organization of
the floor plan and overall
First prize winners included
Wayne Berenbaum of Boca
Raton, Ted Hoffman of Miami,
John Meachem of Miami and
Marilys Nepomechie and Molly
Feldman-Adams of Miami.
Second prize recipients were
Dan Carter and George Brewer
of Delray Beach and Rosendo
Marcet of Miami.
Commendations went to
Alberto Abad and Glenn Pate of
Ft. Lauderdale, Shubankar
Sanyal and Elizabeth Caisson of
Sunrise and Dan Stuver and
Harriett Boyce of Charlottes-
ville, Virginia.

Drawing by:
Marilys Nepomechie, AIA


Chapter Design Awards

Florida Northwest Chapter AIA

The 1992Awardsfor Excellence in Architecture for the Florida Northwest Chapter were presented to seven projects in the Pensacola area. The jury consist-
ed of Nicholas D. Davis, AIA, Professor ofArchitecture, Auburn University, Jim Jipson, Chairman, Department ofArt, The UI .- '.., of West Florida and
Rick Gardner, Architectural Photographer, Houston, Texas.

Honor Award
National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
Montgomery, Alabama
Architect: Bullock-Tice Associates Architects, Inc.
Contractor: W.M. Marble, Inc.

Jury: "Excellent and clear organization of plan elements unified on the
exterior by sophisticated curvilinear massing. The interiors are func-
tional both in terms of operations and aesthetic considerations."

Merit Award

Jury: "Excellent
blending of a
tremendous vari-
ety of diverse ele-
ments. Scale,
scope and volume
variations could
have created
chaos, but instead
produced a well-
integrated struc-
ture full of harmo-
ny and visual

Merit Award
Pensacola Cultural
Center (adaptive reuse)
Pensacola, Florida
Architect: Quina
Phase I, Greenhut
Phase II,
Construction Services,

Jury: "We were pleased
by the effort to retain the
best historical qualities
of the original building
while still allowing a
contemporary program
of use to work."

Merit Award
Hightower Residence
Gulf Breeze, Florida
Architect: Spencer
and Maxwell
Architects, P.A.
Contractor: Gregory
'1^ Simms Construction

Jury: "Jury was
impressed with modifi-
cations that did not
require major structural
surgery, but did greatly
improve the look, orga-
nization and spatialfeel
of the residence."



Honorable Mention
University of West Florida
Center for Fine and Performing Arts
Pensacola, Florida
Architect: Carlan Consulting Group
Associate Architect: Mitchell/Giurgola
Contractor: Indus Construction Co.

Honorable Mention
Navy Youth Activity Center
Pensacola Navel Air Station
Architect: Bullock-Tice Associates
Architects, Inc.
Contractor: Moore and Burkett, Inc.

Honorable Mention
Johnson Residence
Pensacola, Florida
Architect: Spencer and Maxwell
Architects, PA
Contractor: Packy Maxwell

Jury: "This is an exceptionally rich and varied Jury: "This award is in recognition of the
program which is eloquently expressed in the building interiors which exhibit an atmos-
building's massing, restrained materials and here of fun within a well-coordinated frame-
clear functional expression." work of color, light and space."

Jury: "Dramatic change in appearance, scale
and apparent comfort level since this remodel-
ing. The courtyard dropped into the center of
the house seems an effective and unique design

Palm Beach Chapter
The Palm Beach Chapter Design Awards for 1992 resulted in the selection of two projects to receive awards. The jury included Carl
Abbott, FAIA, Mark Smith, AIA, Cooper Abbott, Kevin Kuenzel and Javier Suarez, AIA.

Honor Award
D'Alessandro Residence
Architect: Mitchell O'Neil, AIA

Award of Merit
Seaboard Train Station Restoration
West Palm Beach, Florida
Architect: Oliver-Glidden & Partners Architects & Planners, Inc.

Jury: "The elevations are very elegant and the building looks like a
Piece of artwork in the woods. It is particularly nice the way the
screen cage flows into the block wall."

Jury: This restoration is very well done. It appears to have adhered
closely to the spirit of the original architect and with time, it will look
even better."



Residential Rainfall Collection Systems:

Technology As Form Determinant
by Molly E. Smith

W would you drink the water
that drains from the sur-
face of your roof? Many people
think of this as a frightening
proposition. Yet people will
readily drink water that is ex-
tracted from rivers or lakes and
into which the wastewater of
dozens of other communities is
channeled. It is the thought of
drinking water from a structure
- rather than the actual water
quality that is objectionable.
Peter Pfieffer, an architect
based in Austin, Texas, relates
that the public water supply was
recently tested in order to com-
pare its quality to that of his
client's water-harvesting home.
In this test, the water collected
from the home's metal roof sur-
face was 25 times cleaner than
the municipal water supply.
Owners of water-harvesting
homes are able to tailor their
water supply to meet personal

preferences such as: selecting
their own filtration system
(ultra-violet light, chemical, or
other); providing irrigation for
landscaping and gardening
needs; directing overflow to
home water gardens; and many
other options. It is this indepen-
dence which sets these home-
owners apart from the norm.
Unlike Austin, which receives
about 25-30 inches of annual rain-
fall, the Central and South Flor-
ida region is "water rich," receiv-
ing about 50-60 inches of rain per
year. Much of this abundant
resource is quickly lost, how-
ever, due to irreversibly altered
hydrological patterns. During its
early settlement, 60 percent of
Florida's wetlands (natural water
storage and filtration areas) were
drained and filled. Today, the
combined seasonal demands
on surface and groundwater
sources in Florida regularly ex-

ceed municipal water availability,
and the demand for freshwater
withdrawals is expected to in-
crease with the projected growth
of population and economic activ-
This alteration of the state's
hydrology, along with increased
pollutant loadings, has degraded
the state's water quality. With-
out the natural, gradual sheet
flow of water through wetlands,
there is less time for nutrients to
be assimilated by our environ-
ment. Nutrients and pollutants
from point and nonpoint sources
are swept downstream by way of
canals and river channels to be
discharged into lakes and other
water bodies. Aquifers (water-
bearing geologic formations sur-
rounded by extremely perme-
able materials) are particularly
sensitive to groundwater pollu-
tion, especially as increased de-
mands lead to overwithdrawals.

In rural areas, eroded soil, fertil-
izers, pesticides, and animal
wastes from agriculture, sedi-
ment and nutrients from silvicul-
ture, and sediment from mining
have been found in runoff. In
urban areas, the pollution of sur-
face and groundwater supplies
by surface washoff from road-
ways, parking lots, construction
sites, buildings, and even unde-
veloped land degrades water
quality and impacts vital aquatic
ecosystems. Materials used in
the construction and mainte-
nance of buildings and infra-
structure are major sources of
pollution. Metal plating, paints,
wood preservatives and copper
and galvanized piping corrode,
flake, dissolve, decay, or other-
wise deliver potentially harmful
chemicals and heavy metals to
the central water supply.
Public water treatment
works, which were constructed



and continue to be built at enor-
mous public expense, were de-
signed to preserve the quality of
our water supply. The funds
spent on these works, however,
are just the tip of the iceberg
and constitute only one portion
of the true cost of our potable
water. The incredibly low cost of
a gallon of water on our monthly
utility bill does not include the
hidden costs paid by the com-
munity. For instance, each
water processing plant costs
millions, sometimes billions, of
dollars and is usually funded
through local bonds at an addi-
tional expense to the taxpayer.
Each of these plants must be
installed with extensive infra-
structure pipes, pumps, and
lift stations which must be
constantly maintained and up-
graded. These plants have a lim-
ited life span and must be com-
pletely replaced or renovated
every 20 or so years. This sys-
tem works, though, only if there
is water to extract and process;
if not, much more expensive so-
lutions must be engineered to
alter or impose upon the land-
scape a means by which water
may be delivered. Dams, canals,
dikes, and man-made lakes are
just a few of the many solutions
that have been employed, and
they are so expensive that they
must be funded by the federal
government. One community
could not possibly afford to fi-
nance such an undertaking.
Such megaprojects produce
costly side effects. Whole
ecosystems die when water is
diverted from one region to an-
other, areas become flooded
when dams or dikes fail, and
earthquakes are induced by
large, man-made lakes. The list
is endless, with each alteration
generating another effect, and
all are paid for by the taxpayer.
Since about 1900, our water
delivery process has been based
on a "linear" approach. Water is
extracted from the source, deliv-
ered to the consumer, used by
the consumer, filtered, and,

then, channeled away from the
community. But because this ap-
proach doesn't replenish the
source, such a system exists
only if there is a clean and un-
limited source. Neither of these
conditions can be met, given our
current supply and pollution
problems. Opponents advocate
a "circular" system of delivery
which involves obeying nature's
inviolable law of return. It en-
tails sending our used water
back to the cleansing system of
soil, plants, air, and sunshine for
reclamation and reuse, over and
over again. In a circular system,
a site's resources are captured
and utilized by its occupants,
then disposed of in ways that
are appropriate to the ecological
filters that already exist on site.
Today, the demands placed
on the earth are beyond nature's
regenerative capacities; the
ecosystems of this world are
naturally balanced, and re-
sources are finite. Every struc-
ture built should contribute to
its environment, and it is a build-
ing professional's duty to be-
come familiar with the problems
that are associated with or relat-
ed to the profession. Tech-
nology provides us with a
palette of choices, any one of
which may be the key to solving
or alleviating a societal problem.
What the building professional
must do is recognize the alterna-
tives and apply them creatively
to design solutions.
An individual rainfall collec-
tion system must contain the fol-
lowing basic elements: a catch-
ment surface (roof surfaces,
paved areas, walkways, decks),
collection and concentration
components, separation and
treatment units, a storage facili-
ty, and distribution capabilities.
The catchment surfaces af-
fect the amount of water collect-
ed. Most importantly, they may
affect the quality of runoff re-
ceived. Careful attention should
be paid to collection surface
composition, size, and slope so
that harmful leachates do not

contaminate the potable water
supply and excessive velocities
do not waste rainfall.
Concentration components
(gutters, downspouts, flashings,
and piping) should also be care-
fully designed. They should be
sized to handle the intensity of
the local rainfall without over-
flow, and their chemical compo-
sition should be carefully select-
ed so as to provide clean and
harmless runoff. Overall, the
collection surface shape should
be designed to simplify the
whole collection system.
The separation and treat-
ment units should provide the
level of filtration needed for the
intended use of the resource.
For instance, elaborate filtration
units will not be necessary if the
runoff will not be used for
potable water. The designer
should pay careful attention to
provide the correct filtration de-
vices for the end use. Over-de-
sign could add unneeded ex-
pense, and under-design could
render the water non-potable.
The storage distribution
components should also be de-
signed according to the intend-
ed use of the resource. The de-
signer should first determine,
based on occupancy, how much
water will be needed. Then, the
storage facility (cistern) should
be sized accordingly. This may
be a steel, fiberglass, pre-fabri-
cated or poured-in-place con-
crete container. In addition, the
distribution components (piping
and pumps) should be designed
to deliver the desired amount
and pressure of water to build-
ing occupants.
Examine the diagrammatic
model shown in this article.
Rain is received from rain-bear-
ing clouds. The surface area is
based on the horizontal projec-
tion of the collection surfaces.
Two are shown here: a rooftop
and a fabric gazebo roof. This
rain is collected and distributed
by gutters, downspouts, and
pipes to be delivered to a sepa-
ration and treatment tank. The

first wash of rain is wasted, as it
contains the highest concentra-
tion of pollutants. The water is
then stored in a cistern; when
needed, the water is drawn by
pump into the household for
use. The gray water (from show-
ers and dishwashers, containing
no biological waste) is utilized
for irrigation purposes by means
of perforated underground
pipes, and black water (water
containing biological waste such
as from toilets) is disposed of
properly by way of septic tank
and drainfield where it is filtered
by the earth to ultimately
recharge the underlying aquifer.
Overflow from the collection
surfaces is redirected to be de-
tained by a surface water body,
where it will once again evapo-
rate and renew the cycle as rain.
So, "Would you drink the
water that drains from your roof
or other structures?" The an-
swer should be, overwhelming-
ly, YES! It is certainly reason-
able to assume that such a
proposition is realistic and not
really frightening at all. Design-
ers should take the opportunity
to utilize this age-old technology
by applying creative solutions to
a growing problem. The design
of rainfall collection surfaces
can be an exciting opportunity
to explore aesthetically beautiful
forms that collect water. Butter-
fly wings, inverted pyramidal
shapes, inverted barrel vaults,
and cup-like surfaces are just a
few of the endless shapes which
honestly express the collection
of rainfall. This opportunity to
unite the application of science
and art is one which design pro-
fessionals should not ignore.

Molly E. Smith is a recipient of
the Master ofArchitecture degree
from Florida A & M University.
She plans to pursue a career in
architectural research.


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Misplaced Faith in Forms
By Steven A. Anderson

This is a true story. Only the
names have been changed to pro-
tect the guilty (actually, a court
stipulation prevents disclosure of
the parties.)

Ledo Architects, Inc.(a fic-
tional name) just paid a cool
$1.3 million to a former and
very unhappy client. The claim
was based on the theory of im-
proper supervision of the Con-
tractor and inadequate adminis-
tration of the contract. LAI was
working under a STANDARD
TECT (1977), AND LAI had NO
separate or special supervision
duties under the contract.
How can this happen in light
of the protective language of
1.5.4 of the contract that "...the
Architect shall not be required to
make exhaustive or continuous
on-site inspections to check the
quality or quantity of the work."?
Or, the language of 1.5.5 that
"The Architect shall not have
control or charge of and shall not
be responsible for construction
means, methods, techniques, se-
quences or procedures..."?
Easy. LAI, like many other
architects, relied too much on
the standard terms of Form
B141. On a complex, integrated
project, including a 12-story
building and a $400,000 fee, nei-
ther they nor the owner spent
any appreciable time arriving at
a clear understanding of LAI's
post-design duties. Of course,
the owner felt he had a very
clear understanding: the archi-
tect was there to be his "repre-
sentative" during construction
per 1.5.3, to "determine in gen-
eral if the Work is proceeding in
accordance with the Contract
Documents" and to "guard the
Owner against defects and defi-
ciencies" per 1.5.4.
First, LAI did a lousy job of
contract administration. Staff
members were actually on site
almost daily. But many defects
went unseen. Others were seen,

but no corrective action was re-
quired by LAI. And others were
notified to the contractor, with
no follow up or enforcement.
The contractor just kept on
building sloppily, and generally
ignoring the weak protestations
of the architect.
Oh, yes, LAI did write some
letters requesting corrective ac-
tion. And then, later, demand
letters: "last notice", "you will be
held responsible" and we real-
ly, really mean it" letters. But
they were too little, too late,
generally sent after the bad
work had been in place for
awhile and sometimes even cov-
ered with next-phase work.
Second, LAI kept right on
certifying payments under 1.5.7
and 1.5.8. Even after they had
been forced to write some pretty
strong letters to the contractor,
they continued to allow pay-
ment. Then, when the contrac-
tor totally refused to correct its
work, LAI retroactively decerti-
fied payment after the cows
were out of the barn.
The owner, at LAI's sugges-
tion, finally fired the contractor
and took him to arbitration over
fifty seven (57) defects. There,
the arbitrators found the con-
struction to be very substan-
dard, but agreed that the archi-
tect had allowed it and
therefore, as the representative
of the owner, had effectively au-
thorized it!
The owner then sued the ar-
chitect for breach of its duties to
represent, observe, inform and
Nonsense, said LAI. We were
not supervisory. We had only a
duty to "observe", to become
"generally familiar." We have
no contractual responsibility for
the contractor's errors.
This case was tried before a
jury and the jury agreed with
the owner. Not even a close call.
The fact that LAI seemed to
hide behind the word "observe",
when its own letters referred to
"inspections" hurt. The fact it

rarely kept field notes or put its
findings in writing really hurt.
And the fact that it kept on certi-
fying payment month after
month was a killer.
Forget the limiting language
in the standard form B141. For-
get the fact that there was no
special inspection or supervision
language inserted. Forget all the
experts who tried to draw fine
lines between "observe" and "in-
spect", between "generally fa-
miliar" and "familiar."
The jury believed the lan-
guage in B141 on behalf of the
owner meant something, even if
it was contradicted and made
confusing by other language.
And they were right.
LAI did a great job of design-
ing. But, its performance fell
dramatically after that. Many ar-
chitects aren't excellent man-
agers to begin with, and so they
avoid that unpleasant chore
whenever possible. But they
also avoid the difficult but criti-
cal job of clearly communicating
and defining issues with their
lulls professionals and owners
alike into a false sense of securi-
ty. Its broad and inconsistent
terms give something to every-
one, but leave everyone at risk.
It is a model of ambiguity, in-
consistency and confusion.
LAI has learned:
* Have a long, hard talk with
the owner about contract ad-
ministration before signing;
* Include an addendum to the
contract delineating more
clearly such things as fre-
quency of visits, owner's site
rep duties, how architect will
keep owner informed, and
the owner's responsibilities;
* Insist on extra compensation
up front if the owner wants
* During contract administra-
tion, continue to delineate re-
sponsibilities in writing;

* Prepare regular field notes
and copy owner with each re-
* Yes, LAI has learned. Have

Steven Anderson is a Senior
Partner in the law firm ofAnder-
son & Orcuff, P.A.

Ed. Note:
The views expressed in this article
are solely those of the author.


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Energy Efficient Design An Architectural Challenge
by Larry Peterson

A Little History
In 1974, as an energy policy
advisor to Oregon Governor
Tom McCall, I was impressed
with the Governor's courage
and ability to deal with energy
issues head on and motivate
people to act in the highest pub-
lic interest. During the 1970's
energy crisis, Governor McCall
impressed the nation by taking
executive action and implement-
ing energy policies in Oregon
that preceded most other states.
He exhibited leadership by
being ahead of both the legisla-
ture and the state bureaucracy
in responding to public need.
Some of his policies were un-
popular because they required a
new way of thinking about ener-
gy. Before speaking to the Na-
tional Association of Business
Economists, he asked his staff
for advice on what he should tell
them. We said, "Governor, you
have to tell them to stop just
drilling for more oil, since that
is not the only answer to Ameri-
ca's energy problems."
His response was a wide grin
as he said, "I like that. Now
what else do I tell them to do?"
I am reminded of Governor
McCall as I write this article for
the Florida Architect. Florida is
staring in the face of a new ener-
gy crisis and I want to tell all ar-
chitects in Florida, "You have to
stop designing buildings and
support facilities that are not en-
ergy efficient."
I am obliged, however, to tell
you what I think you should do.

The Design Challenge
All design professionals en-
gineers, architects, landscape
architects and interior designers
- have a responsibility for the
quality of the built environment.
All design professionals should
agree that the existing quality of
our built environment does not
represent the best we can do. It
represents the best we have
been able to do. As designers,
we may be willing to do better,
but circumstances have prevent-

ed us from providing our best
In my discussions with lead-
ers of Florida's design profes-
sions, familiar responses are of-
fered as explanations for the
condition of the built environ-
ment. Codes, zoning, financing,
client wishes, low first-costs,
growth management regula-
tions, declining design fees...are
all offered as the parameters
which guide, if not limit, the po-
tential of any and all building
All professionals engaged in
providing design services to
clients have a responsibility to
protect the public interest and


provide, through their standards
of practice, for the public wel-
fare. A growing issue of concern
for design professionals practic-
ing in Florida is including ener-
gy efficiency as a primary ele-
ment in their "standards of
practice". Energy efficiency in
buildings does not directly af-
fect public safety, but it can af-
fect health and welfare, both of
the building occupants and the
public as a whole.
Design professionals are not
fulfilling their responsibilities if
they continue to design and
build energy inefficient build-
ings and facilities, when up to 70
to 80 percent of the energy nor-

mally used to provide human
comfort can be saved through
good design and engineering.
With these savings becoming
more commonplace, clients will
be requiring better performance
in their building projects. A
major goal of the Florida Energy
Office's project, the FLORIDA DE-
SIGN INITIATIVE, is to help the
state become a more knowl-
edgeable client and require bet-
ter energy performance in the
buildings and facilities it pro-
Good energy-efficient design
begins with the initial architec-
tural design decisions: proper
building siting and orientation;





building massing and openings;
and fenestration pattern. These
decisions that affect the building
envelope either make it easy or
difficult to achieve energy effi-
ciency. When architects design
with the idea of maximizing en-
ergy efficiency, they make it rel-
atively easy for the engineers to
reduce energy consumption in
the building's HVAC and light-
ing systems. Building orienta-
tion, massing and fenestration
patterns that minimize heat
gain, maximize daylighting and
utilize natural fresh air circula-
tion require smaller HVAC sys-
tems and less artificial lighting.
When architects do a poor job of
preliminary design, the engi-
neers have to size larger, more
costly and more energy-inten-
sive HVAC and lighting systems
to maintain human comfort and
workstation requirements.

"Best Practices" Become
Standard Practices
Amory Lovins of the Rocky
Mountain Institute in Snowmass,
Colorado, reports that in 1991
Pacific Gas and Electric asked
for designs to retrofit 20,430
square feet of research offices.
Five designs were presented by
different firms and all were cost-
effective, with 67, 74, 76, 76 and
87 percent energy savings indi-
cated by DOE-2 simulations. All
but one design reduced the ener-
gy required from approximately
76,000 BTU/SQFT (initial condi-
tions) to less than 20,000
BTU/SQFT (after retrofit). This
magnitude of energy savings is
being reported in many projects
around the nation.
Lovins also reports that a few
re-engineered projects have ac-
tually had reduced initial con-
struction costs due to energy ef-
ficient design of the building
envelope. In one case, a one per-
cent increase in soft costs for
additional design and engineer-
ing services yielded a four per-
cent reduction in first cost of

All sketches of the Florida Solar
Energy Center by Steven Langston,
AIA, of Architects Design Group, Inc.

Another potential bonus to
the client in a retrofit project is
increased net usable floor space,
due to downsized mechanical
equipment requirements. The
proposed design for a state
building retrofit project indi-
cates that a 15 to 20 percent in-
crease in net usable floor space
can be realized from the re-
moval of unnecessary mechani-
cal equipment rooms and chas-
es. In the public sector, this
potential increase in usable
space in existing buildings de-
creases the need for new con-
struction and offers an immedi-
ate bonus to the occupant.
A typical office building built
to today's Florida Energy Code
can consume 60,000 to 70,000
BTU/SQFT. The Florida Educa-
tional Center in Tallahassee is a
typical example. Built in 1989, it
has 17 stories, 405,836 GCSF
and consumes 63,000
BTU/SQFT at an annual utility
cost of $533,000. Designed ten
years before it was occupied,
the interior electrical loads dou-
bled during that period, causing
brownouts when the building
was fully occupied. The in-
creased interior loads were due
to increased use of personal
computers, copiers, FAX ma-
chines and other workstation
equipment. Only recently has
this contribution to a building's
energy budget received detailed
Fortunately, new portable
personal computers use far less
energy than the standard desk-
top PC and new energy-efficient
copiers are coming on the mar-
ket. Manufacturers of office
equipment are realizing that low
energy consumption and lower
operating cost, are a new mar-
keting edge. As older office
equipment is phased out and re-
placed with new models, the in-
terior wall plug loads will de-
crease. Diminished loads will
reduce the heat generated by of-
fice equipment and thereby re-
duce cooling loads on the HVAC
system as well, providing addi-

tional energy savings.
The Florida Educational Cen-
ter is poorly sited for energy ef-
ficiency, with the long facade
facing southwest which intro-
duces solar heat gain. The fa-
cade is smooth with no protru-
sions to offer shading to
windows and walls. The build-
ing is whites and does have
solar reflective windows. Any
design studies to increase the
energy efficiency of this build-
ing will have to overcome three
very important initial design de-
cisions which contribute to the
buildings' current energy con-
sumption building orientation,
exterior envelope and fenestra-
tion design.
The Florida Educational Cen-
ter may not be designed to be
energy efficient, but it is not as
flagrantly wasteful as some
other state buildings. A recent
FEO study of the state capitol
complex indicates a range of en-
ergy consumption from 47,000
to 240,000 BTU/SQFT. The
Florida Educational Center uses
63,000 BTU/SQFT, which is
fairly typical of new construction
and meets the current Florida
Energy Code.
The Chiles' Administration
and the Florida Energy Office
(FEO) are committed to achiev-
ing energy efficiency in state
buildings and to developing an
energy efficiency business sec-
tor in Florida. Through the
FEO is working with design-pro-
fession associations to develop
recommendations for new ways
of financing energy efficiency
design services. Members of
are discussing the adoption of a
general protocol for procuring
energy efficient design and de-
livery of new state buildings.
This protocol would include new
enhanced levels of energy effi-
ciency design services which
state clients would be willing to
pay for to insure that the com-
pleted building project will pass
a commissioning evaluation


prior to occupancy and meet
specified operations and mainte-
nance levels during the first
year of operation.
The lifetime energy expens-
es of many state buildings will
exceed the initial cost of con-
struction and it is irresponsible
to obligate the taxpayers of
Florida to pay these expenses
for the life of a building. The
FEO is investigating new design
fee structures that include in-
centives for the (state) client
and the design team. New con-
tracting procedures need to be
established so architects can
share in the potential dollars to
be saved through "best prac-
tices" design and engineering.

The Cost of Inefficient
The energy budget for pro-
viding human comfort in all
state buildings in Florida is $5 to
6 billion each year. State and
local government buildings ac-
count for hundreds of millions
of dollars. The electric bills for
county school districts and com-
munity colleges alone totaled
$201.2 million in 1990-91. If the
Governor's Executive Order
(91-253) mandating a 30 percent
reduction in energy use by all
state agencies had been
achieved, the 30 percent saved
would amount to over $60 mil-
lion. If the private sector matched
the state and the whole state
could save 30 percent of five bil-
lion, it would equal $1.5 billion
or more than the requested tax
increase of $1.4 billion for 1992.
Those are big "ifs", but the pay-
off to all Floridians should be
more than worth the effort.
There are architecture and
engineering firms in Florida that
can offer energy-efficient design
services. The question is, "Why
is this not the standard of prac-
tice?" The answer from the de-
sign professions is usually, "The
client did not require it." Fol-
lowed quickly by, "It takes more
time to do good energy-efficient
design and engineering and I

cannot get paid for it." Both are
valid answers and will continue
to be for several years. Design
and engineering practice is
changing and energy efficient
design is changing very rapidly.
Not only are there many new
technological advances, design-
ers and clients are exploring
new ways of negotiating and
contracting for energy efficiency
design services.

The Architect's Role
One of the keys to success-
fully achieving the Governor's
goal is the willingness of design
professionals to adopt energy ef-
ficiency design and engineering
measures as "best practices."

Energy-efficiency should be
a prime factor in the stan-
dards ofpractice, but
architects believe that their
clients are not willing to pay
for energy efficient design.

For most clients, first-cost
has become the predominant
factor in a new building project,
cost-effectiveness is second in
importance and life-cycle costs
are usually ignored. The FEO is
working with all state agencies
to change this attitude in the
government sector, where life-
cycle costing is a statutory re-
quirement. With the strain on
the state budget getting worse,
public agencies are willing to
look at new ways to save the
money they do have. Reallocat-
ing existing dollars into energy
efficient designs today will save
energy expenses for the lifetime
of the building. Getting state
agencies to adopt the wisdom of
life-cycle cost accounting is be-
coming easier, although the leg-
islative appropriations and bud-
geting processes make it
difficult to implement. Ironically,
the projected revenue shortfalls
in state agency budgets can
make life-cycle costing more at-
tractive and more affordable. If
the state agencies do not take

the leadership and implement
life cycle cost accounting, the
taxpayers may soon demand it.

The Client's Role
As clients become more
knowledgeable and more so-
phisticated, they will request
and demand energy efficient de-
sign services from architects. In
state government, the FEO is
committed to making the state
agencies more informed clients.
During these difficult economic
times, managing energy and
utility expenses is a good way to
save wasted money on opera-
tions which are desperately
needed for other purposes.
Some large private sector
clients are already doing this in-
house. They have watched ener-
gy expenses increase over the
years and realized that good en-
ergy management can increase
profits. They are also realizing
that the initial designs they ap-
prove and build can limit any
new cost-effective energy man-
agement measures they may
want to consider later.
As the relative costs of pri-
mary energies and utilities con-
tinue to increase in operations
budgets, energy efficient de-
signs will provide an economic
advantage to those building and
facility owners who require

The potential savings of
energy-efficient designs far
outweigh any marginal in-
crease in initial design fees;
and easily outweigh any
marginal increase in initial
construction costs.

Current studies underway in-
dicate that increases in worker
productivity and lower absen-
teeism can offset any increases
in initial design and construc-
tion costs.
State agencies are being
shown that energy efficient de-
sign services are a smart invest-

ment in lower energy expenses
and operating costs. They are
also realizing that they have to
pay for those design services.
The FEO is actively engaged in
identifying any changes in nego-
tiating fees that will provide
funds for good energy-efficient
design; and is asking for assis-
tance from all design profes-
sions to realize those needed
I am appealing to all archi-
tects who contribute to the de-
sign of buildings and facilities to
"take the high road" and insist
upon designs that maximize en-
ergy efficiency as a primary re-
quirement. The question should
not be whether a design is ener-
gy efficient; the question should
be how can we make it more en-
ergy efficient. In the public sec-
tor, I believe there is no ques-
tion whether energy efficiency
is in the public interest. In the
private sector, it would be diffi-
cult to imagine a client-owner
who would not like to save
money on energy and utility ex-
penses. The arguments need to
be made to all our clients which
show the large, long-term re-
turns on small investments in
additional design costs.
Energy-efficient buildings
are the result of many individual
efforts, moving in concert, to-
ward the same goals. The lead-
ership position on a design pro-
ject can, and often does, move
around from person to person
or profession to profession. For
Florida to get moving toward
achieving energy efficiency in
all buildings and facilities,
someone has to step forward
and take a leadership role. Ar-
chitects have done it in the past,
the opportunity is here to do it

Larry Peterson is an Associate
Professor ofArchitecture at Flori-
da A & M University in Talla-
hassee. He is also a Policy Advi-
sor to the Florida Energy Office.


The World's Most Energy Efficient Building

Florida Solar Energy
Cocoa, Florida

Architect: Architects Design
Group, Inc.
Principal In Charge: I.S.K.
Reeves V, AIA
Project Architct: Kevin
Ratigan, AIA
Design Team: Eugina V. Ellis,
John Pages, AIA, Steven
Langston, AIA, Rick Grey, Bill
Hegert, Sergio Baca
Consulting Engineers: Ralph
Hahn & Associates, Inc.,
Paul J. Ford & Company,
Commonwealth Engineering

hthen state officials claim
V that Florida's New Energy
Center will be the world's most
energy-efficient building, the
first response may well be
"prove it." The Florida Solar En-
ergy Center's new research
complex is still just a concept -
drawings, a model and a lease
on 20 acres at the University of
Central Florida/Brevard Com-
munity College Campus in
Cocoa. Construction won't
begin until August, 1993.
So if the first spade of earth
has yet to be turned, how can
the claims being made for the
building's operating efficiency
be substantiated?
The answer, of course, is by
computers. Using a sophisticat-
ed energy modeling program,
FSEC engineers have been able
to closely calculate the energy
performance of the new building
even before it's built. They can
already state with a high degree
of certainty that the office build-
ing in the new, 80,000-square-
foot complex will, indeed, be a
paragon of energy conservation.
Initial analyses show that the
building will use less than one-
third the energy of a compara-
ble, "standard" new Florida of-
fice building and almost
three-quarters less than most
existing office buildings in the
U.S. Equally important, the

0 5 10
Ln 0c

FSEC will be just as comfortable
and potentially even more pro-
Program Models Performance
FSEC Deputy Director Philip
Fairey and Research Analyst
Danny Parker conducted the en-
ergy analyses during the transi-
tion from the conceptual to the
detailed design phases of plan-
ning for the complex. Along
with the rest of the FSEC in-
house architectural committee,
they have worked closely with
Architects Design Group, the
building's designer, to adopt
and integrate the latest energy-
efficiency technologies and de-
sign concepts.
Parker and Fairey relied on
DOE 2.1D to perform their
analyses. Developed by
Lawrence Berkeley Labs for the
U.S. Department of Energy, this
building energy modeling pro-
gram contains a variety of algo-
rithms that can model almost all


of the energy-related measures
incorporated in the New Energy
The initial analysis compared
the energy-saving performance
of 25 separate energy efficiency
measures with the performance
of a standard, "base case" build-
ing. The results pinpointed 11
conservation measures with the
potential to provide the greatest
efficiency in terms of both dollar
and energy savings.

Analysis Sheds Light on
Energy Savings
Since lighting is typically the
largest energy load in office
buildings, it's not surprising that
lighting-related measures day-
lighting, improved window tech-
nology, high-efficiency interior
electrical lighting and lighting
control measures will provide
the greatest energy savings.
Combined, lighting-related op-
tions will reduce the building's
annual energy use from 65,000
to 29,000 Btu per square foot a
reduction of more than 50 per-
The office building is de-
signed as a two-floor structure
with a long, narrow footprint
measuring 270 by 60 feet. This
configuration enhances day-
lighting in all the offices, since
they can be sited along the
perimeter walls. The top floor
of the building's interior core
will also be daylit through the
use of light scoops at roof-level.
The window scheme for the
building is unique. A continu-
ous "wall" of 4.5-foot-high win-
dows spans the extensive south
and north facades. Shade
shelves mounted on the exterior
of the south-facing window-walls
shade the windows from hot,
glaring morning and afternoon
sun. Interior light shelves on
both the south and north sides
of the building serve to bounce
soft daylight deep into office in-
The windows selected for the
building are so advanced they're
actually called "Superwindows."

I.+++ N' j..... + I
Graphics provided by Architects Design Group, Inc. Previouspage, top: axonometric and below, exploded axono-
metric. This page, top: elevations and above, building section showing passive and active solar systems. At focal
point of atrium is the thermal storagefor the solar hot water system.


1M MiW

Ranking of Efficiency Measures

Like highly tinted glass, these
glazings allow little of the sun's
heat-producing near-infrared
spectrum into the building. But
unlike traditionally tinted glass,
the let in a large portion of the
sun's visible light. More light
plus less heat means less ener-
gy consumption for both electri-
cal lighting and air conditioning.

Lights Get Smart
What electrical lighting may
be needed during daytime occu-
pancy of the building will be
provided by the latest T-8 fluo-
rescent luminaires, which will
be equipped with variably re-
sponsive electronic ballasts and
photometric sensors. The sen-
sors continuously read spatial
light levels, and the ballasts
react by throttling back or beef-
ing up electrical lighting levels,
as needed.
With the combination of day-
lighting and "smart" electric
lighting, the illumination level
inside each office will remain
stable despite changing exterior
conditions. When daylight is

available, interior lights will au-
tomatically dim. If a passing
cloud temporarily obscures the
sun, the ballasts will boost elec-
trical light output until sufficient
daylight is once again available.
"Human factors" aspects of
lighting are not being sacrificed
for energy or economic expedi-
ency. For example, considera-
tion is being given to the ques-
tions of glare and color
rendition on human perfor-
mance levels.
Consideration is also being
given to the fact that humans
are very forgetful animals. Oc-
cupancy sensors in all the of-
fices will automatically cut
power to lighting systems when
an office is vacant for more than
a few minutes and then switch
the lights back on when some-
one re-enters the space. No
more need for reminders to
"turn off the lights when you
leave the room."

Additional Options Offer Ad-
ditional Savings
While the combined lighting-

related package offers the great-
est energy savings for the build-
ing, additional technologies will
be incorporated to reduce power
consumption even further.
One important measure is
the elimination of electric re-
heating of air that must be su-
percooled to remove excess hu-
midity. The FSEC office
building will use a fan-powered
variable-air-volume induction
system to exchange air between
the building core and the
perimeter zones, which will sig-
nificantly reduce the need for
re-heat. In addition, heat-pipes
will be installed on a separate -
"dual path" fresh-air unit to re-
duce the humidity of air drawn
into the building for ventilation
The exterior finish of the
building will also affect its ener-
gy use. Highly reflective roof
and wall surfaces will keep the
building from absorbing the
sun's energy an important
cooling consideration in the
Sunshine State. Using Super-
windows and light shelves will

apply this heat-avoidance strate-
gy at window areas.

Energy Efficiency=Economic
The economics of the energy
measures are almost as startling
as their energy savings. Most of
the lighting-related measures
offer a simple payback (energy
cost savings over time) of only
2.5 years. Energy savings will
pay for the total package in less
than eight years.
The Florida Energy Office
has provided a $560,000 grant to
FSEC to design, engineer, in-
stall and monitor the energy effi-
ciency package in the $5.6 mil-
lion complex. The goal is to
demonstrate to all Florida com-
mercial enterprises (and gov-
ernment building operators)
that today's technologies can
save huge amounts of energy
(and consumer and taxpayer
dollars) for the future.

Ingrid Melody is Director of Pub-
lic Affairs for the Florida Solar
Energy Center.


Recycled Buildings Restore Life To A Community

Old School Square
Delray Beach, Florida

Architect: Currie Schneider
Associates AIA, PA
Designer: Robert G. Currie,
Project Manager: Jose Aguila,
Consulting Engineers:
Thompson Engineering
Consultants, mechanical/electri-
cal; O'Donnell, Naccarato &
Mignogna, structural; Walter
Cornell, civil.
Landscape Architect: A.
Grant Thornbrough &
Theatre Consultant: Arts
Environments, Inc.
General Contractor: Stinson-
Head, Inc.
Owner: Old School Square,

The physical and spiritual
rejuvenation of Old School
Square is a modern miracle.
Abandoned, in disrepair and
shrouded in chain link fence,
these three discarded school
buildings symbolized the de-
cline of Delray Beach's down-
town. Today, restored and en-
hanced, the new complex of
cultural buildings is at the heart
of a vital redevelopment effort
and home to a cultural renais-
Begun in 1913, the complex
of school buildings were origi-
nally located on the outskirts of
Delray Beach. Engulfed by sub-
sequent growth, the school
complex is now at the very cen-
ter of Delray Beach at the
prominent intersection of two
heavily-traveled streets.
Today, the site is wrapped by
a broad palm-lined coquina and
brick walkway. Coquina col-
umns stand like sentries, mark-
ing the entrances and site boun-
daries. Upon completion, the
cultural complex will house
three primary functions: a the-
atre, a museum and a multi-pur-
pose building which was the
school's former gymnasium.


Each building in the complex is
achieved via entry from a differ-
ent street with parking lining
the eastern edge of the block
within a reclaimed street.
Housed in the oldest struc-
ture in the complex is the new
Cornell Museum. The building
has a simple straightforward
design. On each of its two
floors, four large classrooms
with 12' ceilings are connected
by a large main corridor and
two stairways. A central sky-
light and atrium introduce light
to both levels. The exterior ele-
vation reflects the simplicity of
the interior layout while serving
as the unifying element for the
entire project.

Photos, this page, top: Theatre
Building and left,detail of main
entrance. Opposite page, top: Site
Plan. Below, left: Cornell Museum
and right: interior of gymnasium.
All photos by Dan Forer.


The 1926 gymnasium has
been simply restored, maintain-
ing many of the original fea-
tures. Alumni names remain on
the exposed wood trusses; im-
mortalized and carefully pre-
served in chalk. The Florida
pine floors were restored and
they provide a nostalgic back-
drop for indoor dances, wed-
dings, meetings and intimate
theatre productions.
The theatre, built in 1925, was
the final phase of the restoration
and it is the crowning element in
the composition. The two-story
structure seats 305 people. A
prominent feature of the exteri-
or, the cupola, draws light down
through the building into the
entry foyer. In addition to the
theatre itself, the structure will
house classrooms for art, dance
and music, a dining facility and
administrative offices.
There is an elevated loggia in
the central area between build-
ings. This rectilinear loggia will

create a unifying theme between
the buildings and the public
space. Arranged around a cov-
ered stage at one end and a palm
court at the other, this outdoor
space accommodates 2,000 peo-
ple and organizes the circulation
for the block and its relationship
to the adjacent community.
Old School Square is a mod-
em day rags to riches story.
Through the efforts of a commit-
ted organization of citizens, ar-
chitects, engineers and contrac-
tors, this complex now acts as a
catalyst for redevelopment in
the area. As an historic restora-
tion, it serves as an example of
how new life breathed into an
old structure can reinvigorate
the entire community.

Crystal Kauffman is a freelance
writer living in South Florida.


A Corporate Model of Energy Efficiency

American Automobile
Association World
Lake Mary, Florida

Architect: Spillis Candela &
Partners, Inc.
Principal-in-Charge: Hilario
Candela, FAIA
Project Director: Ferron
Project Manager: Charles
Crain, AIA
Design Team: Hilario Candela,
FAMA; Michael Kerwin, AIA;
Rafael Sixto, AIA
Contractor: The George
Hyman Construction Co.
Owner: The American Automo-
bile Association

The hot, humid Florida cli-
mate has the power to di-
minish the work of any man.
Summer temperatures can rise
to over 100 degrees in the
shade, if you're lucky enough to
find any. These extreme levels
of heat and humidity make it
hard to stand and even harder
to understand why man and na-
ture must be on seemingly op-
posite sides. While man can do
little to change what nature has
given him, he can do much
about how he is affected by it.
In response to rising energy
costs, Governor Chiles issued a
mandate in October, 1992, to re-
duce energy consumption in
Florida's infrastructure. The
Florida Design Initiative was cre-
ated to mobilize design profes-
sionals to develop the new ener-
gy efficiency business sector by
marketing energy efficiency de-
sign services. A steering com-
mittee comprised of these same
professionals, as well as financial
leaders, put forth the challenge
to the media, banking and finan-
cial sectors to lead the private
sector by example.
One of the leaders in this
move is a corporation that has
been aware of the benefits of en-
ergy conservation for a long
time and they built appropriate


strategies into the design phase
of their new Central Florida
building. The AAA World
Headquarters in Lake Mary, is
an example of what can be ac-
complished by a company
whose goal to reduce overhead
costs won't be at the expense of
services to their customers. In
fact, the energy saving features
designed into this building will
help to free up dollars needed to
provide services for years to
The most unique feature in
the mammoth 603,000 sf build-
ing is the HVAC system. It is
made up of two 450-ton Trane
CVHE centrifugal chillers and
28 Cal Mac thermal storage
tanks. On the roof, there are two
Trane reciprocating chillers.
They are used for cooling the
building while the main chillers
are recharging the ice tanks for
the following day. The Trane
Climatic Ice Storage system can
significantly reduce air condi-
tioning cost by shifting or level-
ing on-peak electrical demand.
This is accomplished by making
ice at night when utility rates

are lower and then using the ice
to satisfy daytime cooling de-
mands when utility rates are
higher. A water energizer fur-
ther contributes by electrostati-
cally removing corrosive conta-
minants from the water that is
used to make the ice, saving
maintenance and operating
costs. Variable Frequency Dri-
ves installed on the water
pumps kick in when needed to
supplement the daytime de-
A newcomer to the HVAC
system is a type of enthalpy ex-
changer called a Heat Pipe Sys-
tem. This passive device, which
requires no energy, was recom-
mended by Florida Power &
Light during a recent energy
audit. It extracts moisture from
the air, thereby reducing the
high humidity levels caused by
window leaks. By reducing hu-
midity levels, comfort levels in-
crease and operating costs in
the print shop and shipping de-
partment are decreased.
Low-E glass set in deep re-
veals, with eyelid-styled fixed
louvers, reduce solar heat gain

and therefore reduce cooling re-
quirements. For an added
human comfort value, mini-
blinds allow control for those in
close proximity to the windows.
Just when they thought hav-
ing fluorescent fixtures was effi-
cient enough, a Florida Power
auditor suggested another im-
provement. Weeks were spent
relamping 11,000 fluorescent fix-
tures from F40W to F34W. The
initial cost to change the lamps
was $12,000, but AAA received a
rebate of $5,478 from Florida
Power and an annual projected
savings of $12,067.
Various types of sensors on
switches are used throughout
the facility to insure that lights
are not left on unnecessarily. In
the mechanical and storage
rooms, infra-red sensors are
used. Motion detectors are used
in other areas. In the conference
rooms, dimmers are standard
features, although there are
rooms where no artificial light-
ing at all is necessary due to the
abundance of available daylight.
AAA is a company that is
making "best practices" a goal.


As technology changes, so
should design and that responsi-
bility rests on the designers of
buildings working in unison
with clients. With such a formi-
dable climate to deal with, stay-
ing one step ahead in Florida is
a tall order, but it can be done.

Patty Hattaway is an Adjunct In-
structor at Daytona Beach Com-
munity College where she teaches
in the Interior Design Depart-
ment. She holds degrees from
FSU in both Interior Design and


r ..

Photos: opposite, Atrium and
above, exterior detail showing
windows set in deep reveals by
Norman McGrath. Site plan
courtesy of the architect.



The Nuts and Bolts of Energy Efficient Design

From The Architect's POV
by Lawrence P. Maxwell, AIA

The design of any building is a
complex and challenging
process. Trying to make the
building energy-efficient and
environmentally compatible
adds to the complexity and the
challenge. There is plenty of
information available to design
energy-efficient commercial
buildings. However, most of that
information pertains to buildings
in heating-load dominated cli-
mates. It is of little use to an
architect concerned with creat-
ing a building that performs effi-
ciently in a hot, humid climate
such as Florida. Designing ener-
gy-efficient and environmentally-
compatible buildings buildings
that save your client money and
maintain or enhance the natural
beauty and quality of life that is
Florida can only enhance
your reputation as an architect.
To achieve an energy-effi-
cient building is not simply a
matter of having your mechani-
cal engineer specify energy-effi-
cient equipment. The entire
design concept must focus on
strategies that stimulate positive
interaction with the environment
so that the building will utilize
the beneficial aspects of the
environment while avoiding
those that would cause it to con-
sume excessive amounts of
energy. The best way to accom-
plish this is to understand the
physical environment and to
understand the energy-use pat-
terns of the building type being
The first key to designing an
energy-efficient building in
Florida is to understand our
physical environment and cli-
mate. For example, the sun pro-
vides substantial amounts of
potentially high quality natural
light, but it can also provide
excessive amounts of heat gains
and glare problems. The prevail-
ing ambient air temperatures
fluctuate within about a 20-
degree range throughout most
of the year. The heating require-

ment is limited and brief.
Humidity is the prevailing prob-
lem and because of the typically
high relative humidity, the diur-
nal swing is quite small.
The second key is to under-
stand the energy-use pattern of a
proposed building. In Florida,
cooling and lighting usually
make up over 85% of the total
energy usage of a typically com-
mercial office building. The
energy for lighting, as well as
the cooling load generated by
the lighting, can account for 50
to 60% of the total energy con-
sumed by the building. The
building envelope can account
for an additional 20 to 30% of the
cooling load. The balance of the
cooling load is generated by the
occupants and office equipment
used in the building. Typically
less than 5% of the total energy
usage of the building is by office
equipment. Since electricity is
the standard power source for
these loads over 80% of the
energy used in Florida buildings
is from electricity it is essential
that peak time energy demands
and peak time rates of energy
use be understood.
By understanding Florida's
climate, and the energy use pat-
terns of a typical building, cer-
tain design criteria can be ascer-
tained. For example, the day-
light portion of the sun's energy
permits energy savings by
reducing electrical lighting and
eliminating the cooling load
associated with those lights.
However, the daylighting must
be designed so that the benefits
of daylighting are not offset by
excessive heat gains or glare
from improper design of glazing
and fenestration systems.
Design of the envelope requires
that attention be paid more to
control of thermal losses and
gains attributed to ambient air
temperatures. The use of mass
or thermal storage materials to
shift cooling loads from day to
night with the intent of utilizing


1 "


'- ),-


N 9."~.-

Sketches of Florida Solar Energy Center's superstructure supporting the
photovoltaic panels by Steven Langston, AIA

cool night air to remove the
heat, is not very effective. This is
because of the usually low diur-
nal swing and the potential
increase of latent loads. How-
ever, during the winter and the
swing seasons of spring and fall,
this strategy can prove useful.
Computer software is avail-
able to analyze the energy use
patterns of building designs.
Among the software programs
available are ASEAM (A
Simplified Energy Analysis
Method), BLAST (Building
Loads and System Thermody-
namics), DOE 2 (anaylsis of
energy consumption in build-
ings) and others. Most of these
programs are public domain pro-
grams available to any designer
or engineering professional.
Through these programs, the
energy use patterns of a building
design can be simulated. Design
alternatives can also be simulat-
ed to determine the positive or
negative effects of those alterna-
tives on the potential energy
consumption of the building.
With the results of the simula-
tions, competent decisions can
be made and design concepts
refined. Additional programs can
include new simulations using
the above-mentioned programs,
as well as such software as
ENVSTD (ENvelope STanDards)
LTGSTD (LighTinG STanDards)
and ACPSTD (Alternate Compli-
ance Package Standards). Such
analyses can provide the neces-
sary input for both schematic
design and design development
phases of a project.
The first and most important
element of the design is the
building's orientation to the site.
The north orientation offers the
best quality of potential daylight-
ing with the least amount of
direct solar gain. The south also
offers good daylighting poten-
tial, if the necessary shading is
provided and adequate attention
is given to glare control. The
Possibility of some free winter
solar heat gains is also available.
However, the need for this is

small enough and the potential
for glare is great enough that not
much attention need be spent on
this option. The east and west
elevations require the greatest
attention to minimize potential
negative impacts. The problem
with these elevations is that the
angle of the sun is lower in the
sky than on the south elevation.
This places a more direct load
onto and into any glazing located
on those elevations. Also,
because of the low sun angle,
shading of these elevations is
much more difficult. The worst
of these two, of course, is the
west elevation. The time that the
sun impacts this side is during
the hottest part of the day and it
is also the time when the utility
companies are experiencing
their peak demand.
The roof of the building
can contribute to substantial
amounts of envelope heat gains,
or it can reduce the overall
effects of the sun. If the roof con-
struction consists of a ventilated
attic space, a radiant barrier at
the roof can substantially reduce
the effects of radiant heat gains.
If the roof is a typical flat roof
configuration with insulation
located above the deck, a white
roof will reflect up to 80% of the
incoming solar radiation thereby
significantly reducing heat loads
into the building.
Electrical and mechanical
systems must be clearly coordi-
nated with the building design to
ensure a complete building sys-
tem that provides the energy
efficiency desired in the original
design concept. Bringing in the
electrical and mechanical engi-
neering consultants at the begin-
ning of the project and develop-
ing a dialogue is the best way to
achieve success.
With the tools available to
today's architects, an energy-
efficient design is easily within
reach. By using the tools men-
tioned in this article, design
decisions can be quickly tested,
refined and retested to deter-
mine the optimum solution to

the challenge at hand. The
Building Design Assistance
Center operated by the Florida
Solar Energy Center, through
funding from the Florida
Governor's Energy Office and
the U.S. Department of Energy,
has been created to assist archi-
tects in designing energy-effi-
cient commercial buildings. The
services of the center are free to

architects and engineers and the
benefits are better quality build-
ings and an enhanced reputation
for the building designer.

Lawrence Maxwell is past Build-
ing Design Assistance Center
Director at the Florida Solar
Energy Center and is currently
President of Spacecoast Archi-
tects, P.A. ofMelbourne.


Skcetches by: Steven Langston, ALA

14: 1 1

-. r~~ k,

7 -r
Ip~ u/r


f :' `J/

Learning About Tensioned Fabric Structures

D during the Fall, 1992, semes- ZZ
ter, architecture students at
Florida A&M University con-
structed a unique Tensioned ''
Fabric Structure (TFS). Seven
students were enrolled in ARC
5597 "Qualitative and Experi-
mental Structures" an elective
course aimed at enhancing the
structural education of graduate
and advanced undergraduate ar-
chitecture students. The course
instructor, Professor Ron Shaef-
fer, designed the course to vary
in topical content from year to
year. This year, the class stud-
ied membrane structures; that
is, structures that resist loads by
developing relatively uniform
stresses through their thickness
as opposed to bending stresses,
which are non-uniform and
cause structures to be ineffi-
As part of the course require-
ments, the class constructed a
prototypical tensioned fabric
structure. The structure is
based on a design by Horst
Berger of New York City one
of the leading designers of ten-
sioned fabric structures and
the structural consultant for the
recently completed fabric roof of
the Denver Airport. Mr. Berger
modified this concept when he
designed the landmark Bul-
lock's department store roof in
San Mateo, California, which ,-
covered almost two acres.
The Florida A&M structure
uses polytetrafluoroethylene
(PTFE)-coated fiberglass fabric,
a material usually reserved for
long-span structures such as the
Suncoast Dome in St. Peters- .
burg and the Denver Airport.
Through contacts developed
with other professionals while
serving on committees of the Florida A & M students assemble and erect tensioned fabric structure behind FAMUSchool ofArchitecture
American Society of Civil Engi- All photos by Ron Shaeffer.
neers (ASCE), Professor Shaef-
fer was able to gain the support
of several private companies in-
cluding Chemfab (Chemical
Fabrics Corporation) of Merri-
mack, New Hampshire which
agreed to provide the fabric and
the Birdair Company of Buffalo,


New York which helped with
computer analyses, fabric pat-
terning, and fabrication.
During the Thanksgiving
holidays, the class visited the
Birdair facility in Buffalo, New
York to work with one of their
engineers, Dale Cich. On the
same trip, the group visited with
Horst Berger in New York City,
and toured some of the ten-
sioned fabric architecture along
the east coast.
With design modifications
and detailing accomplished, we
sought and received the support
of the Owen Steel Company of
Jacksonville, Florida. They pro-
vided the structural tube and
fabricated the special connec-
tions. In the meantime, we
worked on the foundation foot-
ings and steel piers. Immediate-
ly after final exams, the class
erected the steel frame and re-
turned early from our winter
holidays to hang the fabric.
With the help of Dale Cich, who
flew in from Buffalo, the fabric
was erected in just four hours.
Plans are now being formu-
lated for the design of outdoor
furnishings which will make the
space suitable for outdoor semi-
nar classes, outdoor luncheons,
and informal group meetings.
The students who partici-
pated in the project were Sam
Andras, John Barranco, Rawle
Gooding, John Mathias, Mike
Montgomery, Molly Smith, and
Matt West.
Additional materials and ser-
vices were provided by The
Crosby Group, MacWhyte Wire
Rope, Childers Construction,
D&D Rentals, Eppes Decorat-
ing, Tallahassee Welding, and
Capital City Radiator.

Molly E. Smith is a recipient of
the Master of Architecture degree
from Florida A & M University.
She plans to pursue a career in
architectural research.


Historical Note

The forms of tensioned
fabric structures have a dis-
tinguished heritage dating
back to the reinforced con-
crete thin shell construc-
tions (mid-20th century and
earlier) of Eduardo Torroja,
a Spanish engineer, Heinz
Isler, a Swiss engineer and
Felix Candela, a Mexican ar-
chitect. The work of these
three men led to the pio-
neering of membrane struc-
tures supported by anticlas-
tic cable net forms by the
German architect, Frei Otto.
With the development of
high-strength fiberglass fab-
rics in the 1970's (used ex-
tensively for air-supported
stadiums by the late David
Geiger), the use of cables
could now be limited to the
definition of ridge, valley,
and edge locations. Since
the Florida A&M structure
was small, only edge cables
were needed.


consulting engineers in :

architectural acoustics
noise & vibration control
design of music & entertainment spaces

sound systems design & engineering
lab / field acoustical measurements
; community noise surveys

12350 SW 132 court, suite 208
Miami, FL 33186
tel : (305) 254 8450
fax : (305) 254 8455

Circle 8 on Reader Inquiry Card


Lk~..... L.F.....:...;~*

Cohen-Ager has been in business since 1960, constructing some
of the finest buildings in South Florida. To see our work, just
look up at the skyline or call 305-556-4601.

Circle 12 on Reader Inquiry Card



At last, the demand has been met for a thatch that is virtually
indestructible. Tropic TopT, a lightweight metal shingle,
colorfast, 100% fireproof, installs as easily as ordinary roof
shingles, and has the appearance of natural thatch without any of
the disadvantages.
It is cost effective because you will never have to replace it.
We are able to help with design and installation requirements for
your particular roofing application.
470/273-0069 FAX 407/273-0069
Circle 14 on Reader Inquiry Card


Rooftop Revenue: The Roofing System's Role in Energy Savings
by Paul Kidwell

Roofs in most commercial
structures usually represent
the largest portion of the exteri-
or building surface, typically
three times the surface area of
the walls. With this large area
exposed to fluctuating climatic
conditions, it is clear that an en-
ergy-efficient roofing system
can substantially reduce energy-
related costs over the lifetime of
a roof.

Color the Key
The most important factor
often overlooked in determining
the energy efficiency of a roof is
the surface color of the roofing
membrane. Many building own-
ers and architects are not aware
that different colored mem-
branes produce surprisingly dif-
ferent results in air-conditioning
For instance, a high quality,
white, single-ply roofing mem-
brane can actually reflect up to
78% of the sun's radiant energy
so that even on the hottest days
the roofs surface temperature
only reaches 1100F. Contrast
that with a black BUR or EPDM
roofing membrane that absorbs
heat, bringing its surface tem-
perature to as high as 170OF -
a 60 F difference.
Since most commercial
structures typically try to main-
tain an inside air temperature of
780F throughout the year, the
cost differential in maintaining
this temperature if a white roof
surface is 1100F versus the
170oF of a black roof obviously
varies greatly for each color.
Even without air-conditioning, a
white roofing membrane can
help the building maintain a
substantially lower internal tem-
perature and create a higher
comfort level for the occupants.
For instance, installing a new
white roofing system instead of a
black BUR on a 100,000 sf At-
lanta warehouse heated by natur-
al gas and cooled by electric air-
conditioning can save between
$32,000 and $85,000 in energy

costs over ten years. The differ-
ence in energy savings is even
more dramatic when the white
single-ply system is compared to
a mechanically attached, black
roofing system. In this example,
the white roof can save between
$76,000 and $164,000 in energy
costs over the ten-year time peri-
od. The color of the roofing
membrane can result in signifi-
cant energy savings depending
on the climate and the cost of
electricity in the region.

R-Value and Dew Point ...
Other Factors in Saving
The roofing system's R-Value
and dew point are also impor-
tant factors in energy savings. In
most cases, as R-Value is in-
creased, cooling and heating
costs are typically decreased.
The higher R-Value of insula-
tion, when combined with a
white roofing system, can create
10-year energy savings in the
hundreds of thousands of dol-
lars. Most building owners
agree that it is worth spending
additional money on extra R-
Value and white membrane to
ensure these long-term savings.
Dew point is important be-
cause a roofing system's energy
efficiency will be significantly
hindered if moisture is allowed
to seep into the roofing insula-
tion, not only damaging the insu-
lation, but also, the membrane it-
self. Proper design of the roof
assembly and careful selection
of roofing materials can alleviate
dew point problems.
A building's roof can be a
crucial factor in determining the
energy efficiency of a manufac-
turing facility. By taking into ac-
count the roofing system's
color, R-Value and dew point,
building owners, architects and
facility managers can select a
roofing system that can save
thousands of dollars in energy-
related costs over the lifetime of
the roof.

A white single-ply roofing membrane offers a higher degree of reflec-
tivity of the sun's radiant energy and harmful ultraviolent rays.
The result is a cooler interior temperature and less of a reliance on
air conditioning to keep a building cool.

In Sun Belt regions where there are more air conditioning days
than northern geographic locations, energy demands and related
costs are greater. A white roof can save a building owner tens of
thousands of dollars over the lifetime of the roofing system.





15979 N.W. 151ST STREET, SUITE 105, MIAMI LAKES, FL 33014
305-822-7800 FAX 305-362-2443 305-463-8601
Circle 10 on Reader Inquiry Card

P.O. Box 422347 Kissimmee, FL 34742-2347
-. 407-933-6595 800-345-5361
FAX No. 407-933-8469



Basement Stingers

* Largest Selection in Florida of In Stock AITC Certified
Glulam Beams and LVL's

acceptance in all jurisdictions
throughout the U.S.

ASOCIATE Residential, Industrial, Commercial and
MEMBER Institutional Buildings and Bridges
Circle 9 on Reader Inquiry Card



Design and Development Costs
Theme Park and Leisure Entertainment Costs
Construction Costs
Contractor Evaluation
Bid Evaluation
Change Order Analysis
Delay and Impact Claims
Expert Witness Service
M-CACES (Corps of Engineers) Estimates
CES (NAVFAC Navy) Estimates
International and Foreign Markets
Specialist in Prototype (one-of-a-kind) Projects
Environmental Restoration Costs
Contact: Michael Thornton
4201 Vineland Road, Suite 1-12
Orlando, Florida 32811-6626
(407) 425-0612 Fax (407) 425-0354

Circle 7 on Reader Inquiry Card




Circle 24 on Reader Inquiry Card


Signage ... ADA Compliant or ADA Complicated
by Vince Harrigan

Flip through almost any ar-
chitectural trade magazine
and note the number of ads that
offer ADA-compliant signs.
Since the passage of the Ameri-
cans With Disabilities Act, sign
fabricators have run heated
races to develop and market the
"best" product.
But, has all this haste affect-
ed the quality of the product and
more important, is much of this
signage even compliant with
ADA regulations?
The problems surrounding
this current crop of ADA signs
are legion. In fact, it has been
reported that some sign fabrica-
tors are not even using the cor-
rect Braille system. This and
similar errors are unnecessary
because those sections of the
ADA governing signage are
among the most concise in the
entire law. The most important
specification to note in the sig-
nage law is the Braille require-
ment. There are two standard
types of Braille Simple Braille
(Grade I) and Standard English
Braille (Grade II). Grade I is a
letter by letter conversion of
text into Braille cells. It is not
acceptable for signage. Grade II
is a kind of shorthand that con-
tains almost 200 abbreviations.
It saves space and is the system
specified by the ADA.
Sign shops have been ad-
vised to employ a consultant
who is certified by the Library of
Congress to proofread Braille,
but most companies use soft-
ware programs to verify their
work. New software programs
are almost always filled with
bugs and the recent crop of
Braille programs are no excep-
tion. Signage fabricators are re-
sponsible for producing correct
Braille messages, just as they
would be expected to spell
words correctly on normal
signs. Vendors should have a
grasp of the Braille system and
be able to give detailed informa-
tion as to which system to em-
ploy to produce correct signs.

Typefaces are another fea-
ture of signage that is regulated
by the ADA. Section 4.30.2 ad-
dresses character proportion. It
states that letters and numbers
on signs shall have a width-to-
height ratio between 3:5 and 1:1
and a stroke-width-to-height
ratio between 1:5 and 1:10. Fur-
thermore, another section states
that letters and numerals shall
be in a "sans serif or simple serif
A serif is a flourish found on
the base or arms of characters
in certain typefaces such as the
flared bottom of a Times Roman
"I". The concern is that this
flourish makes it difficult for the
visually impaired to "read" a let-
ter by touch. The Society for En-
vironmental Graphic Design has
determined that some accept-
able typestyles are Futura Light,
Helvetica Condensed and Gara-
mond Bold. Studies have veri-
fied that the blind prefer sans
serif typefaces.
The amount of glare in the
finish of the sign is outlined in
section 4.30.5. It states that the
characters and background of


signs shall be eggshell, matte or
other some other non-glare fin-
ish. This would seem to exclude
the use of mediums such as
acrylic enamel paint. Not so.
Though rarely requested of
them, paint companies can intro-
duce a flattening agent into
many types of paint and produce
a non-glare mixture. Also handy
(you may want to tell your fabri-
cator about this) are aerosol
cans of artists matte finish
spray. This permanent coating
can be sprayed directly on the
face of finished signs to create a
non-glare finish. Tests are ad-
vised, however, since some
paints will react to sprays like
this, ruining the finish.
It appears that there is no
material which cannot be used
to fabricate Braille signs. But
the current batch of ADA-relat-
ed signs, for most practical pur-
poses, can be narrowed to three
categories: plastic signs, etched
or molded metal signs and in-
laid signs. Plastic signs are the
most affordable and they are
lightweight and easy to install.
The main drawback to plastic is

that they look....well, like plas-
tic. Obviously installed with
economy in mind.
Metal signs have the distinct
benefit of having been around
for a long time. They have been
used in elevators for some time
so the technology used to create
them is less experimental and
they are extremely vandal-proof
and virtually maintenance-free.
But, like the plastic signs, they
are inappropriate for some types
of interiors.
Inlaid signs are the most ver-
satile and attractive. Braille
characters can be inlaid in a va-
riety of materials, including mar-
ble and granite. However, they
are generally more expensive
and highly vulnerable to vandal-
ism. Fabrication is also very
Whichever product you
choose, expect the fabricator to
stand behind his work. The
ADA doesn't have to be a

Vince Harrigan is a Licensed
Journeyman sign fabricator spe-
cializing in ADA signage.


..f""^? 1^,- -- .
, ... -.--. -- -


Tampa Theatre Architect: John Eberson, 1926
National Register of Historic Places


Architectural/Interior Design Photography

C 0 T T

* 2802 Azeele Street Tampa, Florida 33609 0 (813) 873-1374

Circle 30 on Reader Inquiry Card


G E 0 R




Checking Fenestration Test Results Pays Off In Florida
by Howard Moore

The overall energy efficiency
of windows and doors, or
lack thereof, can be a confusing
issue. By most calculations, 20
to 30% of all energy loss occurs
through windows and doors.
How to differentiate between
a manufacturer's claim that a
product is energy-efficient and
the actual facts is often difficult.
This is a problem which is creat-
ed in part by the fact that the in-
dustry is not currently governed
or required by code to meet any
minimum energy standards.
Although it is projected that
by 1995 all states will require a
National Fenestration Rating
Council (NFRC) energy label,
this code only requires a mini-
mum U-factor.
The positive side to this code
enforcement, however, is that it
will regulate how a manufacturer
tests its product. Manufacturers
will have to report test results
using the same calculations re-
quired by the NFRC.
The negative side is that the
code still does not address the
different climate conditions
across the country. The con-
cerns of people who live in Flori-
da is clearly not the same as
those who live in Minnesota.
Since manufacturers are cur-
rently not required to provide
specific energy test results,
their claims are often mislead-
ing. This article is an attempt to
address some of the most often
misrepresented claims as they
relate to Florida.
A common claim made by
manufacturers is that test re-
sults are "Calculated" based on
"Centerpoint Measurements."
When selecting a window, you
need more than just an energy-
efficient centerpoint. You need
an energy-efficient window.
Check for manufacturers that
utilize "complete" unit testing.
When deciding which prod-
uct and option best meets your
needs, there are several consid-
erations which should be taken
into account.

This gives the transfer of in-
side cold to outside heat based
on a constant inside and outside
temperature, without direct sun-
light. It is important to review
the "complete" unit test results
when gauging the window's
overall performance. It is also
important to review the "Sum-
mer" U & R Values since heat is
our primary concern here in
In Florida, this is an impor-
tant energy loss concern. Shad-
ing coefficiency shows the trans-
fer of heat through the glass.
Most manufacturer's energy
claims show "heat loss" compar-
isons. Florida concerns are
"heat gain" related. The best
gauge of a product's perfor-
mance for heat gain is in its
glass shading coefficiency test-
ing. The lower the shading co-
efficiency, the better the glass
performance in direct sunlight.
With the recent advance-
ments in high performance
glass, sacrificing light for better
performance is no longer neces-
sary. When comparing glass
performance, compare the shad-
ing coefficiency rating vs. the
visible light transmittance. Win-
dows no longer have to be tint-
ed to reduce heat gain.
Another area of confusion
has to do with manufacturer's
claims that do not clarify what
spectrum of UV they are reflect-
ing. The fact is that there are a
number of spectrums
that can cause fading. The in-
dustry has not developed a con-
sensus standard on the UV trans-
mittance spectrum. However,
Lawrence Berhley Laboratories
(LBL) recently issued a report
and associated computer soft-
ware that attempts to quantify
the cause of damage to fabrics.
This appears to be the best rep-
resentation to judge the actual

percentage of protection offered.
If it is available, ask for the LBL
Comparison test report.
Until the NFRC testing is
adopted nationally requiring
manufacturers to use the same
testing procedures, following
the guidelines listed here is the
best approach for checking the
energy efficiency of a window or
a door. It is important to get all
the facts, not just the "claims."
Most reputable manufacturers
have access to accurate testing
and it is in the architect's best
interest to try to get these test

Howard Moore is an expert on
window and door testing and the
specific climate-related demands
that architects in Florida experi-

1/ e- 0mDa 0l Si.Tining iim

Limber up those drawing muscles. Increase your sketching ability and
decrease the time required. Use black and gray markers, felt-tip pens, and
index cards to produce quick conceptsketches to communicate instantly nd
refine design ideas.

INSTRUCTOR: Tim White, Professor ofArchitecture, Florida A & M Univer-
sity. Tim White is a registered architect with 15 years of experience teaching
sketching workshops.

4 5 Tampa
25 -26 Coral Gables

Friday: !2 day; Saturday: all day.
16 17 Jacksonville 6-

Palm Beach

Call 904-644-3806 to register; call Jane Crosslightat904-644-7553 for more

(R Florida State
Center for Professional
Development and Public Service



All you ever wanted to do
with Glass Block but couldn't...

Now you can
*5 times lighter & 200 times the impact
strength of glass block .Higher R
value *Stronger-made from LEXAN
with special UV coating *Snap-Lock
installation feature *Drill or saw-cut
*Available grout system-no more messy
mortar -Standard & custom colors
available *Call today for FREE brochure.

In Fla. 1 800 940-4527 Outside Fla. 1 800 456-7093
Circle 2 on Reader Inquiry Card

Basic, hands-on computer training for drafting using drawing, editing,
dimensioning, and blocking commands. Also includes instruction on reusing
parts of old files, as well as designing on the computer (Release 11 version;
information is adaptable to Release 12).

AUTOCAD (1 person per computer)
Taught only in Tallahassee.
Thursday and Friday: all day. Limited to 8 people.

INSTRUCTOR: Lisa Waxman, Assoc. Professor, Interior Design, Florida State
University. Lisa Waxman has 3 years of experience teaching AutoCAD
$315; includes educational booklet

13-14 Tallahassee

24-25 Tallahassee

AUTOCAD (2 persons per computer)
Days One and Two: all day; Day Three: V2 day. Limited to 20 people.
INSTRUCTOR: Colleen Dooley, board certified by AutoCAD
$495; includes take-home disk and notebook

16-18 Palm Beach
19-21 Jacksonville

14-16 Orlando
21-23 Ft. Lauderdale

Call 904-644-3806 to register; call Jane Grosslight 904-644-7553 for more
( Flootaida State
CentMr for Prolessional
Development and Public Service

What does energy conservation,
public health protection, potty
parity and the American with
Disabilities Act (ADA) have in common?


The She-inal (R) female urinal and
the Safety Urinette (TM) accessible urinal

Cil N C

7012 Pine Forest Rd
Pensacola, FL 32526
(904) 944-9779 Phone
(904) 944-9778 Fax

Defending Health and Dignity

Circle 16 on Reader Inquiry Card




Introducing "Potty
Unlike a previous female uri-
nal design, the She-inal urinal
was conceived by a female. The
design takes into account the
types of clothing that women
wear, their fears and concerns
about communicable diseases in
public restrooms, physical con-
straints of the female anatomy
and modesty. The new She-inal
urinals are always used in a pri-
vate stall and they are the solu-
tion to public restroom prob-
lems like long lines, water con-
servation and smaller stalls.
Both the She-inal and the
Safety Urinette which was de-
signed for the physically-chal-
lenged, are completely sanitary.
The fixture is wall-mounted and
designed to be contact-free.
The systems are convenient for
users of any age. The funnel
hose is a special gooseneck de-
sign which allows the funnel to
be placed at any height or in any
position. The handle rotates a
full 360 degrees to allow for
complete freedom and comfort.
Even small children find the sys-
tem easy to use.
Long lines at female public
restrooms have become such a
pervasive problem that "potty
parity" laws are being passed.
Installation of female urinals will
reduce the length of time re-
quired to use the fixture and in-
crease the number of fixtures
available in a limited space.
A survey conducted in 1989
by the University of West Florida
had a test group of 150 women,
aged 16 to 72, respond to using a
urinal. Sixty-six percent of all the
respondents stated they were
moderately to highly likely to try
the She-inal urinal. In a survey
of female attitudes toward public
restrooms, females were asked
to respond to a concept question:
If there were a female urinal
available which you used in a
standing position in a privacy
stall, would you use it? Fifty-five
percent of all respondents an-
swered they would try it.

For complete information
about the She-inal and the Safe-
ty Urinette, contact Urinette,
Inc. in Pensacola, Florida, at
(904) 944-9779 or fax (904) 944-

'H .



Solar Powered Outdoor
Solar Outdoor Lighting's new
Solar Pal Self-Contained Sign
Lighting System for entrance
signs, corporate identification
signs and remote signs is highly
efficient, affordable and easy to
Pictured here is the entrance
sign at the new Panache commu-
nity in Boca Raton. The new
Solar Pal system is being used to
light a 6-by-8-foot sign located
500 feet from an electrical outlet.
The power unit, mounted on
a pole hidden from view, consists
of two solar panels, a battery box
and a computer controller. Wires
connect the batteries to a 39-watt
BIAX floodlight, which provides
strong illumination without gen-
erating intense heat that could
possibly burn the surrounding
The solar panels, which ro-

tate 360 degrees to face south,
absorb the sun's rays, convert-
ing them to electricity which is
then stored in the batteries. A
patented computer directs the
batteries to turn the floodlights
on and off at pre-selected times.
Once charged, the power unit
will operate for six days without
sun. Installation takes three
hours and no trenching or wiring
is required. Users will be spared
monthly power bills forever.


Solar Powered Streetlight
Also Available
Designed for high reliability
and minimal maintenance by Stu-
art-based Solar Outdoor Lighting
(SOL), the patented Solar Pal
Streetlight features a flat panel of
solar cells atop its arm which ab-

sorbs the sun's rays, converting
them to electricity which is then
stored in gel-filled batteries to
turn the lamp on and off at pre-
selected times.
Currently used by Wal-Mart
at their Arkansas headquar-
ters, the Solar Pal Streetlight
uses top-of-the-line components
and can operate for up to five
days on a full charge. SOL of-
fers the strongest warranty in
the industry.

The solar-powered street-
light is ideal for built-out office
complexes, remote parking lots,
temporary construction sites,
parks, bridges, overpasses and




:' i


AIA Florida's Summer Conference


Al AIA Florida is holding its 1993 summer
conference July 30 August 1 at the
Rmiut w world renowned Ritz-Carlton in Naples,
SFlorida. The conference theme, "It's
About Architecture," covers all aspects
of the practice of architecture: design, professional practice,
legal, community awareness, and personal satisfaction.

Conference Schedule


Afternoon Early Conference Arrivals/
Participants in Golf and Tennis
7:30 pm House Party at Home of
Dick & Silvia Morris


8:00 am-12 Noon
1:00 pm-2:30 pm

2:30 pm-3:30 pm

3:30 pm-4:00 pm
4:00 pm-5:30 pm

4:00 pm-5:00 pm

6:30 pm-10:00 pm

Golf Tournament
Opening Session with Bill
Chapin, FAIA, "The Future
of Architecture."
Chapter Community Awareness
a) AIA Miami Chapter,
West Perrine Study
b) AIA Orlando Chapter,
c) AIA Tampa Bay
d) Gulf Coast Chapter,
Seminar: Sponsor
Seminar: Larry M. Schneider,
AIA, "American Disabilities
Act for Florida and Other
Code Changes."
Main Lobby Tea Hosted by Judy
Tice, Jane Filer, Reagan Reep.
"The finest sports car collection
in America," says the New York
Times. Party amidst some of the
most significant cars in
automotive history at the Collier
Automotive Museum. Hosted by
the Florida Southwest Chapter.


7:30 am-8:00 am
7:45 am-8:30 am

8:30 am-10:00 am

9:00 am-2:30 pm
10:15 am-ll:15 am

11:30 am-1:00 pm
1:00 pm
1:00 pm-6:00 pm
1:00 pm-5:00 pm
1:30 pm-3:30 pm
1:30 pm-5:30 pm
1:30 pm
5:00 pm-6:00 pm
6:00 pm-7:00 pm

7:00 pm-10:00 pm

10:00 pm-till

Continental Breakfast
Seminar: How to Create
Computer Animated Videos on
Unbuilt Projects.

Seminar: Jim Franklin, FAIA,
"Ways to Make Your Firm
Ritz Kid's Camp
Chapter Community Awareness
a) AIA Gainesville, Handicap
b) AIA Jacksonville, Habitat
c) AIA Palm Beach, Vision
Keynote Speaker
Lunch on Own
Family Free time
Ritz Kid's Camp
Boat Tour of Estero Bay
Tour of Edison Home
Tennis Tournament
Billiard Tournament
Beach Side Reception for the
Beach Cookout, Volley Ball,
Bocce Ball, Limbo Contest
Poolside/Closing Reception


8:30 am-10:00 am Malcolm Holzman, FAIA,
Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer
10:00 am-11:30 am Panel Discussion
Chapin, Franklin,
and Holzman
11:30 am Closing

Early Registration

Save up to $100 by registering before July 1, 1993. For
more information contact Melody Gordon, Meeting Planner
at (904) 222-7590 or write to AIA Summer Conference, 104
E. Jefferson Street, Tallahassee, Florida 32301.





It s A b


Archi t e cture

July 30- August 1, 1993
The Ritz-Cariton
Naples, Florida

American architects and
architecture are at a critical juncture.
The recession has had a demoralizing
affect on the profession and highly
complex political and cultural forces are
driving us to reevaluate our priorities.
What now?
The 1993 AIA Florida Summer
Conference offers an agenda that will
provide opportunities for us to engage
these issues in a beautiful and tranquil
environment, away from the distractions
of the workplace.
We've invited a number of
provocative speakers for your benefit: Bill
Chapin, FAIA; Jim Franklin, FAIA;
Malcolm Holzman, FAIA; and Larry
M. Schneider, AIA. It will be a
conference that asks the tough questions
and invites to explore the answers with
your colleagues. We'll also have a
lot of fun.
Please join us July 29-August 1
in Naples, Florida for AIA Florida's
Summer Conference--It's About

Dru Problem
ig AsYouThink.

If you're a parent, you should be aware that the drug problem
is getting smaller every day. As hard as it is to believe, kids who get
pushed into drugs for the first time are about twelve years old. That
being the average, it means a lot of these kids are only seven or
eight when they have their first drug experience. By age thirteen,
twelve percent have already tried marijuana. Eight percent have tried
cocaine. And one out of every ten kids surveyed said they would like
to try crack just once.
With odds like that, it's never too early to start teaching your
children about the dangers of drug abuse. Call 1-800-624-0100 and
ask for your free copy of Growing Up Drug Free. Call today before
the problem gets any smaller.
Partnership for a Drug-Free America
Partnership for a Drug-Free Florida


your firm and
your firm's logo.
Get reprints
of articles
your firm's
for use as a
public relations

For more
Carolyn Maryland
at 904-222-7590.

lo p"

It's Illegal To Copy

AIA Documents.


-by Roger K iw-s. 'AIA

Don't Copy AIA Documents
Or Ask Others To Do It.
It's against the federal copyright law to copy AIA Documents or to ask others to do it
for you. These Documents are protected by law and using original AIA Documents
protects you, too. Documents that have been copied might contain obscured changes
or be outdated, containing old language that does not reflect current case law and
construction industry practices. Using copied
Documents could increase your liability signi-
ficantly. It's just not worth the risk ... and it isn't FULL SERVICE DISTRIBUTOR
worth putting others at risk either. We're your 1
AIA Documents Distributor. Call us today. THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE
Florida Associationl
American Institute


Marianne Jensen

(904) 222-7590
AIA Documents... the foundation for building agreements.
1992, AIA

Top Line Quality... Bottom Line Results.

Prestressed/Precast Concrete has become Florida's
building system of choice for Parking Garages. The
reason? An owner receives the highest quality structure
at the lowest first cost. And the savings continue for the
life of the garage.
Lower maintenance costs and formidable resistance
to Florida's corrosive environment are characteristic of
high-strength Prestressed/Precast Concrete. The resultant
service life of your garage is extended adding long-term
protection to your investment dollar.
Long, clear spans, made practical through a unique
manufacturing process, provide a pleasing, open interior


facilitating a user friendly traffic flow. The solid good
looks of Prestressed/Precast Parking Structures can be
displayed functionally as finished concrete or accented
with attractive surface treatments.
So, before you design or build your next parking
garage, consider Prestressed/Precast Concrete and...
Consider your bottom line.
For a free brochure on the benefits of Precast/Pre-
stressed Concrete Parking Structures and upcoming
seminar information call or write: Florida Prestressed
Concrete Association, 1850 Lee Road, Winter Park,
FL 32789 (407) 740-5297.

RETE ASSOCIATION INC. Circle 1 on Reader Inquiry Card

This message made possible, in part, through the contributions of the following FPCA Sponsor Members who provide quality materials and services to the industry:

Florida Wire & Cable Company
Jacksonville 1-800-433-4204

Brooksville Cement
Brooksville 1-800-727-6261

Lafarge Corp. Florida Cements
Tampa 1-800-282-9171