Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00280
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect.
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: January-February 1990
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00280
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text
_5?- 23


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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


V -r;Y'~rj"f'.tg-;.. S xv? '.
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Vol. 37, No. 1

Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American Institute
of Architects, is owned and published by the
Association, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. ISSN-0015-3907. It is published six
times a year at the Executive Office of the
Association, 104 East Jefferson St., Tallahas-
see, Florida 32302. Telephone (904) 222-7590.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted only with the ex-
press permission of Florida Architect.
Single copies, $4.00; Annual subscription,
$19.08. Third class postage.


Pastoral Panorama for the Performing Arts
Spillis Candela's multi-purpose concert hall
and theatre is both versatile and beautiful.
Diane D. Greer

Architecture Simply Stated
Maddox & Lyttle's office building for an engineering
firm is a simple, but elegant structure.
Diane D. Greer

Schwab, Twitty & Hanser:
Designing An Environment For Learning
As STH celebrates its 20th year, its design
for a school prototype is both efficient and fun.
Patty Doyle

Separate, But Equally Enchanting 24
The McGillicuddy Pool Pavilion is Jeffrey Smith's
1989 addition to a work of art from the 20's.
Maggie McPherson

A High Profile Space For A High Volume Practice 27
Robert Swedroe's Miami Beach Office is
cool and contemporary.
Al Alschuler.

Architectural Photography: Color or Black & White? 30
A pro examines the "pros" and "cons" of
black and white photography.
Carlos Domenech


Editorial 5

News 6

President's Message 9
FA/AIA President Larry M. Schneider, AIA, looks to the year ahead.

Viewpoint 11
Architecture and Enterprise
David Evan Glasser, AIA

Office Practice Aids 32
Code Changes Affect Stair Design: Watch Your Step, Part II
Randall I. Atlas, Ph.D., AIA, CPP

Cover photograph of the stairwell in the Brevard Performing Arts Center is by Peter Aaron.
Architects: Spillis Candela & Partners. Contractors: The Peter Albrecht Co. and Foley & Associates.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


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Call 1-800-433-7806
Ask for Steve Ellis
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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Design and Production
Peter Mitchell Associates, Inc.
Boyd Brothers Printers
Publications Committee
Roy Knight, AIA, Chairman
Henry Alexander, AIA
Keith Bailey, AIA
Gene Leedy, AIA
Will Morris, AIA
Don Sackman, AIA
Editorial Board
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Dave Fronczak, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Larry M. Schneider, AIA
25 Seabreeze
Delray Beach, FL 33483
Vice President/President-elect
Raymond L. Scott, AIA
601 S. Lake Destiny Road
Maitland, FL 32751
Bruce Balk, AIA
290 Coconut Avenue
Sarasota, Florida 33577
Past President
H. Dean Rowe, FAIA
100 Madison Street
Tampa, Florida 33602
Regional Directors
John M. Barley, AIA
5345 Ortega Boulevard
Jacksonville, Florida 32210
James A. Greene, FAIA
254 Plaza Drive
PO. Box 1147
Oviedo, Florida 32765
Sr. Vice President/Membership
Services Commission
John Tice, AIA
909 East Cervantes
Pensacola, Florida 32501
Vice President/Membership
Services Commission
Ross Spiegel, AIA
2701 West Oakland Park Blvd., Suite 300
Oakland Park, Florida 33311
Sr. Vice President/
Public Affairs Commission
Henry C. Alexander, AIA
Smith Korach Hayet Haynie
175 Fontainbleau Road
Miami, Florida 33172
Vice President/
Public Affairs Commission
Joseph Garcia, AIA
3300 S.W. Archer Road
Gainesville, Florida 32608

There is no such thing as the edge of town anymore. Instead of the edge, we
Find an ephemeral reality I call "The Front", as in weather-front or battle-
front a zone of dynamic interaction, with the usually superior energies of the city
overwhelming those less dynamic areas of the countryside."
With heavy wit and lots of sarcasm, both of which make his audience chuckle
in an uneasy way, author and lecturer Grady Clay recently discussed "Megalopo-
lis in Passing: Emerging Forms of Urbanization" with students and faculty of
Florida A & M's School of Architecture, members of the press and interested
Clay is interesting to listen to. He uses a lot of strong visual imagery so the
audience can always "see" what he's talking about. And he relies heavily on his
wit and on terms he has coined that add humor to his speech. "Jaxamelia", for
example, is an urbanized corridor that stretches from Jacksonville through Fer-
nandina Beach on Amelia Island, all the way to Gainesville. Clay also talks a
great deal about ephemeral and generic places and things.
"A generic name," he says, "is a convention we agree on by mutual consent.
It is an ordering of the environment that is socially sustained. It has no reality
except what is intelligible to us. There is no "there" there, except the name and
the reality we attribute to it. It signifies, therefore it is. A generic place-name is
a manmade, conversational and literary device for dealing with the world."
Clay has a veritable truckload of generic place-names which he uses in his
presentations, and they are terms with which his audience readily identifies.
"Opportunity site, drop-off zone, the good address, abandoned area, declining
neighborhood, drug dealer's comer, construction site, the edge of town, infra-
structure, growth corridors, speculator's country" are but a few.
All of these places are out there, Clay assures us. But planners and officials
and politicians, even residents, hardly ever concede their presence in sign or
print. Still, he says, they tell us much about the future. "They are full of portents
and makings, embodied energies that can permanently change our landscape."
And that, of course, is what Grady Clay is most concerned about. The
changing landscape. In his definition of "Infrastructure", he says, "This is what
makes a non-place into a place, what converts paradise into Paradise Acres, or
Paradise Lost. It substitutes Thunderbirds for field larks or ducks, and zoning
classifications for what looks like plain open country. This raw dirt, these ditches
and poles are the makings of the infrastructure...gas, water and sewer pipelines,
easements and right-of-ways.
Although he never came right out and said it, either during the two talks I heard
him give or to me in private conversation, but I don't think Grady Clay is opposed
to development. His feelings, I think, are best summed up by something he said
in one of his speeches. "This nation indivisible was not created by God Almighty
so that it could set annual speed records for the production of easy money by the
destruction of scarce habitats. Land around cities is no longer just a commodity,
but a scarce resource, to be planned for, protected and wisely used." DG

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


Lighting Course
Scheduled For Spring

The Southeast Florida Section of
the Illuminating Engineering Soci-
ety of North America is offering an
Introductory Lighting Course in
February and March, 1990.
Beginning in February, course
offerings will be in Miami on Feb-
ruary 12, 14, 19, 21,24, 26, 28 and
March 5 and 7, from 6:30 until 10:00
P.M. and on Saturday morning,
February 24, from 9:00 A.M. until
12 noon. Each of these sessions will
be held at the Florida Power and
Light General Administration and
Executive Office Building at 9250
W. Flagler Street.
In Fort Lauderdale, the sessions
will occur on February 13, 15, 20,
22, 27 and March 1, 3, 6, 8. Fort
Lauderdale meetings will be at
Southeast Florida Lighting on N.W.
12th Avenue.
The nine-session course is de-
signed to provide a basic knowl-
edge of light sources, interior and
exterior lighting, luminaires and
their construction, and interpreta-
tion of photometric data. This course
is appropriate for architects, engi-
neers, interior designers, electrical
distributors and anyone interested
in obtaining a working knowledge
of lighting design and techniques.
The course is being taught by ex-
perts and will follow the latest infor-
mation published by the IESNA.
For full attendance, the IESNA will
credit 2.7 CEU's.
For a course outline, tuition costs
and registration form, contact: A.W.
Plonner, Southeast Florida Light-
ing, 5300 N.W. 12th Avenue, Suite
1, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33309.

Corroded "Hiker" Tells
Acid Rain Story
The war memorial, "The Hiker",
has a special place in history as the

cause stone to thin and break, turn
the green patina of bronze into a
white powder and cause marble to
decompose into a soft, powdery talc.
Acid pollution is thought to be a
factor in damage to the Statue of
Liberty, the Philadelphia Art Mu-
seum and the U.S. Capitol.
This year, the Bush Administra-
tion took steps to dramatically curb

most widely reproduced bronze
monument in America. From 1906
to 1965, 50 of the foot soldiers were
dedicated in town squares and parks
as shining reminders of those who
fought and died in the Spanish-
American War.
But, "The Hiker" with his wary
gaze and rifle clutched in front of
him, shines no more. In towns such
as Medford, Mass. and Providence,
R.I., pollution has accelerated the
effects of natural weathering, creat-
ing thick deposits and streaks of
corrosion that obscure the details of
his face and uniform.
Acid rain's devastation to the
country's lakes and forests has been
well documented, but little national
attention has been focused on its
effect on historic buildings and
monuments. Yet the damage done
to these structures by emissions from
cars and industrial plants is so se-
vere that Russell Dickenson, former

director of the National Park Serv-
ice, dubbed it "the number one threat
to the national parks." The results
of a ten-year study on acid rain's
effects on buildings and monuments,
conducted by the park service,
Environmental Protection Agency
and other government agencies, is
scheduled to be released next fall.
We know there is a chemical
reaction with many different build-
ing materials that shortens the life of
the structure," says Susan Sherwood,
acid precipitation research coordi-
nator for the National Park Service.
'The problem is that it's difficult to
measure since exposure isn't uni-
form over a structure's surface."
It is known that acid pollution,
either in the form of rain or airborne
deposits, is especially harmful to
calcareous rock (e.g. marble and
limestone) and metals such as bronze
- materials common to many his-
toric structures. Acid deposits can

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

acid rain by calling for a 10-million
ton reduction of sulphur pollutants
by the year 2000. Critics point out,
however, that the legislation is based
on outdated research and fails to
address nitrogen oxide emissions, a
well-known contributor to acid rain.
As government and industry
struggle to solve the problem, the
building and design industries have
taken steps to mitigate the effects of
acid rain by using acid-resistant
materials such as glass and baked-
on enamels in their designs. In areas
where acid deposits are a problem,
buildings have been designed to
allow water to wash down the sides.
"Once stone is damaged, it can
be replaced, but its historic value
cannot," says Sherwood. "We hope
to create an environment where the
commemorative aspects of these
stones will be appreciated for gen-
erations to come." Kate Ennis, AIA
News Service

Preservation Students
Support Hurricane

For four days last October, a
group of ten sixth-year graduate
students in Architecture at the Uni-
versity of Florida surveyed storm
damage in the Charleston (South
Carolina) Historic District for the
Historic Charleston Foundation and
the City of Charleston. Approxi-
mately 293 buildings were described
and photographed. The group was
led by Professor Herschel Shepard,
FAIA, and was sent by the Univer-
sity of Florida architectural faculty
as an expression of support for the
people of Charleston. If you'd like
to know more about the student's
work, contact Ralph Johnson, Di-
rector, Preservation Institute and
Assistant Dean at the UF College of
Architecture, 331 Arch, Gainesville,
FI 32611-2004.

Rare Wright Drawings Auction of
Displayed LEGO Models
1RBr.* tlIFlFuA

Three hundred and two rare draw-
ings by Frank Lloyd Wright will be
on display at the Phoenix Art Mu-
seum from January 13 to April 8,
1990. Dating from 1887 to 1959,
the drawings are divided into nine
sections including residences; re-
ligious structures; highrises; civic
and cultural buildings; hotels, re-
sorts, inns and clubhouses; banks,
commercial and educational build-
ings; miscellaneous structures; the
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo and graphic
and decorative designs.
This unprecedented loan of rarely
exhibited original drawings and
sketches makes this one of the most
important retrospective exhibitions
of Wright's work ever presented.
The last major Frank Lloyd Wright
exhibition of this size was held at
the Museum of Moder Art in 1962.
Highlights of the exhibition include
drawings of many ofWright's most
famous buildings such as the Impe-
rial Hotel, Fallingwater in Pennsyl-
vania and the Guggenheim Museum
in New York City. The work covers
Wright's seven decade career as
well as notes he made on his draw-
ings many years after their original
The exhibition will not travel.
The Phoenix Art Museum was se-
lected to be the only museum to
show these drawings. A book enti-
tled Frank Lloyd Wright Drawings:
Masterworks from the Frank Lloyd
Wright Archives by Bruce Pfeiffer,
Director of the Archives for the
Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, will
be published in January by Abrams.
For information about the exhi-
bition, contact Margaret Fries at
the Phoenix Art Museum, (602)

Some of the nation's most prom-
inent architects have created archi-
tectural models using LEGO build-
ing bricks to be auctioned at the
Design Center of the Americas
(DCOTA) to benefit DIFFA, the
Design Industry Foundation For
Among the architects who have
agreed to participate are Robert
Venturi, Charles Moore, Andres
Duany & Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,
Orlando Diaz-Azcuy, The Nichols
Partnership and Spillis Candela &

The auction will take place dur-
ing the annual Preview Party on
February 8, 1990. All professional
members of the interior design and
architectural community are invited
to attend.
Preview, which is DCOTA's an-
nual market, is entitled, "Putting It
Together: Building For Success for
For further information, contact:
Rem Cabrera, Communications
Administrator & Public Relations,
Design Center of the Americas,' 1855
Griffin Road, Suite A-282, Dania,
Florida 33004, 305/920-7997.

Continued on page 28

"Do it over?

After 30 years,
100,000 slaves
stone blocks?

Show me on the blueprint
where it says-
The Top and The Bottom!"

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


*c 6 :t A:.


Location Photography,
Corporate, Editorial,
Specializing in
Landscape & Architecture
P.O. Box 7755 Orlando, FL 32854 Phone (305) 425-7921
Circle 66 on Reader Inquiry Card

President's Message
by Larry M. Schneider, AIA

When my term in office be-
gan on January 1, it coin-
cided with the beginning of the final
decade of the century and the pro-
gram we have ahead of us for the
year ushers in what could be consid-
ered a preview of what lies ahead
for Florida architects.
In our goals and objectives for
this year, we will be looking at three
major issues: (1) we want to im-
prove our involvement with gov-
ernment; (2) we will continue to
make the public more aware of what
we do, and (3) we want to raise the
profession's standards of service.
To accomplish these goals, it is
obvious that the architectural pro-
fession will need to become more
involved with the public issues of
the day which are shaping our world.
As "Growth Management and
Comprehensive Planning" is the
most vital force shaping our state
today, we have established that the
Florida Association should create a
Statewide Vision R/UDAT Pro-
This program would seek to
promote, educate and implement
urban design principles that will
improve the physical quality of our
communities. An announcement of
this program was made in the rec-
ommendations included in the re-
port by the Governor's Task Force
on Urban Growth Patterns. The
report states that a public/private
partnership should be formed be-
tween the state, Florida's local
governments, private development
interests and the FA/AIA.

Another vital program getting
underway this year is the establish-
ment of a continuing education cer-
tification program. This will be a
voluntary program initiated to im-
prove the standards of service and
performance of the total profession.
This specific item was approved at
the Board of Directors meeting last
September. Following a report by

Education Committee Chairman
David Perez, directors voted to
endorse the concept of continuing
education and recommended that
for an architect to be involved as a
member of the board, he or she will
need to hold a certificate of comple-
tion in the Association's continuing
education program.
A third broad initiative which we
have decided to embark on this year
is an effort to reestablish the profes-
sion's voice in the regulation of the
practice of architecture in Florida.
Since 1979, when the Department
of Professional Regulation was
reorganized, the Board of Architec-
ture's ability to enforce the Archi-
tectural Practice Act has gradually
diminished. We feel that drastic
action is necessary to change this
direction. Either the Department
needs to be more organized to give
the Board more authority or our pro-
fessional association should work
towards becoming self-regulated.
Otherwise, the guidelines for prac-
tice and the licensing provisions will
continue to be ignored and the pro-
tection of the public will continue to
be eroded.
Our strength as a profession is
our pride and our willingness to
challenge tough problems with crea-
tive solutions. Our success depends
exclusively on your willingness to
invest in the future of your profes-
sion. As we look forward to the end
of this century, keep in mind that
change is not a threat, but rather a
collection of new opportunities for
without change, there would be
We look for you to become in-
volved in your community, stand
for political office, take design is-
sues into the classroom and public
hearings, talk about your concepts
in the media. And, at all times, think
not just of yourself, but of the stand-
ing of your profession; that means,
be informed, be sensible and be

Hopefully, the initiatives started
this year by the FA/AIA will pro-
vide our profession with new-found
knowledge and strength to help us
to confront these challenges so that
our profession will survive to see
the 21st century. As your President
for 1990, I welcome these challenges

and will do all in my power to be
worthy of your trust.

Larry Schneider, AIA, is a principal in
the Delray Beach architecture firm of
Currie SchneiderAssociates.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


P.O. Box 8325 / Pembroke Pines, FL 33024 / (305) 962-6884
FLORIDA: 800-940-4527 / NATIONAL: 800-456-7093 Circle 37 on Reader Inquiry Card


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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Express your imagination with

- .


Architecture and Enterprise
by David Evan Glasser, AIA

T he fact of differing values and
perceptions between the archi-
tectural and development commu-
nity is beyond dispute. In this re-
spect, a chasm of opinion often re-
sults in the assignment of formulaic
stereotypes attributed to each con-
stituency. Thus, developers and re-
altors are often characterized by
architects as greedy, short-sighted
and concerned with bottom-line
profits to the exclusion of all other
factors. Conversely, within the con-
struction and development commu-
nity, architects and designers are
often seen as self-indulgent, monu-
ment builders without prudent con-
cern for sound building practice and
economy. As is the case with all
generalizations, there are grounds
for criticism on both sides of the
argument. However, it does not
seem to me to be useful or construc-
tive to focus on the disparity of our
respective positions, but rather to
explore ways and means of devel-
oping a mutually acceptable pro-
gram which reflects the values and
realities of each constituency. To
this end, the Graduate Architecture
Program at the USF Tampa Campus
has begun to explore a number of
options which it is hoped will result
in a mutually beneficial relation-
ship between the architectural and
business communities.

For the most part, students
selecting architecture as a
career, particularly at the
Graduate level, have an un-
derstanding that thefield is
likely to be less lucrative
than other professions for
equal time invested.

The Ethos of Architecture and

The factors that influence career
choice are extremely complex and
are nowhere more evident than in
the personalities and backgrounds
of those who choose between the
poetic and the practical side of life.
Architecture majors tend to be ideal-
istic, concerned with social issues,
and seem willing to subordinate
immediate economic return for job
satisfaction. Business majors, on
the other hand, recognize that to be
economically successful in the con-
temporary economic climate re-
quires a rigorous course of study
focusing on the realities of the
marketplace. In the curricula of
neither program are students likely
to encounter courses which ade-
quately explain the values or ethos
of the other fundamental point of
view. As a consequence, there is a
tendency on the part of both faculty
and students to be dismissive of op-
posing philosophical positions
which are not understood or shared.
In this regard, I have been thinking
at length about strategies to over-
come the mythic qualities of mutual
misconceptions and have been at-
tempting to introduce settings within
the educational community where
productive interaction and business
can take place.

Enlightened Self-Interest

Within the programs at the Uni-
versity of South Florida, the Archi-
tecture Program at USF has begun
to explore ways and means to de-
velop a basis for collaboration be-
tween these two positions. The
College of Business Administration
is currently preparing plans to im-
plement a Master's degree in Real
Estate and Development. Our pro-
gram has initiated discussions with

the Dean and the Chair and expects
to be actively involved in its devel-
opment. In particular, we are con-
sidering establishing a course for
MBA candidates addressing the
roles and responsibilities of middle
and upper level managers with re-
spect to the built and natural envi-
ronment. Just as architects will be
certain to benefit from an increased
understanding of banking and re-
alty practice, businessmen will profit
from appeals to their managerial
responsibility to safeguard the re-
sources at their disposal. We are
also discussing cross-listing a num-
ber of architecture and business
courses which may be used as elec-
tives within our respective programs.
We currently have a student who
will be taking seven or eight busi-
ness course as accepted electives
within our program. In the future,
we anticipate establishment of a joint
M.Arch/MBA degree, possibly in
connection with the Real Estate and
Development Program at the Col-
lege of Business Administration.
In the past several months, dis-
cussions have taken place between
the Architecture Program and the
Florida Center with respect to pos-
sibilities for future collaboration.
From these, an interesting proposi-
tion has surfaced, which has been
brought to the attention of the USF
administration. The State of Florida
has recently enacted what we all
hope will be the toughest growth
management legislation in the na-
tion. The need for intelligent under-
standing and administration of these
emerging policies is evident. To
this end, we have been considering
the establishment of a program lead-
ing to a new degree, the Masters in
Growth Management. As con-
ceived, studies for the degree would
include economic, ecological and
natural sciences, in addition to pol-
icy and urban planning. Graduates

educated to make informed, broad
scale, decisions about infrastructure
and concurrent development would
be in great demand, from my stand-
What is under discussion here is
the concept of enlightened self-in-
terest: one which mediates between
a position of Utopian idealism on
the one hand, and myopic pragma-
tism on the other. We have by now
learned enough to know that busi-
ness decisions that do not ultimately
take into account the long range
public interests will eventually fail.
The Johns Manville Company,
which was under fire by environ-
mentalists for long time, is a case in
point. We also have come to under-
stand that architecture without a
sound economic basis either will
not be built, or worse, may not be
worth constructing.

The mutual benefits to be
derived from increased co-
operation and collaboration
between the architectural
and business communities
are enormous.

At USF, at least, we have begun
discussions which we expect will
lead to an enduring and constructive
partnership between our respective


Architects and educators have,
for good reason, been dismayed at
the lack of prestige and remunera-
tion which the public has denied our
profession in the Modernist era.
Although our imagination and com-
mitment are crucial to the collective
well-being of society and the char-
acter of the public domain, our cre-

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

dentials have not been presented
persuasively. As a result, our pro-
fessional opinions are often over-
looked by decision makers and we
find ourselves having to compete
with other sectors of the building
industry, with less enlightened and
public-spirited views than our own.
Furthermore, our incomes are not
commensurate with the nature and
extent of the commitments we make,
nor with the liabilities we are ex-
pected to assume. In this regard,
architects have a practical, as well
as an ideological, basis for estab-
lishing substantial fees for excellent
consulting services. The most suc-
cessful entrepreneurs recognize the
inherent economy in selecting the
right person for the job, paying them
well, and delegating sufficient au-
thority to get the work accomplished.
A contributing factor to our failure
to attract incomes equivalent with
other professionals has been our
inability to establish a common
frame of reference between our
clients and ourselves. My hope is
that the initiatives we have started at
the University of South Florida will
eventually lead to an improved
understanding and an improved re-
lationship between our profession
and the development community.

The author is Professor ofArchitec-
ture in the FAMUIUSF Cooperative
M. Arch Program at the University
of South Florida in Tampa.





While dividends can't be guaranteed, the FA/AIA Group

Workers' Compensation Plan has declared annual


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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Wected us general contractor for this beuiful Daytona chFL32115@9041274.1111

Additional offices In Melboure and Titusville

CGC 000139

C'r rE 2Or, ReAder Irnolrt C.al

Pastoral Panorama For The Performing Arts

Brevard Performing Arts
Melbourne, Florida

Architect: Spillis Candela &
Partners, Inc.
Aramis Alvarez, AIA
Project Designer:
Hilario Candela, FAIA
Project Manager:
Rafael Becquer
Consulting Engineer: Spillis
Candela & Partners, Inc.
Interiors: Spillis Candela & Part-
ners, Inc./ Interiors
Theatre Consultant:
George Izenour
Contractors: The Peter Albrecht
Co. and Foley & Associates
Owners: Brevard County and
Brevard Community College

A architect Hilario Candela
and theatre consultant
George Izenour worked as a team emI f
to put a 2,000-seat multi-purpose
concert hall for live performances
and an 800-seat theatre under one
roof. Originally, the owners plan
was to construct two separate
buildings, a plan which the budget
would not accommodate.
With that realization, the archi-
tect's goal became one of combin-
ing the two facilities in a way
which would provide maximum
flexibility for the owner and still
remain within the $12 million
budget. Working together,
Candela and Izenour came up with
a very innovative design solution
which serves not only Brevard
Community College, but the entire

Photos, this page: Southwest elevation
with canopy over entrance to theatre.
Top right, west elevation and bottom
right, atrium connector between
theatre and school. Photos by Peter

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990 15

Nestled within stands of native
Florida pine, the architect devel-
oped a facility which brings life to
the community college campus
during the day, as well as at night.
To accomplish this, he developed
a three-sided lobby which is
wrapped in glass. The result is
that students using the building
during the day are visually linked
with the rest of the campus, and at
night, the glass lobby creates a
glow which serves as a beacon
inviting guests to the performing
arts center. From the outside, the
auditorium entrance is like a
stage, with its front elevation
similar to a proscenium arch.
Through the glass curtainwall, the
lobby, pre-function and circula-
tion areas issue a glowing
invitation to the entertainment
The components of the per-
forming arts center tell the design
tale. The project includes a main
building which serves as both
2,000-seat concert hall or 800-seat
theatre. In addition, there are
spaces for music, sculpture,
painting, drama and dance. There
are two large rehearsal rooms for
choral and instrumental groups
which also function as a single
recording studio with sound
control room in between. There
are also a number of smaller
rehearsal rooms, classrooms and
lab areas and a 200-seat black box
theatre. There are costume and
scenery shops, a music library and
an outdoor patio with kiln and
foundry. The lobby/rotunda was
designed to serve as an art gallery.
Sections A and B, this page,
clearly show how lights, sound
and stage depth are adjusted to ac-
commodate different functions.
When the theatre is in its 2,000-
seat concert performance mode,
acoustics and lighting are

L ___ I __

controlled by a "lightbridge" and
"acoustical eyebrow" in the
hinged ceiling. In this mode, the
stage depth is shortened by the
lowering of an acoustical shell,
causing the sound to reverberate
out into a large audience.
When the theatre is converted to
its 800-seat layout, the light
bridge and ceiling drop down to

accommodate smaller audiences
in a more intimate setting. Also
note in Section B that several
rows of seats (approximately 100)
literally pop up from an area
hidden from view adjacent to the
orchestra pit. This is accom-
plished by means of an hydraulic
mechanism and was designed to
provide additional close-up

seating. Tremendous emphasis
was placed on designing a facility
which created the best sight lines
and acoustical environment for all
theatre uses.
All surfaces within the hall are
designed to reflect sound waves
for better sound quality. The
three-position orchestra pit
operates on an elevator system

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

which allows it, when lowered, to
accommodate a 90-member
orchestra. Raised to floor height,
it will hold an additional 107
theatre seats. Raised to stage
height, it will extend the apron of
the stage 18 feet, thus assuring
maximum versatility for theatre or
concert productions of any size.
The one-story portion of the
center is used by students at Bre-
vard Community College during
the day. This section of the build-
ing is distinguished by an archi-
tectural sunscreen which maxi-
mizes the use of natural light and
at the same time helps to mini-
mize energy consumption. It is in
this space that music rooms, art
studios and classrooms are
The success of this facility can
be measured on a variety of levels
including its ability to adapt to
performing arts and school-related
uses. However, its greatest
success might be in the fact that so
much building resulted from so
little money. Recent performing
arts centers of similar size and
scope have had construction costs
far in excess of the Brevard
Performing Arts Center. How-
ever, the innovative solution
employed by Spillis Candela
might make it one of the best
values for this type of facility yet
to be designed in Florida.
Diane D. Greer

Photo, right: Auditorium from stage.
Photo by Peter Aaron. Below: Scheme
A Section of auditorium during
Opera/Theater mode. Note how stage
depth is elongated and lights and ceil-
ing are lowered to accommodate
smaller audiences. In Scheme B the
Concert mode stage depth is shortened
by lowering an acoustical shell and 100
additional seats "pop up" from an area
adjacent to the orchestra pit.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Architecture Simply Stated

Offices For Bishop &
Sarasota, Florida

Architect: Maddox & Lyttle
Architects, PA
Architect: William E. Maddox,
Project Architect Stanhope
Tignor, AIA
Consulting Engineers: William
A. Snell, P.E., structural Forney
Engineering, Inc., mechanical -
Bishop & Associates, civil
Contractor: Brian C. Bishop
Builders, Inc.
Owner: Bishop & Associates

T his office building for a
Sarasota engineering firm
had a very simple program. The
requirements included open studio
space for drafting and secretarial
staff, enclosed offices along the
perimeter for management/admin-
istrative personnel and ancillary
space for reception, conference,
printing, surveying equipment and
vehicles and an employee lounge.

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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


Photos: Opposite page, top, west front,
and below, south elevation. Photos by
George Cott. Plan courtesy of the


2. FF I CE

The site, located in a rural
office park east of Sarasota, had a
narrow east frontage on the street
which required that the building
be oriented in an east-west
direction. This orientation
allowed vehicular access and
parking parallel to the building
and it also permitted a long north
facade which provided an
excellent source of natural light in
the studios. It also allowed
company-owned equipment and
vehicles easy access to the back of
the site where a four-vehicle ga-
rage is located.
The simple program, along
with the client's desire for an un-
pretentious structure, demanded a
solution that was distinct and
straight forward. Since the
building is located in a part of
Florida where rock and shell is
quarried and where land is rural
and vegetation sparse, the
architects took advantage of the
contextual influence provided by
these natural elements. The
natural patina of the split-faced
block is similar to that of rock
which is mined in the area. The
galvanized metal standing seam

roof is reminiscent of vernacular
rural roofs.
The glazing in the north side of
the building not only admits abun-
dant light to the studios, but to
much of the deeper interior as
well. Since the south side of the
building is subjected to much
more sun exposure, it is punctu-
ated with fewer windows, except
in the lounge and conference
room areas where windows are
deeply recessed.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

221 ~

Schwab, Twitty & Hanser: Designing An Environment For Learning

A n innovative prototype
elementary school in
Broward County is one of many
school projects in a four-county
area with which Schwab, Twitty
& Hanser Architectural Group,
Inc. is involved. With an extraor-
dinary influx into the state of
nearly 1,000 people per day,
schools are high on Florida's list
of needs. While STH is a multi-
disciplinary firm, school design
represents a large portion of its
work $168 million in construc-
tion in the past four years.
Formed as a partnership in
1968, the firm became Schwab,
Twitty & Hanser in January of
1988, adding the name of
President William A. Hanser to
those of founding partners Ronald
D. Schwab and Paul M. Twitty.
Other officers include Edson E.
Dailey, Executive Vice President,
Jeffrey K. Lowe, Vice President
and Ron Wandt, Vice President -
Finance. The name change, on
the eve of its 20th anniversary,
heralded growth and expansion
for the new firm.
Schwab, Twitty and Hanser
has no single design signature. Its
projects reflect the image each
client desires for himself. Sharing
responsibility at every level of
management is part of the firm's
philosophy to encourage team-
work. A principal is involved
through every phase of work,
never isolated from the design
The teamwork philosophy is
also evident in the firm's offices
which have glass walls so no
individual is isolated from the
day-to-day activities. STH
occupies the 14th floor of
Northbridge Centre, an award-
winning building of its own
design. In addition to being
CADD capable, STH has also
actively promoted an art in public
places program, commissioning

recognized artists to create
sculpture for public buildings.
Contracted for nine sites in
Broward County, STH designed
an 88,000 square foot prototype
elementary school, plus an 18,000
square foot exceptional education
and pre-school center which may
be built in as many as 12
Charged with cutting a half
million dollars off comparable
prototype schools, the challenge to
STH was to design a school that
could be built economically with-
out sacrificing design integrity
and that was flexible enough to
be built on a variety of sites. The
plan had to be compact, so that it
could reside on a tight urban site,
yet expandable for adaptation to a
more generous site. The resulting

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Broward County School
Broward County, Florida

Development Team
Broward County School Board:
Donald J. Frederick, Director of
Architect: Schwab, Twitty &
Hanser Architectural Group, Inc.
West Palm Beach, Florida
Design Architect:
William A. Hanser, AIA
Paul M. Twitty, AIA
Project Manager: Michael Rossin,
Consulting Engineers:
Henz Engineering, mechanical;
H.A. Lauten Associates, structural;
Robert Miller and Associates, civil
Interior Design: Schwab, Twitty
& Hanser Interiors
Contractor: Pavarini Construction
Land Planner/Landscape
Architect: Team Plan, Inc.

Opposite page, top: Left to right are
Ronald D. Schwab, CEO; William A.
Hanser, President and Paul M. Twitty,
CEO, principals ofSchwab, Twitty &
Hanser Architectural Group, Inc.
Below, entry portico. This page, top:
View of entry portico from center of
"spoke" plan (see plan on following
page). Left, students use outdoor space
shaded by sunscreen. Photos by C. J.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

plan is a pod- type scheme which
allows the pods to pull apart on
the larger sites and contract on the
tight ones.
To avoid the maze-like situ-
ation so common in campus plans,
the media center at Winston Park
Elementary School (pictured on
these pages) became a focal point
to which students and parents can
relate. Disorientation was
overcome with a simple circula-
tion pattern involving a loop
walkway around the center with
walkways, like spokes in a wheel,

To accommodate expansion,
corridors and walkways are de-
signed to extend and the pods
themselves can be expanded.
Since a number of the pods are to
be used on weekends and
evenings, they were designed to
be accessed separately. It is not
necessary to breach the security of
the entire campus to enter the
cafeteria, art labs or music room,
for example. Each of these spaces
can be isolated for after hours use.
Another advantage of the spoke
system is that it can limit campus

trolled entry points into the
The special education facilities
were designed to be added, cost
permitted and as needed. The
main campus had to be a unified
solution on its own for any
Because of the broad horizon-
tal configuration of the base
school, it was important that it
have a strong entry identity. To
call attention to the entry points,
the entry porticos were made
vertical and painted pink with

radiating from the center, access. There are just three con- standing seam aluminum- finished

royal blue pitched roofs. These
entries send a visual "here's where
you enter" message to students
and visitors alike.
Simple geometric shapes -
circles, squares, rectangles,
triangles are repeated throughout
the campus and are used with
accent colors imparting a playful,
creative look that is appropriate
for an elementary learning
environment. Economy was
achieved by using a flat roof and
stucco finished walls. On this
prototype, stucco is compatible
with neighboring residential com-

Pink porticos with royal blue pitched roofs draw the attention of students and visitors to important entry points. Photos by C. J. Walker.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

The scale of the school is bro-
ken up through the use of inde-
pendent building pods and by
selective use of pre-finished
building reveals with repeated
accent colors. Pink is used at the
entrance to each building pod to
facilitate orientation. Concrete
walkways are covered with
extruded aluminum, pre-finished
royal blue. This attractive, cost-
efficient, high performance paint
finish is resistant to fading.
STH Interiors Group carried
the same colors inside the school.

Off white vinyl flooring is inset
with pink and blue color blocks to
emphasize classroom entrances
and corridor intersections. Linear
metal ceiling sections and door
frames also pick up these colors.
Trellised, walled patios adjacent
to the art rooms and a free form
patio next to the media center
extend the learning spaces
outdoors. There is also a private
patio adjacent to the teacher's
dining area. The entire campus is
well landscaped with grassy open
spaces, flowering shrubs and
mature palms.

The prototype assignment re-
quired that STH produce a rapid
turn-around time from concept to
construction. From receipt of the
program to completion of working
drawings took seven months, and
it was nine months to start of con-
struction. The plans were all
produced on CADD.
STH had the responsibility for
construction administration. Con-
struction was phased, due to the
urgent need to put children into
the school. From the start of con-
struction to the day the children
entered the school took 13

months, a total of 21 months from
design to use.
The original bid for the Brow-
ard prototype, for 88,000 square
feet without alternates and includ-
ing site work, was $5,890,000 or
$66 per square foot. This is about
$8 a square foot less than compa-
rable prototypes in southeast Flor-
ida. Patty Doyle

The author is a Fort Lauderdale
writer who specializes in architec-


-, \

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

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Ul 1.ilhri

Separate, But Equally Enchanting

The McGillicuddy Pool
Palm Beach, Florida
Architect: Smith Architectural
Group, Inc.
Project Designer:
Jeffery W. Smith, AIA
Builder: Europa Building
Owner: Mr. and Mrs. Clement
T he newly formed Smith
Architectural Group, Inc.
(formerly Smith Obst Associates)
firmly believes in the practical ap-
plication of architectural theory.
They design comfortable, func-
tional and aesthetically pleasing
structures which have risen out of
an intellectual endeavor to
stimulate both the senses and
man's craving for order.
This small Palm Beach pool
pavilion is a perfect example of
the firm's concern with the
plurality of a building. The
pavilion is a response to the
climate and the client's lifestyle,
and its formal simplicity imbeds it
deeply within the context of the
site and the island of Palm Beach.
The parti evolved from a trans-
formation of the triad of arches on
the existing residence's main
facade. These shallow, semi-pri-
vate openings were converted into
the deep voids which define the
loggia space and reinforce the
axial entry into the cabana. An
existing garden wall was used to
bisect the structure and create the
spatial dualism of the cabana and
loggia. The loggia, which
functions as an informal outdoor
living room, allows the client to
take full advantage of the
subtropical weather and serves to
strengthen the relationship
between the main residence, the
pavilion and the site.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

The flat planes of the facades
are contrasted with the ornamental
capitals which top the columns on
the north and south sides and with
the pecky cypress on the eaves.
This limited application of
exterior ornamentation serves to
maintain the structure's simplicity
and establish a dialogue with the
main residence.
The pavilion plan evolved from
a typical nine-square grid with the
three main arches reinforcing this
origin. The powder room, bath-
room and storage areas are
remnants of the original grid,
whereas the cabana is a culmina-
tion of the remaining six squares
and is less rigid in the mainte-
nance of the grid. The vaulted
cypress ceiling of the cabana
defines the space and is differenti-
ated from the flat loggia ceiling.
The cabana contains a double
sink, dishwasher, refrigerator/
freezer and ice maker to serve the
daily needs of the owners and
staff during informal gatherings.
Maggie McPherson

The author is a writer living in

New Pool Pa3illon
Evising Pool and Palo
Exislhng T*o Slory Resioence
Existing Two Slory Garage ana Guesi House
Ne* Mechanical Enclosure lor Compouna

Opposite page: north facade ofpavilion. This page, top: loggia and below, main resi-
dence with pavilion beyond. Photos by Donna Turner. Site plan courtesy of the

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

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A High Profile Space For A High Volume Practice

S since starting his practice in
1974, Robert Swedroe has
designed more than 75,000 resi-
dential units of varying densities
and complexities. His projects
have ranged from single-family
residences, zero-lot-line and patio
homes to townhouses, villas and
ultra-luxury condominium towers.
With the consolidation of support
services such as marketing, space
planning and interior design and
the addition of personnel in other
areas, larger quarters were
recently sought for a firm which
now has a multi-disciplinary staff
of 30, five of which are architects.
In 1989, the Swedroe firm relo-
cated to the upper floor of a
nearby office building a move
which effectively doubled its
previous space. The entrance to
the new offices is defined by
decorative white vertical fluting
which flanks the double doors
which bear the Swedroe logo.
The vertical fluting motif is
reiterated throughout the 5,000-
square-foot domain and a horizon-
tally-fluted baseboard has also
been used in a complementary
The reception area, its floor
clad in Crystal Rose marble, is
furnished with Corbusier seating
in black glove leather. Textured
walls, here as elsewhere, display
Swedroe layouts and floorplans
laminated on Mylar between
sheets of plexiglas.
Recessed quadrilateral soffits
with fluorescent tubes, supple-
mented as necessary by either
high-hat incandescent fixtures or
track lighting, punctuate similarly
square grid acoustical ceiling tile.
The corduroy-ribbed, industrial-
weight carpeting introduces a
pattern of offwhite linear
pinstripes against a background of
steel grey.


.,-Cah a -'-- i

-- 41
I~1 .FL!

- Dfli

Dominating the Conference
Room, where a textured display
wall facilitates presentations, is a
table whose massive four- by -ten
foot Black Andes granite top rests
upon a double-pedestal trestle
base which Swedroe designed.
The office has a fully-equipped
kitchen and adjoining the library
is a computer room with three
CADD stations. Adjoining this
space is an expansive bay which
has been subdivided to house the
firm's architectural design and
production departments. Nearby is
the in-house interior design and
space planning department and its
production counterpart which in-
cludes 12 production stations,
hanging files and a printing
department. Robert Swedroe's
own office contains such
customized furnishings as an
eight -foot -wide drafting table
which doubles as a desk and an
equally oversized reference table.
Administrative facilities for the
office staff, including an in-house
accounting firm, are relatively in-
sulated from other personnel.

This appropriately high volume,
high profile layout was designed
to keep pace with the architecture
firm's increasing volume of
business. Al Alschuler
The author is a Miami-based
writer specializing in architecture
and interior design.

The Architectural Offices
of Robert M. Swedroe &
Miami Beach, Florida

Architect: Robert M. Swedroe &
Associates, Architects-Planners,
Robert M. Swedroe, AIA
Senior Project Designer:
Guido Brito, AIA
Senior Production Architect:
Larry Cohan, AIA
Interior Design: Robert M.
Swedroe & Associates, Architects-
Planners, AIA, PA

Photo, above: Lobby/reception area of
Swedroe office. Below: Conference
Room with BlackAndes granite confer-
ence table. Photos by Greg Hark.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

NEWS, continued

Eminent Scholar's
Chair Endowed

The FAMU/USF Cooperative M.
Arch Program in Architecture, lo-
cated on the Tampa campus of the
University of South Florida, has re-
ceived a major endowment from the
Good Gulfstream Foundation for
the establishment of the Sam Gib-
bons Eminent Scholar's Chair in Ar-
chitecture and Urban Planning. The
architecture program is seeking can-
didates who must be able to effec-
tively address some or all of the fol-
lowing issues: The Emerging City;
Sub-tropical architecture; Public
and Congregate Housing; Regional
and Vernacular architecture. One of
the primary roles of the Eminent
Scholar will be to help the Univer-
sity and government articulate de-
sign guidelines for intelligent and
visually coherent development in
Tampa and Florida.
Chosen by a committee of ten ar-
chitects, educators, administrators
and students, the first six candi-
dates for the Eminent Scholar's
Chair will deliver lectures on urban
design in Tampa. The speakers, all
of whom will begin their public lec-
tures at 7:00 PM, are as follows:
February 1, 1990, Tampa Museum
Robert Traynham Coles, FAIA,
President of Robert Traynham Coles,
Architect in Buffalo, New York.
February 13, 1990, Tampa Theatre
Robert Campbell. In private prac-
tice in Cambridge, MA as Robert
Campbell, Architect. Architecture
critic for the Boston Globe since
February 27,1990, Tampa Theatre
Jonathan Barnett, FAIA, Principal,
Jonathan Bamett, FAIA and Profes-

sor of Architecture and Director of
the Graduate Program in Urban De-
sign, the City College of New York.
March 6, 1990, Tampa Museum
Susana Torre, Associate Professor
of Architecture at Columbia Univer-
sity Graduate School of Architec-
ture, Planning and Preservation. In
1990, President of SusanaTorre and
Associates, New York.
March 20, 1990, Tampa Theatre
Michael Holzman, FAIA, one of
the founding principals of Hardy
Holzman Pfeiffer Associates.
April 3, 1990, Tampa Museum
William Morgan, FAIA, President
of William Morgan Architects in
Jacksonville, Florida and author of
numerous books.


In Part I of "Code Changes Affect
Stair Design" which appeared in the
November/December 1989 issue of FA,
it was stated that "stairs should have
uniform height and have a minimum of
ten risers per flight." It should have
read "stairs should be a recommended
maximum of ten risers per flight."
The author would also like FA readers
to know that "The South Florida Build-
ing Code Section 516.2 D2 has the only
legislation in the country specifying
that balustrade and guardrail safeguards
be provided for the protection of chil-
dren. This provides for additional rails,
vertical pickets, or an ornamental filler
below the top rail which would reject
a four-inch diameter object."
This important new addition to the
Code is designed to prevent children
from slipping through railings and fall-
ing. The author points out that archi-
tects need to be aware of this due to
some recent litigation against several
national hotel chains and malls.

Handicapped Code
Booklet Available

Florida's updated and modi-
fied Handicapped Accessibility Code
went into effect January 1, 1990,
and architectural firms should be
receiving a booklet detailing the
code within a few days.
The booklet, entitled "Acces-
sibility Requirements Manual", in-
cludes the ANSI 1986 Code and
modifications approved by the
Florida Legislature in Florida Stat-
utes Chapter 553 Part 5 during the
1989 session.
The code is statewide and over-
rides local ordinances. No amend-
ments can be made by local gov-
ernments to the Code unless ap-
proved by the Board of Building
Codes and Standards in the Depart-
ment of Community Affairs.
The Code included in the book-
let establishes specific accessibil-
ity features which are required for
new buildings and/or buildings being
altered or having a change in use
after January 1, 1990. Certain speci-
fications regarding accessibility for
retail and mercantile stores, bath-
rooms, checkout aisles, restaurants,
public assembly occupancies, single
family houses, hotels and parking
lots are also established.
The FA/AIA supplied a list of
architectural firms in the state to
the DCA to help in distribution of
the booklet. Anyone wishing a
copy of the booklet should contact
Mary Katherine Smith, Department
of Community Affairs, 2740 Cen-
terview, Tallahassee, Fl 32399 or
phone (904) 487-1824.

For more information about
Kohler Plumbing Products
see these Kohler distributors:

Lawrence Plumbing
Supply Company
5700 W. Flagler St.
Miami, Flonda 33144
(305) 266-3338

31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571

405 N. Flagler Avenue
Homestead, Florida 33030
(305) 248-7020

8712 S.W. 129th St.
Miami, Florida 33176
(305) 251-7022

Wool Plumbing
Distributors of Plumbing
and Decorative Hardware

5910 Shirley St.
(off Pine Ridge Rd.)
Naples, Florida 33942
(813) 597-8155

1321 NE 12th Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33304
(305) 763-3632

4340 SW 74th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33155
(305) 266-7111

6778 N. Military Trail
West Palm Beach, FL 33407
(305) 863-7788

Circle 6 on Reader Inquiry Card

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Choosing Sides
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on your next project. Kohler's distinctive shapes and exciting color range are
not just for residential use. Enameled cast iron fixtures and cast brass faucets
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When you can have so many designs in so many colors, why go white?
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Architectural Photography: Color or Black & White?
by Carlos Domenech

F or the past six years I've :
worked as a professional pho-
tographer and during that time I
have only been asked to document
a building in black and white four
Why? The main reason is that
architects are incorporating color
more and more into their designs.
As a result, most want good color
photographs of their projects. Al-
though color is more appealing to
the eye, it can also work create a
disadvantage for the architect by
placing the design elements of a
space in a secondary position.
On the other hand, black and
white photographs convey spatial
information much more clearly.
Another advantage of using black
and white photography is the sta-
bility of the process the pictures
last longer than color and do not
Choosing between color and
black and white should depend on Opposite page, Stephen Muss Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, Peter Blitstein, Architect. This page, top: Kassamali
the design of the building. It's Residence by Mateu RizoArchitects. Left: Colonnade Hotel in Coral Gables by Spillis Candela & Partners. Above: Kassamali
important that there be good com- Residence, detail. All photos by Carlos Domenech.
munication between the photogra-o '
pher and the architect so that the
final photographs make a strong
statement and impart the design
intent of the building.
Since photography is a two-di-
mensional representation of a
multi-dimensional project, don't
expect one photograph to tell the
whole story. Often, it takes many
photographs from a number of
angles to adequately represent a
building on paper.
Accompanying this article are
some buildings which I've
recently photographed in black
and white and I feel that their
impact is even more dramatic than
it would be in color.
The author is a professional
architectural photographer based
in Miami. He was the recipient of
the 1989 FA/AIA Photographer of
the Year Award.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Code Changes Affect Stair Design: Watch Your Step

by Randall I. Atlas, Ph.D., AIA, CPF

This article is the second in a two-
part series on important changes
in the building codes which affect
the design of stairs, handrails,
ramps and steps.

R amp fall accidents repre-
sent only about ten percent
of slip and fall accidents. Ramp
accidents are increasing because
many other buildings are being
equipped with ramp systems and
most new buildings have them at
front entrances and at level changes
on the interior. Table 1 addresses
the code requirements for Florida
construction of ramps with the
Southern Building Code 1988 and
the South Florida Building Code

is to be used it shall be made more
noticeable by methods such as the
installation of of prominent hand-
rails, special markings, and special
lighting. This is a change from
the earlier codes. Furthermore,
changes in elevation between 12
and 21 inches shall be by ramps.
The NFPA 101 Life Safety Code
1988 Edition section 5-1.6 now
permits stairs to have fewer than
three risers. However, they must
meet even more stringtent require-
ments than those for other stairs
because of the record of accidents.
Single risers and two-riser combi-
nations must be designed more
carefully, and hence the require-
ment for a larger minimum tread
size of 13 inches.

Table 1
Standard Building Code South Fl. Bldg. Code

Slope (max) 1115.2.1 1:8

3103.6 (b) Class A 1:10

Class B 1:8
Width (max) Table 1103 44" 3103.6 (b) 44"

Handrails 1115.2.4 handrails 3103.4(d)(9)handrails
on at least one on both sides 32" in

side between
Nonslip surface 1115.2.2
*The width of ramps used as
identical to corridors.


3101 (d) (1)
a means of egress shall be

be less than 42 inches high. How-
ever, guards within dwelling units
may be 36 inches high. Open
guards shall have intermediate
rails or an ornamental pattern such
that a sphere six inches in diameter
cannot pass through any opening.
Handrails shall not be less than
34 inches nor more than 38 inches
above the surface of the tread,
measured vertically to the top of
the rail from the tread at the lead-
ing edge. Existing handrails shall
not be less than 30 inches nor more
than 38 inches above the upper
surface of the tread, measured ver-
tically to the top of the leading
A clearance of at least 1 2 inches
between handrail and wall is re-
quired to which fasteners shall be
provided for new handrails. (Life
Safety Code, 1988). Handrails
shall have a circular cross section
with an outside diameter of at
least 1.25 inches and not greater
than 2 inches.


Architects have always used
stairways and handrails as a crea-
tive and aesthetic design detail. If
the handrail is not designed for the
closing human hand, it poses a lia-
bility risk despite its aesthetic con-
tribution. If the stairway or level
change is not designed to alert the
user to a difference in surfaces and
heights and the materials chosen
don't provide sufficient friction to
resist loss of balance, it poses a
liability risk.

Ramps accessible for the physi-
cally handicapped should have a
maximum slope of 1 in 12 or ap-
proximately 5% grade. The slope
should not vary between landings,
with the landing being level. Di-
rectional changes should occur on
the landing. Changes in elevation
in areas constituting part of a means
of egress shall be by stairs or by
ramps (SFBC 1988, 3102.1c).
Changes in elevations of 12 inches
or less may be either ramps or
stairs, provided that where a stair

Means of egress such as land-
ings, balconies, corridors, passage-
ways, floor or roof openings,
ramps, aisles, porches or mezza-
nines that are more than 30 inches
above the floor shall be provided
with guards to prevent falls over
the open side. Stairs that are pro-
vided with handrails need not be
provided with guards.
The height of the guards shall
be measured vertically to the top
of the guard from the surface ad-
jacent thereto. Guards shall not

Photos, top: Centrust Building, Miami,
good ramp and skid design. Middle,
left: Bakery Center, Miami, good rail
design. Right: Florida International
University, North Miami, good ramp
design. Bottom:CulturalArts Center,
Miami, world's longest ramp. Hand-
rails are only on one side. This wide
space could have accommodated two
side rails and possibly an intermediate
rail. All photos courtesy of Randy

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

Design details can contribute to
significantly reducing the oppor-
tunity for stairway accidents by:
Directing attention to the pre-
sence of the stairway or level
Focusing attention on the stairs
and ensuring that the steps are
clearly defined;
Providing handrails for support
and assistance, and balustrades to
prevent falls from the stairs;
Avoiding features likely to lead
to the misuse of the stairway by
Avoiding increasing the hazards
of stairs by requiring decoration
and maintenance above the stairs;
Providing the quality and quan-
tity of lighting for the stairs to be
clearly visible.
Injury to the building user can
be a liability issue for the architect,
and preventative steps should be
taken to reduce and limit expo-
sure. Stairs, ramps and walkway
surfaces should meet all applica-
ble codes, and national standards.
It may also be necessary to en-
close operational directions on
materials that are specified. For
example, if a floor surface is not
meant to be buffed or waxed, it
should be so indicated. Even if all
good measures are taken, there is no
guarantee that injury and ensuring
litigation will not occur. However,
the issue of negligence and stan-
dard of care will be more sympathe-
tic to the responsible architect.

The author is vice-president of
Atlas Safety & Security Design,
Inc. in Miami. This code update
was excerpted from "Preventing
Liability from Slip and Fall Acci-
dents: An Architectural Primer."
Copies may be obtained by writing
Dr. Atlas at 600 N.E. 36th Street,
Suite 1522, Miami, 33137, orphon-
ing (305) 576-6029.





Randall I. Atlas, Ph.D., AIA, CPP
600 NE 36th St., Suite 1522
Miami, Florida 33137
(305) 576-6029
FAX (305) 576-1390

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FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990



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(904) 725-8009 Circle 21 on Reader Inquiry Card
4 FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990

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Call the FA/AIA Bookstore in Tallahassee at 904/222-7590 to order.

FLORIDA ARCHITECT January/February 1990


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The Brevard County Board of
Commissioners is pleased to invite
qualified architectural profession-
als to submit proposals for consult-
ant services for the development
and monitoring of a comprehen-
sive restoration plan for the H.S.
Williams House. The house, lo-
cated at 1219 Rockledge Drive,
Rockledge, Florida, is to be au-
thentically restored for use as a
historic home that will be open to
the public. Brevard County is so-
liciting proposals from qualified
preservation architects who have
demonstrated experience in simi-
lar historic restoration projects
under the guidelines of the "Secre-
tary's Standards for "Rehabilita-
tion" of the U.S. Departmentof the
Interior. Proposals must be re-
ceived by Brevard County or be
postmarked by January 31, 1990.
Prospective consultants shouldbe
aware that Phase I construction, in-
volving roof, chimney, and pier
foundation restoration and repair,
must be completed by September
30, 1990 pursuant to a Florida
Department of State grant award
contract based upon successful
completion of each phase, with
each phase being subject to nego-
tiation. Interested firms and indi-
viduals may obtain a copy of the
request for proposals by contact-
Ms. Jennifer Goulet, Chief
Senior Planner, Brevard
County Comprehensive
Planning Division, 2575 N.
Courtney Parkway, Merritt
Island, FL 32953, (407) 453-

Use Classifieds. Call Florida Archi-




eprints of articles that have appeared in Florida Ar-
chitect over the past five years are available for use
in mailings and presentations. These custom promotion
brochures reproduce the article exactly as it appeared
in Florida Architect.
For more information, cost estimates, and help with
the layout and design of your reprints, call: Carolyn
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