Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00297
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: November-December 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00297
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

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FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992




November/December 1992
Vol. 39, No. 6


A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words
Kenneth J. Hirsch, AIA
Specialization Is Key To Surviving In The Future
Guy Butler, AIA, RIBA
Planning The Building For The Site
Patrick J. Meehan, AIA, AICP
Making A Case For Structural Steel
William C. Mignogna, P.E.
New Products

Cover sketch for the Martinez House is by Thomas A. Spain, AIA.

FLORIDA ARCHIlECT November/December 1992


1992 AIA/Florida Unbuilt Design Awards
The Blandy House
Jerry L Dunlap, AIA
Martinez House
Thomas A. Spain, AIA
Utuado On The Rise
Marvel, Flores, Cobian Y Asociados Architects
Courtyard House, Windsor
Scott Merrill, Architect with Charles Barrett
Florida Highway Welcome Station
Rolando Mendoza
Orange County Courthouse
Hansen Lind Meyer, Inc.
Miami-Dade Community College, South Campus
Spillis Candela & Partners, Inc.
1992 AIA/Florida Firm Award
KBJArchitects, Inc.
1992 AIA/Florida Test of Time Award
Florida Supreme Court Building.
Antoine Predock in Tampa
An FA Interview by Renee Garrison.
Unbuilt Award Winner Becomes Reality
Baypark Place in Tampa was designed by John Howey, FAIA.
Modern Movements in Chess
A bit ofarchitectural humor by Steven Cargile.


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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Design and Production
Peter Mitchell Associates, Inc.
Boyd Brothers Printers
Publications Committee
Roy Knight, AA, Chairman
Keith Bailey, AIA
Gene Leedy, AIA
Will Morris, AIA
Don Sackman, AIA
Editorial Board
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Dave Fronczak, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Henry C. Alexander, Jr., AIA
4217 Ponce De Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, FL 33146
Vice President/President-elect
Jerome Filer, AIA
250 Catalonia Avenue
Suite 805
Coral Gables, FL 33134
John Tice, AIA
909 East Cervantes
Pensacola, Florida 32202
Past President
Raymond L Scott, AIA
1900 Summit Tower Blvd., Ste. 260
Orlando, 32810
Regional Directors
James H. Anstis, FAIA
4425 Beacon Circle
West Palm Beach, Florida 33407
John Ehrig, AIA
7380 Murrell Rd., Suite 201
Melbourne, FL 32940
Vice President/Member
Services Commission
Rudy Arsenicos, AIA
2560 RCA Blvd., Suite 106
Palm Beach Grdens, FL 33410
Vice President/
Public Affairs Commission
Richard T. Reep, AIA
510 Julia Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Vice President/Professional
Excellence Commission
William Blizzard, AIA
1544 Manor Way S.
St. Petersburg, FL 33705

My ability to detach myself from flood, famine and pestilence on the
other side of the world is, I'm sure, a coping mechanism. I hope it
isn't real detachment and that it doesn't represent a lack of concern.
It's just that when people are starving on a continent thousands of miles away
or when an earthquake destroys homes in a place you have to check your
globe to locate, the miles and lack of familiarity with both people and place
tends to cushion the blow and mask some of the horror.
Not so the events of late summer, 1992. I've been in a state of disbelief
since Hurricane Andrew swept through Dade County on what was an other-
wise pretty normal August night and left behind little that is recognizable.
The numbers of homeless are staggering, the need for food and water critical
and above all, life as we know it in Miami has been brought to a standstill.
The things that concerned Miamians one week ago the impending elections,
escalating problems in the Middle East, getting a pay check, whatever are
no longer of any concern. The concern now is surviving a crisis of monumen-
tal proportion.
Perhaps the most shocking aspect of this catastrophe was where it hap-
pened. Miami is a modern city in a modern state, not some third world place
with a hard-to-pronounce name that can't protect itself from disasters, either
natural or manmade. But, the truth is, Miami couldn't protect itself even with
all the warnings that modern technology could provide. In the end, this mod-
ern city that is home to millions could only hang on and pray and then begin
cleaning up. It may be the end of the millennium, but nature has lost none of
her power to put everything into proper perspective and we are all vulnerable.
There is, I am sure, a great lesson in all of this, but right now the pain is too
great to try and invoke it.
If any good is to come out of the devastation left by this Hurricane, it is in
the area of preparedness. This will happen again. Will our buildings be any
better able to survive? Have we learned that the bravado of saying, as one
Miami building official did on national television the day before Andrew hit,
that the South Florida Building Code protected buildings in winds of up to
110 miles per hour, did little good when winds were measured at 160 miles
per hour.
But right now, the concerns are more critical. Getting people sheltered and
fed. Getting medical attention to those who need it. The rest will come and
the lessons to be learned will be learned in the saner days ahead. DG

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992



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FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992


A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words
Kenneth J. Hirsch, AIA

Ihat's the difference be-
Stween envision, vision, vi-
sioning, and visualizing? Difficult
to answer! Let's look at it from
another perspective. Would you
rather have a description of the
Grand Canyon or see a picture
of it? Actually, both are probably
important However, the picture,
to most people, is three times
more important. Now the more
difficult subject to talk about
is how pictures play a part in the
future "vision" of your communi-
If you researched all of the
documents relating to how our
governments and communities
function, you would probably
find almost no pictures or visual
aids. Consider the following
How do Florida communities
rate in relation to the rest of the
How did Florida communi-
ties evolve?
Is this where Florida wants
to be?
Does Florida know where it
wants to be in 20 years?
Does Florida know what it
will look like, sound like and
feel like in 20 years?
If we had the answers to
these questions, would we know
how to make the necessary
changes to head in the direction
we prefer?
To begin to answer these
questions, let's look at the forces
that are changing the world
around us. If you are not familiar
with the term paradigm, you
should be. Paradigms are how
you see your world. Whether
you know it or not, the world is
changing before your eyes. This
is referred to as a paradigm
shift. Did you see the paradigm
shift in the last 20 years in Japan-
ese produced products? Do you
feel the paradigm shift of the
new world order? On the other
hand, you may be a paradigm pi-
oneer, one who helps make the
world a better place by providing
bold leadership.

This brings us to the next
basic concept of pictures and vi-
sion. If you have strong vision
for your personal life and for the
organizations you support, you
will be helping create positive
new paradigms. If you lack vi-
sion in your life and in your or-
ganizations, new paradigms will,
sooner or later, paralyze you.
Vision has been referred to
as that idea to which you can
dedicate your whole life. The vi-
sioning process uses well
known concepts of mission
statements, goals and objec-
tives, and action plans to define
the vision. Organizations are
using these strategic planning
tools, collaborative problem
solving skills, and consensus
building methods at all levels of
organizational structure, from
family units to state and federal
When we link vision with
strategic planning we call it a
visioningg process". When we
design the visioning process
using pictures and graphics we
increase our understanding and
ability to retain the community
initiated ideas. Architects and
other graphic professionals are
experts at this.
What does a visioning
process look like? First it needs
an individual or group to drive
it, someone to take the leader-
ship, someone who sees the
possible need of a new para-
digm. The next step is to look
for experts with experience in
the visioning process. This is a
new breed of consultant. The
more widespread and informed
the public, the more they will
support the opportunity to con-
tribute their ideas to a new vi-
sioning process.
A nucleus of people that rep-
resents a cross section of the
community needs to establish
some organizational structure in
the form of a "steering com-
mittee. "Rowing" committees
must also be formed. An open
forum for discussion of current

trends and issues sets the basis
for common discussion. The
"steering" committee, with the
guidance of a visioning expert,
designs the process in such a
way that the citizens are com-
fortable with the concepts of col-
laborative problem solving and
consensus building. The partici-
pants must trust the process.
A typical visioning process
uses task forces (rowing commit-
tees) to focus on specific aspects
of the community, categories
such as housing, economy, and
governance. One way to orga-
nize the complex categories is by
creating a "Quality of Life" index.
If you want to know more
about who is creating a vision,
just take a look at what's hap-
pening all around you. The vi-
sioning process is alive and well.
For more than a decade commu-
nities around the country have
created a visioning process and
are living out the action plans of
a clear vision. Alberta, Canada
has developed one of the most
comprehensive five volume
community visioning reference
series, which serves as a hand-
book for its communities. The
American Institute of Architects
- Washington has recently pub-
lished a report, "A Bio-regional
Community Design Demonstra-
tion Project for Growth Manage-
ment". The International City
Management Association has
published several reports outlin-
ing the visioning process in
more than 200 communities.
The Program for Community
Problem Solving has also pub-
lished several references on vi-
sioning, including a 20-page
comprehensive bibliography.
The International Downtown As-
sociation has published a model
for bringing visions to down-
towns. The American Institute
of Architects has helped create
picture visions for more than 25
years with the Regional/Urban
Design Assistance program
The American Institute of

Architects Florida has created
a statewide program modeled
after the R/UDAT, known as
the Florida Design Assistance
Team (F/DAT), to help commu-
nities understand the impor-
tance of the visioning process.
Florida's future is at stake.
The Growth Management Act of
1985 has taken hold of the basic
elements of planning. This is the
good news. The bad news is
that very few communities used
the visioning process when cre-
ating their comprehensive
plans. Governor Chiles has cre-
ated the third Environmental
Land Management Task Force
(ELMS III) to evaluate the
Growth Management Act. An
ELMS III subcommittee is look-
ing closely at the importance of
the visioning process for Flori-
da. Since comprehensive plans
must be updated every 5 years,
all 476 jurisdictions will have the
opportunity to adopt bold vi-
sions for their communities.
The visioning process will
help us see in pictures what we
prefer the 21st century to be.
Florida leadership should call
for a Visioning Summit, bring-
ing together those people from
around the country who can
train and equip us with visioning

Ken Hirsch is Chairman of the
AIA Florida Growth Manage-
ment Committee.

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992



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Circle 11 on Reader Inquiry Card



Specialization Is Key To Surviving In The Future
Guy Butler, AIA, RIBA

For me, Orlando has always
been synonymous with
theme parks. I first visited there
in 1971 when the town was still
reeling from the opening of
Walt Disney World. Before emi-
grating from Ireland, I managed
another trip in 1973 prior to
making Orlando my permanent
home the following year. Now,
18 years later, this once small
town has emerged as the top
tourist destination in the world
with over 48 million visitors
each year.
To a considerable extent,
this growth has cushioned the
practice of architecture from
economic vagaries. As a bonus
to the profession, it has spon-
sored constant exposure to the
leisure industry. As such, my
portfolio leans toward themed
retail, themed restaurants and
entertainment facilities. Around
the world, to be "from Orlando"
implies that you must know a lot
about leisure facilities, a fact not
lost on our local marketing ex-
Over the years, I have ob-
served two recurring problems,
particularly in projects of $50
million plus. The first is a situa-
tion where a client starts with
the wrong team and never re-
covers, i.e. a small architectural
firm does a great job of design-
ing a client's house and then
convinces the same client to let
the firm handle a 1400
person/hour dark-ride building.
The second problem I've ob-
served in connection with large
projects is that subsequent to
the design solution, non-design
professionals, with the contin-
ued ear of the client, make
changes to the detriment of the
project. Example: Construction
management efficiently locates
a transformer where every win-
dow seat in the restaurant can
see it.
I have always noted that
these problems seem to cause a
chain reaction. Theme parks,
being the most complex of pro-

jects, amplify the cost and
scheduling implications. Even
EuroDisney and Universal Stu-
dios can document these two
problems as causing their pro-
jects time and money.
Being concerned about the
future of a general architectural
practice, I felt that I could only
survive the 90s if I created a
suitable niche. Therefore, in
1989, I resigned as a partner in a
250-person A/E firm to concen-
trate on identifying a solution to
these problems.
The solution was found in a
technique called design man-
agement. My company, Design
Matrix International (DMI),
now specializes in the design
management of leisure projects.
Leisure projects are a major
component within the growing
worldwide Leisure and Hospital-
ity Industry. This industry is
unique in that it requires a mul-
titude of development special-
ists, each with specific under-
standing of many areas.
The expertise this new indus-
try requires falls into four broad
disciplines: economic, design,
project and construction man-
agement and operations. It is
critical that these four disci-
plines interact closely in order
to produce the strong concept
necessary for the ultimate suc-
cess of the project. DMI pro-
vides the client with the design
management services which co-
ordinate design expertise and
communicate the concept to
non-design professionals.
The most appropriate and
creative team for the evolution
of a leisure project is one with
extremely focused specialty
companies which are experi-
enced and comfortable working
within a structured environ-
ment. The primary purpose of
the design manager is to repre-
sent the client in stimulating
this design team to produce
unique, creative solutions that
conform with design intent, bud-
get and the schedule. This is

known within the Disney organi-
zation as "the triangle of suc-
Many of the well-publicized
problems that have plagued
leisure park design are directly
related to an inability to provide
direction and leadership during
the initial design phases of the
project. Once off track, count-
less dollars are spent trying to
redirect and catch up. These are
profit dollars! The design man-
ager must assume the responsi-
bility of orchestrating and man-
aging the design process as a
direct representative of the
client. The designers usually
enjoy working with a client rep-
resentative with a design back-
The costs involved in procur-
ing design management ser-
vices are directly related to the
complexity of the project. Ser-
vices can be negotiated at
hourly rates, a lump sum, or as
a percentage of the construction
budget. Good design manage-
ment services should be quan-
tifiable as contributing to signifi-
cant cost savings over the life of
the project. Strong design man-
agement maintains awareness of
time and budget parameters
throughout the life of the pro-
A successful design manager
must put personal ego on the
back shelf to develop skills that
stimulate the best from the de-
sign team. Most projects involve
working with very strong profes-
sionals from around the globe.
Their knowledge will often be
based on substantial previous
theme park experience gained
from years of working with
other companies such as Dis-
ney. Each time I have the privi-
lege of being exposed to talent-
ed designers, I learn something
new. Hopefully, I am able to fa-
cilitate their process because it
is through the recommenda-
tions of these design profession-
als that I am able to market my

The services that are current-
ly provided by Design Matrix In-
ternational are many and varied.
They range from concept repre-
sentation and interpretation
throughout the project life-cycle
to design cost and analysis. The
company also negotiates and
manages design consultants'
contracts, coordinates and man-
ages the design team, interfaces
with other professionals, recom-
mends economic strategies for
financial savings, manages char-
rettes and initiates program-
ming, sizing and costing.
So far, the concept of design
management has been well-re-
ceived as a specialist niche with-
in the Leisure and Hospitality
Industry. I still maintain a small
architecture practice, called
Charrette Incorporated, that
specializes in themed commer-
cial projects, but Design Matrix
International is growing with
projects in Florida, San Antonio
and Las Vegas and pending pro-
jects in Japan, Mexico, France
and Italy.

Guy Butler is a member of the
Mid-Florida Chapter/AIA.

FLORIDAARCHnIECT November/December 1992

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The 1992 Unbuilt Design Awards were juried by
William Morgan, FAIA, Walter Q. Taylor, AIA, and Mauricio Maso, AIA.
The awards were presented at the FA/AIA Annual Convention
which was held in September in Orlando.

The Blandy House
Tampa, Florida

Jerry LDunlap, AIA,
Tampa, Florida

T he basic part of the house \ _____
consists of an eroded cube
penetrated by two axes forming
right angles at their intersection
and placed perpendicular to the
cube and the street. Each result-
ing quadrant is assigned a func-
tion dependent on the specific
requirements at each level. The
garage and entry foyer are at
street level, penetrating into the -
existing topography of the site.
The living and circulation quad-
rants project beyond adjacent
houses to increase angles of
available river views.

This project is clearly organized
and well-presented. This house
doesn't try to explore the interre-
lationships ofgeometric function.
It's simply a very handsome look-
ing house that is very well

FLORIDAARCHrTECT November/December 1992


Martinez House
Coral Gables, Florida

Thomas A. Spain, AIA,
Coral Gables, Florida

Ihis house was designed for a -
I husband/wife who are both .i
painters requiring studio space !
who also wanted the house to
serve as a traditional four bed-
room residence.
Four rectangular elements I
arranged as a pinwheel around a -
an internal courtyard constitutes
the formal organization. Each
bar element represents a pro-
grammatic entity and maintains A
its independent identity through
color, materials and detailing.
The one-story element houses
the formal living functions. Fainm-
ily activities occur in the two-
story section. The loggia and
pool serve both elements and
correspondence is established
across the uniting courtyard.

This is a wonderful, totally sim- 1 P d
ple space. A vety refined plan
with very functional spaces. This
house has all the architectural
qualities that go into making a
beautiful residence.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992

Utuado On The Rise
Utuado, Puerto Rico

Marvel, Flores, Cobian Y
Asociados Architects
Luis Flores, Partner-in-
Design Team Anna L
Georas, Juan Carlos Colon
Santurce, Puerto Rico

This project involves the
Urban rehabilitation of three
marginalized communities, La
Granja, Judea and Los Pinos, in
the town of Utuado, Puerto Rico.
The existing situation involves
housing built on landslide-prone
terrain, waterways with exposed
waste water and buildings not
integrated into a town grid.
With the aid of the local
housing department, the goal of
the project is to inventory all _
habitable structures on the
island to use for relocation of
families whose houses are in
danger of landslide. The archi- 1
tects plan to introduce new slide
proof barriers, improve vehicu-
lar and pedestrian access, build
new roads to increase the num-
ber of lots with direct access to
a street, develop cultural points .
of interest, construct infill hous-
ing units and integrate commu-
nity streets to the town grid.

From an architectural point of
view, this is a very socially
responsible issue. The architects .....
are dealing with urban issues
and they are trying to work with-
in the current context while sug-
gesting a new direction and
introducing a new focus for the
community. Instead ofa bunch of
cliches, the architects are creat-
ing a very subtle order in what
they are doing.

FLORIDAARCHnIECT November/December 1992



Courtyard House,
Vero Beach, Florida

Scott Merrill, Architect
with Charles Barrett
Vero Beach, Florida

fhe design for this courtyard
I house addresses the re-
quirement of an extensive pro-
gram on a modest parcel. The
need for privacy in this dense
neighborhood was a driving
concern in the arrangement of
rooms and gardens. Every effort
was made to facilitate interac-
tion between principal rooms
and their respective gardens,
while simultaneously providing
privacy between this client and
the immediate neighbors.

. -


* r

* S

The jury liked the use of
a wall to create a com-
pound. Although there
is little space inside the
compound, the whole is
clearly defined by the
street as are lots in St.
Augustine. This
approach to housing
tells us a lot about
maintaining privacy in
areas of high density.
This is a very civilized
and disciplined
approach to community
living, one that truly
respects its context.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992



qZ_ .

Florida Highway Welcome
Median of Interstate
Highway 20

Rolando Mendoza,
Architecture Student
Florida A & M University
School of Architecture
Tallahassee, Florida

The site for this highway wel-
I come station is on the apex
of a hill in the median of Inter-
state 10, the main east-west
highway across north Florida.
The main issue was to address
both east bound and west bound
traffic, while giving priority to
the visitor arriving from the
West These two lines of force,
east and west bound traffic,
were the generative elements
that gave conception to the
geometry of the building's lay-
out and its forms. The building
anchors itself to the site by relat-
ing to the concept of motion as
it is expressed on the highway.

We were most impressed by the
fact that this is student work. It
has some very dynamic elements.
It really looks like a small scale
sculpture. It's obviously a design
that strivesfor the effect of
impressing the highway passenger
who is moving toward it or by it
at a rapid speed. e

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992


Orange County
Orlando, Florida

Hansen Lind Meyer, Inc.
Orlando, Florida

he design of the complex in-
. eludes a courthouse tower
with 52 courtrooms, a 1,500car
parking facility, two identical
five-story office buildings and a
central energy plant The Public
Defender and State Attorney are
housed in the office buildings
that flank the tower. High-vol-
ume courts, clerk of the court
and jury assembly are located in
the tower's base and two special
trial courtrooms are located on
the top level.
The court tower utilizes an
"interstitial concept" in which
one floor housing judges and
holding areas is sandwiched be-
tween two courtroom floors. In
an effort to maximize security,
separate elevators carry judges,
inmates and the public to the
This concept is expressed on
the exterior architecture of the

The space that it forms within
the urban fabric is fantastic.
Functionally, it's a very complex
building with beautiful exterior


FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992

Miami-Dade Community
College, South Campus
Miami, Florida

Spillis Candela &
Partners, Inc.
Architects, Engineers,
Planners, Interior
Coral Gables, Florida
Principal-in-Charge: Hilario
F. Candela,FAIA
Project Director: Jesus
Cruz, AIA
Project Manager: Jorge E.
Iglesias, AIA
Project Architect: Lawrence

The complex of buildings for
1 the Center for the Humani-
ties is organized around a land-
scaped green space in order to
define a new fine arts quadrant
for the western edge of the cam-
pus. The southern edge of this
quad has been master planned
to allow for a future community
theatre and art gallery.
The building will incorporate
sophisticated acoustical design
to provide suitable spaces for... O
the various program compo-

The jury felt that it was nice to C N F
see a project which responded to D
the climate, particularly one on
this scale. The handling of the=
different functions as different
volumetric images was also ap-
pealing. r

.O D

-l n

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992

your imagination with



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FL 800-940-4527 NATL 800-456-7093
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Selected topics included are:
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Effective Compensation Strategies
Building a Winning Team


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Theme Park and Leisure Entertainment Costs
Construction Costs
Contractor Evaluation
Bid Evaluation
Change Order Analysis
Delay and Impact Claims
Expert Witness Service
M-CACES (Corps of Engineers) Estimates
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International and Foreign Markets
Specialist in Prototype (one-of-a-kind) Projects
Environmental Restoration Costs
Contact: Michael Thornton
4201 Vineland Road, Suite 1-12
Orlando, Florida 32811-6626
(407) 425-0612 Fax (407) 425-0354
Circle 7 on Reader Inquiry Card




KBJ Architects, Inc.
Jacksonville, Florida

With offices in Jacksonville,
Orlando and San Juan,
Puerto Rico, KBJ Architects,
Inc. has developed a reputation
as one of the region's leading
full service architectural firms
through the execution of numer-
ous significant commissions for
a broad variety of building
The firm was organized in
1946 as Kemp, Bunch and Jack-
son Architects. The founding
partners have since left the firm
and Mr. Kemp is deceased. The
members of the current corpo-
rate Board of Directors are Wal-
ter Q. Taylor, AIA, Chairman
and CEO, John J. Diamond,
AIA, President, Richard T. Reep,
AIA, John W. Ruth, AIA and
William T. Morris, AIA.
A significant characteristic of
the firm's practice has been a
commitment to the objectives of
its clients. KBJ's office is orga-
nized into teams, each headed
by one of the five working prin-
cipals, handling projects from
inception to completion. This
project continuity insures per-
sonnel availability and establish-
es pride, responsibility and com-
mitment from the beginning.
In more than four decades of
practice, the firm has virtually
sculpted the face of the down-
town Jacksonville skyline, de-
signing significant buildings on
both sides of the St. John's
River. In 1953, KBJ designed
Florida's first high-rise office
building, the headquarters of
the Prudential Insurance Com-
pany of America, and recently it
completed the 23-story Jack-
sonville Center Office Tower,
headquarters of American Her-
itage Life Insurance Company.
Other significant KBJ pro-
jects include the Tournament
Players Club and PGA Head-
quarters, the Ritz Carlton Hotel
at Amelia Island and numerous
educational facilities. They have
designed three major projects
for the Greater Orlando Aviation

Authority at the Orlando Inter-
national Airport. Corporate
clients include Southern Bell,
Barnett Banks, Inc., Indepen-
dent Life and Accident Insur-
ance Company and Prudential
Insurance Company of America.
The buildings which KBJ has
designed for these and other
clients have been the recipients
of numerous state and local
KBJ is a very stable firm. The
staff in the last 20 years has
ranged from a minimum of 45 to
a maximum of 80, generally av-
eraging between 50 and 60, as it
stands today. Over 85% of the
staff has been with the firm for
over five years. The current firm
carries on the principle of archi-
tectural practice established at
its founding: achievement in de-
sign, involvement in community
service, commitment to educa-
tion and service to the profes-
sion and the American Institute
of Architects.

FLORIDAARCHIECT November/December 1992


The beauty and quality of
Vinyl Casement Windows

Alcan Building Products

For information contact:
Tom Thompson, General Sales Manager

When your designs call for
distinctive casement, single
hung or double hung
windows, ask for vinyl...the
perfect product for the
Florida environment.

in lin

Circle 15 on Reader Inquiry Card

NEW S.P.A. (Swimming Pool Aggregate) FROM

When you're the architect or builder with plans
that include a swimming pool and deck, you want that
prestigious area to enhance the overall beauty of your
endeavor. There's nothing that makes a pool area as
attractive as a snow-white pool and deck. And now
with Perma Crete's new S.RA. it is easily attainable.
S.P.A's super-white crystalline marble is screened
three times to ensure an even 100 percent marble mix-
ture each and every time. All your installer has to do is

simply mix S.PA. with white cement and water.The
result is a uniform and workable consistency for a
hard, smooth finish that resists algae and is easy to
keep clean.
Specify Perma Crete's
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Circle 26 on Reader Inquiry Card



Florida Supreme Court
Tallahassee, Florida

James Gamble Rogers, II,
FAIA (deceased)
in association with
Young & Hart Architects
Pensacola, Florida

Documents in the files of
Rogers, Lovelock & Fritz Ar-
chitects indicate that the Su-
preme Court Building was "one
of four State Buildings awarded
to a joint venture of Jas. Gamble
Rogers, II and Young & Hart of
Pensacola. Specifically, Rogers
was responsible for the Supreme
Court Building and Florida A &
M University Hospital.
The design for the Supreme
Court was accomplished in con-
junction with a study for the
development of the State of
Florida Capitol Center in 1947
which arranged state buildings
on an east-west axis with
Lafayette Street and the old
Capitol Building (see site plan
The Court was constructed
in 1947-48 as a two-story build-
ing of 50,000 square feet plus a
basement and sub-basement.
Construction cost was
The style of the building is
Classical, in keeping with a tra-
dition of designing government
buildings using an architectural
vocabulary of pedimented porti-
co carried on Doric columns.
The building is symmetrical and
extremely well-proportioned,
the whole crowned by a domed
The building has recently
been restored and enlarged and
it still serves as the home of
Florida's high court.

Photo of east portico by
Kathleen McKenzie.

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992


Antoine Predock in Tampa

ED. NOTE: On a recent trip to
Tampa, New Mexico architect
Antoine Predock spoke with
Tampa Tribune architecture crit-
ic Renee Garrison about his
design for the expansion of
Tampa's Museum of Science and
Industry (MOSI).

Antoine Predock began the
.expansion of Tampa's MOSI
with what he calls a "conceptual
excavation" of its site, digging
deep into the area's geological
and cultural past.
"Because I travel so much,
I've had to develop a kind of
portable regionalism," Predock
admits. "I try to tune into a place
as I move around."
After his initial visits to the
MOSI site,the 55-year-old Albu-
querque architect sat down with
Eric Kreher of Robbins Bell &
Kuehlem Architects, Inc. and as-
sembled a postcard and photo
collage that boasts everything
from The Blue Angels flying in
formation to Cypress Gardens'
water skiers. Predock is collabo-
rating with Robbins Bell &
Kuehlem Architects on the $35
million project.
There is a fabulous blurring
of the sky and water that hap-
pens so often in this part of
Florida," Predock enthuses.
"I've worked in Orlando for a
number of years with Michael
Eisner on a Mediterranean
Hotel at Disney World. I've been
there many times and realize
how you get drenched in the af-
ternoon rain and how you need
to keep air moving in court-
yards. Those experiences were
very important to me as I began
work on this project."
Ironically, Predock's acute
responsiveness to place worked
against him for twenty years by
stereotyping him a regionalist
who appeared most comfortable
in the desert Southwest.

Though his primary office re-
mains in Albuquerque, where it
began in 1967, Predock opened
a second, smaller studio near
Venice Beach when his work in
California took off a couple of
years ago.
In Tampa, however, Predock
was sensitive not only to the
site, but to the original MOSI
building designed by Tampa's
Rowe Holmes Associates Archi-
tects in 1978.
'The building is a highly re-
garded statement in the archi-
tectural profession," he says. "It
once graced the pages of Pro-
gressive Architecture magazine
and, throughout this project,
I've been obsessed with relating
to it"
A series of 45-degree geome-
tries were inspired by the origi-

Photos of MOSI model by Stan

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992

nal structure, which is connect-
ed to the expansion by a court-
yard and a central spine.
"You come from a very busy
road to this wonderful surprise
of woodlands beyond," Predock
says. "We thought a great way
to engage the site was to block
it, in a way, with the building.
We deny the view to the site be-
yond, so when you move
through the building in your
car, you experience a wonderful
A bermed ground in front of
the building will contain speci-
men trees and greenery as a
"reaffirmation of the natural

The new building, like much
of Predock's work appears to be
extremely sensuous. He under-
stands the need for notches to
peer through, cool hollows to
hide in and narrow twisting
paths to explore. Tampa's muse-
um will be no exception'.
The true highlight of the
110,000-square-foot expansion
will be the Omnimax Theatre
where images are projected with
a 180-degree, fish-eye lens to fill
most of the vast domical screen.
"We didn't want to do just anoth-
er sphere or geodesic dome. We
wanted to express a sphere in a
way that was very unusual. We
kind of unpeeled it and we

thought of a spherical Rubik's
cube and kind of distorted it"
There will also be an oppor-
tunity at the Omnimax exit level
for visitors to climb a sloping
walkway all the way to the roof
of the theatre where they can
view downtown Tampa.
Annoyed with what he terms
"phantom architects who sort of
conceive things and then let
everybody else work it out", Pre-
dock vows to continue his
hands-on approach throughout
the duration of the project, in-
cluding approvals and construc-
"It will be almost an anti-cli-
max to put a sign out in front of

the building that says MOSI,"
Predock says. "The building it-
self is a sign, the icon of the
dark blue reflective metal Omni-
max. You won't have any trou-
ble finding this building."

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992 23

Unbuilt Award Winner Becomes Reality

Baypark Place
Tampa, Florida

John Howey, Architect, FAIA
Consulting Engineer
Rast Associates
Rauser Construction
Baypark, Inc.

In 1989, Baypark Place was the
recipient of an FA/AIA Un-
built Design Award. At that
time, the jury which was chaired
by Paul Rudolph, was impressed
with the "human scale of the
project, its form and simplicity
and the clever solution to park-
ing and site drainage."
The project is now nearing
completion and it consists of
eight custom-designed residen-
tial units, ranging in size from
1,800 to 2,600 square feet. The
condominiums overlook a city
park that is densely populated
with oak trees and a view of
Hillsborough Bay beyond.
The design places the park-
ing at the lowest elevation with
three paired levels forming a
total of six units above the park-
ing. At each end of the building
are multi-level townhomes, each
with its own entrance, which
added to the penthouses make a
total of eight units in the com-
plex. All units have three bed-
rooms and baths, nine-to-twelve
foot ceilings, fireplaces, large
kitchens and patio balconies
opening off the master bedroom
and living room. The perimeter
walls of the building have con-
trolled entry gates. Textured
shell concrete and a copper roof
give the complex a distinctive

Photos by George Cott.

The first unit to be occupied
is a penthouse with 12-foot ceil-
ings and a continuouS band of
windows at treetop level which
floods the interior with daylight
on all sides. An open floor plan
allows the living and dining
areas to flow together. The
penthouse is paired with its twin
at a central elevator lobby.
Lush foliage inside and out
adds to the feeling of quiet and
seclusion that particularly ap-
peals to the tenants.

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992

Modern Movements in Chess
Stephen Cargile

"he chess board is a machine for
conflict. "- Le Corbusier
"Knight is... "- Louis Kahn
"Stalemate is almost alright. "-
Robert Venturi
"Chess is more. "- Mies van der
"Chess is a bore. "- Robert
"Chess pieces should be of the
board instead of on the board. -
Frank loyd Wright Wright Game 1
Based on the 30-60 grid, it was partially developed at the St. Mark's
match in 1929, and later revised successfully at the Price Tourna-
ment in Bartlesville, OK, in 1956. There were 51 rules of play.

Wright Game 2
Initially interesting but proven too restricting in actual play. Over-
indulgence in this variant developed as the Master grew older and
his last games at Marin County, the Guggenheim Match and the
Grady Grammage finals resulted in very questionable endings at

I -


I -i

Modular Chess
This Dom-ino chess board was
developed by the international
grand master Le Corbusier, and
it marks the origins of the 3-D
chess game. A typical modular
king piece is shown at right

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992


S.I.T.E. Game

This variant caused great debate
as its creator, James Wines, was
trained as a checker player.
The game, however, does dis-
play a unique attitude towards
casting on the king's side.

Eisenman Game

This 3-D chess was developed through elaborate rules of mathemat-
ics and geometry. Only a few games have been played as only a few
people can understand it.

New York 5 Game

This marks a return to the
basics of the game according to
the principles of Le Corbusier.
There was to be purity to chess
once again.

Stephen Cargile is an architect
with CRG Architects (Clements/
Rumpel/Goodwin) in Jackson-
ville. A 1986 graduate of the
University of Florida, he has
extensive experience in the field of
nursing home design. He is also
the Archives Director for
Jacksonville's Riverside-Avondale
Preservation, Inc. and is noted
for his research of Prairie School

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992





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TEL 305/669-9902
FAX. 305/669-8178

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992


That File Drawer
And Trash
Outdated AIA
Call Us For An
Up-To-Date List
And Supply.

Florida Association/
Ameican Intitute
Marianne Jensen
(904) 222-7590

Atlas Safety & Security Design,
Inc. is a full service, independent,
non-vested security consulting firm
servicing architects, private sector,
and government agencies. We de-
sign systems for intrusion detection,
perimeter protection, weapons
screening, electronic and detention
locking systems, access control,
communications, ADA barrier free
accessibility features, criminal jus-
tice facility programming, and Crime
Prevention Through Environmental
Design. (CPTED).
We conduct vulnerability/risk and
threat analysis in order to develop
security systems drawings, speciica-
tions, bid documents. We also con-
duct shop drawing review, installa-
tion supervision, and cost estimates.
When it comes to security design,
architects turn to

For more information and qualifi-
cations, contact:
Randall Atlas, Ph.D., AIA, CPP
1 Palm Bay Court
Miami, Florida 33138
(305) 756-5027
FAX: (305) 754-1658
Circle 19 on Reader Inquiry Card




New Software For
TOUCHCQM Directory
and Wayfinding System
TOUCHCOM Computerized
Directory and Wayfinding Sys-
tems are used in environments
such as office buildings to dis-
play information about the build-
ing and its occupants, as well as
selected events and activities.
The new software offers own-
ers opportunities to distribute
information to users. Most im-
portant, all listings now respond
with additional information
when touched. For example, if
you touch the name of a person,
a map appears and shows their
location and a message about
that person will appear. A tenant
could use this new feature to
leave a personal message for a
client or any number of other
sensitive messages.
Second, auto dialing with a
handset at the Directory Station
is now available. The user may
dial a person directly by touch-
ing a name on the screen, or, if
the person prefers, have the user
listen to a recorded message.
This new feature will assist own-
ers in complying with the new
ADA regulations. The first instal-
lation will be at the J.C. Penney
Legacy Complex in Dallas which
is the headquarters for the J.C.
Penney Company.
Third, a specific area/ad-
dress on a map can be shown by
using a highlighted destination
target to go along with a blink-
ing "You Are Here" icon.
For additional information,
contact Le Proctor, Digital Tech-
niques, Inc., (617) 273-3495.

Safety/Security Product
Service Directory Available
Atlas Safety & Security De-
sign, Inc., is an independent,
non-vested security systems de-
sign and consulting firm which
is not associated with any ven-
dor or guard service. The com-
pany specializes in supporting A
& E firms with its full CAD ca-
pacity. It designs systems for in-
trusion detection, electronic and
detention locking and access
control, closed circuit television,
security lighting, communica-
tions systems, perimeter protec-
tion systems, weapons screen-
ing and ADA Accessibility
Barrier free designs and evalua-
tions and expert witness testi-
mony on premises liability.
The company works closely
with the architect and client to
conduct vulnerability/risk as-
sessments in order to develop
security and detention draw-
ings, specifications, bid docu-
ments and estimates that are
fully integrated into the con-
struction drawings and the
Atlas Safety and Security De-
sign recently conducted the re-
quired ADA Compliance Assess-
ment Surveys at several Florida
correctional institutions. Dr.
Randall Atlas, AIA, has prepared
a paper on the design and opera-
tional impact'of ADA on build-
ing security, jails and prisons,
and government entities.
For a copy, contact Atlas Safe-


ty & Security Design, Inc., One
Palm Bay Court, Miami, Flori-
da,33138-5751 or phone 1-800-
749-6029, FAX (305) 754-1658.

Brazilian Architect Creates
Wood Carved Doors
Brazilian architect Renato
Wagner is also a well-known
artist who creates wood carved

doors which are both unique
and elegant. The doors are pro-
duced in dimensions of 36" x
80" x 1 3/4" although other
sizes are available by special
consultation. The doors can be
carved on one or both sides.
Carved in solid mahogany and
Brazilian oak, the doors are
sculptures with personal de-
signs that can be adapted for in-
terior or exterior use. The doors
can be entirely wood or they
may have applications of brass,


projects in southeast Florida as
an alternative/replacement for
other forms of siding which
have begun to deteriorate due to
humidity, termites, etc.
The product comes with sev-
eral surface finishes and is rec-
ommended for external siding
on new homes and remodeling.
Hardie's siding products are
covered by a 50-year limited
written warranty and carry
major industry approvals.
For information about Hardi-

FLORIDA ARCHITECT November/December 1992

marble, granite or space for
glass. All doors are signed and
dated by the artist whose work
is on display in a number of gal-
leries in Latin America, Japan
and Europe.
For additional information,
contact M.N.F. Corporation,
P.O. Box 3111, Hallandale, FL
33008-3111, (305) 936-1736 or
FAX (305) 936-1737.

New Concrete Lap Siding
Resists Rot
Hardiplank cementitious hor-
izontal lap siding from James
Hardie Building Products re-
sists rot, moisture, termites and
high winds and offers low main-
tenance and is easy to install.
Tough and flexible, Hardi-
plank boards resist deterioration
which is why major firms such
as Marriott and Century Con-
struction have recently installed
Hardiplank on major projects in
humidity-prone coastal areas.
Hardiplank is also being in-
stalled on many new and rehab

plank or any other Hardie build-
ing product, direct inquiries to
James Hardie Building Products,
Inc., Dept 241, 200 Parkside Dr.,
San Fernando, CA 91340-3092 or
phone (800) 766-7094.

A FAME Award Is...Forever
The 10th Annual FAME
(Florida Achievement in Mar-
keting Excellence) Awards pro-
gram is underway. Co-spon-
sored by the Builders Associa-
tion of South Florida (BASF)
and the Miami Herald, this pro-
gram recognizes excellence in
the Florida building industry.
Completed entry kits are due
by December 11, 1992. To re-
ceive a FAME Call for Entries,
contact Jill Perez at the BASF of-
fice, (305) 556-6300 in Dade
County or (305) 525-8225 in
Broward County.

Mercer Offers Design
Mercer Products, manufac-
turers of vinyl and rubber wall
base and flooring accessories,
offers unlimited design possibili-
ties for high-traffic environ-
Mercer has created 48 de-
sign-oriented colors to comple-
ment any space. Custom colors
can also be created to match any
off-the-wall color required in
your scheme. Color and accesso-
ry combination is limited only to
the imagination of the specifier.
The natural scuff and dent
resistant properties of Mercer's
products make them ideal for
commercial use. Compared to
ceramic cove base or wood
mouldings, vinyl or rubber wall
base is more cost-effective and
offers many creative opportuni-
The Mercer product line in-
cludes standard vinyl and rub-
ber wall base, mouldings, stair
nosings, stair treads and rubber
For information, contact Joe
Visintin, Mercer Products, P.O.
Box 1240, Eustis, FL 32727-
1240, phone 1-800-447-8442.
FAX 1-800832-5398.

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992

eiwl 9 Dutu -r P-r ,r


Planning The Building For The Site
Patrick Meehan, AIA, AICP

architects know that building
projects need to be ap-
proved by local units of govern-
ment. Not many architects, how-
ever, know that professional
land planners can make the pro-
ject approval process successful
and easier. The professional
land planner can be an integral
part of the project team from
prior to program development
and building design through the
design development phase as
The input of professional
planners on the project team can,
in many cases, not only assure
local approval but also a more
responsive design for both the
client and the community. These
factors often result in getting the
project through the approval
process in a more timely fashion
and saving the client money.
The professional planner is
experienced in dealing with a
multitude of planning interrela-
tionships. Such relationships
most often include:
Client and community;
Land use and transportation;
Development and environ-
mental protection;
Zoning and the protection of
individual property rights;
Community growth impacts
and individual client needs.
The project team's response
to these relationships directly af-
fects the project approval. This
article presents some of the
areas in which the professional
land planner can be used as a
critical member of the architec-
tural project team. These areas
include building programming,
site analysis and physical plan-
ning, interpretation of zoning
and subdivision regulations and
municipal approvals and client
While the professional plan-
ner is typically not an architect,
the planner has the analytic
tools to forecast and project
client needs with a high degree
of accuracy. To both the archi-

tect and the client, client needs
translate into the square feet of
building and/or site area need-
ed. Knowledge of the total num-
ber of square feet needed by the
client is crucial in determining
building costs and fulfilling
those needs.
The use of a planner becomes
extremely important when the
architect is involved in the con-
struction of municipal buildings.
Most often, the expansion of an
existing municipal building, or
the construction of a new build-
ing, is in direct response to com-
munity growth population,
households and various types of
land use. Based upon trend
analysis, the planner can predict
the long term growth of a variety
of community elements which
are directly related to the square
feet of building needed, project
phasing and other long term
client needs.
While not all professional
planners are well-versed in site
and physical planning, many
are. The site and physical plan-
ning issues considered by the
planner usually transcend the
realm of merely addressing
what occurs on the project's
site. Planners also examine such
elements as a project's implica-
tions on neighboring uses (i.e.
bufferyards, landscaping, circu-
lation, on-site automobile queu-
ing, etc.) and intensity impacts
(i.e. floor area ratios, traffic vol-
umes, off- and on-street parking
demands, etc.) on the neighbor-
hood and community. While the
architect may indeedaddress
many of these critical issues as
well, the professional planner
may address them from a differ-
ent point of view not previously
considered by the architect.
Professional planners know
both the obvious and subtle dif-
ferences between permitted and

conditional uses; among a zon-
ing appeal, variance, beneficial
use determination, and an inter-
pretation; between a rezoning
and an appeal; and among a
building permit, zoning permit,
occupancy permit, and condi-
tional or special use permit.
Planners know the processes
which must be gone through for
any of the above-mentioned ap-
proval and permit procedures
and the required level of public
input and approval for each. The
choice of procedure and the
type of approval or permit
sought may adversely affect the
community's acceptance of the
project. Many times a poor
choice of procedure can be
avoided by wise decisions re-
garding which method to select
for community approval. Plan-
ners have a keen understanding
of all of these important issues.
Planners also have an under-
standing about the time implica-
tions for project completion rela-
tive to each.
The planner is aware of all of
the nuances of municipal zoning
and planning. The planner is
aware of how plans and ordi-
nances are written, structured,
administered and implemented.
The planner is also aware of the
implications to clients if such
regulations do not exist at all.
The planner knows the cru-
cial interrelationships of the var-
ious municipal commissions,
boards, departments and their
professional staff. Most planners
have had field experience in the
actual preparation of such plans
and ordinances. While not attor-
neys, planners are also aware of
many of the basic legal implica-
tions of municipal regulation of
land and development and the
decisions of municipalities. This
knowledge can be crucial to mu-
nicipal project approvals and
client appeals if projects are not
initially approved.
The role of the planner is of

particular importance during
planning commission review.
During my career, I have attend-
ed over 1,000 planning commis-
sion meetings and at many of
these meetings I have witnessed
architects going into great detail
about the floor plan of a building
rather than verbally addressing
the concerns of the planning
commission the building's im-
pact and response to community
factors. These issues must be
addressed in a style and lan-
guage understandable to offi-
cials and in land planning terms.
It is often advisable to ad-
dress planning issues not only
in the verbal and visual format
of a presentation, but also in
writing so that they can become
a part of the project's "official"
and "formal" public record. This
is very important if approval is
not granted and the client de-
cides to litigate the matter.
What is the mark of docu-
mented planning competence?
Most professional planners are
certified by the American Insti-
tute of Certified Planners
(AICP). The AICP is the nation-
al professional institute of all
certified planners and it is the
professional institute within the
American Planning Association
(APA). Membership in the APA
alone does not qualify one as a
certified professional planner.
For the planning profession,
AICP is analogous to the AIA for
the architect. AICP pursues
both the certification and profes-
sional development of its mem-
bers as a means to the continu-
ous improvement of planning

Patrick J. Meehan, AIA, AICP, is
President of Meehan & Company,
Inc., P.O. Box 32098, Franklin,
WI 53132.

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992


Making A Case For Structural Steel

William C. Mignogna, P.E.
In a recent trends survey of
some 250 Florida architects,
one of the questions asked was
why structural steel is not used
more frequently in Florida build-
Thirty-nine percent of the re-
spondents cited "cost and avail-
ability" as inhibiting factors.
Seventeen percent said they had
concerns about fire protection
and code issues. Another 26%
listed such problems as rust and
corrosion, difficulty moving
steel columns, and an "inexperi-
enced local labor force".
But the majority more than
60% said they believe the over-
riding reason so many architects
choose concrete over steel is a
"traditional Florida mindset",
often the result of limited experi-
ence with steel. Many respon-
dents included comments to the
effect that "steel probably should
be considered more often."
We agree. While our firm
works with the full range of
structural materials and has no
particular allegiance to steel, we
do see a heightened interest in
steel among Florida architects as
they examine alternative routes
to achieve their clients' goals. As
steel becomes more common-
place in Florida, the structural
engineer will undoubtedly play a
broader role in such areas as ma-
terials evaluation, selection of
fireproofing systems, and detail-
ing coordination.
Reductions in steel prices,
new certification programs for
steel fabricators, and the in-
creasing demand for flexible-use
building designs are just a few
of the reasons steel deserves a
closer look these days. While
structural steel is certainly not
the best choice for every pro-
ject, here are some factors likely
to make it more popular in the
next few years.
Speed of construction.
With developers trimming
project budgets closer to the
bone than ever, steel has the
edge in terms of its ability to get
the job "into the dry" faster and

reduce overall construction
time. By getting the job under
roof quicker (especially during
Florida's rainy season), you can
pour interior floor slabs and
begin electrical/plumbing work
much sooner. Beyond the obvi-
ous interest carrying savings,
accelerating construction time
cuts expenditures for project su-
perintendent, security guards,
temporary utilities (phone, elec-
trical, water, sanitary), field of-
fice, insurance, barricade rental
and trash removal.
One architect in our survey
who is also a general contractor,
George Wasser, The Wascon
Group in West Palm Beach, re-
ported saving an average of 40-
50% in construction time using
steel, which he translated into a
10-15% reduction in overall pro-
ject costs.
Other cost factors.
Steel prices are lower today
than they've been since the
1970s. High-strength steel
(ASTM A572 Grade 50) creates
member weight savings and is
now often available at no addi-
tional cost over the standard A36.
But beyond that, there are addi-
tional cost factors to consider.
For example, because steel is
lighter than concrete, piling re-
quirements (and thus foundation
costs) are reduced.
Correcting mistakes is also
easier with steel. When a con-
crete beam is poured improper-
ly, it takes a pneumatic jackham-
mer to fix it. If a steel beam is
mis-positioned, it can be cut
with a torch, unbolted and refab-
ricated on site. The lower life-
cycle costs of steel buildings are
also increasingly Appealing to
end-user clients.
Increased availability
of skilled steel fabricators.
One of the most compelling
arguments for concrete in Flori-
da has been the traditional be-
lief that "masonry labor is cheap
and plentiful and nobody here
knows how to fabricate steel".
The latter, at least, is no

longer true. The American Insti-
tute of Steel Construction re-
cently created a rigorous, tri-
level certification program for
fabricators. Fewer than 60% of
all fabricators pass the test on
the first try. So far, only 110
firms have been certified in the
entire U.S. but of those, three
Florida firms are certified in the
complex structures category
and two in the long-span build-
ing category. According to our
architect/clients who work fre-
quently with steel, there is no
shortage of skilled fabricators in
Multi-Use Design Flexibility.
The multi-use building con-
cept which became so popular
in the '80s is a prime design pro-
totype in the '90s. Steel build-
ings can be expanded or modi-
fied much more easily than their
concrete counterparts. The
Load and Resistance Factor De-
sign approach enables engi-
neers to design steel structures
with more uniform reliability
and more efficiency because it is
based on the actual strength of a
member rather than on an arbi-
trary calculated stress.
When future vertical addi-
tions and/or use changes are
anticipated, when design calls
for significant column-free
space, when a "wide open" de-
sign concept is being articulat-
ed, when there is a desire to use
structure as a visual element -
in all these cases, steel is the
most appropriate choice.
New fireproofing
Misconceptions about UL
codes have put steel off limits in
the minds of many architects we
surveyed. True, concrete is
more fireproof than steel, but
codes can easily be met either
with sheetrock wrapping or
sprayed fireproofing. If
sheetrock is used, 2 layers of
5/8" sheetrock will usually suf-
fice for a 2-hour rating and the
cost is minimal. For exterior
columns, you can use concrete

block as a shield and let it dou-
ble as an aesthetic architectural
Dozens of new spray-applied,
cementitius, joint sealant and in-
tumescent coating fireproofing
products have been introduced
in the past few years. They are
much stronger, easier to use,
faster- drying and higher in den-
sity that earlier versions. The
UL Fire Resistance Directory
gives detailed direction on tech-
niques and hourly ratings for
every building component.
With today's increasing em-
phasis on materials selection, the
structural engineer's position on
the project team might well be
said to be shifting from offensive
lineman to wide receiver, more
directly assisting the architect/
quarterback score the touch-
down. As Florida architects who
have traditionally worked exclu-
sively with concrete begin to di-
versify into steel structures, the
structural engineer can provide
valuable hands-on input, helping
to choose the best UL assembly
and the most economical/appro-
priate structural system, commu-
nicating details to facilitate erec-
tion, and coordinating pre-de-tail-
ing meetings to expedite the job.

William C. Mignogna is President
and Principal of O'Donnell, Nac-
carato & Mignogna, based in West
Palm Beach, providing structural
engineering services nationwide.


Florida Architect readers
may obtain a free copy of
O'Donnell, Naccarato &
Mignogna's new
on incorporating
UL fire rating require-
ments with structural
steel buildings by calling

FLORIDAARCHITECT November/December 1992



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