Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00242
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1983
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00242
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Back Cover
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text

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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Ray Reynolds
Editorial Board
Charles E. King, FAIA
William E. Graves, AIA
Ivan Johnson, AIA
John Totty, AIA
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Vice President
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
James J. Jennewein, AIA
102 West Whiting Street
Suite 500
Tampa, Florida 33602
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Regional Directors
Ted Pappas, FAIA
Post Office Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Howard B Bochiardy, FAIA
Post Office Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

Journal of the Florida Association
of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Flor-
ida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive
Office of the Association, 104
E. Jefferson Ave., Tallahassee,
Florida 32302. Telephone (904)
222-7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily
those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted pro-
vided full credit is given to
the author and to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to
the publisher's office.
Single copies, $2.50; subscrip-
tion, $10.00 per year. Third class


Summer, 1983
Volume 30, Number 4


11 Unbuilt But Already Honored
The Unbuilt Design Awards Competition

16 Preservation in Palatka:
It's a Gas
Lora Sinks Britt

18 Cesar Pelli in Jacksonville
Joanna Cenci Rodriguez, AIA

21 Orange County's Civic Center
Says Florida Inside and Out
Bill Charvat, AIA

24 Building and Landscaping in
Lindy Stalder

'. 26 Four Parish Churches
S Thomas S. Marvel, FAIA

30 50 Years of Architectural
HABS Has Been Documenting America's
Buildings for Half a Century
F. Blair Reeves, FAIA

32 Reflections on a HABS Summer
Leslie Divoll, AIA


5 Editorial

6 News

Cover drawing of Blossom
Estates Residence in
Palm Beach courtesy of
Charles Harrison Pawley, AIA

36 Product News

39 Letters

41 Viewpoint

44 Student News

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Nero fiddled while Rome burned.
Architects doodle while attending meetings.
I submit the following evidence. A prototype for a
future race of men, a new logo for the American In-
stitute of Clams???, a design for a whole new inner ci-
ty (based loosely on Michelangelo's Campadoglio with
apologies to the former) and a new logo for a well
known Daytona Beach architectural firm.
Each of these exciting designs was produced on a
napkin or a piece of hotel stationery during a meeting
of some sort which only proves that meeting rooms
and lecture halls breed genius.

Diane D. Greer



Above: Rep. Steve Press and Jim Anstis.
Top right: Arlene and Don Sackman and
Michael Byrd. Right: Wayne Betts of the
state Department of General Services and
Dwight Holmes, all at the FA/AIA's
legislative reception.

Architects Host
Legislative Reception
The Tallahassee Headquarters of
the FA/AIA was the site of the 1983
Legislative Reception which kicked
off the 83 session. This year's
reception was well-attended by
legislators, public officials and ar-
chitects. The Gallie Alley Patio
allowed guests to spill outdoors for
the annual April function.
In attendance were a number of
legislators including Represen-
tatives Grindle, McEwan, Combee,
Hill, Brown, Clements, Davis,
Hargrett, Casas, Selph, Harris,
Bronson, Cortina, Smith, Simone,
Mitchell and Cosgrove.

Fresh seafood and the informal
atmosphere permitted a perfect
forum for the legislators and ar-
chitects to chat informally and to
tour the new FA/AIA Headquarters.
An exhibit of paintings and drawings
from Florida A & M Professor Mary
Lou Stewart adorned the walls of
the headquarters and drew many
comments from visitors.

Governor Announces
Design Award Winners
The Burns Auditorium in the
Florida Department of Transporta-
tion was the setting for the second
annual Governor's Design Awards
presentation. Governor Graham
presented awards to five projects in
the areas of recreation, education
and transportation.
This year's winners were
Buildings 1A and 1 B at the Universi-
ty of South Florida's St. Petersburg
Campus designed by McLane,
Rados, Alfonso Associated Ar-
chitects; the New World Campus,
Phase 1 at Miami-Dade Community
College designed by Ferendino,
Grafton, Spillis and Candela; John
U. Lloyd Beach State Recreation
Area designed by architects Hat-
cher, Zeigler, Gunn and Associates;
Stephen C. O'Connell Center at the
University of Florida designed by
Moore May Graham Brame Poole/
Architects Inc.; and the 1-75 Inter-
change at SR 45, Sarasota County,
project manager Angelo Garcia.
This year's jury consisted of
Chairman Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA;
Charles Benbow, Architecture
Critic, St. Petersburg Times; Bob
Graf, AIA; Dr. David R. Epperson,
Architect; Melissa Luetgert, ASID;
Fletcher Sessions, Associated
General Contractors; Stephen Trud-
nak, ASIA; and David C. Weaver,

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Florida Engineering Society. Sub-
missions were made in eight
categories of eligibility. Any agency
of state or local government may
nominate a project which was
developed or acquired using public
capital outlay funds and which has
been completed and in continuous
use for a minimum of two years.
Historic Preservation Day
Proclaimed in Florida
Secretary of State George
Firestone announced that Historic
Preservation Day in Florida was set
for May 11, 1983, which was in the
middle of national Preservation
Week, May 8-14.
"I am pleased that we are able to
officially focus attention on the
preservation of Florida's heritage,"
Firestone stated. "Not only is such
activity important historically, but
preservation and rehabilitation of
Florida structures contribute to the
economic and social well-being of
our communities."
Historic Preservation Day, the
first proclaimed by the Governor
and Cabinet, was organized by the
Florida Trust for Historic Preserva-
tion in cooperation with the Florida
Department of State. The itinerary
included morning information ses-
sion and open house in the R. A.
Gray Building, and a noontime lun-
cheon and awards presentation for
Florida Trust members and
Legislators at the Old Capitol.
The 1983 Reference Book had the
following errors which are corrected here
with apologies.
Lyn Graziani was deleted from the
Fellows section of the Florida South
Chapter, AIA list, of which he is a member
and his name was misspelled on the
Fellows list.
Sandu Rapp, AIA, is an Emeritus
member of the Florida South Chapter AIA
and his name was deleted from the
chapter list and misspelled on page 106.
On page 10, the photographs of Bruce
Hartwigsen and Charles Braun are revers-
The correct address for Arthur H. Hoag,
FAIA, is 1200 Edgewater Drive, Orlando,
Florida 32804.
The correct listing for Richard D. Pritts
firm is: pritts architects pa, 501 South
Fort Harrison Avenue, Suite 212, Clear-
water, Florida 33516. (813) 461-2331.
Jack West, AIA, is the State Director for
the Florida Gulf Coast Chapter AIA.
Robert Town, AIA, is not.
Please note these corrections in your
copy of the Reference Book. Thank you.

Historic Trust Moves Into
FA/AIA Headquarters
The Florida Trust for Historic
Preservation has hired an executive
director and opened an office in
Tallahassee. The FA/AIA has made
space available to the Florida Trust
in their new headquarters facility
across from the Capitol. The Florida
Trust will be using the space for the
next four months until permanent
headquarters can be found for the
newly appointed executive director,
Octavia Copenhaver.

Builders Schedule
Awards Competition
Architects, builders, land plan-
ners and designers throughout the
southeast will receive entries in
May for the fourth annual Aurora
Awards competition which will
highlight this year's Southeast
Builders Conference (SEBC) in
Orlando, October 26-29.
Recognizing achievements in
design excellence, quality construc-
tion and innovative land planning,

the Aurora Awards competition is
open to all builders, architects, plan-
ners and designers actively engag-
ed in residential and commercial
construction in southeastern states
from Texas to Virginia.
To be eligible, projects must be
open for sale, lease or rental after
September 1, 1983, and must be
bcated in the Southeast Region
which includes Texas, Louisiana,
Alabama, Mississippi, Florida,
Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky,
North Carolina, Virginia and South
A team of nationally recognized
housing experts will make up this
year's panel of judges, to include
editors of national building trade
publications, an architect, a plan-
ner, an interior designer and a
marketing consultant.
Winners will be acknowledged
and receive grand and merit awards
at the Aurora Awards spectacular
and banquet the night of October
Anyone interested in entering the
competition should contact Mike
Taggart at (904) 224-4316.

Han... ,

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FLtoRIDAta AcHiTEcTSME 1983er

Candela Testifies at
Tallahassee Conference
Miami architect Hilario Candela,
AIA, recently testified at a con-
ference entitled "The Commercial
Applications of Defense R & D:
Enhancing America's Economic
Security". The conference was
sponsored by the RGK Foundation
and its attendees included a con-

gressional panel including Florida's
Don Fuqua, Lt. Governor Wayne
Mixson, Secretary of State George
Firestone and chief executives from
leading defense contractors and
prominent academicians.
The intent of the conference was
to explore avenues for transferring
military aerospace R & D
breakthroughs and technology into
the private economy. Candela's

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(305) 644-2656



testimony was unique in that it
came from a profession not directly
related to military R & D, and in that
it addressed the application of new
technology in the building design
and construction industry.
Candela said, "Florida industry is
rapidly becoming more oriented
toward the high technology
associated with military and
aerospace projects. The economic
benefits of this trend are substan-
tial, and we must make every effort
to create the kind of business,
social and cultural environment that
will continue to attract these in-
dustries to our state."

News of FA/AIA .Members
Anderson Parrish Associates,
one of Tampa's largest AE firms, is
expanding its office space after less
than seven months in its present
space. APA President John D. Par-
rish says that the expansion for the
firm's present space in the Paragon
Crossing office building will in-
crease their total floor area to 7,700
square feet and allow for four to six
additional staff members ... Diane
C. Holland is the new Public Rela-
tions Director for Architects
Design Group of Winter Park ...
Nicholas N. Patricios, professor of
architecture and planning, has been
named acting dean of the new
School of Architecture at the
University of Miami. His appoint-
ment was effective June 1, 1983.
Before joining the UM faculty in
1978, Patricios was a visiting
scholar at the University of
Michigan and UCLA. He holds a
doctorate in architecture from
University College, London ...
Charles E. Block, AIA, has an-
nounced that his associate, An-
thony J. Donadio, has become a
Registered Florida Architect.
Donadio has been affiliated with the
Block firm in Vero Beach for two-
and-a-half years ... The Evans
Group announced the appointment
of Terry 0. Nichson, AIA, to the
Orlando office of that firm. Nichson
has eleven years of experience in
environmental planning and ar-
chitectural design. He is a native of
Michigan, but a graduate of the
University of Miami.

11 HIL-LL11L



Miami 33137. 155 NE 40th Street. 305/573-5533
South Miami 33143. 5838 SW 73 Street. 305/665-5733

I Ll -I "]

Unbuilt But Already Honored

The Unbuilt Design Awards Competition

"I didn't see an idea," one of the
jurors lamented after reviewing 137
designs by architects from Florida
and the Caribbean. But he and his
fellow jurors did find individual merit
in twelve projects entered in the
Florida Association's first Unbuilt
Design Awards competition.
The competition was initiated this
STUBBINS year to highlight projects of promis-
ing architectural distinction. The
twelve winning projects were
diverse: A fire station, a hospital, a
resort and a public library in the
Caribbean, a stadium for performing
killer whales and several houses
and offices were among the chosen
The jurors were unwilling to nar-
row the field further because of the
r B nature of the competition. Juror
Ehrman Mitchell, FAIA, referred to
the drawings and photographs of
the proposed buildings as "card-
board art." He said it was difficult to
determine which projects would
result in outstanding architecture
MITCHELL because they were not real and
could not be viewed in context.
"I don't think there's architecture
until you can go out and touch it,"

Mitchell said. "Between cardboard
and reality is a long bumpy road."
In assessing the overall quality of
the submissions, the jurors were not
complimentary. Mitchell said he had
hoped to see designs that belonged
in the region. "I was looking for a
regional character that one could
recognize as a response to a
place," Mitchell said. "But what we
found was architecture that you
could put anywhere in the country."
Juror Hugh Stubbins, FAIA,
agreed: "There are an awful lot of
cliches. What it says to me is that
architects are not doing very good
Mitchell said that submissions
reaffirmed one of his concerns
about Florida architecture.
"One of the problems I have
always had with Florida architec-
ture is that it is so plastic. What the
architects need to strive for is
something more of an image of
what you see rather than what it's
going to look like." Mitchell said ar-
chitects in Florida and in southern
California seem to be more in-
terested in designing buildings that
say, "Look how I look."


Hugh Stubbins, FAIA, is president and principal architect for Hugh
Stubbins and Associates, Inc. in Boston. Mr. Stubbins was responsi-
ble for the design of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and
Citicorp Center in New York. He has been involved in the design of
the new Dade County Administration Building in Miami.

Ehrman B. Mitchell, FAIA, is partner in charge of overall opera-
tions in Mitchell/Giurgola Architects in Philadelphia and New York.
His firm was commissioned to design the new Parliament Buildings
in Australia. Mr. Mitchell is a past president of the American In-
COLBERT stitute of Architects.

Charles Colbert, FAIA, is an architect-planner in New Orleans. He
is a visiting professor of architecture at Tulane, Rice, Wisconsin and
Louisiana State Universities. He has written several books, and is
especially knowledgeable about school design.




LA -4.

Public General Library of
Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico
A. Marques Carrion, Architect
(Manuel Bermudez, Project


Apalachicola River and Bay National Estuarine Sanctuary
Apalachicola, Florida
Johnson/Peterson Architects, Tallahassee

Loew's Hotel
Antigua, West Indies
Fullerton + Associates,
South Miami




Cancer & Chronic Disease
Research & Treatment Center
University of South Florida, Tampa
Joint Venture: Stuart L. Bentler,
and Heery & Heery, Atlanta

Mesa Houses
Texas Hill Country
William Morgan Architects,

Jacksonville Convention Center
at Union Terminal
Jacksonville, Florida
Reynolds, Smith and Hills
The CRS Group, Inc.
Register Engineers and Planners,
Saxelbye, Powell, Roberts &
Ponder, Inc.


Theme Center,
Opa Locka Air Park
Adaptive Re-use of a blimp hanger,
circa 1920
Opa Locka Airport,
Dade County, Florida
Norman M. Giller & Associates,
Miami Beach

Blossom Estates residence
Palm Beach, Florida
Charles Harrison Pawley, Miami

A Bahamas Island house
Chub Cay, Berry Islands, Bahamas
George F. Reed, Coconut Grove


Harbour Master and Yacht Club
Shelter Cove, Hilton Head Island,
South Carolina
Eugene R. Smith & Associates,

Ft- F I- T -1--T T


North Elevation
Fire Station No. 6
Tallahassee, Florida
Johnson/Peterson Architects, Tallahassee

Shamu Stadium 84 for Sea
Orlando, Florida
Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock,
Winter Park


------ -- ------ - ------------ ----

Preservation In Palatka: It's A Gas

by Lora Sinks Britt

Preservationists in the historic
old northeast Florida city of Palatka
have succeeded in turning a down-
town eyesore into an attractive new
building. An abandoned gas tank
has been converted into the head-
quarters of the Palatka Gas Authori-
Robert E. Taylor, AIA, who has
practiced in Palatka since 1974,
was architect for the transforma-
The Palatka Gas Authority had
initially planned to tear down the old
tank, which was built in 1929 and
used to store LP gas until 1959,
when natural gas came to the city.
But when the directors of the gas
authority found it would cost them
$15,000 to remove the tank, they
reconsidered. Taylor was asked to

design a building that incorporated
the old gas tank.
He had a unique structure to work
with. The 12-sided tank of reinforc-
ed concrete was 43 feet in diameter
and 16 feet high. Above the tank
was a steel frame of an additional
16 feet, with columns and vertical
tracks that moved the original cover
up and down to pump the gas out of
the tank.
The exterior walls were of
tapered thickness. They were 13 in-
ches at the bottom, and 9 inches
thick at the top. Galvanized metal
lath was nailed to the concrete and
then stuccoed. Inside, where the
walls were perpendicular, drywall
was applied.
Taylor's design required only two
openings at the ground level. The
front and rear entrance were cut
with a jackhammer through the wall

of the tank, which was reinforced
horizontally and vertically with steel
bars. Windows were positioned
above the reinforced wall in the
6-foot, 8-inch addition of block walls
that enclosed the second floor.
The two stores and 314 square
feet of space added at the rear en-
trance yielded 2,760 square feet.
The first floor of 1,330 square feet is
the reception and billing area. About
half of that area is open to the ceil-
ing. The mezzanine houses the
authority's administrative offices.
The total cost of the project was
$165,377, or $59.55 per square
foot. Richard 0. Newman of
Leesburg was consulting engineer
for the project, and Sheffield Enter-
prises of Palatka was the contrac-
Lora Sinks Britt is an active preserva-
tionist and former editor of the Palatka
Daily News.

Top right: The 1926 storage tank as it appeared when the architect began his work.
Bottom right: The tank after it was converted into the new headquarters for the Palatka
Gas Authority. Above: The interior of the building used for reception and billing. Photos
courtesy of Lora Sinks Britt.



Cesar Pelli in Jacksonville

Pelli's Museum Tower in New York.

by Joanna Cenci Rodriguez, AIA

The Jacksonville Chapter of the
AIA sponsored a presentation in
February by Cesar Pelli, FAIA, at the
Jacksonville Art Museum's
McManus Gallery. Many of those
present were already familiar with
Pelli's taut-skinned crystalline
forms, most notably the Pacific
Design Center in Los Angeles and
the Winter Garden Rainbow Center
Mall at Niagara Falls. Pelli discuss-
ed these and similar works, but he
also presented a rich, well-
developed and lively chronology of
his exploration of the building skin.
It became obvious that Pelli is quite
conscious not only of where he has
been, but where he is going.
"If an architect does not consider

well the source of his ideas, the
things that influence him, then he is
continually at the mercy of the ideas
of others," Pelli said at the begin-
ning of the program. He pointed to
some of the historical precedents
that have influenced him ranging
from African huts to the Shingle
Style of the late 1800s. While admit-
ting that the solidity and mass of
traditional masonry architecture
can be effectively reinterpreted by
modern architects, Pelli said he
prefers to take advantage of lighter
weight steel frames that allow the
building skin to exist as an element
apart from its structural supports.
While Pelli's use of historical
parallels was interesting, it seemed
that in some cases the points of
similarity were being stretched as

tautly as the skins of those African
huts. The use of glass curtain wall
construction is a quite logical evolu-
tion for many reasons, among them
economy, speed of erection and
availability of materials. Pelli's
choice to concentrate on the
development of that particular
aesthetic seems motivated more by
personal preference than by
historical relevance. This became
especially obvious when many of
the projects presented that evening,
regardless of location, building type,
or size, were essentially ex-
periments in different configura-
tions of glass curtain wall. They
were not always appropriate in the
context of their surroundings.
Pelli was born in Argentina and
educated there and in the United
States. He had been experimenting
for many years when he launched
his own practice in 1977. After
graduating from the University of Il-
linois in 1954, he spent 10 years in
the office of Eero Saarinen and
Associates, where he was Project
Designer for the TWA Terminal at
JFK Airport in New York, among
other projects.
Pelli left Saarinen in 1964 and
moved to Los Angeles for 13 years.
From 1964 to 1968 he was Director
of Design for Daniel, Mann, Johnson
and Mendenhall, and in his projects
there were the beginnings of what
later grew into a bolder confidence
in handling forms and materials.
The COMSAT laboratories, which
were designed and built during this
period, demonstrate a marriage of
two of Pelli's conceptual strengths
- the articulation of the building
skin and the use of the circulation
spine as the organizing element. Its
juxtapositions of facets, curves and
rectilinear forms, while somewhat
awkward in aluminum panels and
glass, nonetheless contributes to
the spirit of high-tech flexibility and
change, which is correspondingly
reflected in the open ended spine of
the plan.
In 1968, after completing more
than a dozen projects for DMJM,
Pelli moved to Gruen Associates,
where he was named Partner for
Design. At Gruen, Pelli distinguish-

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ed himself on a number of notable
projects, all of them further
refinements of existing building skin
technology. Of the projects discuss-
ed in Jacksonville from this period,
which included San Bernardino City
Hall, the Pacific Design Center, the
U.S. Embassy in Tokyo and the
Rainbow Center Mall, Pelli was most
proud of the Commons and Court-
house Center in Columbus, Indiana.
A city known for its patronage of
leading architects, Columbus
seems to have embraced this glass-
enclosed town square enthusias-
tically, and Pelli's slides depicted
dynamic spaces packed with peo-
Its weakness, however, lies in an
almost total disregard for its Vic-
torian surroundings. That complaint

also has been aimed at the Pacific
Design Center ("the Blue Whale"),
which is situated in the middle of an
older residential community in Los
Angeles. In an era in which contex-
tualism has become a sensitive
design issue, Pelli's bold approach
may be questioned. However, no
one can argue with the Commons'
success as a public space. Its
popular acceptance is similar to the
even bolder creation in Paris,
Paiano and Rogers' Pompidou
Pelli's acceptance of the position
of Dean of the School of Architec-
ture at Yale University in 1977 pro-
vided the impetus to open his own
office in New Haven. His work since
that time has been prodigious, and
has included some refreshingly sen-

sitive interpretations of high-rise
Pelli's design niche seems to lie
in the context of a big city. His re-
cent work on the World Financial
Center in New York's Battery Park
has even prompted an uncharacter-
istic burst of superlatives from the
hard-nosed architectural critics of
that city. Called the "finest grouping
of skyscrapers since Rockefeller
Center" by some, the World Finan-
cial Center is situated on 14 acres
of landfill directly in front of the
nondescript, yet monstrous, twin
towers of the World Trade Center. It
consists of four office towers rang-
ing in height from 33 to 50 stories,
two nine-story octagonal structures
which flank the main entry to the
site, and a large "winter garden,"



The "winter garden" of the World Financial Center. Photo by Kenneth Champlin.

similar in size to Grand Central Sta-
Working from the 1979 Master
Development Plan's guidelines,
which Pelli described as "useful
and appropriate," each tower is set
back at the third, ninth, and twenty-
fourth floors in accordance with ex-
isting buildings in the area. The
towers are sheathed in granite and
glass, but the proportion of granite
to glass becomes smaller and
smaller as the buildings rise, so that
the pedestrian relates to a more
traditional stonework surface on the
lower levels, while the buildings
transform themselves into what are
essentially glass towers at the up-
per levels. Each tower is capped
with a shaped crown, which recalls
earlier skyscraper forms of the 20s

and 30s. The "winter garden"
space, enclosed in a glass vault, is
reminiscent of the highly successful
turn-of-the-century Galleria in Milan.
It serves, along with the public
plaza, to unite the entire project in
to a grand public space, avoiding
the isolation inherent in many high-
rise buildings.
The World Financial Center is the
largest-scale project Pelli has had
under construction, and attention
has been paid not only to the macro
but to the micro. One of the most
pleasing aspects of Pelli's presenta-
tion was the slides depicting the
elegant, beautifully colored adapta-
tions of William Morris wallpaper
designs revealing his attention to in-
terior details as well.
Another of Pelli's recent projects,

the Museum of Modern Art Renova-
tion and Tower, is interesting not on-
ly for the almost musical "variations
on a theme" of its glass tower
facades, but for its larger issues as
well. The highly controversial pro-
gram called for a 56-story apart-
ment tower to be built over the ex-
panded museum, thus providing a
continuing source of revenue. Pelli,
with his reputation for producing
noteworthy architecture while still
being agreeable to the demands of
his clients, was seen as the only ar-
chitect capable of meeting the
Pelli's ability to adapt his designs
to accommodate not only existing
technologies but complicated prac-
tical, legal and financial situations is
part of an amiable yet forthright ap-
proach that Pelli explained this way:
"I have always felt, unques-
tionably, that there is strength
and energy flowing all around us.
There is energy in the projects
themselves, and I like to tap that
energy and not fight it ... Agree-
ment is energy, it allows you to
go much further. If you go in the
direction where people will sup-
port you, you will not only use all
of your own energies, but you will
also use theirs. If you go in the
direction where they will oppose
you, you will have to spend
energies just to overcome their
objections, and you're still not go-
ing to get all you wanted. That's
energy. I feel that it allows your
work to be more important and
better, given your resources and
Pelli also admits that there is
tremendous energy in the ideas
native to one's time. In the World
Financial Center, the MOMA tower,
and even the quirky, yet delightful,
observation tower at White River
Park in Indiana, there exists a com-
fortable relationship with the ideas
of a more recent architectural past,
more relevant in scale and context,
and devoid of historical gimmicks.
Pelli is clearly a post-modernist
only on his own terms, and without
abandoning his own past.
Joanna Cenci Rodriguez, AIA, is with KBJ
Architects Inc. in Jacksonville.

Orange County's Civic Center

Says Florida Inside and Out

Orange County Board of County
Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Architects,
Inc. and the Luckman Partnership, Inc./
Architecture, A Joint Venture
Wallis Baker & Associates
Tilden, Lobnitz & Cooper, Inc.
Gensert Bretnall Bobel
Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan, Inc.
Interspace Incorporated and Swimmer Cole
Martinez Curtis, A Joint Venture
Michael Sanchez Associates

by Bill Charvat, AIA

When Orange County passed a
tourist resort tax in 1978, that fund-
ing was used to begin planning the
first phase of a long-awaited con-
vention and civic center. The center
was completed earlier this year and
is already drawing visitors to central
County officials presented two
major challenges to the designers
of the massive building: create a
functional convention center and do
it in a way that reflects Florida and
its environment. To meet these
challenges, civic center officials
selected a strong central Florida ar-
chitectural firm and a national firm
experienced in designing conven-
tion centers. Helman Hurley Char-
vat Peacock/Architects of Winter
Park was chosen to work with The
Luckman Partnership of Los
Angeles in joint venture. HHCP was
already well known for its work at
EPCOT and a number of other cen-
tral Florida projects. The Luckman
Partnership designed the Los
Angeles Convention Center and
New York's Madison Square
Garden. Luckman had the design
lead on the project and HHCP was
put in charge of overall project
To meet the requirements set by
the county, the civic center design
had to include the support facilities


and flexibility structures that con-
ventions and trade shows demand.
It also had to say "Florida" to all
who would visit.
A "Florida" style of architecture
was achieved through a careful
selection of materials and lavish
landscaping. The reflective glass on
the outside of the building mirrors
the Florida sky. Throughout the in-
terior are the landscaped court-
yards with native plants and rocks
and lots of water. The local wildlife
which inhabit these environments
are cared for by the staff of Sea
Courtyards are surrounded by the
glass walls of the building's cor-
ridors. The grand lobby also
features a courtyard with waterfall
beneath a sloped roof with skylight.
To reflect the movement of the
water and the colors of the plantings
in the courtyards, a reflective
aluminum ceiling system was used
throughout the building.
Meeting room walls are coquina
shell precast concrete. The shell
was selected because it is a native
material, although it had to be sand-
blasted to remove the shell's
naturally sharp edges.
The design team worked to make
the building flexible enough to ac-
commodate a wide variety of func-
tions. In the 150,000-square-foot
column-free Exhibit Hall, an
acoustical 40-foot movable wall can


The reflective glass skin of the building con-
trasts with the bold forms of the concrete
grand lobby. Photos courtesy of Helman
Hurley Charvat Peacock.

be used to divide the Hall. On either
side of the wall, tractor-trailers can
drive directly into the building. One
event can be in progress while
another is being set up or torn down
at the same time. The acoustical
walls facilitate use of the building a
much greater percentage of time.
The larger side of the Exhibit Hall
holds 5,698 movable seats which
can be folded against the wall into a
ten-foot space. All of the seats can
be assembled electrically in 25
Throughout the floor of the Ex-
hibit Hall is a 30-foot utility grid. The
utility hook-ups include water,
drainage, telephone, electricity and
an empty conduit. All of the utilities
are serviced from a 10-foot square
tunnel that runs the entire 500-foot
center line of the hall. The tunnel
functions as a utility hub for all ser-
vices, and also makes possible
special supplemental utilities which
can be fed to any 30-foot on-center
location in the hall.
A catwalk and lighting platform
network stretches 40 feet above the
floor of the Exhibit Hall. The cat-
walks are used to hang banners, to
position security guards, and for
speakers and special sound and
lighting equipment. An electronic
scoreboard can be raised into a
26-foot truss so that it does not in-
terfere with the 40-foot clearance
below. Because of its design, the
hall can accommodate circuses,

professional sporting events,
rodeos and almost every type of
trade show.
The meetings rooms are the other
main area of the center. Up to
22 meeting rooms can be created
with wide flexibility. The major
meeting rooms have built-in audio-
visual booths and floor utility boxes
are located throughout the 22,775
square-foot area. All of the meeting
rooms can be divided by acoustical
movable walls. Kitchen support is
provided by a secondary circulation
system that allows the food service
personnel to move about outside of
the primary public corridors.
Supporting both the Exhibit Hall
and the meeting rooms are
computer-assisted air-conditioning
and lighting systems, a flexible
sound system and a multi-zoned
communications system. The
center has telephone capability for
every 10' x 10' booth in the Exhibit
Hall to have an individual telephone
line. Local and long distance calls
can be made from the booths, and
bookkeeping is simplified because
the exhibitors receive their
telephone bills when their show is
To direct the flow of people
through the huge structure, the ar-
chitects chose a concise, easily
read signage system. At a uniform
9-foot height throughout the
building, a 3-foot red stripe contains

all signage and graphics. The entire
building was designed as a single
story, making it totally accessible to
the handicapped.
The civic center received its first
test February 25 when Al Hirt and
the Boston Pops performed in the
Exhibit Hall. The acoustical re-
quirements of such a musical event
were demanding, but all of the
patrons appeared to be pleased
with the center's inauguration. The
center continues to receive praise
from convention and meeting plan-
ners, trade show organizers and
concert promoters as they test its
The first phase of the convention
and civic center has been com-
pleted, but the architects planned
ahead for a second phase when ex-
pansion is needed. When county of-
ficials acquired the 60 acres for the
center, they also arranged for an ad-
ditional adjacent 45 acres for future
expansion. Historically, civic
centers around the country have
doubled in size within seven years.
Because of the success of the first
phase of Orange County's civic
center, expansion could come even
sooner. The county and the ar-
chitects are prepared for that

William Charvat, AIA, is a partner of
Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock/Ar-
chitects, Inc., in Winter Park and was the
principal in charge of the Orange County
Convention/Civic Center.

A network of steel trusses supports the
huge skylight over the grand lobby. Inside
the exhibit hall, more than 5500 seats can
be folded into a 10-foot space.

Building and Landscaping in Harmony

by Lindy Stalder

It's tough to create an internal en-
vironment that can compete with
Florida's natural beauty, so the
designers of the Orange County
Civic Center decided to bring
Florida's sunshine and greenery in-
The Center is punctuated by a
dozen glass-enclosed courtyards
planted with slices of central
Florida's tropical environment.
Trees, bushes, flowers ... even
waterfalls, ponds and fountains
abound. And there is always plenty
of sunshine.
The landscaping is the work of
Wallis, Baker and Associates, a
Winter Park landscape architecture
firm. Working in tandem with the ar-
chitects, the landscapers sought to
capture the Florida image in the

Wallis, Baker, and Associates,
wanted the courtyards to allow
visual exploration of the many
species of plants inside. Benches
surrounding the courtyards provide
a place to linger and study the
native flora.
The plantings in the courtyards
were selected for appearance,
growth patterns and ease of
maintenance. Pond bottoms were
painted black to hide debris that
sinks to the bottom, again in an ef-
fort to reduce maintenance and
keep the areas looking clean and
Big palm trees, some as tall as 30
feet, soften the 70-foot high building
around the courtyards. But the land-
scapers were limited in the kinds of
trees they could plant, because
masses of utility lines run
underneath the courtyards. Some
SCALE 1/4" = 1'0"




landscaping of the mammoth struc-
Around the waterfall in the lobby
of the building are palms and ficus
trees, all lit with spotlights. The
waterfall creates action in the
space while providing a tranquil
background sound.
Around the main Exhibit Hall and
the meeting rooms are glassed
courtyards, which are filled with
a variety of native trees and
flowers including everything from
guava trees to peace lillies. Sunlight
illuminates the courtyards and spills
into the surrounding corridors. At
night, artificial lighting illuminates
the greenery.
Bill Baker, vice president of



plants and trees had to be avoided
to prevent intrusion of roots.
Outside the civic center, the land-
scaping was much simpler, but the
problems were larger. There were
two major challenges outside -
overcoming a sea of asphalt for
parking cars and humanizing a huge
structure without distracting from
its design qualities.
To make the 3,000-car parking lot
less imposing, islands of greenery
were planted, most with two or
more big oak trees. Berms of earth
planted with trees shield three sides
of the parking lot and the service
Large clusters of trees were used
to balance the impact of the huge

building. The exterior landscaping
took its theme from the trees
already growing nearby palms,
pines and oaks. A band of native
sand pines serves as a backdrop.
Baker added more than 800 addi-
-- -- tional pines, along with 300 palms
and 200 new oaks. The trees add a
.. .- vertical contrast to the horizontal
building and provide much-needed
shade around the building and in the
parking lots.
Some plants were included
around the building simply to add
A color. India hawthorne, yellow
trumpet tree, crepe myrtle,
oleander, European fan palm, sago
palm, pampas grass, lilyturf, juniper
and pittsporum grow in the
perimeter plantings. Flowering
plants also grow in an island in the
center of the formal drive, which
leads to the main entrance.
In the landscape, as well as in the
building itself, future expansion was
considered. Landscaping on the
side of the structure that could be
expanded consists of large trees
that can be transplanted.
The Orange County Civic Center
.is an excellent example of man's
structures being able to harmonize
with nature. Because the Florida en-
vironment is such a major aspect of
this civic center's statement, land-
.. scaping is the art form. Environmen-
4 tal elements work with manmade
structures to create an exciting,
.definitive Florida setting.
Undy Stalder is a former editor and free-
lance writer currently working for Frailey
S.Wilson in Orlando.

courtyards and is visible from many areas
of the civic center.


Four Parish Churches

by Thomas S. Marvel, FAIA
In the past fifteen years
throughout the United States, con-
siderable effort has been dedicated
to preserving buildings of historical
value. Puerto Rico has been no ex-
ception. After the discovery of the
island in 1493 by Columbus, the
Spanish left a long and rich ar-
chitectural heritage.
The first permanent construc-
tions were largely military, due to
the constant pressure of European
navys on Spanish colonies and
fleets plying through the Caribbean
in their quest for gold. As Spain's
concept of a combined church and
state dictated, priests were sent

with the military to convert the New
World pagans to Christianity. From
the first settlement churches and
convents were considered as
essential as forts and barracks.
As towns and parishes were
founded, they were planned on the
basis of the "Laws of the Indies." A
plaza was the heart of the town
bordered by a grid of streets
generally running north-south and
east-west. The important public
buildings, church, city hall, and
market surrounded this urban
space. To this day, all 78
municipalities in Puerto Rico reflect
this original urban form. The church
and plaza retain a mutual and sym-
bolic relationship, the church giving

dignity to the plaza and the plaza
providing a proper setting for the
Original churches were humble,
expedient structures, but as the
towns prospered, more permanent
buildings were constructed. The
parishes were responsible for rais-
ing the funds and constructing their
own churches. Although not much
is known about who designed them,
it is surmised that military engineers
or master-builder priests were
responsible for crude plans and the
supervision of the construction.
They were built by the townspeople
(parishioners) themselves and, as a
consequence, many early churches
were long years in construction.

U 3J


This church was the earliest of
the four churches, finished in 1729.
Its walls are thicker than the others
and it has been speculated that it
served a double purpose, as a
refuge and fortress to thwart off
possible attackers as well as for
religious services. Prominent on the
exterior are buttresses and small
apertures for windows. The height
of the interior space is dramatized
by the light of the six lunette win-
dows penetrating the spring of the
vault. As the exterior walls were so
massive, niches were located in
these for images and statuary. The
front facade and choir over the en-
trance were added in a restoration
carried out in 1955.

Apart from the Cathedral and San
Jose Church in San Juan, the
earliest parish churches existing to-
day date from the 18th century. Dur-
ing the 1700s, Puerto Rico pros-
pered from agricultural develop-
ment as the threat of invasion and
attack diminished. As parishes were
able, one of the first projects they
would undertake in a common
cause was the construction of a per-
manent town church. From the
outset, buildings were plagued with
natural limitations. If hurricanes or
earthquakes didn't destroy them,
termites or wet rot did. Under these
circumstances, the master builders
opted for heavy masonry walls and
brick vaulted naves as the best
alternative at the time. In most
cases, their choice was ap-
propriate, although tremors have
caused some vaults to fail, even in
recent years.

The architecture of these early
churches were austere and prac-
tical. Most of the tedious effort was
directed toward raising the heavy
masonry walls, constructed from
rubble and brick, and the vault over
the nave. Characteristic of the plan
was a linear progression of space
from the entry, baptistry through the
nave to the altar. There are no
trancepts or side chapels. Or-
namentation was limited to an occa-
sional detail, most of the embellish-
ment being located in or around the
altar space in the form of images or
hand wrought silver decoration. The
most fascinating problem to be solv-
ed wap the illumination of the in-
terior. Because the walls and vaults
were so heavy, penetrations
through these masses were
minimized. Ample doorways in the
principal and lateral facades suf-
ficied for lighting the floor area. The

more dramatic lighting of the vaults
was achieved by opening up
clerestory windows in the most dif-
ficult structural connection between
the wall and the descending vault
Another detail typical of these
churches was a circular brick dome
over the altar. To illuminate this
space, a lantern was placed at the
crest of the dome, thus providing a
soft light over the focal area of the
church which stimulated a celestial
source. This lantern, seen from the
outside, was often given a whim-
sical form.
Of the churches that still exist
from the 18th century, four are of
particular interest because of their
relatively good condition and in-
dividuality. They are located on the
plazas in the towns of Loiza, Toa
Alta, Bayamon and Coamo.

Construction dates from 1776,
although the church had experienc-
ed additions and alterations through
1868. The barrel vault spanning
33.3 feet, is largely braced by ex-
terior buttresses instead of heavy
walls. Compared to Loiza and Toa
Alta, the interior is classical, the
mouldings, arches, lunette win-
dows, chapels all coordinated in an
integrated design, unusual for the
Also unusual is the flat arched
cornice on oversized pilasters on
the front facade, almost mannerist
in its composition. All these
elements make one believe that an
architect had a hand in its basic

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Records describe the construc-
tion of the church starting in 1752,
but the brick vault over the nave
wasn't finished until 1802 and the
actual work finally completed until
1826. The most remarkable vault
over the nave, measuring 38.6 feet
wide has survived several earth-
quakes while suffering only minor
structural damage. In a recent
restoration, the brick of the vault
has been exposed. However, the
original structure was always
plastered and painted. Never-
theless, the nave is most dramatic
and powerful as a spacial ex-
The interior pilasters and frieze
were added in this century. Most of
the front facade is original, except
the espadana (bell wall) above the
entrance. A curious detail is the or-
namental frieze and Corinthian
capitals at the doorway, both rare in
these churches of that time. The
facade is delicately detailed and
and has a serene aspect relative to
the town plaza.



There is conflicting opinion about
the dates of this church, but it has
been concluded that it was built be-
tween 1750 and 1783. It is one of
the most noble of parish churches in
Puerto Rico. Coamo was a large and
prosperous municipality and its
church reflects its socio-economic
prominence. The design broke tradi-
tion with other parish churches of its
day. Coamo's church has a central
nave and two side aisles, all vaulted
and structurally balanced. It is still
in excellent condition which speaks
well of its original design and
maintenance by proud parishioners.
The interior is visually more com-
plex than its predecessors. Views
through the arched openings into
the side aisles with the light sources
from doors and clerestory windows
leave one with a sense of layering
and mystery about the space.

The exterior is both dignified and
spontaneous, the mouldings,
oculus, curved parapets of the
facade contrasting with the almost
frivolous pinnacles atop the walls.
The church is set on a platform
above the surrounding plaza, as-
serting its presence as a piece of
sculpture in an open space.
These four early Puerto Rican
churches, as we see them through
20th century eyes, are perhaps best
appreciated as studies in simple
masses, light, and shadow. Each
fulfills its function as a house of wor-
ship, evoking this image by location
and form, and has sustained, over
two centuries or more, its dignity.
Thomas S. Marvel, FAIA, practices in
Puerto Rico and is a principal in the firm
of Torres Beauchamp Marvel y
Asociados. The material in this article is
the subject of a book, The Parish Chur-
ches of Puerto Rico, by Thomas S. Marvel
and Maria Luisa Moreno, to be published
in 1983 by the University Press of the
University of Puerto Rico.

50 Years of Architectural History

HABS has been
America's buildings
for half a century

The Burnsed Blockhouse, in rural Baker
County, documented as the oldest example
of hand-hewn construction in Florida.
Photos and drawings courtesy of F. Blair

by F. Blair Reeves, FAIA

Many of the 17,000 buildings that
have been documented by the
Historic American Buildings Survey
(HABS) no longer exist. Many more
of them probably would have been
destroyed had the HABS program
not stimulated the preservation
movement and encouraged an ap-
preciation of the country's architec-
tural heritage. This year marks the
50th year HABS has been building
its architectural archives and train-
ing preservationists.
Since it was created in 1933 as a
part of the New Deal, HABS has
surveyed buildings across the coun-
try, including many in Florida. Fort
Dallas in Miami and the Castillo de
San Marco and the Fatio House in
St. Augustine were documented in
the 1930s as part of an early HABS
program. But the program was inter-
rupted by World War II and remain-
ed dormant in Florida until the early
A "windshield survey" by Univer-
sity of Florida students in the early
60s developed into a HABS photo-
data project of significant architec-
ture between Lake City and Pen-
sacola. That project recorded 20
buildings and stimulated local
preservation projects, especially in
Monticello, Tallahassee and Pen-
sacola. Students and faculty from
the University of Florida and the
University of Miami began working
again in HABS field offices. They
measured and drew Fort Barrancas
and other structures in Pensacola's
Historic District. They documented
Fort Jefferson and the Tift-
Hemingway House in Key West, and
eighteenth century architecture in
St. Augustine's Historic District.
Because local officials participated
and contributed financial support,
these projects helped convince
citizens that architecture is impor-
tant both locally and as part of
the national heritage.

St. Peter's Parish Episcopal Church in Fernandina Beach was drawn by HABS in 1974.

Students and faculty who worked
on HABS projects returned to their
studies in Gainesville and Miami
and documented buildings in those
regions. Courses in architectural
preservation were created to meet
student interest at the University of
Florida. Archives were expanded as
students recorded buildings
throughout north and central
Florida, and the archives were used
as teaching resources.
As part of Florida's bicentennial
celebration, field offices were
operated in Jacksonville, Fernan-
dina Beach, Tampa and Pensacola
during the summers from 1972 to
1976. The offices documented 40
more buildings and produced an
average of 60 drawings each. An
exhibit of Florida architecture, com-

HABS students measure St. Andrew's
Episcopal Church in Jacksonville.

posed largely of HABS photographs
and building records, toured the
state and stimulated additional in-
To mark the 50th anniversary of
the HABS program, exhibits of
HABS photographs and drawings
will be displayed in September in
the Old Capitol and at FA/AIA head-
quarters in Tallahassee. The ex-
hibits will be a testament to the
HABS project's contributions: It has
produced a high-quality archive and
a cadre of professional preserva-
tionists, and has introduced many
people to the benefits of architec-
tural preservation.
F. Blair Reeves, FAIA, is a professor of
architecture at the University of Florida.

The Dr. Richard P. Daniel House in Jacksonville was documented by HABS in 1975.

RIeflectins. .

*'al -ABS $t


U'eset N T, A1A "

'. .



I .,. .-
.. / ;.,, <;'f >. ,. .. .
.. ,...v: ,,^.*


,% asstgR to 4athe "NHAB.' N.':...'*
Rf~CdMrstanakip&de 6. Iinin.fl ;
for becoming' :architect'. Learned t.amwork,
elementary surveying, acqurfate measurement pro.
.oedes, andti eision dra tg Far., mport
% d q nd craf ,.
I n.ctiv ~~- etuI e ad t
tirri.. I learned to appreciate architect as an ex-'
pression of economics and community.. standards... -
,%.'ten wee4 yp r team~ ogra tieasute.dtan
d $ thf 'tibr s ea s Ita .': *
-Si~~ ah 18 1try r nt's ho
(now.a museum), and a wharf-side dourfe townhouse,
theaf functioni.as a bordeeto. We als-,research.ed....
friagped erl s W. gdthro ihzo centits

lu isltoridna thNotreto e, wDe .;wo "S doing d '
tive work on Newport's.coldnial society and
econoTm ics,. .. ;. .- -:.. .
SIt- recte ars h I appr the v ,

a'ndRthe. value'f hat work .ih.e now.6:a practfi'
art-ite ct. .. .. ...
sincee our tfrn.was organized in 1976..about 8. ,er-
beur ba b ted to h$4iprpret"
}....hob.l cAB.S .. lence. 1libt that."3St,
*ffT .Would haVe recognizedthe niche he .
marketplace that needed filing. We would not have'
done-survey w.r:k hat led to OrQando's two historL";,
-'A..S wi..tt MJp bocdk..f .fedeve .. :'. :
-6e or6-ho~dd t above;..i,' built t't has ''
become an important design objective if' all our work,
and.I can trace (hat standard directly to my HABS
.;...,p wo YS&*W, She is"s. of many 'tihitecis whM 9igied exptefleo
thr6 ih a HABS.proiect Othes.-such as Fred .Wvedenmann,--
AIA, John 0. Crosby, AIA, Cathy Berlow, AIA, Rihard Crisson,
AIA, arttd Peter .Dessauer, AIA, .at( worAed with HABS.
"*<&t' ... '"'414*..


"4 -


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New Silicone Structural
Fabric Is Developed
A new silicone coating of struc-
tural fabric has been developed by
ODC, Inc., a joint venture of Oak In-
dustries and the Dow Corning Cor-
poration. The new fabric is being
promoted as a covering for stadium
roofs, sky lights, greenhouses and
other structures that need a roof
through which light can pass.
ODC points to a wide range of ap-
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of its zero to 90 percent translucen-
cy, its potential 20-year life, its self-
cleaning properties and its ability to
pass water vapor through the fabric.
ODC says the stuctural fabric can
be used not only for air-supported
and tension roofs, but also for entire
structures such as geodesic domes
and curtain walls. The product also
has non-architectural uses in
agricultural, industry and
The silicone-coated fabric is now
being used in the construction of an
18,000 square-foot greenhouse-
garden complex in Callaway
Gardens, Ga. It is being considered
for the roof of a proposed stadium in
Pinellas County to be built by the
Pinellas Sports Authority.
ODC, Inc. is located at 4291 Com-
munications Drive, Norcross, Ga.
30093, 404/923-3818.

General Elevator Begins
New Orlando Headquarters
General Elevator Corp. broke
ground recently on a new national
headquarters near Orlando. The $4
million, 120,000 square-foot
manufacturing complex will be
located on a 26-acre site in Ocoee,
a suburb of Orlando.
Since it was founded in 1963,
General Elevator has emerged as
one of the largest and fastest grow-
ing manufacturers of hydraulic
elevators and elevator components.
In addition to General Elevator
Corp., the new facility will house
Elevator Components, Inc., a sub-
sidiary that manufactures pistons
and other components for General
Elevator as well as Otis,
Westinghouse and other industry

The company also made its debut
in the international marketplace last
year, with formation of General
Elevator International. That sub-
sidiary has the responsibility for ex-
port to Latin America, the Mideast
and the Far East.

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of the Appalachian forests. The
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The paneling is shipped with an
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Because the paneling is solid hard-
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Dow Introduces
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Dow Chemical Company is enter-
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storage panel for residential use.
The lightweight, rectangular
panels, made of Dowlex resin, have
been designed to fit between the
studs of conventional residential
frame wall construction with
minimal design modifications.
The panels will be available in
July, 1983. According to Dow pro-
jections, approximately 200 new
homes will be fitted with Enerphase
panels this year.

Sunview Windows
Designed for Florida
The sunview window by Alcan
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developed to meet the wide-ranging
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In 1980, Alcan decided to develop
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Dear Editor:
I was extremely flattered to learn,
through your Spring edition, that I
had won an AIA award for designing
the office of Catylyst Inc. It grieves
me that I cannot add this excep-
tional piece of architecture to my
resume, but I must set your records
straight by crediting this award to
Brooks Weiss, AIA, Ray Scott, AIA
and Ed Spelman, AIA, the talented
principals of Catylyst Inc. At the

same Mid-Florida Awards Cere-
mony, Guy Butler Associates was
honored with the Merit Award for
multi-family architecture with Hun-
tington Condominiums and provided
the architectural coordination at the
Villa Nova Restaurant for which
Raleigh and Associates received a
Merit Award for interiors.
Guy Butler Associates has since
become the nucleus of the Spillis
Candela & Partners Orlando office.

Peter Spillis, AIA and Hilario
Candela, AIA have a legendary com-
mitment to strong design disciplines
and the American Institute of Ar-
chitects which stretches back over
many years. With mentors such as
these, our Orlando office will active-
ly participate in the next Mid-Florida
Awards Program.
Guy Butler, AIA, RIBA
Editor's Note: Apologies to Catylyst for
this error.






1301 N.W. 27th AVENUE

Phone (305) 635-6432


Dear Editor:

Editorial is GREAT.

Bill Graves, AIA

czar ttorc
As an Emeritus member of the
Palm Beach Chapter, AIA, I was so
pleased, and interested, in the
Spring 83 issue of the Florida Ar-
chitect, that I just felt impelled to
write you, and the staff, some con-
gratulations for an excellent issue.
You are all making sweeping pro-
gress in the format, illustrations,
and the content of each depart-
ment. The current review of EPCOT
was quite provocative I have just
spent three days there and I do
not agree with some of the material
- but let the sparks fly ...
Keep up the GREAT work!!
Reed B. Fuller, AIA

Dear Editor:
I just wanted to extend to you my
sincere thanks for my copy of the
Spring 83 Florida Architect. I am
enjoying the many articles/other in-
formation provided in this excellent
publication and will be looking for-
ward to receiving further editions.
With kind regards,
Tom Lewis, Jr., Architect
Deputy Secretary
of Transportation

Letters to the editor are en-
couraged. Write to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, P.O. Box 10388,
Tallahassee 32302.


1928 D5PHCH


275 NE 59th ST./MIAMI............................
4180 NW 10th AVE./FT. LAUDERDALE....




Architectural Education: A Quantum Leap Backwards

Viewpoint is a forum for ar-
chitects and members of allied
professions. It does not
necessarily express the opinion
of Florida Architect.
by Constance L. Bigoney

Horatio Algier has died.
His chances
For advances
Shot down, along with pride.
All for lack of college degree
And by something called IDP.
The concept that higher educa-
tion equates with a superior
knowledge, while undeniably long
cherished, has statistically proven
itself to be fraudulent, somewhat
akin to the Piltdown hoax. The
recitation of statistics is boring at
best; think about the graduates
you've interviewed over the last five
years of so. After 2-3 years of office

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experience they are theoretically
able to complete the registration ex-
amination and open their own prac-
tice, and often do. Yet they are
about as qualified to protect the
public's life, safety and welfare as
they are to pilot the space shuttle.
Colleges have no monopoly on
education, no secret formula to
teach what needs to be learned;
more often than not colleges are ar-
chitectural ivory towers, and lack
the necessary practical experience
to adequately train for the real
world. The etheral version espoused
by so many graduates regarding
purity of design clashes severely
against the need-to-eat syndrome
permeating the architect's office.
Beyond the over-emphasized ex-
posure to design, only cursory
glossing is given to the more mun-
dane aspects of architectural prac-
tice and virtually none to the
business side. Be that as it may, the
powers that be in Florida have
decreed that these graduates may
be allowed to become architects.
But what about the man who has
had the equivalent number of years
of practical experience and who is
probably far more qualified to pro-
tect the public we're so concerned
about? Why is he sufficiently
qualified to practice in forty-odd
other states, but not Florida? What,
pray tell, is so bloody unique about
Florida? Nothing, absolutely
nothing! We simply leaped onto a
non-existent bandwagon (structural-
ly unsound due to incomplete
syllogisms) pulled by the pseudo-
omnipotent NCARB (in violation of
OSHA because of faulty harness of
The wagon then proceeded to
IDP Intern Development Pro-
gram. Another masterful stroke of
ineptitude proving once again that
you too can become a paper-
pusher. While the basic idealistic
premise is commendable, the prac-
ticalities of engaging in a (hopefully)
profit-making business have been
sadly overlooked.
For those of you not familiar with
IDP, and a recent survey of one
large, cross-sectional chapter in-

diciates that at least 89.67% were
not, it consists of the accumulation
of VU's (Value Units) by the aspiring
exam-candidate. One VU is
equivalent to 8 hours of practical ex-
perience. It requires 700 VU's or
5,600 hours of "appropriate training
and supplementary education" in
specifically apportioned units to
comply with the directives. Daily
work sheet data is transferred to
quarterly Periodic Assessment
Reports which you, the employer
(Professional Sponsor), review with
the Intern-Architect who then,
reports in hand, meets regularly
with his Professional Advisor (not to
be confused with the Professional
Sponsor as they are totally separate
entities). The PS reviews the
reports, determines their validity,
makes suggestions and certifies
these compendiums of proficiency-
achieved which are then whisked
off to one of the great citadels of
processed lumber pulp, Tallahas-
see, and are given their rightful due
- filed.
That's the good news.
Of the 700 VU's, 465 are taken in
training and 235 in supplementary
education. Based upon the list of
prescribed training areas, examples
of qualified work listed in the blue
book and SupEd guides, it is
estimated that 32 hours of a 40-hour
work week would be the maximum
time applicable to valid VU's and in
most offices the figure would pro-
bably be less. Thus, ideally, it will
take 2 years and 3 months to com-
plete the practical training, provided
no time out for illness, vacations, fir-
ing or layoffs. In addition, he will
have to spend 16.5 hours per week
of his own time in outside, approved
education during this same time
period that two-plus hours per
day, seven days a week.
The time frame, however imprac-
tical, is not the main problem; it is
the requirements set down for fulfill-
ment and the recommended
methods of the implementation of
same which are the cost-defective
elements. Essentially put, you will
be paying your Intern-Architect to

play puppy dog, to follow you around
and watch what you do. While few
would dispute the need for a certain
amount of the monkey-see, monkey-
do approach, it is exceedingly difficult
to justfy 32-hours-a-week worth, or
even 10 hours, in the old overhead
and you certainly can't charge the
client for it.
IDP is as yet untested. Whether or
not it can work in practice remains to
be seen. It seems likely, however, to
deteriorate into one more check-off
sheet to be filled out, filed and forgot-
ten as offices find that they don't
have the resources to serve as non-
endowed college extension cam-
puses; the idyllic precepts are unlike-
ly to survive the harsh realities of
daily existence.
Innovation and improvement is un-
questionably needed in Florida, but it
appears we are engaging in a
heedless, headless rush to be the first
to go nowhere. By all means, keep the
education requirement and en-
courage our colleges to produce a
useable product, but let's also in-
clude a 7-year, 10-year or some other
reasonable practical-experience
equivalency provision.
The profession and the public
would be far better served by having
a test that actually determines a can-
didate's technical abilities whether
he acquired his knowledge by being
wafted through hallowed ivy halls or
via the school of hard knocks. To ar-
bitrarily exclude a person from the ar-
chitectural profession simply
because he can't afford a college
education violates the most basic of
human rights guaranteed those lucky
enough to live in this country and ig-
nores the personal abilities, in-
telligence and perspicacity of anyone
capable of doing it the 'hard way'.
We seem to have lost sight of
something very important the
American Dream. How do we justify
closing the architectural door to
someone's right to life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness? We have much
to lose in human resources and a lot
to gain by reassessing this law's
quantum leap backwards.
Constance L. Bigoney is an Associate
member of the AIA and an Alternate State
Director from Broward Chapter AIA. She
is Vice President and Comptroller for the
Bigoney Associates, Inc.

Jones, Wood
fessional land surveyors, were an in-
tegral part of the Orange County Con-
vention/Civic Center construction team
being responsible for all overall horizon-
tal and vertical survey control on the en-
tire project and on the Center's main
The firm also has been responsible for
all surveying control at Orlando Central
Park since 1963 and therefore prepared
the plat of record for the area in which
the Center is located. The record plat
set both the horizontal and vertical con-
trol monuments used for all actual
physical work on the Center ground,
controlling its confines and construc-
Jones, Wood & Gentry, Inc. has been
active throughout the major growth
period for Orlando and Orange County.
Some of its older major projects were:
Martin Marietta Land Acquisition (this
I includes all surveys for Orlando Central
Park since that time), Interstate 4
through Orlando, Florida's Turnpike
through Orange County, the Bee Line Ex-
pressway and all major electric power
Right-of-Way surveys for Orlando
Utilities Commission since 1956.
In addition, the firm has prepared
Condominium Declaration Exhibits
relating to land surveying on almost 100
Condominium projects throughout
mill i.2 ,. ll g


& Gentry, Inc.
Some of the more recent major pro-
jects which the Orlando based surveying
firm has completed include the precise
layout of horizontal and vertical control
points (within 1/4 inch) working up to 40
feet in the air on columns that also in-
volved horizontal and vertical spiral
curves on the automated guideway tran-
sit system (people mover) at the Orlando
International Airport. Also, the firm
prepared surveys for the restoration of
the original government survey of the
3RD Standard Parallel (1843) through
Lake and Orange Counties with a suc-
cess factor exceeding 85 percent. All
surveys in Central Florida are based on
this original line.
Currently, Jones, Wood & Gentry, Inc.
is preparing Right-of-Way surveys for
Alfaya Trail Extension South of State
Road 50 through the new Martin-
Marietta site to the new proposed Curtis
Stanton Energy Center in Southeast
Orange County.

Jones, Wood & Gentry, Inc.
Telephone (305) 841-2122
136 East Robinson Street
Post Office Box 2367
Orlando, Florida 32802

Craftsman Masonry, Inc.
Office & Plant
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The University of Miami's winning Sand Castle design team.

Sand Castle Design Sans Sand

by Patti Stough, AIA

For 26 consecutive years the
Florida Central Chapter of the AIA
has sponsored a student weekend
which enables students of architec-
ture to spend time with practicing
architects. This year, under the
leadership of Chapter president
John Ehrig, AIA, the program was
one of the best ever.
Rain prevented the students from
participating in a sand castle con-
test, so the sand was replaced with
paper and pencils and the event
was bought indoors. The results of
the contest were reflective of an en-
vironmentally conscious and
historically sensitive group of
students. Judges John Busby, FAIA,
Vice President of the AIA, Patti
Stough, AIA and artist and
photographer Leon Hill chose a
group of students from the Universi-
ty of Miami as winners. The design
team consisted of Larry Kearns, Jay
Nelson, Kevin Archer, Scott
Muizenkes, Monicue Chan WaiHong
and Rod Overlander.
The April 8th and 9th program
was kicked off with a tour of the ar-
chitectural offices of Mudano
Associates, Architects, Pritts Ar-
chitects, Anderson Parrish
Associates and Prindle Patrick
Associates, where an informal din-
ner was held at the end of the tour.
Following dinner, two classes were
conducted for the students. The first

related to the compiling of resumes
and portfolios and was conducted
by John Toppe, AIA, of Harvard Jolly
Marcet and Associates. John Ehrig,
State Director of the Intern Develop-
ment Program, then gave a talk to
the state's IDP.
Saturday morning, under dark
skies, the students toured the Per-
forming Arts Center and Theatre
which is currently under construc-
tion in Clearwater. The building,
which was designed for the Frank
Uoyd Wright Foundation, proved an
interesting atmosphere for discuss-
sion. The Sand Castle Competition
(sans sand) followed on Saturday
afternoon. Saturday night, despite
the rain, a colorful indoor luau was
accompanied by a talk by John
Busby. He related to the students
the need for design excellence and
the importance of communicating
the architect's role to society.
He also discussed the need for a
special effort on the part of all ar-
chitects to become leaders in new
areas of technology relating to the
practice of architecture. The
students who attended this year's
"weekend" were, according to
Busby, "reflective of a new breed of
students with a high regard for the
environment and a keen knowledge
of the AIA's concerns for 1983."
Patti Stough, AIA, is with Mudano
Associates, Architects in Tampa and is an
Associate Director of the Florida Central
Chapter AIA.

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